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DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION: 12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy “TOWARDS OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE – CUSTOMER

DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION:

DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION: 12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy “TOWARDS OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE – CUSTOMER
DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION: 12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy “TOWARDS OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE – CUSTOMER
12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy
12 Feb 2008
by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy

“TOWARDS OPTIMAL PERFORMANCE – CUSTOMER SATISFACTION”

1

Objectives
Objectives

Overview of Distribution Protection Designing for optimal performance Protection initiatives to achieve optimal performance fundamental of OCEF coordination*. Optimisation project**

Protection initiatives to achieve optimal performance fundamental of OCEF coordination*. Optimisation project** 2
Protection initiatives to achieve optimal performance fundamental of OCEF coordination*. Optimisation project** 2
Protection initiatives to achieve optimal performance fundamental of OCEF coordination*. Optimisation project** 2

2

Overview-Type of Protection
Overview-Type of Protection

Protection system is to protect equipment.

of Protection Protection system is to protect equipment. - Reliable/dependable - Minimum area/load disrupted
of Protection Protection system is to protect equipment. - Reliable/dependable - Minimum area/load disrupted

- Reliable/dependable

- Minimum area/load disrupted

Categorised into:
Categorised into:

Unit protection Non unit protection

3

Overview – Unit Protection
Overview – Unit Protection

Unit protection A protection scheme having a defined area of coverage. Also referred to as “main protection” Fast operating time

-

scheme having a defined area of coverage. Also referred to as “main protection” Fast operating time
- -
-
-

4

Overview-Non unit Protection
Overview-Non unit Protection

Non Unit protection No defined area of coverage. Also known as “back-up protection” Slower operating time

-

Non Unit protection No defined area of coverage. Also known as “back-up protection” Slower operating time
Non Unit protection No defined area of coverage. Also known as “back-up protection” Slower operating time
- -
-
-

5

Overview-Main Vs Backup Main: Feeder - Operating time fixed; sensitivity is adjustable Bus-bar HV
Overview-Main Vs Backup
Main:
Feeder
- Operating time
fixed; sensitivity is
adjustable
Bus-bar
HV
Backup: - Operating time and sensitivity are to be adjusted
Backup:
- Operating time
and sensitivity are
to be adjusted
sensitivity is adjustable Bus-bar HV Backup: - Operating time and sensitivity are to be adjusted LV

LV

Transformer

6

Overview-Main Vs Backup Comparison of relay tripping time:- Eqv time X factor 50mS 1 50mS
Overview-Main Vs Backup
Comparison of relay tripping time:-
Eqv time
X factor
50mS
1
50mS
1
HV

•Differential - 50mS •REF - 50mS •Solkor Rf - 50mS •OCEF (11kV feeder) 0.4 S •OCEF (33kV feeder) 1.2 S •SBEF Stage 1 - 2 S

50mS

•OCEF (11kV feeder) 0.4 S •OCEF (33kV feeder) 1.2 S •SBEF Stage 1 - 2 S

400mS

1200mS

2000mS

1

8X

24X

40X

7
7

LV

Overview-Main Protection Examples are: Feeder - Bus-bar HV
Overview-Main Protection
Examples are:
Feeder
-
Bus-bar
HV

Feeder Current Differential - Transformer bias differential, Restricted Earth Fault Busbar High/Low Impedance

-
-
LV
LV

Transformer

8

Overview-Backup Protection Examples are: Feeder - Bus-bar - HV
Overview-Backup Protection
Examples are:
Feeder
-
Bus-bar
-
HV

Over-Current and Earth Fault Unrestricted Earth Fault Can be definite time or Inverse Definite Minimum Time

-
-

LV

and Earth Fault Unrestricted Earth Fault Can be definite time or Inverse Definite Minimum Time -

Transformer

and Earth Fault Unrestricted Earth Fault Can be definite time or Inverse Definite Minimum Time -

