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Magnesium - Chemistry

Magnesium occupies sixth position in order of the abundance on earth.

Magnesium is greyish white metal.
Magnesium is the lightest metal used in industry and it has a density less than two thirds of aluminium. Magnesium is an important alloying
Some of the alloys of magnesium containing more than 90% magnesium and 2 to 9% of Aluminium and 1% zinc are used in automobile
engines, in aircrafts and in making balances.
Up to 5% magnesium is added to most commercial aluminium alloys (duralumin, magnalium) to improve its resistance to corrosion,
mechanical properties and weldability.
Magnesium is used as a reducing agent in metallurgy for the production of metals such as Titanium (Ti), Zirconium (Zr) and Hf.
Magnesium power is used in fireworks.
It is part of alkyl magnesium halide (RMgX), the Grignard reagent and it is useful for making numer of organic compounds.
Magnesium hydroxide and magnesium carbonate are used in making toothpastes.
Magnesium hydroxide (milk of magnesia) is used as an antacid. It neutralises excess of acid in stomach and thus it is used as medicine.
Ores of Magnesium
1. Carnallite
2. Magnesite
3. Dolomite
4. Epsom salt or epsomite
5. Langbeinite
6. Asbestos
Extraction of Magnesium from Its Ores
Magnesium is finally extracted by the electrolysis of its molten anhydrous salts.
From Magnesite
The ore MgCO3 is calcined to form the oxide MgO.
The oxide is mixed with carbon and heated in a current of Cl2 gas to form magnesium chloride.
Magnesium chloride is subjected to electrolysis.
Electrolysis of Magnesium chloride
Magnesium chloride is with a mixture of sodium chloride and calcium chloride and heated to 973 K - 1023 K. The mixture melts at this
temperature and the electrolysis in carried out in an iron vessel which serves as the cathode. A graphite rod serves as anode. During the
electrolysis an inert gas such as coal gas is passed through the cell to check the oxidation of magnesium. At cathode magnesium will
emerge in molten state and at anode chlorine gas will be released. The liquid magnesium (m.p. 924K) is removed from time to time from the
top of the vessel.

Ideal Gas Equation - van der Waals equation

pV = nRT
Vander Waals correction
[p + na/V] [V-nb] = nRT

JEE Revision - Kinetic Molecular theory of gases

The important postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory

1. Gases consist of large number of minute particles called molecules.

2. The molecules are separated by large distances. The empty space in gas is so large that the actual volume occupied by the molecules is
negligible when compared to the total volume of the gas.
3. Molecules of the gas are in state of random motion in all directions. In this motion they keep on colliding with each other and also the walls
of the container.
4. Collisions between molecules as well as between molecules and walls of the container are elastic. It means there is no loss of energy in the
system due to collisions. There may be redistribution of energy among molecules.
5. There are no forces of attraction or repulsion between molecules.
6. The pressure exerted by a gas on the walls of a container is due to the collision of the molecules.
7. The average kinetic energy of translational motion of gas molecules is directly proportional to the absolute temperature of the gas.

JEE Revision - Gas Molecules - Probable velocities - Temperature

average, root mean square and most probable velocities and their relation with temperature;
Molecular Speeds
From the expression for kinetic temperature
substitution gives the root mean square (rms) molecular velocity:
From the Maxwell speed distribution this speed as well as the average and most probable speeds can be calculated.

Diffusion of gases
When a cylinder of colourless hydrogen gas inverted over a cylinder of brown bromine vapour, after some time, we can see that both the
cylinders become yellowish brown. This means hydrogen has travelled to the lower cylinder and bromine vapour moved to the upper
Gases have the tendency to intermix and to form a homogeneous mixture. This property is known as diffusion.
Diffusion is defined as the process of intermixing of two or more gases, irrespective of density relationship adn without the help of external
Graham's Law of Diffusion: The rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its density or molar mass.
Effusion: Effusion is a special case of diffusion wherein a gas escapes through a small aperture from the vessel in which it is contained.
The rate of escape is inversely proportional to the square root of its density or molar mass.

Solid State - Classification of solids

Solid State
Solids can be broadly classified into two categories: crystalline and amorphous.

Crystalline state
Classification crystalline solids based on bond type:
a space lattice represents a three dimensional translational repetition of the centres of gravity of the units of pattern in the crystals by means
of points. These points are called lattice points.

JEE Revision - seven crystal systems

seven crystal systems (cell parameters a, b, c, alpha, beta, gamma),

Parameters to describe a unit cell: Six parameters are required. These are the three basic vectors along three crystallographic axes(a,b, and c)
and three angles between the crystallographic axes(,,).
Based on the presence of certain rotation axes in the unit cell, crystals can be classifed into seven categories

Packing Structure of Solides

close packed structure of solids (cubic), packing in fcc, bcc and hcp lattices;
packing of crystals;
Body centred cubic(bcc),
Hexagonal closed packed (hcp) and
cubical close packed (ccp)

JEE Revision Crystals - Point Defects.

Point defects: Schottsky defects, Frenkel defects

IIT JEE Ch.3. ATOMIC STRUCTURE Core Points for Revision

JEE Syllabus
Atomic structure
Bohr model, spectrum of hydrogen atom, quantum numbers;
Wave-particle duality, de Broglie hypothesis;
Uncertainty principle;
Quantum mechanical picture of hydrogen atom (qualitative treatment), shapes of s, p and d orbitals;
Electronic configurations of elements (up to atomic number 36);
Aufbau principle;
Pauli's exclusion principle and Hund's rule;
---------------In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed a model of the atom. He proposed that the electrons in an atom could only be in certain orbits, or energy levels,
around the nucleus. Refinement of Bohr theory led to the modern theory of atomic structure based on quantum mechanics.

Bohr's model is based on particle theory.

As wave-particle duality which says that all micromatter particle exhibit dualitya new model is proposed.
Debroglie p = h/
Uncertainty principle p* x h/4
The quantum mechanics model
Principal quantum number-Shell,Azimuthal quantum number-sublevel,Magnetic quantum number-orbital, spin quantum number
The orbits are called as shells. The energy level of orbits or shells increases as they increase in distance from the nucleus of the atom. The
orbits or shells are represented by numbers as 1,2,3,4,5,6 or 7. They are represented by letters as K,L,M,N,O,P,Q.
Sublevel of an Orbit
The energy levels, or orbits or shells are further divided into sublevels, or subshells. These subshells are designated by letters: s for the first
possible sublevel, p for the second possible sublevel, d for the third, f for the fourth, g for the fifth, and from here on they simply go in
The number of sublevels of each energy level is equal to the number of the energy levels. This means energy level 1, the K shell will have only
one sub levels s sublevel. The energy level 2, the L shell will have 2 sub levels s and p.
Sublevels have further divisions called orbitals. Electrons are found in these orbitals. Each orbital contains two electrons.
s sublevel has only one orbital. p sublevel has 3 orbitals. d sublevel has 5 orbitals. f sublevel has 7 orbitals.
The two electons in each orbital spin in different directions.
Shape of Orbitals
1. Spherical shape for s.
2. Dumbbell shape for orbitals of p.
3. Four-lobed shape for orbitals of d.
4. Complex shape for all orbitals of higher sublevels.
Pauli's exclusion principle: No two electrons can have all four same quantum numbers
Electrons occupy the lowest energy sublevels that are available. This is known as aufbau order or principles.
Hunds rule says that, for any set of orbitals of equal energy say p orbitals of orbit 2, there is one electron is each orbital before the second
electron enters or occupies an orbital.
The energy level of some sublevels at higher orbits is less than the some sublevels at lower orbitals. This fact is to be kept in mind when
electron configuration is determined for any atom. The increasing order of energy levels of sublevels is:
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f*, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f*, 6d, 7p, 8s

JEE ervision - Atomic structure - Basics

Thomson Model

Rutherford model
In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed a model of the atom. He proposed that the electrons in an atom could only be in certain orbits, or energy levels,
around the nucleus. Refinement of Bohr theory led to the modern theory of atomic structure based on quantum mechanics.
Wave mechanical model

JEE Revision - Bohr model

The most important properties of atomic and molecular structure may be exemplified using a simplified picture of an atom that is called the
Bohr Model.
This model was proposed by Niels Bohr in 1915;

It was revised later on as it is not completely correct, but it has many features that are approximately correct and they were used in the later
The correct theory of the atom is called quantum mechanics;
The Bohr Model is an approximation to quantum mechanics that has the virtue of being much simpler.
A Planetary Model of the Atom
The Bohr Model is probably familar as the "planetary model" of the atom. In the Bohr Model the neutrons and protons occupy a dense central
region called the nucleus, and the electrons orbit the nucleus much like planets orbiting the Sun (but the orbits are not confined to a plane).
This similarity between a planetary model and the Bohr Model of the atom ultimately arises because the attractive gravitational force in a
solar system and the attractive Coulomb (electrical) force between the positively charged nucleus and the negatively charged electrons in an
atom are mathematically of the same form. (The form is the same, but the intrinsic strength of the Coulomb interaction is much larger than
that of the gravitational interaction; in addition, there are positive and negative electrical charges so the Coulomb interaction can be either
attractive or repulsive, but gravitation is always attractive in our present Universe.)
Orbits Are Quantized
Quantized energy levels in hydrogen
The basic feature of quantum mechanics that is incorporated in the Bohr Model and that is completely different from the analogous planetary
model is that the energy of the particles in the Bohr atom is restricted to certain discrete values.
One says that the energy is quantized. This means that only certain orbits with certain radii are allowed; orbits in between simply don't exist.
These levels are labeled by an integer n that is called a quantum number.
The lowest energy state is generally termed the ground state. The states with successively more energy than the ground state are called the
first excited state, the second excited state, and so on.
Beyond an energy called the ionization potential the single electron of the hydrogen atom is no longer bound to the atom. Then the energy
levels form a continuum.
In the case of hydrogen, this continuum starts at 13.6 eV above the ground state ("eV" stands for "electron-Volt", a common unit of energy in
atomic physics).

Spectrum of Hydrogen Atom

All electromagnetic waves have the same speed (3.0*10^8 m s^-1).

But different types of radiations differ from one another in their wavelengths and therefore, in frequency.
v = c/
C = speed = constant
= wavelength
v = frequency
The arrangement of different types of electromagnetic radiations in the order of increasing wavelengths (or decreasing frequencies) is known
as electromagnetic spectrum.
When white light from sun is passed through a prism, it splits into a series of colour bands know as rainbow of colours: violet, indigo, blue,
green, yellow, orange and red (VIBGYOR). This series of colour bands obtained is called a spectrum and in this spectrum of visible light there
is continuity of colours, one colour merges into the other without any gap.
We can obtain spectrum of atoms. When the gases of vapour of a chemical substance are heated by electric spark, light is emitted. From such
light emitted, the spectrum can be obtained using spectroscope.
It is observed that when radiations emitted by different substances are analysed, the spectrum obtained consists of share well defined lines
each corresponding to a definited frequency (or wave length). The spectrum obtained from light emitted by chemical substances is called
emission spectrum.
When electromagnetic radiation for example say white light is allowed to pass through a gas or a solution of some salt and the light that
comes out is sent through a spectroscope, we obtain a spectrum. In this spectrum some dark lines are observed, in an otherwise continuous
spectrum. This indicates that some radiations of specific wavelengths are absorbed by the substance. This spectrum is called absorption
Spectrum of hydrogen atom
The spectrum of hydrogen atom can be obtained by passing an electric discharge through the hydrogen gas in a discharge tube under low

It is observed that the spectrum consists of a large number of lines appearing in different regions of wavelengths. Some of the lines are
present in visible region while others in ultra-violet and infra-red regions.
In 1885, J.J. Balmer developed a simple relationship among the different wavelengths of the series of visible lines in the hydrogen spectrum.
The relationship developed by Balmer for frequencies observed in hydrogen spe trum is:
1/ = v (in cm^-1) = 109677 (1/2 - 1/n)
Where n is an integer that takes values equal to or greater than 3.
109677 cm^-1 is called Rydberg constant.
The lines in the hydrogen spectrum in various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum are given different names.
Lyman series, Balmer series, paschen series, Brackett series, and Pfund series
Lyman series appears in the ultraviolet region.
Balmer series appear in the visible region.
Other three series appear in the infra red region.
A more general formula for hydrogen spectral lines is
1/ = v (in cm^-1) = 109677 (1/nf - 1/ni)
ni = the initial level of the electron
nf = the final level of the electron
The above equation is called Rydberg equation.
For lyman series nf = 1
For Balmer series nf = 2
For Paschen series nf = 3
For Brackett series nf = 4
For Pfund series nf = 5
We have to note that above equation is valid for hydrogen spectrum lines only.
Emission of radiation occurs from atoms when electrons in the atom goes into an excited state and then returns to a lower energy state.
For example, if an hydrogen atom goes into an excited state, say the electron goes to fourth energy level and then returns to second energy
level, radiation is emitted. The frequency of the emitted radiation can be found out by
1/ = v (in cm^-1) = 109677 (1/2 - 1/4) = 486 nm.
This frequency corresponds to bluish green in visible region.

quantum numbers

According to quantum mechanical model or wave mechanical model of atom, orbitals represent regions in space around the nucleus where
the probability of finding electrons is maximum. A large number of orbitals are possible in an atom.
To describe each electron in an atom in different orbitals, four quantum numbers are used. They are designated as n,l,ml, and ms.

1. Principal quantum number (n) This quantum number determines the main energy shell or level in which the electron is present. It can
have whole number values starting from 1 in an atom.
The principle quantum number indicates the average distance of the electron from the nucleus. If n = 1, it is closest to the nucleus and has
lowest energy.
Eariest practice was to number shells as K,L,M,N etc.
Shell with principal quantum number n = 1 is called K.
Shell with principal quantum number n = 2 is called etc.
2. Azimuthal quantum number or angular quantum number (l): This number determines the angular momentum of the electron.
It can have positive integer values from zero to (n-1) where n is the principal quantum number. For each value of n, there are n possible
values of l.

