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PROGRAMME STRUCTURE OF THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF SCIENCE

WITH HONOURS - PHYSICS (THREE YEAR)


Major-Elective or Major-Minor Physics Programme
A student must attain a minimum of 2.0 CGPA ('C' average) for the whole programme
and combine basic and core component.
As regards the basic and core courses, if failed, a student is allowed to replace a
maximum of 8 units of the courses failed with courses of at least similar level and offered
under the Degree of Bachelor of Science with Honours Programme of Study in Physics.
Core Courses
ZCA 101/4 - Physics I (Mechanics)
ZCA 102/4 - Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)
ZCT 103/3 - Physics III (Vibrations, Waves and Optics)
* ZCA 110/4 - Calculus and Linear Algebra
ZCT 104E/3 - Physics IV (Modern Physics)
ZCT 106/3 - Electronics I
ZCT 191/2 - Physics Practical I
ZCT 192/2 - Physics Practical II
ZCT 205/3 - Quantum Mechanics
ZCT 206/3 - Electronics II
ZCT 207/2 - Statistical Mechanics
ZCT 210/4 - Complex Analysis and Differential Equations
ZCT 211E/2 - Vector Analysis
ZCT 212/2 - Thermodynamics
ZCT 213/2 - Optics
ZCT 218/3 - Mathematical Methods
ZCT 293/2 - Physics Practical III
ZCT 294/2 - Physics Practical IV
ZCT 304/3 - Electricity and Magnetism
ZCT 307E/3 - Solid State Physics I
ZCT 317/3 - Solid State Physics II
ZCT 390/6 - Pure Physics Project
Total: 65 units (22 courses)
* The course content of ZCA 110/4 overlaps with Mathematics
courses MAA 101/4 Calculus and MAA 111/4 Linear Algebra.
Students can only register either ZCA 110/4 or MAA 101/4 and
MAA 111/4 .

Elective Courses

Students must select 20 units, at least 16 units from the group of courses below and the
remaining units from either the Science or Applied Science programmes. Students are
encouraged to take MAT181/4 Programming for Science Applications.

16
Units

4 units

ZCE 208/2
ZCE 305/3
ZCE 331/4
ZCE 341/4
ZCE 351/3
ZAE 282/3
ZAT 386/4
ZCE 275/4

Classical Mechanics
Atomic and Nuclear Physics
Radiation Biophysics
Energy Studies
X-Ray Analysis
Material Sciences
Semiconductor Physics Devices
Astronomy

MAT181/4
4 units

Programming for Science Applications


Other Sciences.

Progress Schedule for Course Registration of Bachelor of Science with Honours


Degree Programme - Physics
Year Semester

Courses

No. of Units

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
ZCA 101/4 ZCA 102/4 ZCA 110/4
ZCT 191/2
14
1
II
ZCT 103/3 ZCT 104E/3 ZCT 106/3
ZCT 192/2
11
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
ZCT 206/3 ZCT 210/4 ZCT 211E/2 ZCT 212/2 ZCT 213/2 ZCT 293/2
15
2
II
ZCT 205/3 ZCT 207/2
ZCT 218/3 --- ---/4*
ZCT 294/2
14
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------I
ZCT 307E/3 --- ---/4*
--- ---/4*
14
3
ZCT 390/6@
II

ZCT 304E/3

ZCT 317/3

--- ---/4*

--- ---/4*

17
85

Note:

* Elective Courses (according to choice)


@ Course conducted over two semesters

Minor Area of Specialisation


The recommended Minor areas of specialisation are as follows:2

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Chemistry
Mathematics
Computer Science
Management
Islamic Studies
English Language

Students must pass 16 units from the Minor area of specialisation followed. Refer to the
School concerned for further information.
LIST OF COURSES OFFERED FOR THE DEGREE OF BACHELOR OF
SCIENCE WITH HONOURS PROGRAMME - PHYSICS
Semester I
Level of
Course

Course Code/
Title

100

ZCA 101/4
ZCA 102/4
ZCA 110/4
ZCT 191/2

Physics I (Mechanics)
Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)
Calculus and Linear Algebra
Physics Practical I

200

ZCT 206/3
ZCT 210/4
ZCT 211E/2

Electronics II
Complex Analysis and Differential
Equations
Vector Analysis

ZCT 212/2
ZCT 213/2
ZAE 282E/3
ZCT 293/2

Thermodynamics
Optics
Material Sciences
Physics Practical III

ZCE 305/3
ZCT 307E/3
ZCE 331/4
ZCE 351/3
ZAT 386/4

Atomic and Nuclear Physics


Solid State Physics I
Radiation Biophysics
X-Ray Analysis
Semiconductor Physics Devices