9

Backup - OCEF Protection OCEF Relay are: Feeder Bus-bar - Pl ace d t f
Backup - OCEF Protection
OCEF Relay are:
Feeder
Bus-bar
- Pl
ace
d
t f
d
HV

- Either 2 OC & 1 EF or 3 OC & 1 EF a transformers for various backup purposes

ee ers,

f d HV - Either 2 OC & 1 EF or 3 OC & 1 EF

LV

f d HV - Either 2 OC & 1 EF or 3 OC & 1 EF

Transformer

10

Fault path Feeder Bus-bar HV
Fault path
Feeder
Bus-bar
HV

OC fault will affect whole system. EF is normally within specific voltage level.

LV ef
LV
ef

Transformer

oc

11

EF is normally within specific voltage level. LV ef Transformer oc 11 - Thus coordination of
- Thus coordination of backup is important
- Thus coordination
of backup is
important
Main Protection practice Feeder Bus-bar HV
Main Protection practice
Feeder
Bus-bar
HV

Operate for in zone fault. - Normally operate more than 1 breaker to isolate equipment

Bus-bar HV Operate for in zone fault. - Normally operate more than 1 breaker to isolate
Bus-bar HV Operate for in zone fault. - Normally operate more than 1 breaker to isolate

LV

Transformer

12

Backup - OCEF practice OCEF Relay are: - Time arranged so that downstream relay operates
Backup - OCEF practice
OCEF Relay are:
-
Time arranged so that
downstream relay
operates faster
Feeder
d
Bus-bar
c
HV
-
OC required to be
coordinated for all
voltage level
Transformer
LV
b
- EF required to be
coordinated up to the
transformer LV
a
13
Optimal performance It requires: Planning criteria:
Optimal performance
It requires:
Planning criteria:
Optimal performance It requires: Planning criteria: Z few seconds interruption normal t ero n errup on

Z few seconds interruption normal

t

ero n errup on

i

ti

-

- - -
-
-
-

Need to simulate fault condition

14

Optimal performance It requires: Proper equipment/installation
Optimal performance
It requires:
Proper equipment/installation

d

t-f

- S

b Proper protection scheme chosen-CT, relaying sheme

l

ti

e ec

ng

P i

i

r mary equ pmen

ee er,

-
-

us

-ti

e

15

Optimal performance Point to note:
Optimal performance
Point to note:

Protection system available are capable of handling system design, however system installation and operation may affect system protection

available are capable of handling system design, however system installation and operation may affect system protection
available are capable of handling system design, however system installation and operation may affect system protection
available are capable of handling system design, however system installation and operation may affect system protection

16

Zero interruption- parallel operation source For optimal performance of parallel circuits: c1 c2 Same source

Zero interruption- parallel operation

Zero interruption- parallel operation source For optimal performance of parallel circuits: c1 c2 Same source Equal

source

Zero interruption- parallel operation source For optimal performance of parallel circuits: c1 c2 Same source Equal
Zero interruption- parallel operation source For optimal performance of parallel circuits: c1 c2 Same source Equal
Zero interruption- parallel operation source For optimal performance of parallel circuits: c1 c2 Same source Equal
Zero interruption- parallel operation source For optimal performance of parallel circuits: c1 c2 Same source Equal
For optimal performance of parallel circuits: c1 c2
For optimal performance of parallel circuits:
c1
c2

Same source Equal load sharing between c1 & c2 Max load not exceeding one cable rating No other load in between Proper laying method to eliminate induction Unit protection for cable (or directional protection if time is not a problem) Inter-tripping scheme implemented (at source) Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) Proper back up coordination

Inter-tripping scheme implemented (at source) Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) Proper back up coordination 17
Inter-tripping scheme implemented (at source) Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) Proper back up coordination 17
Inter-tripping scheme implemented (at source) Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) Proper back up coordination 17

17

Inter-tripping scheme implemented (at source) Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) Proper back up coordination 17
Same source Same source Diff source c1 c2 c1 c2
Same source
Same source
Diff source
c1
c2
c1
c2