For n =3, l has three values: l = 0,1,2

The earlier practice is to designate l as subshell and refer it by letters s,p,d,f,.
l=0 = s; l=1=p; l=2=d, l=3=f etc.
The energy of subshell increases with increasing value of l.
3. Magnetic quantum number ( ml): Magnetic field acts on moving electrical charges. ( from chapters on magnetism in physics syllabus). On
revolving electrons external magnetic field of the earth acts. Therefore, the electrons in a given subshell orient themselves in certain preferred
regions space around the nucleus. These are called orbitals. This quantum number gives the number of orbitals for given angular quantum
number l or in a given subshell.
The allowed values of ml are l through 0 to +l.
There are (2l+1) values of ml for each value of l.
If l = 0, ml has only one value. ml = 0.
If l = 3, ml has 7 values.
ml = -3,-2,-1,0,1,2,3
4. Spin quantum number (ms) : It is observed that the electron in an atom is not only revolving around the nucleus but is also spinning
around its own axis. This quantum number describes the spin orientation of the electron.
The electron can spin in two ways clockwise and anticlockwise.
Values of +1/2 and -1/2 are given to this quantum number. Its value is not dependent on other quantum numbers.
The orientations of spin are also designated by up and down arrows .

Wave-particle duality
The earliest view of light, due to Newton, regarded light as made up of particles (commonly termed as corpuscles of light). The particle nature
of light explained some of the experimental facts such as reflection and refraction of light. However, using particle nature of light, phenomena
of interference and diffraction could not be explained. (See relevant chapters in Physics text and link that material with this idea).
Huygens proposed wave like character of light. With the help of wave theory of light, Huygens explained the phenomena of interference and
diffraction as well as reflection and refraction. Hence the corpuscular theory was discarded and wave theory was adopted.
But once again, phenomena such black body radiation and photoelectric effect needed explanation. Wave theory could not explain these
Einstein has suggested that light can behave as a wave as well as a particle i.e., it has dual character.
Characteristics of electromagnetic radiations
(i) The consists of electric and magnetic fields that oscillate in the directions perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction in
which the wave is traveling
(ii) These electromagnetic radiations do not require any medium for propagation.
(iii) All waves are characterized in terms of their wavelengths, frequency, velocity and amplitude.
Velocity of a wave = wavelength * frequency

JEE Revision - de Broglie hypothesis

de Broglie hypothesis

Wave nature of light could not explain the photoelectric effect. Einstein has suggested that light can behave as a wave as well as a particle i.e.,
it has dual character. In 1924, de-Broglie extended the wave nature to matter. He suggested that all microscopic particles such as electrons,

protons, atoms and molecules have dual character similar to light.

Thus according to de Broglie hypothesis, all material particles in motion possess wave characteristics.
The wavelength(), mass of the particle (m) and velocity (v) of the particle are related to each other by the relation
= h/mv
h = Plancks constant = 6.63 *10^-34 kg m s^-1
The equation was experimentally verified by Davisson and Germer.
The wave like chacter of electron helped in making electron microscope. The electron microscope utilizes the wave like behaviour of
The dual nature of matter is applicable to all material objects but it is significant for microscopic bodies only. For bigger bodies, wave lengths
calculated using the above formula are so small that they have no significance.

JEE revision - Heisenberg Uncertainty principle

Uncertainty principle
In 1927, Heisenberg put forward a principle known as Heisenbergs uncertainty principle.
According it, it is not possible to measure simultaneously both the position and momentum (or velocity) of a microscopic particle, with
absolute accuracy.
Mathematically, this principle is expressed as:
x * p = h/4
x = uncertainty in position
p = uncertainty in momentum
The constancy of the product of uncertainties means that, if the position of the particle is known with more accuracy, there will be large
uncertainty in momentum and vice versa.
This uncertainty arises, as all observations are made by impact of light, the microscopic objects suffer a change in position or velocity as a
result of impact of light. So there is a disturbance in them due to the measurement.
The principle does not affect the measurement of large objects as in these cases impact of light does not created any appreciable change in
their position or velocity.

JEE Revision -Shapes of s, p and d orbitals

Shape of Orbitals
1. Spherical shape for s.
2. Dumbbell shape for orbitals of p.
3. Four-lobed shape for orbitals of d.
4. Complex shape for all orbitals of higher sublevels.

JEE Revision - Pauli's exclusion principle

Pauli's exclusion principle: No two electrons can have all four same quantum numbers

JEE Revision - Hund's rule

Hunds rule says that, for any set of orbitals of equal energy say p orbitals of orbit 2, there is one electron is each orbital before the second
electron enters or occupies an orbital.


JEE Syllabus

No specific syllabus on this topic

-----------I want to paste the periodic table in this post. It is important to know the atomic numbers of many elements as well as the group wise
elements and periodwise elements. Many times, the answers to questions can be given if we know to which group the elements in the
question belong to by analogy to the behaviour of popular elements like Na, Mg, C,N,O,S, and F.
So periodic table is an essential revision


JEE Syllabus
Orbital overlap and covalent bond;
Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only;
Orbital energy diagrams for homonuclear diatomic species;
Hydrogen bond;
Polarity in molecules, dipole moment (qualitative aspects only);
VSEPR model and shapes of molecules (linear, angular, triangular, square planar, pyramidal, square pyramidal, trigonal bipyramidal,
tetrahedral and octahedral).
------------------Exceptions to octet rule
Hydrogen molecule only 2 electrons make it stable.
Incomplete octet of central atom
LiCl 4 electrons around central Li-atom
BeCl2 4 electrons around central Be-atom
BF3 6 electrons around central B-atom
Expanded octet of the central atom
PF5 has ten around P
SF6 hs twelve around S
IF7 has fourteen electrons around I
H2SO4 12 electrons around sulphur atoms
Odd elctron molecules
Nitric oxide, NO
Nitrogen 7 shared electrons
Oxygen 8
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2(there is a coordinate bond)
Nitrogen 7
both oxygens 8
-----------------Exceptions to octet rule
Hydrogen molecule only 2 electrons make it stable.
Incomplete octet of central atom
LiCl 4 electrons around central Li-atom
BeCl2 4 electrons around central Be-atom
BF3 6 electrons around central B-atom

Expanded octet of the central atom

PF5 has ten around P
SF6 hs twelve around S
IF7 has fourteen electrons around I
H2SO4 12 electrons around sulphur atoms
Odd elctron molecules
Nitric oxide, NO
Nitrogen 7 shared electrons
Oxygen 8
Nitrogen dioxide, NO2(there is a coordinate bond)
Nitrogen 7
both oxygens 8

Hydrogen Bonding
The attractive force which binds hydrogen atom of one molecule with electronegative atom (F,O or N) of another molecule is known as
hydrogen bond or hydrogen bonding.

VSEPR model and shapes of molecules

linear - 2 electron pairs
triangular,- 3 electron pairs
square planar,
square pyramidal,
trigonal bipyramidal,
tetrahedral - 4 electron pairs
The relation between number of electron pairs around the central atom and shape of molecule to be filled

JEE Revision - Covalent Bond

The Nature of the Co-Valent Bond

Covalent bonds are formed as a result of the sharing of one or more pairs of bonding electrons. Each atom donates half of the electrons to be
This sharing of electrons is as a result of the electronegativity(electron attracting ability) of the two bonded atoms are either equal or the
difference is no greater than 1.7.
If the electronegativity difference is greater than 1.7 then the higher electronegative atom has an electron attracting ability large enough to
force the transfer of electrons from the less electronegative atom. This would be an ionic bond.
As long as the electronegativity difference is no greater than 1.7 the atoms can only share the bonding electrons.
Single Co-valent Bond
A single co-valent bond would be the sharing of two electrons between the two bonded atoms. Examples are:

Double Co-valent Bond

A double co-valent bond is two pairs of electrons being shared. Examples are:

Triple Co-valent Bond
A triple co-valent bond is the sharing of three pairs of electrons. Examples are:
triple bond between two Nitrogen atoms
Triple bond between two carbon atoms
Triple bond between a Carbon and a Nitrogen
The Polarity of the Co-valent Bond
Two atoms with the same electronegativity will share the bonding electron pairs equally. As a result the bonding electrons will be evenly
distributed between the bonded atoms. There will be no accumulation of bonding electrons on any one atom and the bond dipole moment
will be zero.
Such a co-valent bond will be called a "non-polar" bond.
The bond between two Hydrogens as in H2 or two Oxygens as in O2 or two Nitrogens like N2 will all be non-polar bonds.
On the other hand, if the two bonded atoms have a different electronegativity then the bonding pairs of electrons will be shared unequally.
The atom with the higher electronegativity will attract the bonding electrons closer to itself. As a result the electron distribution will be
unequal and a bond dipole moment will be formed.
For example the single bond between a Hydrogen and a Chlorine as in H-Cl will have the bonding pair closer to the higher electronegative
atom (Chlorine). As a result the Chlorine end will be partially negative since the electrons are closer to the Chlorine. The Hydrogen end will
be partially positive since the bonding pair is farther from the Hydrogen.
This two pole condition is called a dipole and it generates a dipole moment that is a vector force directed toward the higher electronegative
atom in the bond. Such a bond is referred to as a "polar bond".
The greater the difference in the electronegativity between the two bonded atoms the more polar the bond.

JEE Revision - Orbital Overlap

Atomic Orbital Approach To Bonding
This second approach is also called the Atomic Orbital Approach to Bonding. The basic premise of this theory is that bonds are formed when
atoms get close enough so that atomic orbitals on the individual atoms will be able to overlap so that the three dimensional probability
regions share a common volume. This effectively increases the probability of finding bonding electrons between the two atoms. It also
effectively results in the lowering of the energy state of the molecular system making the molecule more stable as a result of the overlap. The
greater the overlap, the greater is the strength of the bond.
Pure Atomic Orbital Overlap
The simplest of these bonds involve the overlap of two "s" orbitals as in the example when two Hydrogen atoms get close enough to bond. The
"s" orbitals overlap to form a "sigma" bond between the two "s" orbitals.
A second type of overlap is between two "p" orbitals to form a sigma bond between two "p" orbitals. An example is the p-p overlap between
two Chlorine atoms.
A third type of sigma overlap is the overlap between an "s" orbital and a "p" orbital such as when a Hydrogen atom's "s" orbital overlaps with
a "p" orbital of another atom like a Chlorine atom.

JEE Revision - Hybridisation

Hybridisation involving s, p and d orbitals only
Hybridisation means making something new from an amalgamation or combination of other parts. A hybrid plant is one made from two
different plants blended together. The hybrid shows the characteristics of both plants.
In terms of chemistry we refer to the hybridisation of atomic orbitals to explain the change that seems to happen between the atomic orbitals
in an uncombined atom and the orbitals used by the same atom when bonding.
The 's' orbital is spherical about the nucleus and the 'p' orbitals are like double headed balloons arranged along the axis of (imaginary) three

dimensional coordinates.
However, it is apparent that the shapes of these orbitals are inadequate to explain the orientation of the bonds produced in molecules. The 'p'
orbitals are oriented at 90 to one another and yet there are few molecules that show a bond angle of 90 (in fact the bond angle 90 does
appear in some of the larger moolecules but that is due to different reasons).
The classic molecule to consider is methane CH4. In this molecule the bond angles indicate that the shape of the molecule is a perfect
tetrahedron with bond angles of 109 28' (approximately 109.5)
It seems that the orbitals used for bonding are arranged as far apart as possible suggesting that they have the same energy (degenerate). We
know that the orbitals on the carbon atom do not have the same energy - the 2s orbital is of lower energy that the three 2p orbitals.
Hybridisation is a model that allows us to combine the atomic orbitals and then produce four degenerate orbitals to be used for bonding.
In order for the electrons to be ready for this process one of them must be promoted from the 2s orbital to the 2pz orbital.
It should be emphasised at this point that this is the norm rather than the exception. It seems that all elements undergo this hybridisation
process (or a similar one) when bonding. Logically, the 2s orbital is in no position to overlap directly with another orbital from another atom
without interfering with the p orbitals. This hybridisation process allows the 2s electrons to be involved in bonding.
If we study the shape of the water molecule we find that the four electron pairs around the oxygen are tetrahedrally arranged. They have
hybridised and the sp3 orbitals so formed overlap directly with the 1s orbitals of the two hydrogens. The two lone pairs on the oxygen remain
in the sp3 orbitals that are not used in bonding.
Other types of hybridisation
Carbon can also bond to three other atoms instead of four (as in methane) and it seems that it hybridised its orbitals using only the 2s and
two of the 2p orbitals to do this.
There is the formation of a double bond in molecules such as ethene. The three sp2 hybrid orbitals are degenerate (same energy) and
consequently arrange as far apart as possible in space i.e. at 120 to each other. This creates a trigonal shape that is planar leaving the
remaining 2pz orbital to orientate itself above and below the plane of the other orbitals. This 2p orbital can then laterally overlap with
adjacent singly occupied 'p' orbitals on adjacent atoms.
In sp hybridisation, carbon bonds to two other atoms by hybridising the 2s and only one of the 2p orbitals to produce two sp orbitals
arranged at 180 to one another. The remaining two 2p prbitals can overlap with suitable orbitals on adjacent atoms to produce pi systems.
Examples include ethyne, the nitrogen molecule, hydrogen cyanide, and any other triple bond systems.
Other forms of hybridisation
It should be mentioned that this hybridisation process can be extended to allow atoms to bond with more than four other atoms (octet
expansion). In this case the hybridisation invariably involves one or more of the 'd' orbitals. Sulphur hexafluoride forms six attacments to the
six fluorines and consequently needs six available orbitals. It gets these by promoting one electron from the 3s and 3px orbitals into two of
the 3d orbitals. It can then hybridise the 3s, 3px, 3py, 3pz, and 3dxy, 3dxz orbitals into an octagonal arrangement each with one electron.
Atoms rearrange their atomic orbitals when bonding to produce orbitals with shapes more suitable for the bonding process. This is called
It is performed by almost all atoms when bonding although carbon provided the easiest examples to show.
It is easy to recognise the hybridisation used by simply observing the double or triple bonds.
Only single bonds = sp3 hybridisation
1 double bond = sp2 hybridisation
1 triple bond =sp hybridisation