ZCT 390/6

Pure Physics Project (two semesters)

300

Prerequisite
(S) ZCT 106/3
(S) MAA101/4
or (S) ZCA 101/4
(S) MAA 101/4
or (S) ZCA110/4
(S) ZCA 102/4
(P) ZCT 103/3
(C) ZCT 212/2
(S) ZCT 192/2
(S) ZCT 205/3
(C) ZCT 207/2
(P) ZCT 104E/3
(C) ZCT 307E/3
(S) ZCT 106/3
(C) ZCT 307E/3
(S) ZCT 294/2

Semester II
Level of
Course
100

Course Code/
Title
*ZCU 100/2

Energy and The Environment


3

Prerequisite
-

ZCT 103/3

200

300

ZCT 104E/3
ZCT 106/3
ZCT 192/2

Physics III (Vibrations, Waves and


Optics)
Physics IV (Modern Physics)
Electronics I
Physics Practical II

ZCT 205/3
ZCT 207/2
ZCE 208/2

Quantum Mechanics
Statistical Mechanics
Classical Mechanics

ZCT 218/3

Mathematical Methods

ZCE 275/4
ZCT 294/2

Astronomy
Physics Practical IV

ZCT 304/3

Electricity and Magnetism

ZCT 317E/3
ZCE 341/4
ZCT 390/6

Solid State Physics II


Energy Studies
Pure Physics Project (two semesters)

(S) ZCA 102/4


(S) ZCT 191/2
(S) ZCT 104E/3
(S) ZCT 212/2
(P) ZCA 101/4
(S) ZCT 210/4
(S) ZCT 211E/2
(S) ZCT 210/4
(S) ZCT 211E/2
(S) ZCT 293/2
(P) ZCA 102/4
(S) ZCT 210/4
(S) ZCT 211E/2
(S) ZCT 307E/3
(S) ZCT 106/3
(S) ZCT 294/2

Note : * This course is not offered to all Physics Students

SYNOPSES OF CORE COURSES - PHYSICS


ZCA 101/4 Physics I (Mechanics)
Unit, dimension. Kinematics in one and two dimension. Vectors in physics. Newton's
Laws and application. Work and energy. Conservation of energy and momentum.
Collision in one and two dimension. Simple harmonic motion.

Universal gravitation, gravitional force. Motion of planets. Extended systems, moment


of inertia. Angular momentum, rotational dynamics, compound pendulum. Rigid body,
equilibrium, statics. Elasticity, stress, strain and torsion. Young's modulus, shear and
bulk modulus. Bending of beams, bending moment.
Compression of fluids, surface tension, hydrostatics, viscosity, viscoelasticity.
Hydrodynamics, continuity equation, Bernoulli equation, Poisseuille equation. Turbulent
flow, sedimentation, drag.
Ref. Books:

1.

Halliday, D. & Resnick, R. Physics (6th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons,
2001.

2.

Serway, R.A. & Jewett, J.W. Principles of Physics (3rd Ed.)


Brooks/Cole, 2002.

ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)


Coulomb's law, electric intensity. Gauss's law, electric flux. Electric potential and
electric intensity of point charges, dipole and charge distributions. Capacitance,
dielectrics, stored energy. Electric current, resistance, Ohm's law, Kirchhoff's law.
Microscopic view of current. D.C. RC circuit. Magnetic fields, Ampere's law, BiotSavart law. Faraday's law. Lenz's law. Inductance, stored energy, D.C. LR circuit. A.C.
current, electric power, RCL circuit. Force on current and moving charge. Lorentz
equation, Hall's effect.
Dielectric materials, dipole moment, electric polarization.
Material resistivity,
temperature effect. Electromagnetic waves, electromagnetic spectrum. Magnetic field
and electric field vector. Maxwell displacement current, Maxwell equations.
Ref. Books:

1.

D. Halliday, R. Resnick, J. Walker (2001), Fundamentals of Physics,


6th edition, John Wiley & Sons.

2.

Raymond A.Serway & John W. Jewett (2002), Principles of


Physics, 3rd Edition, Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.

3.

H.D. Young, R.A. Freedman (1996). University Physics, 9th


Edition, Addison Wesley.

ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra


Calculus:
Sets, real numbers, rational and complex numbers. Functions and graphs. Sequences
and series, convergence tests, function limits and properties of limit, continuity, and the
mean value theorem.

Differentation techniques, implicit differentiation, higher order differentiation, minimum


and maximum values (theory and application), Rolles theorem, L Hopitals rule,
applications of derivatives.
Integration techniques, improper integrals, fundamental theorem, lengths of curves.
Trigonometric functions and their inverses, exponential and logarithmic functions,
hyperbolic functions and their inverses.
Matrices and Determinants:
Matrix algebra, determinant, properties of determinant, inverse of a matrix, systems of
equations, vector spaces, Basis and dimension, linear transformations.
Ref. Books:

1.

