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20.56 . An air conditioner operates on 800 W of power and has a

performance coefﬁcient of 2.80 with a room temperature of 21.0°C

and an outside temperature of

removal for this unit. (b) Calculate the rate at which heat is dis-

charged to the outside air. (c) Calculate the total entropy change in the room if the air conditioner runs for 1 hour. Calculate the total entropy change in the outside air for the same time period.

(d) What is the net change in entropy for the system outside air2?

20.57 CALC Unavailable Energy. The discussion of entropy

and the second law that follows Example 20.10 (Section 20.7) says

that the increase in entropy in an irreversible process is associated with energy becoming less available. Consider a Carnot cycle that

This

is a true reservoir—that is, large enough not to change temperature

when it accepts heat from the engine. Let the engine accept heat

T ¿ 7 T c . The object is of

ﬁnite size, so it cools as heat is extracted from it. The engine con-

tinues to operate until

T c ƒ¢ S h ƒ , where

¢ S h is the change in entropy of the high-temperature reservoir. (b) Apply the result of part (a) to 1.00 kg of water initially at a temper- ature of 373 K as the heat source for the engine and T c = 273 K. How much total mechanical work can be performed by the engine until it stops? (c) Repeat part (b) for 2.00 kg of water at 323 K. (d) Compare the amount of work that can be obtained from the energy in the water of Example 20.10 before and after it is mixed. Discuss whether your result shows that energy has become less available.

of heat rejected to the low-temperature reservoir is

uses a low-temperature reservoir with Kelvin temperature

35.0°C. (a) Calculate the rate of heat

1room +

T c .

from an object of temperature T ¿, where

T ¿

= T c .

(a) Show that the total magnitude

20.58 CP The maximum power that can be extracted by a

wind turbine from an air stream is approximately

P = kd 2 v 3

v is the wind speed, and the constant

k =

by considering a cylinder of air that passes over the turbine blades in time t (Fig. P20.58). This cylinder has diameter d , length

(b) The Mod-5B wind turbine at Kahaku on

L = vt,

the Hawaiian island of Oahu has a blade diameter of 97 m (slightly

longer than a football ﬁeld) and sits atop a 58-m tower. It can pro- duce 3.2 MW of electric power. Assuming 25% efﬁciency, what wind speed is required to produce this amount of power? Give

v

where d is the blade diameter,

0.5 W

# s 3 > m 5 . (a) Explain the dependence of P on d and on

r.

and density

m> s

km> h.

are commonly located in or downwind of mountain passes. Why?

Figure P20.58

v
d
L 5 vt

20.59 CALC (a) For the Otto cycle shown in Fig. 20.6, calculate

the changes in entropy of the gas in each of the constant-volume

in terms of the temperatures T

and the number of moles n and the heat capacity C

of the

and

processes

,

b S c

and

d S a

a

, T

b

V

,

T c

T d

Challenge Problem

685

gas. (b) What is the total entropy change in the engine during one

and between

occur irreversibly in

a real Otto engine. Explain how can this be reconciled with your

result in part (b).

20.60 CALC A TS-Diagram. (a) Graph a Carnot cycle, plot-

ting Kelvin temperature vertically and entropy horizontally. This

is called a temperature–entropy diagram, or TS -diagram. (b) Show

that the area under any curve representing a reversible path in a temperature–entropy diagram represents the heat absorbed by the system. (c) Derive from your diagram the expression for the ther- mal efﬁciency of a Carnot cycle. (d) Draw a temperature–entropy diagram for the Stirling cycle described in Problem 20.52. Use this diagram to relate the efﬁciencies of the Carnot and Stirling cycles.

20.61 . A physics student immerses one end of a copper rod in

and the other end in an ice–water mixture

at 0°C.

The sides of the rod are insulated. After steady-state condi-

tions have been achieved in the rod, 0.120 kg of ice melts in a cer-

cycle? (Hint: Use the relationships between

T

T a

and

T b

d

and

T .

c

) (c) The processes

b S c

and

d S a

boiling water at

100°C

tain time interval. For this time interval, ﬁnd (a) the entropy change of the boiling water; (b) the entropy change of the

ice–water mixture; (c) the entropy change of the copper rod; (d) the total entropy change of the entire system.

1250 cm 3 2 to make coffee,

you place an electric heating element in the cup. As the water tem-

the temperature of the heat-

Calculate the change in

entropy of (a) the water; (b) the heating element; (c) the system of

water and heating element. (Make the same assumption about the speciﬁc heat of water as in Example 20.10 in Section 20.7, and

ignore the heat that ﬂows into the ceramic coffee cup itself.) (d) Is this process reversible or irreversible? Explain.

and tem-

perature

speciﬁc heat

,

As a result, the tempera-

ture of the ﬁrst object increases to T and the temperature of the sec-

20.62 CALC To heat 1 cup of water

perature increases from

20°C

to

78°C,

ing element remains at a constant

120°C.

20.63 CALC An object of mass

m

1

,

speciﬁc heat

c ,

1

T

1

is placed in contact with a second object of mass m

c

2

,

and temperature

T

2

7

T

1

.

2

ond object decreases to T ¿. (a) Show that the entropy increase of the system is

¢ S =

m

1 c 1 ln T

T

1

+

m 2 c 2 ln T ¿ T 2

and show that energy conservation requires that

m 1 c 1 1 T - T 1 2 = m 2 c 2 1 T 2 - T ¿2

considered as a function of

which is just the condition of thermo-

dynamic equilibrium. (c) Discuss the result of part (b) in terms of

the idea of entropy as a measure of disorder.

T, is a maximum if T = T ¿,

(b) Show that the entropy change ¢ S ,

CHALLENGE PROBLEM

20.64 Consider a Diesel cycle that starts (at point a in Fig.

20.7) with air at temperature

c , the efﬁciency of the cycle in terms of the compression ratio r .

= 1.40,

and r = 21.0?

(b) What is the efﬁciency if T a =

T a .

The air may be treated as an ideal

derive an expression for

= 950 K,

g

gas. (a) If the temperature at point c is

T

300 K,

T

c