JEE Revision - Hydrogen Bond

Hydrogen Bonding

The attractive force which binds hydrogen atom of one molecule with electronegative atom (F,O or N) of another molecule is known as
hydrogen bond or hydrogen bonding.
Hydrogen bonds are formed when hydrogen is bonded to strongly electronegative elements uch as F, O or N.
The size of electronegative atom should be small for formation of Hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are not formed by Cl because of its
bigger size.
Example of Hydrogen bonds

Influence of Hydrogen bonding on properties
.1 Association
2. Higher melting and boiling points
3. Influence on the physical state
4. Solubility

JEE Revision - Polarity in Molecules

Good tutorial
Covalent bonds are formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons.
We now want to examine the nature of that sharing in greater detail.
First, we will consider the question of whether two atoms share a pair of electrons equally, i.e. is the electron density in the inter-nuclear
region symmetrically distributed or not?
Bonds in which the electron density is symmertically distributed between the nuclei are called non-polar bonds, while those in which the
electron density is unsymmetrically distributed are called polar bonds.
Non-Polar Bonds
Any bond between two identical atoms is non-polar since the electronegativities of the two atoms is identical. The simplest examples are the
diatomic molecules such as H2, N2, and F2. The C-C bond in ethane, H3C-CH3, is also non-polar.
Polar Bonds
Any bond between two non-identical atoms is polar.
The bond in HF is polar.
So are the C-H bonds in CH4.
Both C-C bonds in propane CH3CH2CH3 are polar.
This is because the terminal carbon atoms and the central carbon are not identical. The terminal carbon atoms are both bonded to three
hydrogen atoms and the central carbon atom. The central carbon, however, is bonded to two hydrogen atoms and two carbon atoms.
An alternative way to think about this is to identify the groups that are attached to each carbon in propane. The left-hand carbon is attached
to three hydrogen atoms and a CH2CH3 (ethyl) group. The central carbon is attached to two hydrogen atoms and two CH3 (methyl) groups.
Since the right-hand carbon is attached to three hydrogen atoms and an ethyl group, it is identical to the left-hand carbon. Looking at
propane in this way allows us to introduce the idea of group electronegativities.
Group Electronegativities
In the same way that the electronegativity of an atom is a measure of the tendency of that atom to attract electrons, group electronegativity is
a measure of the tendency of a polyatomic group to attract electrons.
Propane contains two CH3 groups and one CH2 group (methylene group). Since these two groups are not identical, they have different group
electronegativities. Even though the H3C-CH2 bond is a bond between two carbon atoms, the carbons are not identical because they have
different atoms attached to them.
As far as the pair of electrons that the two carbons share goes, they experience a different Coulombic attraction from the CH3 group than they
do from the CH2 group.
One way to investigate group electronegativities experimentally involves nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
Polar and Non-Polar Molecules
The C-H bonds in methane are polar. However, a molecule of methane is non-polar. Specifically, the dipole moment of methane is zero.
A dipole moment of zero means that the "center of negative charge" in the molecule corresponds to the "center of positive charge". In the case
of methane, the "center of positive charge" and the "center of negative charge" are focused on the carbon atom. Think of the "center of
charge", whether positive or negative, in the same way that you think of the "center of mass". From that perspective, a molecule with a dipole
moment of zero is like a perectly balanced see-saw.

JEE Revision - VSEPR Model

VSEPR: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion.
Assumptions about the nature of the bonding
The underlying assumptions made by the VSEPR method are the following.
Atoms in a molecule are bound together by electron pairs. These are called bonding pairs. More than one set of bonding pairs of electrons
may bind any two atoms together (multiple bonding).
Some atoms in a molecule may also possess pairs of electrons not involved in bonding. These are called lone pairs or non-bonded pairs.
The bonding pairs and lone pairs around any particular atom in a molecule adopt positions in which their mutual interactions are minimized.
The logic here is simple. Electron pairs are negatively charged and will get as far apart from each other as possible.
Lone pairs occupy more space than bonding electron pairs.
Double bonds occupy more space than single bonds.

JEE Revision - Shapes of Molecules

linear - 2 electron pairs
triangular,- 3 electron pairs
tetrahedral - 4 electron pairs
trigonal bipyramidal 5 bond pairs,
octahedral 6 bond pairs.
trigonal pyramidal - NH3 3 bp and one lp
square planar,
square pyramidal,

To predict the shape of a molecule:

(1) Write down the Lewis dot structure for the molecule.
(2) Count the number of bond pairs and lone pairs around the central atom.
(3) Decide on the electron pair orientation based on the total number of electron pairs (4 = tetrahedral, 5 = trigonal bipyramidal).
(4) Consider the placement of lone pairs and any distortions from "regular" shapes.
(5) Name the shape based on the location of atoms (nuclei).

IIT JEE Ch. 6 ENERGETICS Core Points for Revision

JEE Syllabus
First law of thermodynamics;
Internal energy, work and heat,
pressure-volume work;
Hess's law;
Heat of reaction, fusion and vapourization;
Second law of thermodynamics;
Free energy;
Criterion of spontaneity.
-----------------First law of thermodynamics;
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.

Internal energy of matter is equal to kinetic energy and potential energy.
The change in internal energy is equal to heat transferred and work done between the system and the surroundings.
Pressure volume work: If the pressure is constant and the matter expands, the work done is given by p * change in volume. This in termed as
pressure volume work.
Enthalpy = U + pv
Hess's Law
Hess's Law states that the enthalpy change for a reaction that occurs in many steps is the same as if it occurred in one step. Another way to
put this is if several reactions add up to some total reaction, then their enthalpy changes will add up to the enthalpy change for the total
Second law of thermodynamics
In general it is impossible to perform a transformation whose only final result is to convert into useful work heat extracted from a source that
is at the same temperature throughout. This statement is Lord Kelvin's version of the second law of thermodynamics. Another version of this
law, formulated by R. J. E. Clausius, states that a transformation is impossible whose only final result is to transfer heat from a body at a
given temperature to a body at higher temperature; in other words, the spontaneous flow of heat from hot to cold bodies is reversible only
with the expenditure of mechanical or other nonthermal energy.
The Second law of Thermodynamics states that every spontaneous change is accompanied by an increase in entropy which is a measure of the
randomness or disorder of a system.

JEE Revision - Chemical Energetics - Introduction

Thermodynamics is the study of energy and energy changes.
Energy is the capacity to do work.
Energy is present in variou forms like, potential energy, kinetic energy, electrical etc.
Energy and energy changes are measured in terms of heat energy.
The study of the flow of heat or any other form of energy into or out of a system as it undergoes a physical aor chemical transformation is
called thermodynamics.
The branch of thermodynamics dealing with energy changes accompanying chemical transformation is called chemical thermodynamics.
Open system: A system which can exchange matter as well as energy with the surroundings is called an open system.
Closed system: A system which can exchange energy but not matter with the surroundings is called a closed system.
Isolated system: A system which can neither exchange matter nor energy with the surroundings is called an isolated system.
Isothermal: Temperature of the system is constant.
Adiabatic: No heat flows into or out of the system.
Isochoric: volume of the system remains the same.
Isobaric: Pressure of the sytem remains the same.
Reversible: The system changes in infinitesimal steps and they can be reversed.
Irrevesible: Real life systems do not satisfy the reverbility criterion and hence irreversible.
Modes of transfer of energy between system and surroundings

1. Heat (Q): Energy is exchanged between the system and the surroundings as heat if they are at different temperatures.
2. Another modes of transfer of energy is work. Work is said to be performed if th point of application of a force is displaced in the direction
of the force.
Pressure volume work
Pressure volume work is mechanical work. It is the work done when the gas expands or contracts against external pressure.
It is equal to force multiplied by distance moved or pressured mulitiplied by change in volume.

JEE Revision - First law of thermodynamics

First law of thermodynamics;
Energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Energy can neither be created or nor destroyed although it can be converted from one form into another.
The energy of a system that isolated from its surroundings is constant.
Mathematical expresson for the first law
U = q + w
q = heat added to the sytem
w = work done on the system
Sign conventions for heat and work
When w and q are positive, the internal energy increases. It means that energy is supplied to the system.
When w and q are negative, the internal energy decreases. It means that energy has left the system.

JEE Revision - Internal energy, work and heat

every substance possesses definite quantity of energy which depends upon factors such a chemical nature of the substance, temperature and
pressure. This is known as internal energy or intrinsic energy and is represented by the symbol U.
Internal energy is made up of kinetic energy and potential energy of the constituent particles. The kinetic energy arises due to motion of its
particles and includes their translational motion energy, rorational motion energy, and vibrational motion energy etc. We studied various
potential energies in physics. The total potential energy of a substance arises from different interactions between the particles due to
gravitation, coulomb forces, magentic forces, and nuclear forces.
It is important to note that different substances have different internal energies even at the same temperature and volume. This fact is
important when we talk of internal energy of reactants and internal energy of products being different at constant temperature and volume.
Internal energy of a substance depends upon the nature of constituting atoms and bonds, apart from temperature and volume.
while internal energy cannot be measured, change in internal energy during a process may identified.
U = Up - Ur
U = change in internal energy of a chemical reaction
Up = internal energy of products
Ur = internal energy of reactants
If internal energy of products is more than the internal energy of reactants, the reaction requires input of energy in the form of heat
(endothermic reaction).
If internal energy of products is less e than the internal energy of reactants, the reaction gives out energy in the form of heat (exothermic

Internal energy of matter is equal to kinetic energy and potential energy.

The change in internal energy is equal to heat transferred and work done between the system and the surroundings.

Revision - Pressure-Volume Work

Heat and Work
How one can measure the energy transferred as heat and work in and out of a system.
A common type of work associated by a chemical process is through gas expansion or compression.
Energy produced from the combustion of gasoline (petrol). Gasoline combustion is used to create expanding gases in the cylinders of your
car's engine that push out the pistons. This motion is then translated into the motion of the car.
If the expansion is done constant pressure pV gives the work done. This is termed pressure-volume-work.

JEE Revision - Enthalpy

For constant temperature and pressure processes, work is done by the system to expand or contract. To study the heat change accompanying
chemical reactions at constant pressure and constant temperature, a new term called enthalpy is used.
Enthalpy (H) is a more general measure of the energy of a system. It takes into account the internal energy of a system as well as its pressure
and volume.
H = U + PV
Like in the case of internal energy, change in enthalpy is identified.
Change in enthalpy is equal to heat supplied to the system
Therefore changes in enthalpy can be measured by changes in heat energy. Enthalpy is also defined as heat flow.
Heat (q) is a type of energy that is related to temperature but is not the same as temperature, since the energy may be used for something
other than increasing temperature. For example, the heat energy required to melt 1 mole of molecules is the heat of fusion (H-fus), but no
temperature change is involved in this phase change. The heat energy required to change 1 mole of liquid to 1 mole of gas is the heat of
vaporization (H-vap). Similarly, no temperature change is involved in this or any other phase change.
It also requires different amounts of heat energy to change the temperature different types of molecules. The energy required to increase the
temperature of 1 mole (n) of substance 1 C is its heat capacity (cp). Similarly, the energy required to increase the temperature of 1 g of
substance 1 C is specific heat. Therefore the heat (q) required for a temperature change (T) can be calculated from
q = n*(cp)*T where (cp = heat capacity; n = number of moles)
Chemical reactions also involve a change in enthalpy (H). The Hrxn is the energy per mole of reaction (q/mol). Exothermic reactions
release energy into the surrounding and are designated by a negative sign on the H. Endothermic reactions take energy from the
surroundings and are designated by a positive value of H.
The value of H can be determined experimentally by measuring the temperature change of the surroundings. Calorimetry is an experiment to
measure q by measuring temperature change. The heat capacity of the calorimeter (the constant pressure surroundings in the experiment) is
used to convert temperature change to heat energy. Since the heat capacity (CP) refers to the whole calorimeter, heat can be calculated from
q = (cp)T

The value of H can also be calculated theoretically. Since the energy change in a chemical reaction comes from making and breaking bonds,
the value of H can be calculated from the energy of the bonds, bond energy. Energy is released (H) when bonds are made and energy is
absorbed (+H) when bonds are broken.
The value of H can also be calculated from the H values of other reactions. Because H is a state function, the path does not affect the final
result. Thus H values of a series of known reactions can be mixed to obtain the H of an unknown reaction. The H value depends on how
the reaction is written. If the reaction is reversed, the sign on H is changed. If the stoichiometric coefficients of a reaction are multiplied by
some factor, H is multiplied by the same factor. If reactions are added together, so are the H values. Hess's law states the H of a reaction
that is the sum of other reactions is the sum of the H values of those reactions.

Revision - Hess's law

Hess's Law states that the enthalpy change for a reaction that occurs in many steps is the same as if it occurred in one step.
Another way to put this is if several reactions add up to some total reaction, then their enthalpy changes will add up to the enthalpy change
for the total reaction.
Htotal = Hrxn 1 + Hrxn 2 + Hrxn 3 + etc.
Hess's law problems usually give you two or three reactions with their enthalpy change information, then ask you to find the enthalpy change
for some target reaction.
You must figure out how to make the given reactions add up to the target. This can mean reversing the reactions (and reversing the sign on
the enthalpy change), or using them multiple times, or both.