Thomas Calculus, Tenth Edition, by George B. Thomas, Ross L.


Finney, Maurice D. Weir, and Frank R. Giordano, Addison-Wesley
Publishing (2001).

2.

Calculus, Fifth Edition, by James Stewart, Thomson Brooks/Cole


(2003).

3.

Culculus, Seven Edition, by Howard Anton, Irl Bivens, and Stephen


Davis, John Wiley and Sons (2002).

4.

Schaums Outline of Linear Algebra, Third (International) Edition,


by Seymour Lipschutz and Marc Lipson, McGraw-Hill (2001).

5.

Schaums Outline of Theory and Problems of Matrices, Si (Metric)


Edition by Frank Ayres, McGraw-Hill (1974).

SYNOPSES OF CORE COURSES - PHYSICS


ZCT 103/3 Physics III (Vibrations, Waves and Optics)
Equation of motion for simple harmonic motion, damped oscillator, forced oscillator.
Logarithmic decrement, relaxation time, resonance and Q factor.
Coupled oscillations. Transverse waves and longitudinal waves. The wave equation and
its solutions. Reflection and transmission of waves at boundaries. Stationary waves.
Superposition of waves. Phase velocity and group velocity. Dispersion of waves.
6

Electromagnetic wave spectrum. Plane electromagnetic waves in vacuum. Propagation


of light waves, amplitude and intensity. Doppler effect. Interference, Young's double
slits, Michelson interferometer. Multiple reflections, thin films, Newtons rings and
Fabry-Perot interferometer.
Diffraction grating.
Dispersion, Cauchy formula.
Polarization, Brewster angle. Light sources and light detectors.
Ref. Books:

1.

Serway, R.A. & Jewett, J.W. Physics for Scientists and Engineers
with Modern Physics (6th Ed.), Thomson, 2004.

2.

Pain, H.J. The Physics of Vibration and Waves (5th. Ed.), John
Wiley & Sons, 1999.

3.

Lee, B.S. Getaran dan Gelombang, USM, 1989.

4.

Jenkins, F.A. & White, H.E. Fundamentals of Optics (4th Ed.),


McGraw-Hill, 2001.

5.

Chatar Singh. Optik , USM, 1991.

6.

Hecht E. Optics, Addison-Wesley, 2001.

ZCT 104E/3 Physics IV (Modern Physics)


Special Relativity: Reference frames, invariance of Newton's dynamics. Galilean
transformation, invariance for other laws. Michelson-Morley experiment. Postulates of
special relativity. Lorentz transformation. Relativistic kinematics and dynamics.
Einstein formula.
Introduction to modern ideas in Physics:
Blackbody radiation, Planck's law.
Photoelectric effect, Compton effect, X-rays. Wave-particle duality, de Broglie waves.
Old atomic models. Alpha-scattering, Rutherford model. Old quantum theory and the
Bohr model of the atom. Energy levels of the atom and atomic spectra. Excitation and
the Franck-Hertz experiment.
Bohr's Correspondence Principle.
Ref. Books:

1.

Arthur Beiser, Isabel Berg, Concepts of Modern Physics, McGrawHill; 6th edition.

2.

Kenneth S. Krane, Modern Physics, Wiley Text Books; 2nd edition

3.

Raymond A. Serway, Moses and Moyer, Modern Physics (Saunders


Golden Sunburst Series), International Thomson Publishing; 5th
edition

4.

Yap Ber Chin dan Kang Chin Seng, JIF 414 Modul 1 dan Modul
7

2 Pengenalan Ilmu Kuantum Mekanik, Terbitan Pertama PPLK,


1986, Unit Percetakan Pusat Universiti Sains Malaysia.
ZCT 106/3 Electronics I
Analysis of circuits. Alternating current circuits. Thevenins Theorem and Nortons
Theorem. Characteristics of diodes and their uses in circuits., rectifying circuits. Signal
processing circuits.
Bipolar junction transistors and Field effect transistors, input
characteristics and output characteristics. Large signal amplifiers, amplification,
distortion and frequency response. Power amplifier. Small signal amplifiers and hybrid
parameters. Theory of positive and negative feedback. Operational amplifiers and their
applications.
This course exposes students to practical experience on various experiments to enhance
theories such as: Diode, transistor, and Op-Amp characteristics and their applications.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(S) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)


1.

Smith, R.J. & Dorf R.C. Circuits, Devices and Systems. (5th Ed.)
WIE, 1991.