Paralleling 2 different sources will result in the power cable to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if it is above threshold

to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if
to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if
to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if
to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if
to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if
to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if

18

to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if
to act as inter-connector between the two sources. May cause power swing and system tripping if
Equal load sharing Same source Equal load sharing achieved by having same resistance (i.e. same
Equal load sharing
Same source
Equal load sharing achieved
by having same resistance
(i.e. same capacity, same
length).
c1
c2

This is to prevent uneven loading which will lead to tripping of one cable on over-current

same length). c1 c2 This is to prevent uneven loading which will lead to tripping of
same length). c1 c2 This is to prevent uneven loading which will lead to tripping of
same length). c1 c2 This is to prevent uneven loading which will lead to tripping of
same length). c1 c2 This is to prevent uneven loading which will lead to tripping of
same length). c1 c2 This is to prevent uneven loading which will lead to tripping of

19

Cable laying Improper cable laying (especially for single core cables) may introduce mutual inductance between
Cable laying
Improper cable laying
(especially for single core
cables) may introduce
mutual inductance
between the 2 cables
Same source
M
c1
c2
inductance between the 2 cables Same source M c1 c2 This may lead to unbalanced phase
inductance between the 2 cables Same source M c1 c2 This may lead to unbalanced phase
inductance between the 2 cables Same source M c1 c2 This may lead to unbalanced phase
inductance between the 2 cables Same source M c1 c2 This may lead to unbalanced phase
inductance between the 2 cables Same source M c1 c2 This may lead to unbalanced phase

This may lead to unbalanced phase current and may result in one cable tripping on earth fault when load picks up

20

Unit protection source F c1 c2
Unit protection
source
F c1
c2

Required to prevent double circuit tripping occurring when a fault occurs on one cable (since unit protection is faster than back up protection)

circuit tripping occurring when a fault occurs on one cable (since unit protection is faster than
circuit tripping occurring when a fault occurs on one cable (since unit protection is faster than
circuit tripping occurring when a fault occurs on one cable (since unit protection is faster than
circuit tripping occurring when a fault occurs on one cable (since unit protection is faster than
circuit tripping occurring when a fault occurs on one cable (since unit protection is faster than

21

Directional protection source Directional protection will also provide similar effect when the circuit are in
Directional protection
source
Directional protection will also
provide similar effect when the
circuit are in parallel
F c1
c2
similar effect when the circuit are in parallel F c1 c2 However it may mal-operate for

However it may mal-operate for faults happening on other feeders.

effect when the circuit are in parallel F c1 c2 However it may mal-operate for faults
effect when the circuit are in parallel F c1 c2 However it may mal-operate for faults
effect when the circuit are in parallel F c1 c2 However it may mal-operate for faults

22

Inter-tripping scheme When source substation backup protection operated, bus-tie may be tripped causing both cable
Inter-tripping scheme
When source substation
backup protection
operated, bus-tie may be
tripped causing both
cable to be the inter-
connector now.
Before ope
After ope
c1
c2
c1
c2
An inter-tripping scheme need to be installed to decouple one cable so as to prevent
An inter-tripping scheme
need to be installed to
decouple one cable so as
to prevent both cable
tripping and/or
preventing the total
source tripping
installed to decouple one cable so as to prevent both cable tripping and/or preventing the total
installed to decouple one cable so as to prevent both cable tripping and/or preventing the total
installed to decouple one cable so as to prevent both cable tripping and/or preventing the total
installed to decouple one cable so as to prevent both cable tripping and/or preventing the total
installed to decouple one cable so as to prevent both cable tripping and/or preventing the total
installed to decouple one cable so as to prevent both cable tripping and/or preventing the total

23

Busbar separation scheme Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) need to be implemented to prevent
Busbar separation scheme
Busbar separation scheme( at
load s/s) need to be implemented
to prevent total load loss for
busbar fault
c1
c2
Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) need to be implemented to prevent total load loss for
Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) need to be implemented to prevent total load loss for
Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) need to be implemented to prevent total load loss for
Busbar separation scheme( at load s/s) need to be implemented to prevent total load loss for