Revison - Second law of thermodynamics

Second law of thermodynamics

In general it is impossible to perform a transformation whose only final result is to convert into useful work heat extracted from a source that
is at the same temperature throughout. This statement is Lord Kelvin's version of the second law of thermodynamics.
Another version of this law, formulated by R. J. E. Clausius, states that a transformation is impossible whose only final result is to transfer
heat from a body at a given temperature to a body at higher temperature; in other words, the spontaneous flow of heat from hot to cold
bodies is reversible only with the expenditure of mechanical or other nonthermal energy.
The Second law of Thermodynamics states that every spontaneous change is accompanied by an increase in entropy which is a measure of the
randomness or disorder of a system.

JEE Revision - Entropy


Entropy (S) is a measure of the amount of disorder in a substance Gases with their rapid random motion are high in entropy, and solids with
their ordered crystalline lattice are low in entropy.
The change in entropy (S) is determined just like a heat of formation problem, only use entropy values instead.
Srxn = (the sum of Sproducts ) - (the sum of the Sreactants )
Note that the units for entropy are given in J / mol K. S is in J / K, since the moles cancel out.
K stands for Kelvins, the temperature unit on the absolute scale. Also called the Kelvin scale, it is named for Lord Kelvin, who developed it, so
the units should be capitalized.
Entropy is temperature affected. It is large at high temperatures, and small at low temperatures. Enthalpy is not temperature affected.

Revision - Criterion of spontaneity

The criterion of spontaneity has two ideas involved. Decrease in energy and increase in disorder.
Spontaneity means one the chemical reaction is started it will continue further without additional work being done on it.
Both endothermic and exothermic reactions were found to be spontaneous.
Gibbs free energy concept combines both ideas being spontaneity.
Gibbs Free Energy
The second law of thermodynamics provides a criterion for the determination of the direction of a thermodynamic process, depending on the
value of S(total).
S(total)[entropy change due to a process] requires calculation of the entropy change for the system and the surroundings. Hence it is
desirable to have a function of state that predicts the directionality (feasibility) of a process in a system without the need for explicit
calculations for the surroundings.
Such a function exists and is known as Gibbs free energy (or Gibbs function) (G), after its originator, John Willard Gibbs.
Derivation of Gibbs free energy

Consider a process being carried out at constant pressure and constant temperature.
Under these conditions,
qp = Hsys for the system,
and for the surroundings, -qp = - Hsys
Now, Ssurr = - Hsys/T
Since S(total) = Ssys + Ssurr,
= (Ssys - Hsys)/T
= -(Hsys - TSsys)/T
= -(Hsys - TSsys)T
(since T is constant)
If we define the term (H - TS) as G, Gibbs free energy, then, S(total) = - G /T (or G = -TS(total))
Therefore, Gsys is a criterion of spontaneity or directionality of the system:
Value of G and Feasibility of process
< 0 - Spontaneous
0 - Reversible
> 0 - Non-spontaneous
Gibbs Free Energy Calculations at Constant Temperature
Example 1: Phase transition of ice to water
This example uses G = H - TS: Consider the ice water phase transition
Hfus = 6007 J mol-1 Tfus = 273.15 K
Find G at 10C (263.15 K), 0C (273.15 K) and 10C (283.15 K)
For all the calculations here, S = Hfus/Tfus = 6007/273.15
At 263.15 K, G = +6007 - 263.15 x 6007/273.15 = +213 J
At 273.15 K, G = +6007 - 273.15 x 6007/273.15 = 0
At 283.15 K, G = +6007 - 283.15 x 6007/273.15 = -213 J
*Below 0 C, water freezes spontaneously (i.e. the right to left direction).
**At 0 C, ice and water co-exist (they are in equilibrium and the process is reversible).
***Above 0 C, ice melts spontaneously (i.e. the left to right direction).
### It is impossible for water to freeze on its own accord above 0oC, or ice to melt on its own accord below 0C.

Criterion of Spontaneity and Free Energy

July-December Revision

The flow of heat takes from a body at high temperature to a body at low temperature through conduction, convection or radiation. Similarly a
liquid at higher level flows to a lower level. In both these cases the action occurs without any additional support. But if a liquid at lower level
has to go higher level additional supporting activity is required.
Similarly in chemical reactions some reactions take place if the reactants are in contact. Some reactions will not take place through contact
but require additional inputs like heat, catalysts etc. Reactions that take place due to contact alone are called spontaneous reactions. The rate
of reaction is not the issue here. Even if the rate of reaction is very slow, if the reaction is taking place, it is a spontaneous reaction.
What determines the spontaneity of a chemical reaction?
Is decrease in enthalpy in the reaction a criterion for spontaneity?
In exothermic reactions, enthalpy of products is less than that of reactants. Thus some persons postulated that a spontaneous chemical
reaction may be due to decrease in energy of the products. It sounds reasonable. But some scientists found that some endothermic reactions
are also spontaneous. Therefore it is concluded that enthalpy may be a contributory factor for spontaneity, but it is not the complete
Is entropy a criterion for spontaneity?
Entropy is a thermodynamic function. It can be interpreted as measuring disorder in the system. A gas is more disordered than a liquid and a
liquid is more disordered than a solid. In a chemical reaction, if the disorder in products is more than that of reactants, entropy increases. It
is found in examples like diffusion of gases etc. that in spontaneous activities disorder increases.
As heat is added to the system, solids become liquids and liquids become gases. Hence heat increases entropy. Entropy is defined as

S = qrev/T for a reversible reaction.

The criterion of spontaneity is defined by the total entropy change of system and surrounding. The total entropy change (Stotal) for the
system and surroundings of a spontaneous process is given by
Stotal = Ssystem + Ssurrounding > 0
Gibbs energy of Free energy
Gibbs energy or Gibbs function is a thermodynamic functions defined by
G = H-TS
For a constant temperature reaction
Gsys = Hsys -T Ssys
Criterion for spontaneity in terms of Gibbs energy or function is that
If G is negative or< 0, the reaction will be spontaneous.
This condition comes from the condition that was given above only. That is
Stotal = Ssystem + Ssurrounding > 0
Ssurr = Hsurr/T = -Hsys/T (because what system loses surrounding gains and vice versa)
Stotal = Ssystem - Hsys/T
=> TStotal = TSsystem - Hsys
As spontaneity criterion is Stotal > 0
RHS must be greater than 0.
=> TSsystem - Hsys > 0
=> -( Hsys - TSsystem) > 0
=> ( Hsys - TSsystem) < 0

IIt JEE Ch. 7. CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIA - Core Points for Revision

JEE Syllabus

Chemical equilibrium:
Law of mass action;
Equilibrium constant,
Le Chatelier's principle (effect of concentration, temperature and pressure); Significance of G and Go in chemical equilibrium;
Solubility product, common ion effect,
pH and buffer solutions;
Acids and bases (Bronsted and Lewis concepts);
Hydrolysis of salts.
The syllabus has two main components: Equilibrium among ions and equilibrium among compounds
--------There are reactions where one can see the reverse action also to be active and see the equilibrium point. In this case
A + B C + D and
C+D A+B both reactions keep taking place.
At the point of equilibrium the rate of both reactions is same. Formation of A+B is equal to consumption of A+B.

Rate of forward reaction = k-f[A][B]

Rate of reverse reaction or backward reaction = k-r[C][D]
Therefore k-f[A][B] = k-r[C]{D]
This gives k-f/k-r = [C]{D]/[A][B]

The equilibrium constant is always written as products by reactants.

For the a general reaction
aA + bB cC+dD (Normal two arrows are used for reversible reaction. Only one arrow with heads on both sides is used here to tide over the
inability to show two arrows.)
k-eq = [C]^c[D]^d/[A]^a[B]^b
The equilibrium constant may or may not have units.
In the case of 2A 2B +C
The units of equilibrium constant are going to be: (mol/l)^2(mol/l)/(mol/l)^2
= mol/l
Ionic Equilibrium Introduction
Acids, basess and salts when dissolved n water dissociate to some extent and form ions. In the ion formation, an equilibrium is established
between ionized and unionized (whole) molecules as this ionization is a reversible reaction. Such an equilibrium that involves ions is called
ionic equilibrium.
Acids and bases definitions (Arrhenius, Bronsted and Lewis)
Arrhenius defined acid as a hydrogen compound which in water solution give hydrogen ions.
He defined base as a hydroxide compound which in water solution gives hydroxide ions.
Lowry and Bronsted
An acid is defined as a substance having a tendency of lose or to donate one or more protons.
A base is defined as a substance having a tendency to accept or add a proton
Lewis Theory of Acids and Bases
Acid: An acid is any substance (molecule, ion or atom) that can accept a lone pair of electrons to form a coordinate bond (*Remember
coordinate bond and lone pair topics in chapter on Bonding)
Base: Base is any species (molecule, ion or atom) that can donate a lone pair of electrons to form a co-ordinate bond.
Ostwalds Dilution law
= Total mole of acid or base dissociated/Total mole of acid or base present in the solution

IIT JEE Ch.8 ELECTROCHEMISTRY - Core Point for Revision

JEE Syllabus

Electrochemical cells and cell reactions;
Electrode potentials;
Nernst equation and its relation to G;
Electrochemical series,
emf of galvanic cells;
Faraday's laws of electrolysis;
Electrolytic conductance, specific, equivalent and molar conductance,
Kohlrausch's law;
Concentration cells.
--------------electrochemical cell
or Voltaic or Galvanic Cells
In this cell, a chemical reaction produces electrical energy.

In this cell, the electrons being transferred from the reducing agent to the oxidizing agent travel through a wire and thus provide an elctric
a electrochemical cell is represented as
Zn|ZnSO-4CuSO-4|Cu In this symbol additionally On zinc side as it is a cathode a - sign is placed in O (as shown) and on Cu side as it is
anode a + sign is placed in O.
cell reactions;
Reaction at the electrodes are called half cell reactions as both the elctrodes are kept seperate from physical contact and ion movement only is
permitted through salt bridge.
At zinc electrode Zn Zn^2+ +2e (oxidation)
At Cu electrode: Cu^2+ +2e Cu (reduction)
Electrode potentials
When an electrode in put in solution of ions, a charge is developed between the solution and the electrode. This charge is termed a electrode
potential. The electrode potential cannot be measured individually and it is measured in reference to a standard hydrogen electrode.
Standard Hydrogen Electrode
An electrode in which pure dry hydrogen gas is bubbled at 1 atm and 298K about a platinized platinum plate through a solution containing
H^+ ions ( for example - HCl solution)
The emf produced is taken as zero volts. All other potential are expressed with SHE potential as zero.
Nernst Equation: The cell potential of a half cell (as well as that of a complete cell) depends upon the concentrations of involved ions,
pressure of the gaseous species (if involved) and the temperature. The relation connecting them is given by the Nernst equation.
It is expressed as
E = E - (RT/nF)ln Q
Q = Product of concentration (or pressure) of products each raised to the corresponding stochiometric number/Product of concentration (or
pressure) of reactants each raised to the corresponding stochiometric number
n = number of electrons involved in the hall cell reaction
Electrochemical series is the series in which various elements are arranged in the order of their reduction or oxidation potentials.
Emf of galvanic cells
E(Cell) = E(R) - E(L)
In electrolytic cell, electric energy is used to cause a chemical reaction to take place.
Faraday's laws of electrolysis:
--------------------------------------Quantitative Relationships in Electrolytic Cells
Determining the amount of electrical energy necessary for accumulating a given amount material from the electrolytic cell.
First law: It states that the amount of any substance that is liberated at an electrode during electrolysis is directly proportional to the quantity
of electricity passed through the electrolyte.
W Q (w = weight of substance deposited and Q is charge = ampere * time)
Second law: It states tht when the same quantity of electricity is passed through different electrolytes amount of different substances
liberated or deposited at the different electrodes are directly proportional to the chemical equivalents9i.e., equivalent weight) of substances.
One faraday (F) is the amount of electrical energy required for flow of 1 mole of electrons.
To three significant digits, 1 faraday equals 96,500 coulombs(coul).
Current flow is measured in amperes (A)which is coulombs/seconds or coul/s,

Electrolytic conductance
The flow of electric current through an electrolytic solution is known as electrolytic conduction.
Electrolytic conduction also follows Ohm's law.
The equivalent conductivity of an electrolyte may be defined as the conductance of a volume of solution containing one equivalent mass of a
dissolved substance when placed between two parallel electrodes which are at a unit distance apart, and large enough to contain between
them the whole solution.
The molar conductivity of a solution gives the conducting power of ions produced by one molar mass of an electrolyte at any particular

Kohlrausch's Law on the independence of migrating ions: The molar conductivity of an electrolyte equals the sum of the molar conductivities
of the cations and the anions; n = number of anions or cations.
= v++ + v
Concentration cells.
Concentration Cells are electrochemical cells that have two equivalent half-cells of the same material differing only in concentrations. One
can calculate the potential developed by such cells using the Nernst Equation. A concentration cell produces a voltage in the process of
reaching equilibrium, which will occur when the concentration in both cells are equal.
Concentration cell methods of chemical analysis compare a solution of known concentration with an unknown, determining the
concentration of the unknown via the Nernst Equation.