2.

Boylestad, R.L. & Nashelsky, L. Electronic Devices and Circuit


Theory (8th. Ed.), Prentice Hall, 2002.

3.

Brophy J.J., Basic Electronics for Scientists (5th ed) McGrew-Hill


1990.

ZCT 191/2 Physics Practical I


Consist of a selection of experiments.

ZCT 192/2 Physics Practical II


Consist of a selection of experiments.
Prerequisite:

(S) ZCT 191/2 Physics Practical I

ZCT 205/3 Quantum Mechanics


Development of Quantum Mechanics: Schrdinger picture and Heisenberg picture.
Schrdinger equation. Wave functions. Probability. Measureable quantities. Operators
and expectation values. Stationary state. Eigen function and Eigen value. Particle in a
box. Harmonic oscillator. Barrier penetration. Central field problem. Hydrogen atom.
Prerequisite:

(S) ZCT 104E/3 Physics IV (Modern Physics)


8

Ref. Books:

1.

Zettili, N. Quantum Mechanics: Concepts and Applications, John


Wiley, 2001

2.

Liboff R.L. Introductory Quantum Mechanics, Addison Wesley,


2002

3.

Beiser, A.
1987.

4.

Elmer E. Anderson. Modern Physics and Quantum Mechanics,


W.B. Saunders Co. Terjemahan BM oleh Abdul Latiff Awang,
Penerbitan Universiti Sains Malaysia dan Dewab Bahasa dan
Pustaka, Kementerian Pendidikan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 1992.

5.

Yap Ber Chin dan Kang Chin Seng, JIF 414 Modul 1 dan Modul
2 Pengenalan Ilmu Kuantum Mekanik, Terbitan Pertama PPLK,
1986, Unit Percetakan Pusat Universiti Sains Malaysia.

Concepts of Modern Physics. 4th Ed., McGraw-Hill,

ZCT 206/3 Electronics II


Numbers and code system, arithmetic of binary, hexadecimal, and 2s complement
numbers. Basic logic, Boolean algebra, de Morgan theorem, and logic circuit analysis.
Design of combinational logic circuits, minimization, Karnaugh map, dont care state,
decoder, multiplexer, encoder, and demiltiplexer. Combinational logic elements: basic
flip-flop, flip-flop SR, JK, D, and T. Clocked flip-flops.
Sequential logic: different types of reigsters and counters. Sequential timing,
synchronous and asynchronous counters and their applications. Arithmetics unit: adder
and substracter. Design of sequential logic systems: state diagram, truth table, and
timing diagram. Extension from exited table, circuit design from truth table and timing
diagram.
Examples of logic circuit applications: memory system, ROM, RAM, memory decoding,
and basic architecture of microprocessor system.
This course exposes students to practical experiences on various experiments to enhance
theories such as: Experiments on logic gates, flip-flop, arithmetic unit, design of
registers and counters.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I


1.

Kleitz, W. 1999, Digital Electronics, Fifth Edition, Prentice Hall


Inc, New Jersey.

2.

Marcovitz. A.B., 2002, Introduction to Logic Design, Mc Graw


Hill. ISBN 007120654X.

3.

Ahmad Ismail, 1982. Asas rekabentuk logik komputer, Dewan


Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur.
9

4.

Floyd, T.L, 2003, Digital Fundamentals, Eighth Edition, Prentice


Hall, Pearson Education International.

5.

Malvino, A.P, 1993, Digital Computer Electronics (3rd Ed.),


Glencoe/Macmillan-McGraw-Hill, Lake Forest.

6.

Malvino, A.P. and Leach, D.P., 1986, Digital Principles and


Applications, Forth Edition, McGraw-Hill, New York.

7.

Ray Ryan and Lisa A. Doyle, 1993, Digital Electronix, McGrawHill, International Edition.

ZCT 207/2 Statistical Mechanics


Characteristics of macroscopic and microscopic systems. Probability concepts and
counting of states. Postulate of equal a priori probabilities. Microcanonical Ensemble.
Definition of absolute temperature and entropy. Canonical Ensemble. Statistics of ideal
quantum gases. Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics. Bose-Einstein statistics. Fermi-Dirac
statistics. Applications of quantum statistics: specific heat of solids, black body
radiation, conducting electrons in solids.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(S) ZCT 212/2 Thermodynamics


1.

Mandl, F. Statistical Physics (2nd Ed.), John Wiley, 1988.

2.

Bowley R. and Sanchez M. Introductory Statistical Mechanics


(2nd Ed.), Oxford Science Publications, 2002.

3.

Reichle L.E. A Modern Course in Statistical Physics


(2nd Ed.), John Wiley, 1998.

ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis & Differential Equations


Complex Analysis: Funtions of a complex variable - complex functions. Differentiation
of complex functions; Cauchy-Riemann conditions, analytic functions, singular points,
power series of analytic functions, Taylor series.
Complex Integration: Cauchy integral theorem. Cauchy integral formula. Zeroes and
singularities. Laurent series. Residue theorem.
Differential Equations: Ordinary linear differential equations of first order and methods
of solutions. Ordinary linear differential equations of second order homogeneons and
non-homogeneous equations and methods of solution.
Differential Equations: Series solution - power series and Frobenius methods.
Prerequisite:
Text Book:

(S) MAA 101/4 Calculus


or (S) ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra
1.

Kreyszig, E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (8th Ed.), John


10

Wiley, 1999.
Ref. Books:

2.

Arfken, G.B. and Weber H.J., Mathematical Methods for Physicists


(4th. Ed.), Academic Press, 2000.

3.

Boas M.L., Mathematical Methods in Physical Science (2nd Ed.),


John Wiley, 1983.

4.

Nagle, R.K. and Saff E.B. , Fundamentals of Differential Egns of


Boundary Value Problems, Addison-Wiley Publishing Company,
1996.

ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis


Vector algebra; definitions, addditon, subtraction of vectors, dot products and cross
products of vectors, scalar and vector fields, geometric representation, algebraic
representation, transformation; unit vectors.
Vector calculus; scalar differentiation, differentiation with respect to time. Gradient,
divergence and curl of a vector. Physical examples.
Consecutive differentiation, Laplacean, D'Alembertian. Physical examples.
Vector integration; line, surface and volume integrals. Gauss Theorem. Stokes Theorem.
Application in Physics; potential theory, scalar potential, vector potential.
Coordinate Systems; Cartesian, curvilinear systems, cylindrical, spherical. Differentiation
and integration. Application in Physics, position, velocity and acceleration, wave equation
for

E and H
~

Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

in electricity and magnetism.


(S) MAA 101/4 Calculus
or (S) ZCA 110/4 Calculus and Linear Algebra

1.

Arfken, G.B. and Weber H.J., Mathematical Methods for Physicists


(4th. Ed.), Academic Press, 2000.

2.

Kreyszig, E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics (7th Ed.), John


Wiley 1993.

3.

Greenberg, M.D.
Hall, 1988.

4.

Spiegel, M.R. Theory and Problems of Vector Analysis and an


Introduction to Tensor Analysis, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1981.

Advanced Engineering Mathematics, Prentice

ZCT 212/2 Thermodynamics


11

Simple thermodynamic systems, equation of state, work, heat, first law, internal energy,
results of first law, ideal gas. Carnot cycle and heat engine.
Second law of thermodynamics, result from second law, entropy, irreversible process.
Combination of first and second laws, T-S diagram and thermodynamic relationships.
Maxwell equation, Clausius- Clapeyron equation and Tds equation.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(S) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)


1.

Zemansky, M.W. & Dittman, R.H. Heat & Thermodynamics,


McGraw-Hill, 1997.

2.

Schroeder, D.V. An Introduction to Thermal Physics, Addison


Wesley Longman, 1999.

3.

Carter, A.H. , Classical and Statistical Thermodynamics, Prentica


Hall, 2001.

4.

Sears, F.W. & Salinger, G.L. Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and


Statistical Thermodynamics, Addison-Wesley, 1986.

ZCT 213/2 Optics


Polarization.
Plane and circular polarization. Reflection and transmission of
electromagnetic waves at boundaries. Opticall activity. Kerr effect and Faraday effect.
Dispersion theory.
Diffraction. Fresnel-Kirchhoff equations. Fraunhofer diffraction of a single slit, square
and circular aperture. Diffraction gratings and their characteristics. Fresnel diffraction
for circular aperture. Cornu spiral and Fresnel Integrals. Zone plates. Fresnel
diffraction for straight edges and rectangular aperture.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(P) ZCT 103/3 Physics III (Vibration, Waves and Optics)


Fundamentals of Optics (4th Ed.),

1.

Jenkins, F.A. & White, H.E.


McGraw-Hill, 2001.

2.

Jenkins, F.A. & White, H.E. Fundamentals of Optics (4th Ed.),


McGraw-Hill, 1982. Terjemahan BM oleh Adja Radjeman, Penerbit
USM dan DBP, 1990.

3.

Pedrotti, F.L. Pedrotti, L.S.


Prentice-Hall Int. Ed., 1993.

4.

Hecht, E. Optics (4th. Ed.), Addison-Wesley, 2001.