24

Proper backup protection Before ope After ope c1 c2 c1 c2
Proper backup protection
Before ope
After ope
c1
c2
c1
c2

Need to be properly coordinated to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable outage.

to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable
to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable
to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable
to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable
to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable
to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable

25

to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable
to have tripping sequence that is coordinated from downstream upwards. Setting should also cover single cable
source Few second interruption- spur and auto transfer on on For this : c1 c2
source Few second interruption- spur and auto transfer on on For this : c1 c2

source

source Few second interruption- spur and auto transfer on on For this : c1 c2 on
source Few second interruption- spur and auto transfer on on For this : c1 c2 on
source Few second interruption- spur and auto transfer on on For this : c1 c2 on

Few second interruption- spur and auto transfer

source Few second interruption- spur and auto transfer on on For this : c1 c2 on
on on For this : c1 c2 on off
on
on
For this :
c1
c2
on
off

Source can be different One cable as main, the other as back up. When relay at receiving detect loss of supply, it command change over of supply. Interruption is 1 to 3 second. Max load not exceeding one cable rating No other load in between Unit protection for cable may be an option Proper back up coordination Idealy 1 set per circuit.

in between Unit protection for cable may be an option Proper back up coordination Idealy 1
in between Unit protection for cable may be an option Proper back up coordination Idealy 1
in between Unit protection for cable may be an option Proper back up coordination Idealy 1
in between Unit protection for cable may be an option Proper back up coordination Idealy 1

26

source Minutes interruption- spur and off-point on on : c1 c2 on off Source can
source Minutes interruption- spur and off-point on on : c1 c2 on off Source can
source Minutes interruption- spur and off-point on on : c1 c2 on off Source can

source

source Minutes interruption- spur and off-point on on : c1 c2 on off Source can be
source Minutes interruption- spur and off-point on on : c1 c2 on off Source can be
source Minutes interruption- spur and off-point on on : c1 c2 on off Source can be

Minutes interruption- spur and off-point

source Minutes interruption- spur and off-point on on : c1 c2 on off Source can be
on on : c1 c2 on off
on
on
:
c1
c2
on
off

Source can be different One cable as main, the other as back up. Change over of supply is either done by manual or supervisory from control centre

is either done by manual or supervisory from control centre Max load not exceeding one cable
is either done by manual or supervisory from control centre Max load not exceeding one cable
is either done by manual or supervisory from control centre Max load not exceeding one cable
is either done by manual or supervisory from control centre Max load not exceeding one cable

Max load not exceeding one cable rating Proper back up coordination

27

Other initiative
Other initiative

Busbar protection using arc method. @ Optimizing relay maintenance project

Other initiative Busbar protection using arc method. @ Optimizing relay maintenance project 28
Other initiative Busbar protection using arc method. @ Optimizing relay maintenance project 28
Other initiative Busbar protection using arc method. @ Optimizing relay maintenance project 28

28

Tutorial 600/5 Given: OCEF 1 Oc plug 100% OC tms = 0.475 At 1.2 sec
Tutorial
600/5
Given:
OCEF 1
Oc plug 100%
OC tms = 0.475
At 1.2 sec
10km 33kV cable feed
into a 33/11kV
substation
600/5
OCEF 2
1 transformer in service;
33kV
30MVA Z=10% D n11
,
,
y
,
NER 4 ohm
Find:
3 and 1 phase fault current at PPU 11kV busbar current and TMS for overcurrent
3 and 1 phase fault
current at PPU 11kV
busbar
current and TMS for
overcurrent setting of all
relays
11kV busbar current and TMS for overcurrent setting of all relays 11kV OCEF 3; t=0.8s 1600/5