IIT JEE Ch 9. SOLUTIONS - Core Points for Revision

Jee Syllabus
Raoult's law;
Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure,
Molecular weight determination from elevation of boiling point
Molecular weight determination from depression of freezing point.
----------------Raolt's Law
In the case of a solution of two liquids, A and B, the total vapor pressure Ptot(P total) above the solution is equal to the sum of the vapor
pressures of the two components, PA and PB and
PA = PA * Am
PB = PB * Bm
PA = vapour pressure created by 1 mol of liquid A
Am = mole fraction of liquid A in the solution
PB = vapour pressure created by 1 mol of liquid A
Bm = mole fraction of liquid A in the solution
The pressure exerted by the vapours above the liquid surface in equilibrium with the liquid at a given temperature is called vapour pressure.
If a small amount of non-volatile solute is added to the the solvent, the vapour pressure of the solution becomes less than that of the pure
Some properties of the solution depend only on the number of solute particles but on the nature of the solute. These are called colligative
properties or democratic properties.
The four important ones are:
i) Relative lowering in vapour pressure
ii) elevation in boiling point
iii) depression in freezing point
iv) osmotic pressure
Molecular weight determination from lowering of vapor pressure
Molar mass of a solute can be found from the property of lowering of vapor pressure of a solution.
Mb = (Wb*Ma)/[Wa*(Pa-Pa)/Pa]

Wb = weight of solute particles, Wa= weight of solvent

(Pa-Pa)/Pa = decrease in vapour pressure of solution
Ma = Molar mass of solvent

Molecular weight determination from elevation of boiling point

Mb = [Kb*Wb*1000]/[Tb*Wa]
Tb = increase in boiling point of the solution after adding the solute
Kb = molal elevation constant or ebulloscopic constant
= the elevation in boiling point for 1 molal solution, i.e., a solution containing 1 gram mole of solute dissolved in 1000 g of the solvent.
Molecular weight determination from depression of freezing point.
when a non-volatile solute is added to a solvent, the freezing point of the solution is always lower than that of the pure solvent.
The depression in freezing temperature is proportional to the molal concentration of the solution.
Tf m Or Tf = Kf*m
Kf is the molal depression constant. also called molal cryoscopic constant. It is defined as the depression in freezing point for 1 molal solution
i.e., a solution containing 1 gram mole of solute dissolved in 1000 g of solvent.
Mb = [Kf*Wb*1000]/[Tf * Wa]

IIT JEE Ch.10. CHEMICAL KINETICS Core Points for Revision

Jee Syllabus
Chemical kinetics:
Rates of chemical reactions;
Order of reactions;
Rate constant;
First order reactions;
Temperature dependence of rate constant (Arrhenius equation).
-------------------------The topic "Chemical kinetics" consists of reaction rate and reaction mechanism.
Reaction rate is the speed with which a reaction takes place. This shows the rate or speed at which the reactants are consumed and products
are formed.
Reaction mechanism is the path by which a reaction takes place.
Rate of reaction
The rate of reaction is a quantity that tells how the concentration of reactants or product changes with time.
So this can be expressed as concentration/ time. That is change in concenation divided by time taken for the change.
Molar concentration i.e., moles per liter (M), is used in these equations.
The brackets, [ ] are always used to to indicate molar concentrations.
Rate law
The rate for a reaction is a mathematical expression that relates the rate of reaction to the concentrations of the reactants.
For the reaction aA + bB products
The rate law is expressed as, rate of reaction is proportional to [A]^x[B]^y.
x and y are determined experimentally. These values can be whole or fractional numbers or zero.
Law of Mass Action
In 1867, Cato Guldberg, and Peter Waage, proposed this law. According to this law, for the rate determining step in a reaction, the rate of
reaction is proportional to the product of the concentrations of the reactants, each raised to the power of its coefficient in the balanced

For the reaction aA + bB cC (when it is a rate determining step)

Rate of reaction is proportional to [A]^a[B]^b
The above proportionality can be written as an equation, by putting in a proportionality constant k.
Rate = k *[A]^a[B]^b
K is called the specific rate constant
Order of Reaction
From the rate law for a reaction order of reaction can be determined.
For a particular species or reactant, the order is equal to the exponent for that species in the rate law.
For example for Rate = k *[A][B]^2
for B the order of reaction is 2. For A it is 1.
The overall order of reaction is equal to the sum of all the individual orders of reactants.
As temperature increases, the average kinetic energy increases. So there are more molecules with activation energy and hence reaction rate
As a general approximation, the rate roughly doubles for each 10C rise in temperature.

IIT JEE Ch. 11. SURFACE CHEMISTRY Core Revision Points

JEE syllabus
Surface chemistry:
Elementary concepts of adsorption (excluding adsorption isotherms);
Colloids: types, methods of preparation and general properties;
Elementary ideas of emulsions, surfactants and micelles (only definitions and examples).
-------------The term adsorption implies the presence of excess concentration of any particular component in one of the three phases of matter (known as
adsorbate) at the surface of liquid or solid phase (known as adsorbent) as compared to that present in the bulk of the material.
On the basis of the forces of attraction between adsorbent and adsorbate, two types of adsorption, namely, physisorption (i.e. physical
adsorption) and chemisorption, may be identified.
Colloids or sols are the substances whose sizes lie in between the solutes present in a true solution (e.g., salt, sugar) and the solutes present in
suspension (e.g., sand).
The diameters of colloidal particles may range from 1 to 100 nm. The particles in colloidal state do not settle down on standing, are not visible
and they can pass through a filter paper. However, they do not pass through a perchment paper or animal membrane.
Emulsion is a liquid dispersed in a liquid.
Any substance which can decrease the surface tension of water to a large extent is known as surfactant. Examples of soap and detergents.
Such substances have larger concentrations at the surface of water as compared to the bulk of the solution.
Surfactants in solution are often association colloids, that is, they tend to form aggregates of colloidal dimensions, which exist in equilibrium
with the molecules or ions from which they are formed. Such aggregates are termed micelles.

IIt JEE Ch.12. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY - Core Points for Revision

JEE Syllabus
Nuclear chemistry:
isotopes and isobars;
Properties of a, b and g rays;
Kinetics of radioactive decay (decay series excluded),
carbon dating;

Stability of nuclei with respect to proton-neutron ratio;

Brief discussion on fission and fusion reactions.
-------------The phenomenon of spontaneous emission ofactive radiations from certain substances is called radioactivity and the substances which emit
such radiations are called radioactive substances.
Isotopes and Isobars
Atoms of the same element having same atomic number but different mass numbers are called isotopes.
Ex:(235, 92)U (238, 92)U
The atoms of different elements having different atomic numbers but same mass numbers are called isobars.
Ex (40,18)Ar ,(40,19)K , (40,20)Ca
An particle contains two protons and two neutrons (and is similar to a He nucleus: ).
Beta Radiation () is the transmutation of a neutron into a proton and a electron (followed by the emission of the electron from the atom's
Gamma Radiation () involves the emission of electromagnetic energy (similar to light energy) from an atom's nucleus.
Neutron-proton ratio
In the stability zone, for nuclei having atomic number up to 20, the neutron-proton ratio (n/p ratio) is close to unity.
for nuclei having atomic number more than 20, the n/p ratio for stability exceeds unity and goes up to 1.5 for heavier nuclei.
Radioactive decay proceeds according to a principal called the half-life. The half-life (T) is the amount of time necessary for one-half of the
radioactive material to decay.

During the fission of U235, three neutrons are released in addition to the two daughter atoms. If these released neutrons collide with nearby
U235 nuclei, they can stimulate the fission of these atoms and start a self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.As uranium atoms continue to
split, a significant amount of energy is released from the reaction. The heat released during this reaction is harvested and used to generate
electrical energy.
Nuclear fusion: reactions in which two or more elements "fuse" together to form one larger element, releasing energy in the process. A good
example is the fusion of two "heavy" isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium: H2 and tritium: H3) into the element helium.
Carbon dating: The technique is based on the fact that all living matters contain a definite amount of radioactive isotope carbon 14 and after
death decay of carbon 14 takes place. The amount of Carbon 14 remaining in the dead matter is determined from this the age of the body is

IIT JEE Inorganic Chemistry Ch.13. NON-METALS Core Points for Revision

The Inorganic Chemistry of IIT JEE syllabus is covered in six chapters the first one being nonmetals. The rest of the chapters are compounds
of metals, compounds of nonmetals, transient elements, ores/minerals and extractive metallury and qualitative analysis.
Seperate posts are there for each chapter.
--------------------------------IIT JEE Syllabus NON-METALS
Isolation/preparation and properties of the following non-metals:
sulphur and
Properties of allotropes of
carbon (only diamond and graphite),
phosphorus and

Boron (B)
Z = 5, 1s2s2px
Boron belongs to 13th group.
Method of obtaining Boron
By the reduction of boric oxide by an electropositive metal like magnesium.
silicon (Si) Atomic Number is 14. 1s2s2p^63s3p
Method of obtaining Silicon: Heating finely divided silica with magnesium powder.
Sulphur (S)
Partial combustion of Hydrogen sulphide produce sulphur.
Flourine (F), Chlorine (Cl), Bromine (Br), Iodine (I).
Chlorine is yellow green gas
Bromine is reddish brown liquid
Iodine is steel grey solid

Allotropes are elements that can exist in two or more different physical forms
Diamond, graphite and buckminster fullerine are allotropes of carbon.
The allotropes of carbon are all the element carbon. The type of carbon is determined from the bonding that occurs.
The carbon atoms in graphite are arranged in flat sheets that slide easily over each other, while the atoms in diamond are bonded in a
complex, honeycombed structure that makes the solid much harder.
Atmospheric oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) are allotropes of oxygen.
For example, phosphorous occurs in three forms--white, red, and black. White phosphorous is poisonous and very reactive, red phosphorous
is not poisonous and it is only moderately reactive, and black phosphorous is nearly inert.
Rhombic and monoclinic sulfur are allotropes.

IIT JEE Ch.14. COMPOUNDS OF METALS - Core Points for Revision

JEE Syllabus

Preparation and properties of the following compounds:

chlorides and
sulphates of
magnesium and
Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums;
--------------Sodium Oxide
Sodium oxide has formula Na2O.
It is also called sodium(I) oxide, disodium oxide, sodium monoxide, and soda.

Sodium peroxide
A nearly white compound (Na 2 O 2 ), having vigorous oxidizing properties, and used in bleaching mechanical paper pulps and as a final
stage in the bleaching of chemical paper pulps in some multi-stage bleaching sequences.
Sodium hydroxide
sodium hydroxide chemical compound, NaOH, is a white crystalline substance that readily absorbs carbon dioxide and moisture from the air.
Sodium carbonate
Sodium carbonate exists as anhydrous (Na2CO3) and also as hydrated salt. The decahydrated salt (Na2CO3.10H2O) is known as washing
soda while the anhydrous salt is called soda ash.
Sodium Bicarbonate NaHCO-3
Sodium Bicarbonate, commonly called baking soda, is a white odourless, crystalline solid, completely soluble in water but slightly soluble in
ethanol. It is the mildest of all sodium alkalis.

Sodium chloride
Sodium chloride (NaCl) or common salt is an ionic crystal consisting of equal numbers of sodium and chlorine atoms and is an essential
component in the human diet, being found in blood sweat and tears.
Sodium sulphate
Sodium sulfate is a white, orthorhombic crystalline solid at room temperatures ( a monoclinic structure at > 100 C, a hexagonal structure at >
Potassium Oxide
Formula as commonly written: K2O
Physical properties
Colour: yellowish white to grey
Appearance: crystalline solid
Potassium peroxide
Potassium hydroxide
Potassium Hydroxide, commonly called caustic potash with formula KOH, is a caustic compound of strong alkaline chemical dissolving
readily in water, giving off much heat and forming a caustic solution.
Potassium carbonate
Potassium carbonate is a white salt, soluble in water (insoluble in alcohol), which forms a strongly alkaline solution.
Potassium bicarbonate
Potassium bicarbonate (also known as potassium hydrogen carbonate or potassium acid carbonate), is a colorless, odorless, slightly basic,
salty substance.
Potassium chloride - KCl
Potassium chloride is also commonly known as "Muriate of Potash".
Potassium sulphate
Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (also known as potash of sulfur) is a non-flammable white crystalline salt which is soluble in water. The chemical
is commonly used in fertilizers, providing both potassium and sulfur.

Magnesium Oxide
Magnesium oxide
Roasting either magnesium carbonate or magnesium hydroxide produces the oxygen compound magnesium oxide, commonly called
magnesia, MgO, a white solid used in the manufacture of high-temperature refractory bricks, electrical and thermal insulators, cements,
fertilizer, rubber, and plastics. It is used medically as a laxative.
Magnesium peroxide
Magnesium peroxide is a fine powder peroxide with a white to white-off color.
Magnesium hydroxide
Magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, is a white powder produced in large quantities from seawater by the addition of milk of lime (calcium
Magnesium carbonate

Magnesium carbonate, MgCO3, occurs in nature as the mineral magnesite and is an important source of elemental magnesium. It can be
produced artificially by the action of carbon dioxide on a variety of magnesium compounds.
Magnesium bicarbonate
Magnesium bicarbonate + Lime Calcium carbonate + Magnesium carbonate + Water
Mg(HCO3)2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + MgCO3 + 2H2O
Magnesium chloride
The action of hydrochloric acid on magnesium hydroxide produces magnesium chloride, MgCl2, a colourless, deliquescent (water-absorbing)
substance employed in magnesium metal production, in the manufacture of a cement for heavy-duty flooring, and as an additive in textile
Magnesium sulphate
Magnesium sulfate, MgSO-4, is a colourless, crystalline substance formed by the reaction of magnesium hydroxide with sulfur dioxide and
Calcium Oxide CaO
Calcium oxide is commonly known as quicklime, and is a material of primary importance in the building industry.
Calcium peroxide
Calcium peroxide (CaO2) is a solid peroxide with a white or yellowish color.
Calcium hydroxide
Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)-2)
Calcium hydroxide in solid powdered form is called slaked lime. A suspension of slaked lime in water is called milk of lime.
Calcium carbonate CaCO3
Calcium carbonate occurs abundantly as dolomite, MgCO3.CaCO3, a mixture of calcium and magnesium carbonates.
Calcium bicarbonate
Calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3)2), also called calcium hydrogen carbonate, does not refer to a known solid compound; it exists only in a
solution containing the ions calcium Ca^2+, dissolved carbon dioxide CO2, bicarbonate HCO3, and carbonate CO3^2.
Calcium chloride
Calcium chloride (CaCl2) is an ionic compound of calcium and chlorine.
It can be produced directly from limestone, but large amounts are also produced as a by-product of the Solvay process.
Calcium sulphate (CaSO4)
Calcium sulphate can be obtained by heating gypsum above 200C.
Compounds of Aluminium: alumina, aluminium chloride and alums;
Aluminium oxide(Al2O3), also known as alumina, is the main component of bauxite, the principal ore of aluminium.
Aluminium chloride (AlCl3) is manufactured on a large scale by the exothermic reaction of aluminium metal with chlorine or hydrogen
Alum is a salt that in chemistry is a combination of an alkali metal, such as sodium, potassium, or ammonium and a trivalent metal, such as
aluminum, iron, or chromium.
The most common form, potassium aluminum sulfate, or potash alum, is one form that has been used in food processing.