12

Introduction to Optics (2nd Ed.),

ZCT 218/3 Mathematical Methods


Integral transforms: general properties. Laplace transform:
general properties,
applications in physical problems. Fourier transform: general properties, applications in
physical problems.
Special functions/equations: Gamma, Bessel, Legendre and Associated Legendere.
Fourier Analysis: expansion of functions in terms of sine and cosine, properties, physical
examples.
Partial differential equations: Sturm Lionrille boundary value problems.
equation, Heat equation, Laplace equation - solution by separation of variables.
Prerequisite:

Ref. Books:

Wave

(S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations


(S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis

1.

Kreyszig, E. Advanced Engineering Mathematics. John Wiley and


Sons, 1999.

2.

Peter V. ONeil, Advanced Engineering Mathematics, 5th edition,


Brooks/Cole, 2003.

3.

G. Arfken, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Academic Press,


1985.

ZCT 304/3 Electricity and Magnetism


Revision of vector analysis, vector calculus, basic theorems, curvilinear coordinates, and
Dirac-delta function. The Coulomb Law. Electric fields, E. Divergence of E. The
GaussLaw. Curl of E. Gradient of E and electrical potential, V. Electrical dipoles. The
Poissons and Laplaces equations. Electrostatics field in dielectric medium. The Gauss
law for dielectric. Displacement vectors. Polarization. Electric susceptibility and
dielectric constant. Electrical boundary conditions. Electrical potential energy for
dielectric medium.
Magnetic fields. The Bio-Savarts law. Divergence of B. Magnetic potential vector, A.
Curl of B. The Amperes circuit law. Magnetic dipoles. Electromagnetic induction. The
Faradays induction laws. Magnetic materials. The Maxwells equations. Polarization of
electric fields.
The Poynting theorem.
Electromagnetic boundary conditions.
Propagation of electromagnetic waves in free space. Propagation of electromagnetic
waves in material medium.
Prerequisite:

(P) ZCA 102/4 Physics II (Electricity and Magnetism)


(S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations
13

(S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis


Ref. Books:

1.

Dubroff R.E., Skitek, G.G. & Marshall, S.V. Electromagnetic


Concepts and Applications (4th Ed.), Prentice-Hall, 1996.

2.

Reitz, J.R., Milford, F.J. & Christy R.W. Foundations of


Electromagnetic Theory (4th Ed.), Addison-Wesley Publishing Co.,
1992.

3.

Lorrain, P. & Corson, D.R. Electromagnetic Fields and Waves (3rd


Ed.), W.H. Freeman Co., 1988.

4.

Jefimenko, O.D. Electricity and Magnetism - An Introduction to


the Theory of Electric and Magnetic Field, Appleton-CenturyCrofts, Meredith Corporation, New York, 1989.

5.

Nayfeh, M.H. & Brussel, M.K. Electricity and Magnetism, JohnWiley & Sons, New York, 1985.

ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I


Crystal structure, classification of interatomic binding in crystals. Diffraction, reciprocal
lattice, Brillouin zone, lattice vibration, dispersion curve, specific heat-models of Einstein
and Debye. Free electron theory for metals, electrical conductivity, electron gas heat
capacity. Band theory of solids, Kronig-Penney model, holes, effective mass.
Semiconductor - intrinsic and extrinsic. Carrier density. Conductivity of impurities, Hall
effect. Optical properties: absorption processes, exciton, photoconductivity.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(C) ZCT 207/2 Statistical Mechanics


1.

Kittel, C. Introduction to Solid State Physics (8th Ed,), John Wiley


& Sons, 2005.

2.

Omar, M.A.
1993.

3.

Hook, J.R. & Hall, H.E. Solid State Physics, John Wiley & Sons,
1995

4.

Blakemore, J.S. Solid State Physics, Cambridge University Press,


1987.

Elementary Solid State Physics, Addison Wesley,

ZCT 293/2 Physics Practical III


Consist of a selection of experiments.
Prerequisite:

(S) ZCT 192/2 Physics Practical II


14

ZCT 294/2 Physics Practical IV


Consist of a selection of experiments.
Prerequisite:

(S) ZCT 293/2 Physics Practical III

ZCT 317/3 Solid State Physics II


Phonon; neutron scattering, thermal conductivity, anharmonic effect. Electron energy
band in solids, Fermi surface. Electron dynamics in magnetic field, cyclotron resonance,
Hall effect. Superconductivity. Dielectric and optical properties. Ferro-electrics.
Magnetic properties. Properties of amorphous materials.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(S) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I


1.

Kittel, C. Introduction to Solid State Physics (7th Ed.), John Wiley


& Sons, 1996.

2.

Omar, M.A. Elementary Solid State Physics, Addison-Wesley, 1993

3.