11kV

11kV busbar current and TMS for overcurrent setting of all relays 11kV OCEF 3; t=0.8s 1600/5
OCEF 3; t=0.8s
OCEF 3; t=0.8s

1600/5

OCEF 4; t=0.4s
OCEF 4; t=0.4s

29

300/5

Tutorial S 11kV yn Discuss the problem with the following scheme from n perspective. D
Tutorial
S
11kV
yn
Discuss the problem
with the following
scheme from
n
perspective.
D
33kV
pro ec
t
ti
o
Y

11kV

yn Discuss the problem with the following scheme from n perspective. D 33kV pro ec t

y

yn Discuss the problem with the following scheme from n perspective. D 33kV pro ec t

Yn

D

yn Discuss the problem with the following scheme from n perspective. D 33kV pro ec t

30

THANK YOU 31
THANK YOU 31

THANK YOU

THANK YOU 31

31

DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION: “BUSBAR ARC PROTECTION” 12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy

DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION:

DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION: “BUSBAR ARC PROTECTION” 12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy
DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION: “BUSBAR ARC PROTECTION” 12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy

“BUSBAR ARC PROTECTION”

12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy

BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD Method Of Sensing: • Detection of light (arcing) +
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD Method Of Sensing: • Detection of light (arcing) +
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD Method Of Sensing: • Detection of light (arcing) +
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD Method Of Sensing:
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD
Method Of Sensing:

Detection of light (arcing) + Overcurrent = Trip

• Detection of light (arcing) + Overcurrent = Trip • Sensing of arc using photo sensors
• Detection of light (arcing) + Overcurrent = Trip • Sensing of arc using photo sensors

Sensing of arc using photo sensors or bare fibre

Sensing of overcurrent using current input from OCEF

= Trip • Sensing of arc using photo sensors or bare fibre • Sensing of overcurrent
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD • typical sensor locations for single bus-bar and double
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD
typical sensor locations for single bus-bar and double bus-bar switchgears
L or Z type
mounting plate
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:

ARC protection – Master-Slave

ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
Vamp 220 + 12CD:
Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Master-Slave Vamp 220 + 12CD:
ARC protection – Basic MV application Modular Cable
ARC protection – Basic MV
application
Modular Cable
ARC protection – Basic MV application Modular Cable 3
ARC protection – Basic MV application Modular Cable 3
ARC protection – Basic MV application Modular Cable 3
ARC protection – Basic MV application Modular Cable 3
3
3
ARC protection – Basic MV application Modular Cable 3
ARC protection – Basic MV application Modular Cable 3
ARC protection – Basic MV application Modular Cable 3
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD ABB REA 101: -Can be independent -Constraint: fibre loop
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD
ABB REA 101:
-Can be independent
-Constraint: fibre loop distance
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD ABB REA 101-103: - Master-slave -Both can have diff
BUSBAR PROTECTION USING ARC PROTECTION METHOD
ABB REA 101-103:
- Master-slave
-Both can have diff
loop
- 101 trip incomer
ABB REA 101-105:
- Selective
-Both can have diff
loop
-105 trip feeder
-101 trip incomer
ARC protection – Installation examples
ARC protection – Installation
examples
ARC protection – Installation examples
ARC protection – Installation
examples
Termination fault isolated by ARC Protection 27 Nov 2007
Termination fault isolated by ARC Protection 27 Nov 2007

Termination fault isolated by ARC Protection 27 Nov 2007

Termination fault isolated by ARC Protection 27 Nov 2007
Termination fault isolated by ARC Protection 27 Nov 2007
DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION: 12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy “FUNDAMENTAL OF COORDINATION” 1
DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION: 12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy “FUNDAMENTAL OF COORDINATION” 1

DISTRIBUTION PROTECTION:

12 Feb 2008 by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy
12 Feb 2008
by Muhamad Subian Sukaimy

“FUNDAMENTAL OF COORDINATION”