IIT JEE Ch.15. COMPOUNDS OF NONMETALS - Core Points for Revision


Preparation and properties of the following compounds:

Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid);
Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide;
Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia;
Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine;
Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide;
Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate;

Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides;
Fertilizers: commercially available (common) NPK type.
-----------------------Carbon: oxides and oxyacid (carbonic acid);
Carbon Monoxide CO
Carbon Dioxide CO2
Carbonic acid
Silicon: silicones, silicates and silicon carbide;
silicon dioxide SiO2
Nitrogen: oxides, oxyacids and ammonia;
Ammonia NH3
Phosphorus: oxides, oxyacids (phosphorus acid, phosphoric acid) and phosphine;
Oxygen: ozone and hydrogen peroxide;
Ozone O3
Hydrogen Peroxide H2O2
Sulphur: hydrogen sulphide, oxides, sulphurous acid, sulphuric acid and sodium thiosulphate;
Halogens: hydrohalic acids, oxides and oxyacids of chlorine, bleaching powder; Xenon fluorides;
XeF2, XeF4
Fertilizers: commercially available (common) NPK type.
This chapter's revision points need to maintained topic wise only.

Ch.16.Transition Elements - core Points for Revision


Transition elements (3d series):

Definition, general characteristics, oxidation states and their stabilities, colour (excluding the details of electronic transitions) and calculation
of spin-only magnetic moment;
Coordination compounds: nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, cis-trans and ionisation isomerisms, hybridization and
geometries of mononuclear coordination compounds (linear, tetrahedral, square planar and octahedral).
--------------A transition element may be defined as an element which in its elementary form or in at least one of its oxidation states, possesses partially
filled d orbitals in its penultimate shell.
Three series of elements are formed by filling the 3d, 4d, and 5d shells by electrons.
First series or 3d series: Scandium to Zinc
Second series or 4d series: Yitrium to cadmium
Third series or 5d series: Lanthanum to hafnium to mercury
In JEE syllabus only 3d series is there.
The ten elements from Scandium to Zinc form the first transition metal series. They closely resemble each other and are hard, dense, shiny
metals with high melting and boiling points.
oxidation states
Common oxidation states are +2 and +3, with the +2 state more common towards the end. The higher oxidation states are shown in
compounds with electronegative elements like O, Cl or F (e.g. Cr2O7^2- [+6], MnO4^- [+7]).

Variable oxidation state is found because of the small difference in energy between the 3d and 4s sub-shells. This allows varying numbers of
electrons to be used in bonding. When forming ions transition metals lose electrons from the 4s sub-shell before the 3d.
Catalytic Action
The ability of transition metals to exist in various oxidation states makes them important industrial and biological catalysts.
Coordination compounds are a special class of compounds in which the centgral metal atom is surrounded by ions or molecules beyond their
There are also referred to as coordination complexes or complexes.
Haemoglobin, Chlrophyll, and vitamin B-12 are coordinatio compounds of iron, magnesium and cobalt respectively.
The interesting thing of coordination compound is that these are formed from apparently saturated molecules capable of independent

Ch.17. Ores/Minerals and Extractive Metallury - Core Points for Revision

Ores and minerals: Commonly occurring ores and minerals of
zinc and
Extractive metallurgy: Chemical principles and reactions only (industrial details excluded);
Carbon reduction method (iron and tin);
Self reduction method (copper and lead);
Electrolytic reduction method (magnesium and aluminium);
Cyanide process (silver and gold).

Ores and minerals of iron

Iron Pyrites
Copper Pyrites
Haematite is the principal ore.
Ores and minerals of Tin
Tin stone
Ores and minerals of Copper
Copper pyrites
Cuprite or ruby copper
Copper glance
Minerals of Lead
Minerals of Magnesium

Minerals of Alumium
Feldspar, Mica, Kaolinite
Alunite or Alumstone
Aluminates of Magensium, Iron and Manganese
Minerals of Silver
Horn Silver
Minerals of Zinc
(from X book by Viraf Dalal)
Zinc Blende
Minerals of Gold
Mainly native gold

The reduction of the ore
At the high temperature at the bottom of the furnace, carbon dioxide reacts with carbon to produce carbon monoxide.
It is the carbon monoxide which is the main reducing agent in the furnace.
Extraction of Tin
The ore is tin stone that contains 10% of the metal as SnO2.
SnO2 + 2C = Sn + 2CO
The moltenmetal is collected from the bottom of the blast furnace.
The metal may be purified elctrolytically
The concentrated ore is heated strongly with silicon dioxide (silica) and air or oxygen in a furnace or series of furnaces.
Electrolysis of magnesium
Dolomite and seawater is precipitated
as insoluble magnesium hydroxide
Mg(OH)2 which is subsequently treated
with HCl to give MgCl2.
MgCl2 is fed into electrolysis cell to
produce Mg metal at cathode and Cl2
at anode.
Conversion of the aluminium oxide into aluminium by electrolysis

The aluminium oxide is electrolysed in solution in molten cryolite, Na3AlF6. Cryolite is another aluminium ore, but is rare and expensive,
and most is now made chemically.
It is now the most important and widely used process for extracting gold from ores.
The ore is first finely ground and concentrated by flotation.
To remove certain impurities, it may be roasted.
It is then mixed with a dilute solution of sodium cyanide (or potassium or calcium cyanide) while air is bubbled through it.
Soluble aurocyanide complex ion, Au(CN)-2^-1 is formed .
Silver, usually present as an impurity, also forms a similar soluble ion.

Ch.18.Exercises in Inorganic Chemistry - Core Points for Revision


Principles of qualitative analysis: Groups I to V (only Ag+, Hg2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, Bi3+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Al3+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Mn2+ and Mg2+);
Nitrate, halides (excluding fluoride), sulphate, sulphide and sulphite.
-----------------Characteristic tests of Anions
Sulphide: With dilute H2SO4, H2S is evolved, which turns lead acetate paper black.
Sulphite: With dilute H2SO4, SO2 is released.
Sulphate: Soluble sulphate salt gives white precipitate of BaSO4 with BaCl2 solution which is insoluble in concentrated HCl.
Nitrite: With dilute H2SO4, nitric oxide is released.
Chloride: With conc. H2SO4,HCl gas is released.
Bromide: With conc. H2SO4,brownish vapours of Br2 are released.
Iodide: With conc H2SO4,violet vapours of I2 are released.
Nitrate: With conc H2SO4, brown vapours of NO2 are released.
Analysis of Cations
Group I cations: Ag, Hg, Pb
Group II : Hg, Cu, Bi, Cd, As, Sb, Sn
Group III: Fe, Cr, Al,
Group IV: Co, Mn, Ni, Zn
Group V: Ba, Sr, Ca

Ch.19 Hybridization, Isomerism, and Nomenclature Review Points

Hybridisation of carbon;
Sigma and pi-bonds;
Shapes of molecules;
Structural and geometrical isomerism;
Optical isomerism of compounds containing up to two asymmetric centers, (R,S and E,Z nomenclature excluded);

Conformations of ethane and butane (Newman projections);

IUPAC nomenclature of simple organic compounds (only hydrocarbons, mono-functional and bi-functional compounds);
------------Hybridization of carbon
sp - in alkynes - triple bond
sp2 - in alkenes - double bond
sp3 - in alkanes
sigma and pi bonds
alkanes - all sigma bonds with hydrogen atoms or single bonds with carbon atoms
alkenes - one sigma and one pi bond in double bond, and all sigma bonds with hydrogen atoms or single bonds with carbon atoms
alkynes - one sigma and two pi bonds in triple bond, and all sigma bonds with hydrogen atoms or single bonds with carbon atoms
The existence of two or more compounds with same molecular formula but different properties (physical, chemical or both) is known as
isomerism; and the compounds themselves are called isomers.
Isomerism types:
i) Chain, nuclear or skeleton isomerism
This type of isomerism is due to the difference in the nature of the carbon chain (i.e. straight or branched) which forms the nucleus of the
ii) Position isomerism
It is due to the difference in the position of the substituent atom or group or an unsaturated linkage in the same carbon chain.
iii) Functional isomerism

This type of isomerism is due to difference in the nature of functional group present in the isomers,
iv) Metamerism
It is due to the difference in nature of alkyl groups attached to the same functional group. This type of isomerism is shown by compounds of
the same homologous series.
v) Tautomerism
Tautomerism may be defined as the phenomenon in which a single compound exists in two readily interconvertible structures that differ
markedly in the relative position of at least one atomic nucleus, generally hydrogen. The two different structures are known as tautomers of
each other.
Stereo isomerism
When isomers have the same structural formula but differ in relative arrangement of atoms or groups in space within the molecule, these are
known as stereoisomers and the phenomenon as stereoisomerism. The spatial arrangement of atoms or groups is also referred to as
configuration of the molecule and thus we can say that the stereoisomers have the same structural formula but different configuration.
Stereoisomerism is of two types.
(i) Geometrical isomerism
The isomers which possess the same structural formula but differ in the spatial arrangement of the groups around the double bond are
known as geometrical isomers and the phenomenon is known as geometrical isomerism.
ii) Optical isomerism
This type of isomerism arises from different arrangements of atoms or groups in three dimensional space resulting in two isomers which are
mirror image of each other. Optical isomers contain an asymmetric (chiral) carbon atom ( a carbon atom attached to four different atoms or
groups) in their molecules.
The longest possible chain is numbered from one side to the other by Arabic numerals, the direction being so chosen as to given the lowest
numbers possible to the side chains. When series of locants containing the same number of terms are compared term by term, that series is
lowest which contains the lowest number on the occasion of the first difference (Lowest sum rule). This rule is applied irrespective of the
nature of the side chains.
Univalent branched radicals derived from hydrocarbon are named by prefixing the designation of the side chains to the name of the
unbranched alkyl radical containing the LPCC starting from the carbon atom with the free valence, this atom being numbered as 1.

If two or more side chains of different nature are present, they are cited in alphabetical order and decided as follows
(i) The names of simple radicals are first alphabetized and the multiplying prefixes are then inserted.
Ethyl is cited before methyl, thus 4-Ethyl-3, 3-dimethylheptane
ii) The name of a complex radical is considered to start with the first letter of its complete name.
(iii) In cases where names of complex radicals are composed of identical words, preference for citation is given to that radical which contains
the lowest locant at the first cited point of difference in the radical.

Ch.20 Inductive and Resonance Effects - Core Points for Review

Resonance and hyperconjugation;
Inductive and resonance effects on acidity and basicity of organic acids and bases; Polarity and inductive effects in alkyl halides;
Reactive intermediates produced during homolytic and heterolytic bond cleavage; Formation, structure and stability of carbocations,
carbanions and free radicals.
Keto-enol tautomerism;
Determination of empirical and molecular formula of simple compounds (only combustion method);
Hydrogen bonds: definition and their effects on physical properties of alcohols and carboxylic acids;
-----------These effects occur during bonding and in molecules
Inductive Effect
This effect arises when an electron withdrawing group (such as halogen) is attached to the end of a carbon atom. Due to the inductive effect,
which is a permanent effect in the molecule, in case of methyl chloride, methyl group has slight positive charge
Electromeric effect
It is a temporary effect which takes between two atoms joined by a multiple bond i.e., a double or triple bond. This occurs at the requirements
of the attacking reagent and involves simulataneous transfer of a shared pair of electrons of the doube or triple bond to one of the linked
Resonance Effect or Mesomeric Effect;
There are many molecules whose behaviour cannot be explained by a single Lewis structure. To explain behavior of such molecules, two or
more than two structures are proposed and the molecule is thought to be a resonance hybrid of those structures.
When a H-C bond is attached to a double bond or triple bond, the sigma electrons of the H-C bond interact with the double bond or triple
bond system.
the interactions between the electrons of pi systems of multiple bonds and the adjacent sigma bonds (Single H-C bonds) of the substituent
groups in organic compound is called hyperconjugation. The concept was developed by nBaker and Nathan and is also known as Baker and
Nathan effect.
Bond fission.
Bond breaking is also known as bond fission.
1. Homolytic fission
2. Heterolytic fission
---------------Heterolytic fission results in the formation of two different chemical species in the sense that one is a cation and the other an anion.
Homolytic fission results in two electrically uncharged radicals.
Reaction Intermediates
The species produced during cleavage of bonds are called reaction intermediates. The important ones are:
1. Free radical: A free radical is an atom or group of atoms having an unpaired electron. Thee are produced during the homolytic fission of a
covalent bond.
2. carbocation: It is a group of atoms which contain positively charged carbon having only six electrons. It is obtained by heterolytic fission of
covalent bond involving carbon atoms.
3. Carbanion: It is a species containing a carbon atom carrying a negative charge. They are generated during heterolytic fission of covalent
bonds containing carbon, when an atom linked to carbon goes without the bonding electrons.
4. carbene: The carbenes are reactive neutral species in which the carbon atom has six electrons in the valence shell out of which two are
shared. The simplest carbene is methylene (:CH2). It is formed wbehg diazomethan is decomposed by the action of light.
CH2N2 --> :CH2 + N2
Types of attacing reagents
1. Free radicals
2. Electrophiles
3. Nucleophiles

Typesof organic reactions

1. substitution reactions
2. Addition reactions
3. Elimination reactions
--i) -Elimination
--ii) -Elimination
4. Rearrangement reactions
5. Condensation reactions
6. Isomerism reactions

Ch.21 Alkanes - Core Points for Revision

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkanes:
Homologous series,
Preparation of alkanes by Wurtz reaction
Preparation of alkanes decarboxylation reactions.
physical properties of alkanes (melting points, boiling points and density); Combustion and halogenation of alkanes;
------------Alkanes: Introduction
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons containing only carbon-carbon single bonds in their molecules.
Thye are also called paraffins (meaning little affinity or reactivity, we will see later why it is so).
Alkanes are divided into 1. Open chain or acyclic Alkanes and 2. CycloAlkanes or cyclic alkanes.
The general formula of alkanes is CnH2n+2

Preparation of alkanes

1. From unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes)

2. From alkyl halides
3. From carboxylic acids and their salts
1. From unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes and alkynes)
By catalytic hydrogenation alkenes and alkynes are converted into alkanes (Note that this point will come in alkenes and alkynes chapter as
reactions of them).
Ni, Pt or Pd in the form of fine powder are used as catalysts. A temperature of 523-573 K needs to be employed.
Methane cannot be prepared by this method because alkenes or alkynes will have two carbons at their lowest level.