Hook, J.R. & Hall, H.E. Solid State Physics, John Wiley & Sons,
1995.

4.

Blakemore, J.S. Solid State Physics, Cambridge University Press,


1987.

ZCT 390/6 Pure Physics Project (2 semesters)


Project/experiments of related areas of thrust.
Prerequisite:

(S) ZCT 294/2 Physics Practical IV

15

SYNOPSES OF ELECTIVE COURSES - PHYSICS


ZCE 208/2 Classical Mechanics
Vector calculus and kinematics.
Particle motion, system of particles, conservation laws and examples in Newtonian
mechanics such as resistive motion, central force, rocket equation and so on.
Motion in non inertial frame systems, Coriolis force.
Analytical Mechanics: Calculus of variation, Euler equation. Hamiltons principle and
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian dynamics. Generalised coordinates. Lagrange equation.
Generalized coordinates. Lagrange multiplier. Hamiltons canonical equation.
Prerequite:

Text Books:

Ref. Books:

(P) ZCA 101/4 Physics 1 (Mechanics)


(S) ZCT 210/4 Complex Analysis and Differential Equations
(S) ZCT 211E/2 Vector Analysis
1.

Stephen T. Thornton And Jerry B. Marion, Classical Dynamics Of


Particles And Systems (5th Edition), Harcourt College Publishers,
2004.

2.

Murray R. Spiegel, Schaum's Outline Series: Theory And Problems


Of Theoretical Mechanics, (SI [Metric] Edition), Mcgraw-Hill Book
Company, 1982.

1.

G.R. Fowles, Analytical Mechanics (6th Edition), Saunders College


Publishing, 1999.

2.

Herbert Goldstein, Charles Poole, and John Safko, Classical


Mechanics (3rd Edition), Addison Wesley, 2002.

ZCE 305/3 Atomic and Nuclear Physics

16

Atomic structure: Hydrogen atom. States in hydrogen atom. Angular momentum.


Many electron atom. Electron spin. Pauli exclusion principle. Symmetric and
Antisymmetric wave functions. Spin orbit coupling. LS and JJ coupling. Atomic
spectra. Selection rules. One valence electron-atom. Zeeman effect, Normal and
Anomalous.
Nuclear structure: General properties of nuclear - composition, size, form, mass and
atomic nuclear charge. Nuclear force and deuteron problem.
Radioactivity, alpha decay, gama decay, electron capture. Internal conversion. Nuclear
reactions. Nuclear models and magic numbers.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(S) ZCT 205/3 Quantum Mechanics


1.

Anderson, E.E.
Modern Physics and Quantum Mechanics,
Saunders Co., 1971. Terjemahan BM oleh Abdul Latiff Awang.

2.

Beisser, A. Perspective of Modern Physics, McGraw-Hill, 1969.


Terjemahan BM oleh Liew Yong Choy.

3.

Burcham, W.E. An Introduction to Nuclear Physics, Longman.

4.

Lim, S.K. & Straits, E.M. Modern Physics for Scientist and
Engineers, MacMillan Publishing Co., 1978.

5.

Little, T.A. & Thorley, N. Atomic and Nuclear Physics:


Introduction, ELBS Series, 1970.

An

ZCE 331/4 Radiation Biophysics


Interaction of radiation with matter. Interaction mechanism of photons and electrons
with matter. Interaction of neutrons, alpha particles, heavy nuclei and nuclear fission
fragments with matter.
Detection and measurement of radiation. Radiation dosimetry. Production of
radionuclides and its use in tracer techniques. Biological effects of radiation.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(P) ZCT 104/3 Physics IV (Modern Physics)


1.

Attix, F.H. Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation


Dosimetry, John Wiley & Sons, 1986 (2nd Edition, May 2002).

2.

D.T. Graham Principles of Radiological Physics Churchill


Livingstone, 2003.
Johns, H.E. & Cunningham, J.R. Physics of Radiology (4th Ed.),
Springfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas, 1983.

3.
4.

Alpen E.L. Radiation Biophysics Prentice Hall, 1990.

5.

Abdul Ghaffar Ramli. Keradioaktifan: Asas dan Penggunaan


17

DBP, 1991.
6.

Knoll G.F. Radiation Detection and Measurement 3rd. Edition


Wiley, 2000.

7.

Coggle J.E. Biological Effects of Radiation London, Taylor &


Francis, 1983.

ZCE 341/4 Energy Studies


Production evolution and solar energy availability. Principles of solar cell operation.
Material and response of silicon solar cell. Sunlight concentration. Solar cells array.
Array protection and failure sensor. Power conditioning. Energy storage and connection
to grid. Photovoltaic power economy.
Introduction to bioenergy. Solar radiation and photosynthesis. Biogas and alcohol
production. Pyrolysis and gassification. Direct burning. Biomass energy system and
bioenergy economic system.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I


1.