1

Backup OCEF Protection OCEF Relay are: R - Star connected Y CT B - ase
Backup OCEF Protection
OCEF Relay are:
R
- Star connected
Y
CT
B
- ase
B
d
on:
OC
OC
Σ Ir+Iy+Ib = 0
EF
Star
Protection OCEF Relay are: R - Star connected Y CT B - ase B d on:

point

2

OCEF Protection-Illustration Earth Fault On B phase R - Highlighted relay circuit will be energized
OCEF Protection-Illustration
Earth Fault On B phase
R
- Highlighted relay circuit
will be energized
- Relay element EF will
operate
Y
CT
B
OC
OC
EF
Star
R - Highlighted relay circuit will be energized - Relay element EF will operate Y CT

point

3

OCEF Protection Coordination OC element are set based on 3 phase fault R Y -
OCEF Protection Coordination OC element are set based on 3 phase fault R Y -

OCEF Protection Coordination

OC element are set based on 3 phase fault R Y - CT B OC
OC element are set
based on 3 phase fault
R
Y
-
CT
B
OC
OC
-
EF
Star

EF element are based on earth fault or 1 phase fault Coordination are done using simulator or

point

-
-

coordination software Fundamental ??

4

OCEF Coordination Fundamental Network Diagram to be coordinated Construct Thevenin Eqv diagram Obtain source &

OCEF Coordination Fundamental

OCEF Coordination Fundamental Network Diagram to be coordinated Construct Thevenin Eqv diagram Obtain source &
OCEF Coordination Fundamental Network Diagram to be coordinated Construct Thevenin Eqv diagram Obtain source &

Network Diagram to be coordinated Construct Thevenin Eqv diagram Obtain source & circuit impedances h per unit system is very useful) Determine relay operating time Obtain relay time multiplier

C l

l

t

3

a cu a e

p

an

d 1

p

h f

au

lt

t

i

curren (us ng

Determine relay operating time Obtain relay time multiplier C l l t 3 a cu a

5

Main Protection practice S Feeder Bus-bar HV
Main Protection practice
S
Feeder
Bus-bar
HV

Obtain the network to be coordinated Obtain the short circuit impedances of each equipment. - i.e R+jX + , R+jX o incl length

Obtain the short circuit impedances of each equipment. - i.e R+jX + , R+jX o incl
Obtain the short circuit impedances of each equipment. - i.e R+jX + , R+jX o incl

Dyn

Obtain the short circuit impedances of each equipment. - i.e R+jX + , R+jX o incl
Obtain the short circuit impedances of each equipment. - i.e R+jX + , R+jX o incl
Obtain the short circuit impedances of each equipment. - i.e R+jX + , R+jX o incl
Obtain the short circuit impedances of each equipment. - i.e R+jX + , R+jX o incl

LV

Transformer

6

Component Short Circuit Impedance typical cable short cct resistance value unit in ohm per metre
Component Short Circuit
Impedance
typical cable short cct resistance value
unit in ohm per metre
kv
type
MVA
R+
jX+
Ro
jXo
33
o/h 150 silmalec
18
0.000219
0.000373
0.0008
0.00037
33
u/g
630 Al 1 core
30
0
0.0001296
0
0.0001723
> Fed Pow
xlpe 240 sq. mm
11
3c
0.000129
0.00009
0.00489
0.000031
]
xlpe 150 sq. mm
11
3c
0.000211
0.000096
0.00578
0.000027
] fujikura
xlpe 500 sq. mm
11
1c
0.0000647
0.000097
0.001298
0.000086
]
typical transformer
impedance
kv
MVA
z%
33/11
30
10.06
33/11
15
9.54
11/0.433
0.75
4
7
Thevenin Eqv Network R+jXs R+jX S + seq network Fault
Thevenin Eqv Network
R+jXs
R+jX
S + seq network
Fault