2. Wurtz reaction (From alkyl halides)

When an alkyl halide (usually bromide or iodide) is treated with sodium in dry ether, a symmetrical alkane containing both twice the number
of carbon atoms of alkyl halide is obtained.
3. Decarboxylation reaction
When sodium salt of a monocarboxylic acid is heated with soda lime (amixture of NaOH and Cao in the ratio of 3:1) at about 630 K, alkane is
Physical properties of alkanes
1. State: CH4 to C4H10 are gases, C5H12 to C17H36 are liquids and higher ones are solids
2. Boiling point: Boiling point increases with molecular mass. Branched isomers have a lower boiling point than normal alkanes.
3. Melting point
4. Solubility: Being nonpolar, these are insoluble in water.
5. Density: Liquid alkanes lighter than water
Large quantity of heat generated in the combustion of alkanes
Halogenation of alkanes
This involves substitution o fhydrogen atom by halogen atom. The order of reactivity is F2>Cl2>Br2(>I2). The mechanism of chlorination
and bromination involves free radicals.

Ch.22 Alkenes - Core Points for Revision

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkenes:
Physical properties: boiling points, density and dipole moments
Acid catalysed hydration of alkenes(excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination);
Reactions of alkenes with KMnO4 and
Reactions of alkenes with ozone;
Reduction of alkenes;
Preparation of alkenes by elimination reactions;
Electrophilic addition reactions of alkenes with X2, HX, HOX and H2O (X=halogen);
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons having carbon-carbon double bond(C=C) in their molecules.
Their general formula is C-nH-2n.
The simplest alkene is ethene, C-2H-4
Methods of Preparation
1. Dehydrohalogenation of alkyl halides.
2. Dehydration of alcohols
3. Dehalogenation of vicinal dihalides
Physical properties
State: Ethene, propene and butene are gases at room temperature. From pentene onwards till alkenes having 18 carbon atoms, they are
liquids. Still higher members of the family are solids.

Addition of water
water adds to alkenes in the presence of mineral acids. Hence it is termed catalytic hydration of alkenes. Addition occurs in accordance with
Markownikov's rule. We get alcohols from this addition.
Oxidation with potassium permanganate (specially mentioned in syllabus)
Alkenes react with cold dilute potassium permanganate solution(alkaline) to form 1,2-diols called glycols. The glycols contain two -OH
groups on adjacent carbon atoms.
Reaction with ozone
Ozone, O3, is an allotrope of oxygen that adds rapidly to carbon-carbon double bonds. Since the overall change in ozonolysis is more complex
than a simple addition reaction, its mechanism has been extensively studied. Reactive intermediates called ozonides have been isolated from
the interaction of ozone with alkenes, and these unstable compounds may be converted to stable products by either a reductive workup (Zn
dust in water or alcohol) or an oxidative workup (hydrogen peroxide).
-- polymerisation of ethene
-- polymerisation of vinyl chloride
-- polymerisation of styrene
Addition of hydrogen to a carbon-carbon double bond is called hydrogenation. The overall effect of such an addition is the reductive removal
of the double bond functional group.

Ch.23 Alkynes - Core Points for Revision

Preparation, properties and reactions of alkynes:
Physical properties of alkynes (boiling points, density and dipole moments);
Acidity of alkynes;
Acid catalysed hydration of alkynes (excluding the stereochemistry of addition and elimination);
Reduction of alkynes;
Preparation of alkynes by elimination reactions;
Addition reactions of alkynes;
Metal acetylides.
----------------1. Alkynes are hydrocarbons with triple bonds. General formula CnH2n
2. Methods of Preparation of Alkynes;
1. Dehydrohalogenation of vicinal dihalides
2. Reaction of metal acetalides with primary alkyl halides. This method can be used to generate large alkyne from the smaller one.
3. Physical properties
State; first three members are gases at room temperature. thenext eight are liquids while the higher ones are solids.
Solubulity: are mostly insoluble in water nbut are soluble in organic solvents such as petroleum, ether, carbon tetrachlorde. benzene etc.
4. Chemical Properties
The alkynes have at least one triple bond in them, therefore, they are quite reactive chemically.
They readily take part in addition reactions and can also be easily oxidized.
5. Acidic property of acetylene
Acetylene and other terminal alkynes (1-alkynes) are weakly acidic in character.
They react with strong bases like NaNH2 ( sodium in liquid ammonia) to form sodium acetylide derivatives known as acetylides or alkynides.
6. Addition of water (hydration of alkynes) (
In the presence of acid (H2SO4) and HgSO-4, a molecule of water adds to the triple bond at 348K. The catalyst in this reaction is HgSO4
(Mercuric sulphate). The final products of this reaction are carbonyl compounds aldehydes and ketones.
Initially enol is formed which is raidly converted into an equilibrium mixture containing keto form in excess. Enol is so called because it
contains 'ene' (double bond) and an alcoholic group (ol).
7. Reduction of Alkynes
Reaction Type: Addition
Alkynes can be reduced to trans-alkenes using Na in NH3 (l)
This reaction is stereospecific giving only the trans-alkene via an anti addition.
8. Preparation of alkynes by elimination reactions; To be posted
9. Formation of metal acetylides
Acytelene reacts with Na and LI liberating H-2 gas and forming metal acetylide. Therefore acetylene has chemical behaviour similar to acids.
Heavy metal ions mainly, Ag+ and Cu+ react with acetylinic hydrogen (hydrogen atom in acetylene) to form insoluble acetylides.

Ch.24 Benzene - Core Points for Revision

Electrophile Substitution Reactions
--- Sulphonation
--- Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
--- Friedel-Crafts Acylation
Effect of --, m- and p- directing groups in mono-substituted benzenes
--------1. Benzene has the molecular formula C6H6. It has hexagonal ring of six carbon atoms with three double bonds in alternate positions.
Arenes are the aromatic hydrocarbons which contain one or more hexagonal rings of carbon atoms with double bonds in alternate positions.
2. Preparation of benzene and its homologues
1. From alkynes: acetylene and other alkynes polymerise at high temperatures to give benzene and other arenes.
3C2H2 gives C6H6
Benzene was first synthesized by Berthelot by passing acetylene through red hot iron tube.
2 Decarboxylation of aromatic acids: by heating sodium benzoate with soda lime
Decarboxylation: Removal carboxyl group
3. From phenol: by distillation of phenol with zinc.
3. Physical properties
i) colour less liquids up to eight carbon atoms
ii) aromatic hydrocarbons are insoluble in water ut soluble in organic solvents.
iii) They are inflammable and burn with sooty flame
4. Chemical properties
Even though double bonds are present, benzene is quite stable and does not undergo common addition reactions undergone by alkenes.
Benzene and other arenes undergo following types of reactions.
1. substitution
2. addition
3. oxidation
5. Halogenation
benzene will react with a mixture of Cl-2 and FeCl-3.
The output is a combination of benzene with Cl, Cl diplacing one hydrogen atom from benzene(Chlorobenzene).
6. Nitration
A mixture of nitric acid and sulphuric acid is the nitrating agent.
7. Sulphonation
The product is a combination Benzene and SO-3H that displaced one hydrogen atom from benzene.
For sulphonation we require excess of H-2SO-4 along with SO-3.
8. Friedel-Crafts Alkylation
Benzene reacts with a combination of alkyl halide and AlCl-3. AlCl-3 acts as a Lewis acid.
The alkyl group replaces one hydrogen atom in benzene.

9. Friedel-Crafts Acylation
Acylation is the term given to substituting an acyl group such as CH-3CO- into another molecule. An acyl group is a hydrocarbon group
attached to a carbon-oxygen double bond.
The most commonly used example of an acyl group is the ethanoyl group, CH3CO-.
10. Effect of o-, m- and p- directing groups in mono-substituted benzenes
In planning syntheses based on substitution reactions of mono-substituted benzenes, you must be able to predict in advance which of the
available positions of the ring are most likely to be substituted.
Basically, three problems are involved in the substitution reactions of aromatic compounds: (a) proof of the structures of the possible
isomers, o, m, p, that are formed; (b) the percentage of each isomer formed, if the product is a mixture; and (c) the reactivity of the
compound being substituted relative to some standard substance, usually benzene.

Ch. 25. Alcohols - Core Points for Revision

dehydration and oxidation,
reaction with sodium,
reaction with phosphorus halides,
reaction with ZnCl2/conc.-HCl,
conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones;
--------1. The hydroxy derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons are termed alcohols. They contain one or more hydroxyl (OH) groups.
Methyl Alcohol CH-3OH
Ehtyl alcohol C-2H-5OH also written as CH-3CH-2OH
Propyl alcohol C-3H-7OH also written as CH-3CH-2CH-2OH
2. Methods of Preparation of Alcohols
1. preparation from haloalkanes
2. By reduction of aldehydes, ketones and esters
3. Physical Properties:
4.Reaction with active metals - acidic character
5. Esterification
Alcohols react with monocarboxylic acids, in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid or dry HCL gas as catalyst, to from esters. This
reaction is known as esterification.
6. Dehydration
When alcohols are heated with conc. or H3PO4, at 443 K, they get dehydrated to form alkenes.
The ease of dehydration of alcohol follows the order 3>2>1 which is also the order of stability of carbocation.
7. Oxidation
The oxidation of alcohols can be carried out by a number of reagents such as acqueous, alkalineor acidified KMnO4, acidified Na2Cr2O7,
nitric acid, chromic acid, etc.
8. Reaction with sodium
The cleavage in this reaction will be in the OH bond. Alcohols react with active metals to liberate hydrogen gas an form metal alkoxide.
Ethanol or Ethyl alcohol reacts with sodium to gibve Sodium ethoxide and hydrogen
9. Reaction with phosphorus halides

Phosphorus halides such as PCl5, Pcl3, PBr3 and PI3 react with alcohols to form corresponding haloalkanes.
10. Reaction with ZnCl2/conc.-HCl
This is a reaction or test to distinguish various categories of alcohols and is termed Lucas test.
In this test, an alcohol is treated with an equimolar mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and anhydrous ZnCl2 (called Lucas reagent).
11. Conversion of alcohols into aldehydes and ketones
Oxidation of primary alcohol gives aldehydes.
Oxidation of secondary alcohols gives ketones.
It is difficult to oxidize tertiary alcohols.

Ch.26 Alkyl and Aryl Halides - Core Points for Revision

charateristic reactions
Specially highlighed topics
Rearrangement reactions of alkyl carbocation,
Grignard reactions,
Nucleophilic substitution reactions;
------------1. When hydrogen atom or atoms of alkanes are replaced by the corresponding number of halogen atoms, the compounds are called halogen
derivatives of alkanes.

2. Methods of preparation
1. From hydrocarbons
a) from alkanes: halogens react with alkanes in the presence of uv light to form haloalkanes.
b) from alkenes: by the electrophylic addition of halogen acids (HBr, HCl, or HI)
3. The only methyl halide which is a liquid is iodomethane.chloroethane is a gas.
4. Nucleophilic substitution in primary halogenoalkanes
The nucleophilic substitution reaction - an SN2 reaction - S stands for substitution, N for nucleophilic, and the 2 is order of reaction. It is
because the initial stage of the reaction involves two species - the bromoethane and the Nucleophilic (Nu-) ion.
5. Nucleophilic substitution in tertiary halogenoalkanes - The nucleophilic substitution reaction - an SN1 reaction (1 denotes 1st order)

Ch.27 Aldehydes and Ketones - Core Points for Review

Aldehydes and Ketones:
oxime and
hydrazone formation;
aldol condensation,
Perkin reaction;
Cannizzaro reaction;
haloform reaction and
nucleophilic addition reactions (Grignard addition);

Aldehydes contain carbonyl group C=O as functional group and the carbonyl atom carries at least one H atom.
In ketones, also carbonyl group C=O is the functional group. But the carbonyl carbon does not contain any H atoms, but it is attached to two
alkyl or aryl groups.
Getting an aldehyde from methylbenzene - by oxidation
Getting ketone from alcohols - By oxidation of secondary alcohols
Aldehydes and ketones are polar molecules because the C=O bond has a
dipole moment:
Their polarity makes aldehydes and ketones have higher boiling points than
alkenes of similar molecular weight.
Carbonyl groups in aldehydes and ketones may be oxidized to form
compounds at the next oxidation level, that of carboxylic acids
Addition Using Grignard Reagents Primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols may be formed in the reactions of
aldehydes or ketones with Grignard reagents.