Martin A.Green, Solar Cells-Operating Principles Technology,


Prentice Hall, 2000.

2.

Twidell J.W. , Renewable Energy Resources, Spon Press, 2000.

3.

Weider,S.)., An Introduction to Solar Energy for Scientists and


Engineers, John Wiley, 1982.

ZCE 351/3 X-Ray Analysis


Physics of X-ray, generation and properties of X-ray, detectors, X-ray diffraction, powder
methods and single crystal methods, X-ray fluorescence, interpretation and quantitative
analysis, EDX spectrometer, X-ray micro-analysis with electron microscope.
Note: Exposure to equipment and practicals in the X-ray laboratory.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(C) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I


1.

Azaroff, L.V. Elements of X-ray Crystallography, McGraw-Hill,


New York, 1968.

2.

Jenkins, R. & Vries, L.D. Practical X-Ray Spectrometry (2nd Ed.),


Macmillan, London, 1970.

3.

Azaroff, L.V. The Powder Method in X-Ray Crystallography,


McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958.
18

4.

Buerger, M.J. Elementary Crystallography: An Introduction to the


Fundamental Geometrical Features of Crystals, MIT Press,
Cambridge, Mass., 1978.

ZAE 282E/3 Materials Science


Introduction.
Structure: Crystal structure and imperfections, phase diagrams, phase transformations,
diffusion, deformation of materials, strengthening mechanisms and microstructures,
corrosion and oxidation.
Materials: Iron, steel and ferrous alloys, non-ferrous metals and alloys, polymers,
ceramics, composites.
Properties: Physical properties of materials.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(C) ZCT 212/2 Thermodynamics


1.

Callister, W.D. Jr. Materials Science and Engineering:


Introduction (6th Ed.), John Wiley & Sons, 2003.

An

2.

Flinn, R.A. & Trojan, P.K. Engineering Materials and Their


Applications (3rd Ed.), Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, 1986.

3.

Van Vlack, L.H. Elements of Materials Science and Engineering


(6th Ed.), Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., Reading MA, 1989.

ZAT 386/3 Physics of Semiconductor Devices


Energy band, density of states, intrinsic semiconductor, Electrons and holes conduction,
extrinsic semiconductor, impurities, impurity level, Fermi level, carrier concentration,
Hall effect; impurity motion; minority carrier life time, recombination process, diffusion
length; semiconductor surface, semiconductor-metal contact, semiconductor insulator
contact; Ge, Si and III-IV compound; p-n junction devices inclusive of Zener diode,
tunnel diod, varactor, variator; single junction transistor; Field effect transistor inclusive
of junction FET and metal oxide semiconductor FET (MOSFET), silicon controlled
switch (SCS), Shockly diode and phototransistor; solar cell and semiconductor laser.
Prerequisite:
Ref. Books:

(S) ZCT 106/3 Electronics I


(C) ZCT 307E/3 Solid State Physics I
1.

Streetman, B.G. & Banerjee S. Solid State Electronic Devices,


Prentice-Hall, 1999..

3.

Zambuto, M. Semiconductor Devices, McGraw-Hill, 1989

2.

Sze, S.M. Semiconductor Devices, Physics and Technology, 2nd


Edition
19

John Wiley & Sons, 2001


SYNOPSES OF ELECTIVE COURSE - NON BASIC APPLIED PHYSICS
MAT 181/4 Programming for Science Applications
Introduction to computer: hardware and software programming languages. Problem
definition. Algorithm development.
Introduction to C language: Basic control structure: sequence, selection, recursion.
Designing and developing programming module. Subprogramming. Strategies in
solving complex problems. Design methodology. Testing and debugging.
Abstract data structure processing. Keeping data structure in file. Strings. Trees.
SYNOPSES OF UNIVERSITY COURSE
ZCU 100/2 Energy and The Environment
Energy and related concepts, history of energy use, sources of energy, energy units and
quality of energy.
World energy consumption. Consumption of fossil fuels and its effect on the environment.
Use of hydropower, nuclear, wind, geothermal, solar and ocean energy as well as biomass
and their effects on the environment.
Energy situation in Malaysia and her energy policy. Efficient use of energy. Modeling,
planning and economics.
Ref. Books:

1.

Scientific American Special Issues. Energy for Planet Earth.


Septmber 1990.

2.

S.C. Curran and J.S. Curran, Energy and Human Needs .

3.

National Geographic (Various Issues).

4.

Various papers of K.O. Lim.

20