In a

roximation:

pp

Point

R+jX S + seq network Fault In a roximation: pp Point R+jXs R+jX - seq network

R+jXs

R+jX

- seq network
- seq network

R+jX

8

R+jX S + seq network Fault In a roximation: pp Point R+jXs R+jX - seq network
Z + = Z - R+jXs
Z + = Z -
R+jXs
0 seq network
0 seq network
P.U. Calculation (1) Declare:
P.U. Calculation (1)
Declare:

- MVA base (normally 100 MVA)
- KV base (depend on source level) Z base (this is calculated; at all voltage level if required) I base (this is calculated; at all voltage level if required)

is calculated; at all voltage level if required) I base (this is calculated; at all voltage

9

is calculated; at all voltage level if required) I base (this is calculated; at all voltage
- -
-
-
P.U. Calculation (2) Source impedance formulae:
P.U. Calculation (2)
Source impedance formulae:

Z s+ pu= j MVA base 3Ø Fault MVA

formulae: Z s + pu= j MVA base 3Ø Fault MVA Z s 0 pu =
formulae: Z s + pu= j MVA base 3Ø Fault MVA Z s 0 pu =
formulae: Z s + pu= j MVA base 3Ø Fault MVA Z s 0 pu =

Z s0 pu = j [ {3 x MVA base } [ { 1Ø Fault MVA}

2Z s+ ] ]

-

10

P.U. Calculation (3) Useful formulae:
P.U. Calculation (3)
Useful formulae:
P.U. Calculation (3) Useful formulae: Z base Ω = (KV base) 2 check (V x V)

Z base Ω = (KV base) 2 check (V x V)

MVA base

Z base Ω = (KV base) 2 check (V x V) MVA base (V x I)
Z base Ω = (KV base) 2 check (V x V) MVA base (V x I)

(V x I)

Z base Ω = (KV base) 2 check (V x V) MVA base (V x I)
Z base Ω = (KV base) 2 check (V x V) MVA base (V x I)
Z base Ω = (KV base) 2 check (V x V) MVA base (V x I)

check (V x I) (V)

Z base Ω = (KV base) 2 check (V x V) MVA base (V x I)

I base A= (MVA base) (KV base)

11

P.U. Calculation (4) Changing of base formulae:
P.U. Calculation (4)
Changing of base formulae:

Z pu new = Z pu old x MVA base new MVA base old

of base formulae: Z pu new = Z pu old x MVA base new MVA base
of base formulae: Z pu new = Z pu old x MVA base new MVA base
Z pu = Z (Ω) Z base
Z pu = Z (Ω)
Z base

I pu = I (A) I base

12

Thevenin Eqv Network: Fault Simulation (1) I R+jXs R+jX f 3 phase fault: S +
Thevenin Eqv Network: Fault
Simulation (1)
I
R+jXs
R+jX
f
3 phase fault:
S + seq network
Fault
- short the
positive
sequence
network only.
Point
R+jXs
R+jX
- seq network
R+jXs
R+jX
0 seq network
13
Thevenin Eqv Network: Fault Simulation (2) I R+jXs R+jX f phase to phase fault: S
Thevenin Eqv Network: Fault
Simulation (2)
I
R+jXs
R+jX
f
phase to
phase fault:
S + seq network
Fault
R+jXs R+jX - seq network
R+jXs
R+jX
- seq network

Point

- connect the positive and negative sequence network only.

R+jXs R+jX - seq network Point - connect the positive and negative sequence network only. R+jXs