Ch.28 Carboxylic Acid - Core Points for Revision

JEE syllabus
Carboxylic acids:
Preparation, properties
Characteristic reactions
formation of esters,
acid chlorides and amides,
ester hydrolysis;
--------1. Carboxylic acids are the compound containing carboxyl group in their molecules.
-C with a double bond with oxygen and single bond with OH
2. These acides can be aliphatic or aromatic.
aliphatic acids:
Formic acid HCOOH
Acetic acid CH-3COOH
Isobutyric acid (Branched)
aromatic acids
Bezoic acid : H in benzene substituted by COOH
m-Nitrobenzoic acid: One more H substituted by NO-2
o-Toluic acid (o refers to ortho) Benzoic acid with one more H substituted by CH-3
3. Methods of Preparation of Monocarboxylic Acids:
1. From oxidation of primary alcohols
2. By oxidation of aldehydes and ketones.

Ch.29 Phenols - Core Points for Revision

JEE syllabus

Preparation, Physical and Chemical properties

specially highlighted topics
electrophilic substitution reactions (halogenation, nitration and sulphonation);
Reimer-Tieman reaction,
Kolbe reaction.
---------Phenols are aromatic hydroxy compounds. In phenols, one or more hydroxyl group is directly attached to the aromatic (benzene) nucleus.
If OH group is not directly attached to be carbon atom in the benzene ring, but present in the molecule as a part of the alkyl side chain group,
then the compound is not termed as phenol.It is called aromatic alcohol because it resembles aliphatic alcohols in its characteristics.
By decarboxylation of sodium salt of salicyclic acid
Fusion of sodium salicylate with soda lime (NaOH and CaO mixture).
sodium phenoxide is formed. This on acidification gives phenol.
State and smell: Phenols are colourless crystalline solids or liquids. They have characteristic phenolic odours.
Boiling points: Higher than the boiling points of the aromatic hydrocarbons of comparable molecular masses.
Action of Bromine water on phenol: When phenol is treated with bromine water, it gets decolourised giving a white precipitate of 2,4,6,
Action of Bromine in CS-2 on phenol:o-Bromophenol + p-Bromophenol mixture is obtained. p-Bromophenol is the major product.
Action of dilute nitirc acid on phenol: a mixture of o-nitrophenol and p-nitrophenol is formed.
Action of conc. nitric acid in the presence of conc. sulphuric acid on phenol: 2,4,6-trinitrophenol is formed. This is picric acid.
Action of conc. sulphuric acid at different temperatures on phenol:
Pheno reacts with conc. sulphuric acid to form a mixture of o-, and p-phenol sulphonic acid.
At low temperature about 288 to 293 K, o-phenol sulphonic acid is the main product formed.
At high temperature about 373 K, p-phenol sulphonic acid is the main product formed.

Acidity of Phenols
Phenols are weakly acidic in nature (Ka = 10^-10).
They turn blue litmus read and react with alkali metals and alkalies to form their salts.
The acidic character of phenol is due to polar OH bond.
Kolbe's reaction
When sodium phenoxide is heated with carbon dioxide at about 400K and under 4 ot 7 atmospheric pressure, sodium salicylate is formed as
a major product. This on acidification gives salicylic acid. A small amount of para isomer is also obtained and if the temperature is allowed to
rise above 410 K, the para isomer dominates.
Reimer-Tiemann reaction

When phenol is treated with choloroform and aqueous sodium hydroxide at 340 K follwoed by hydrolysis, an aldehydic group, -CHO group is
introduced in the ring at a position ortho to the phenol group (OH group).
Ortho hydroxy benzaldehyde or salicylaldehyde is formed as the product of the reaction.
In addition, small amount of p-salicylaldehyde is also formed
In place of chloroform, carbon tetrachloride can be used. I this case o-salicylic acid is formed as the major product.

Ch 30 Amines - Core Points

EE Syllabus
Preparation, Properties, Reactions
Characteristic reactions
Basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines,
Preparation from nitro compounds,
Reaction with nitrous acid,
Azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines,
Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts;
Carbylamine reaction;
Amines are regarded as derivatives of ammonia in which one, two or all three hydrogen atoms are replaced by alkyl or aryl group.
Preparation from nitro compounds,
Reduction of nitro compound to obtain amine can be done by using either molecular hydrogen and a catalyst (Ni or Pt) or a metal (usually
granulated tin) and an acid (HCl)
Reaction with nitrous acid,
Aliphatic primary amine in reactin with nitrous acid forms unstable diazonium salt which on decomposing liberates nitrogen and mixture of
alcohols and alkenes.
Basicity of substituted anilines and aliphatic amines,
Nitrogen of amines contains lone pair of electrons, which can be shared with other species and thus these act as Lewis bases.
Azo coupling reaction of diazonium salts of aromatic amines,
Sandmeyer and related reactions of diazonium salts;
The diazonium salt is treated with cuprous chloride or cuprous bromide.
Carbylamine reaction;
The treatment of a primary amine with chloroform and alcoholic potash produces carbylamine (isocyanide) which has most offensive smell.
This reaction is not exhibited by secondary and tertiary amines.

Ch. 31 Carbohydrates - Core Points

JEE Syllabus
mono and di-saccharides (glucose and sucrose);
Oxidation, reduction,
glycoside formation and hydrolysis of sucrose.
---------1. Carbohydrates means "hydrates of carbon".
These are poly-hydroxylated-aldehydes or poly-hydroxylated-ketones. The general formula
is C-x(H-2O)-y
2. Carbohydrates are classified as:
Monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides
3. Glucose is a monosaccharide and it forms a six membered ring of five carbon atoms and
one oxygen atom.
4. When acqueous solution of glucose is treated with sodium amalgam or sodium
borohydride, it is reduced to sorbitol (or glucito) a hexahydric alcohol.
5. Mild oxidizing agents such as bromine water, silver oxide, sodium hypobromite etc.

oxidize glucose ot gluconic acid converting -CHO group to -COOH group.

6. The important members belonging to disaccharides are sucrose, maltose and lactose.
7. On hydrolysis these give two molecules of monosaccharides.
8. Sucrose in comination with water (hydrolysis) gives glucose and fructose.
9. Sucrose is composed of alpha-D-glucose and beta-D-fructose. These units are held
together by alpha, beta-glycosidic linkage between C1 (carbon 1) of the glucose unit
(pyranose ring) and C2 of the fructose unit (furanose ring).
10. Reducing sugars are easily oxidized to give carboxylic acid.

Ch 32 Amino Acids and Peptides - Core Points

Amino acids and peptides:
General structure (only primary structure for peptides) and
physical properties.
-----------amino acids are organic compounds containing both an amino group (NH2) and carboxylic group (COOH). They are represented by the
general formula:
amino acids contain an amino group attached to alpha carbon of a carboxylic acid.
Amino acids are the basic units of proteins.
There are twenty amino acids commonly found in proteins.

Except Glycine all other amino acids contain asymmetric carbon atom next to the carboxylic acid.
Peptide linkage: The condensation of two amino acids with the eliminatin of H2O (H from NH2 and OH from the acid side produces CO-NH
linkage, which in protein chemistry is known as peptide linkage.

Ch.33 Polymers - Core Points

JEE syllabus
Properties and uses of some important polymers:
Natural rubber,
teflon and
Objective 10 points
A polymer is a large molecule built by repetitive binding together of many small units called monomers.
Homopolymer: A polymer derived from a single repeating monomer. Only one type of monomer will have repetitive binding and a large

molecule appears.
Copolymer: When two or more monomer bind together in a repetitive manner and give rise to a large polymer, it is called copolymer.

Chain growth polymers: Also called addition polymers.

Step Growth polymerss: Also called as condensation polymers
Classification based on physical properties: Elastomers, Fibre, Thermoplastics and
Thermosetting plastics

Rubber is a naturally occuring polymer of isoprene (2-methyl buta-1,3-diene)

Natural rubber is a thermoplastic and becomes soft and sticky when heated.The properties can be modified and improved by the process of

Nylon: The monomer of nylon 6 is caprolactum and for nylon 66, the monomers are hexamethylenediamine and adipic acid.
Teflon: It is an addition polymer of tetrafluoroethylene (nF2C=CF2).Under heat and pressure the double bond breaks and gets ready for
bonding with a carbon on either side and the polymerisation takes place. (-F2C-CF2-)n

PVC: PVC is polyvinyl chloride and its monomer is vinyl chloride. CH2=CHCl

Ch 34 Practical Organic Chemistry - Core Points

Practical organic chemistry:

Detection of elements (N, S, halogens);
Detection and identification of the following functional groups:
hydroxyl (alcoholic and phenolic),
carbonyl (aldehyde and ketone),
carboxyl, amino and nitro;
Chemical methods of separation of mono-functional organic compounds from binary mixtures.
--------------The objective is to write 10 points
1.Lassaigne test is used for detecting N,S, halogens.
2.Sodium extract of the given compound is prepared first to do Lassaigne test.
3.Ferrous sulphate is used for nitrogen detection, acetic acid and lead acetate for detecting sulphur and NH4OH is used for detecting
4. Sodium test is used for detecting OH group
5. Ferric chloride test is used detecting phenolic group.
6. 2,4 dinitrophenylhydrazine test used to find the presence of carbonyl group.
7. Tollens reagent test is used for detecting aldehydic group.
8. If a carbonyl group is present, but aldehydic group is not detected, it means ketonic group is there.
9. Bicarbonate test will indicte carboxylic group -COOH
10. Isocyanide test will indicate presence of amine -NH2 group.

Environmental Chemistry

What is Environment?
Environment refers to the surrounding of an object or organism. It includes every living and nonliving thing around us. Environment consists of living
and nonliving components. The living component includes animals, plants and micro organics i.e all the living organisms. The non-living components
include air, water, temperature, soil and all the other things that affect us in one or other way. Environmental studies deal with the sum of all social,
economical, biological, physical and chemical interrelations with our surroundings.

Atmosphere: This comprises a blanket of gaseous layer around earth. Atmopphere surrounding us can be
divided into four regions troposphere ,stratosphere , mesosphere and thermosphere
Hydrosphere: This comprises about 96% of earths surface & includes all sources of water like oceans
rivers lakes, glaciers, ground water etc.
Lithosphere: It refers to earths solid crust containing the outer mineral cover. It comprises soil,
minerals, organic matter etc.
Biosphere: It refers to the domain of living organism in covalent with atmosphere hydrosphere as well as

What is Environmental Chemistry?

One can define environmental chemistry as the branch of chemistry which deals with the study of the origin, transport, reactions, effects and fates of
chemical species in the environment. It also includes the application of chemistry for understanding and solving the environmental changes,
phenomenon and their effect on organisms. It also includes the application of chemistry to solve the problems related to environment such as
environmental pollution.
Large number of substances (both toxic and non-toxic) are being added to the environment by both natural events and human activities daily. These
substances which are going continuously into environment due to undesirable consequences of modern civilization, industrialization and excessive use
of natural resources bring about undesirable changes in our environment and adversely affect the life process of both animals and plants.
We will discuss some important aspects of environmental chemistry under the following topics

Pollution and Pollutants

Air Pollution

Effects of Air Pollution

Stratospheric Pollution

Water Pollution

Soil Pollution

What is Pollution?
The addition of any undesirable material to environment i.e. air, water or soil by any natural source or human activity which affects its quality is called
natural pollution. The undesirable material which is added to the environment is called pollutant. Pollution is caused by fast population growth,
excessive industrialization, rapid urbanisation and use of pesticides in agriculture. In short environmental pollution is the process of contamination of
the environment with harmful wastes arising mainly from human activities.

Some common terms used in Environmental Chemistry



Pollutant: Any substance or species produced either by a natural source or by human activity, which
produces adverse effect on the environment.
Contaminant: A substance which does not occurs in nature but is introduced by human activity into the
atmosphere affecting its composition. Contaminant is called pollutant when it has harmful effects
Source: The site from which the pollution or contaminants originate. Every pollutant has some source.
Sink: The material or medium which consumes or interacts with a long lived pollutant is called sink. For
CaCO3 + H2SO4 CaSO4 + H2O +CO2
Receptor : Anything that is affected by the pollutants. For example , Human beings are the receptor for
Threshold limit value (TLV) : This indicates the permissible limit of a pollutant in atmosphere to which a
healthy worker is exposed during hours a day or 40 hours a week for life time without any adverse effects.
TLV are determined by experimentation on animals, by use of medical knowledge, epidemiology surveys &
environmental studies.

Refer the below mentioned links to get an immediate solution to all queries on Organic chemistry:

Purification and Analysis of Organic Compounds

Carbon atoms have a versatile nature to attach themselves to one another to an extent not possible for any other element. Carbon atoms can form
long chains and rings containing thousand of atoms. The chains and rings can be branched and cross-linked. This versitile nature of carbon is the
reason why there are millions of compounds of carbon present around us. Organic molecules are everywere around us.These are the part of not our
body but also food & medicins. Organic chemistry is vey important for technology also as it is chemistry of ink, papaer, dyes, paint, galsoline, rubber
and plastic. As it is mentioned above, there are millions of organic compounds around us, it becomes very important to classify them in groups in order
to study them properly. Further as organic compounds play a very important role in our life, it is also important to identify and name them all. In this
chapter we will study about the classification of organic compounds and their nomenclature and also about the techniques used for their purification.