R+jXs

R+jX

0 seq network
0 seq network

14

Thevenin Eqv Network: Fault Simulation (3) I R+jXs R+jX f Single phase to ground fault:
Thevenin Eqv Network: Fault
Simulation (3)
I
R+jXs
R+jX
f
Single phase to
ground fault:
S + seq network
- connect all
Fault
sequence
network in
series and short
at fault point.
Point
I f
R+jXs
R+jX
- seq network
I f
R+jXs
R+jX
- I fault = 3I f
0 seq network
15
IDMT Curve (1) Observe: at tms=1: At psm=2; t op = 10 sec At psm=10;
IDMT Curve (1)
Observe:
at tms=1:
At psm=2; t op = 10 sec
At psm=10; t op = 3 sec
For psm > 20 t op = t op at psm=
20.
That is the characteristic of an
IDMT curve
16
IDMT Curve (2) 10.00 Observe: X axis = multiple of current; increases to the right
IDMT Curve (2)
10.00
Observe:
X
axis = multiple of
current; increases to
the right
1.00
Y
axis = operating
TX LV
time; increases
vertical
10800
0.10
1000.0
10000.0
100000.0
EQUIVALENT FAULT CURRENT AT REFERENCE BASE IN TABLE BELOW
17
OPERATING TIME (S
IDMT Curve (3) 10.00 Observe: Increase Plug eg X axis = multiple of 200% current;
IDMT Curve (3)
10.00
Observe:
Increase
Plug eg
X
axis = multiple of
200%
current; increases to
1.00
the right
Y
axis = operating
TX LV
time; increases
10800
vertical
0.10
1000.0
10000.0
100000.0
EQUIVALENT FAULT CURRENT AT REFERENCE BASE IN TABLE BELOW
18
OPERATING TIME (S
IDMT Curve (4) 10.00 Observe: X axis = multiple of Increase TMS eg current; increases
IDMT Curve (4)
10.00
Observe:
X
axis = multiple of
Increase
TMS eg
current; increases to
0.2
to
0.4
the right
1.00
Y
axis = operating
TX LV
time; increases
vertical
10800
0.10
1000.0
10000.0
100000.0
EQUIVALENT FAULT CURRENT AT REFERENCE BASE IN TABLE BELOW
19
OPERATING TIME (S
IDMT Curve Observe from last 3 slides:
IDMT Curve
Observe from last 3 slides:

by varying these 2 variables namely plug (current) setting and time multiplier setting for 2 or more relays; the IDMT curve will be changed!

time multiplier setting for 2 or more relays; the IDMT curve will be changed! This is
time multiplier setting for 2 or more relays; the IDMT curve will be changed! This is
time multiplier setting for 2 or more relays; the IDMT curve will be changed! This is

This is the basis of OCEF Coordination.

20

Optimization of Distribution Protection Relays Maintenance TNBR-UNITEN Power Engineering Centre 76.9°C 70 60 50 40

Optimization of Distribution Protection Relays Maintenance

TNBR-UNITEN Power Engineering Centre

76.9°C 70 60 50 40 33.2°C
76.9°C
70
60
50
40
33.2°C

Involve to Solve

Centre 76.9°C 70 60 50 40 33.2°C Involve to Solve Copyright © 2006 TNB Research S
Centre 76.9°C 70 60 50 40 33.2°C Involve to Solve Copyright © 2006 TNB Research S

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

Slide No. 1

• • •

Project Overview

Project Background

Maintenance cost of distribution protection relays is quite sizeable given the large amount of them in the system

Large collection of historical test data is available but without any analysis/trending study

With the vast amount of data, there is good prospect to optimise maintenance scheduling through proper data analysis/trending

scheduling through proper data analysis/trending Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve S l i
scheduling through proper data analysis/trending Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve S l i

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 2

• • • • • •

Project Overview

Potential Benefit

Currently, relays are required to be maintained once a year

Maintenance Cost: RM140/relay per year

(Kadar Harga Tetap, Panduan Kejuruteraan Bil.A10/2006)

Assume 50,000 relays in the system

Annual Maintenance Cost: RM140x50,000 =

RM7million/year

If we can reduce the frequency of maintenance (relay test) by half (ie. maintenance every 2 years);

Saving of RM3.5million/year

Note:

CESI Italy recommends that relay maintenance/testing to be done every 3-4 years (Internal Working Report IWR 3a-01, 19 Jan. 2006) Total no of relays as of 1 July 2006: 57,590

19 Jan. 2006) Total no of relays as of 1 July 2006: 57,590 Copyright © 2006
19 Jan. 2006) Total no of relays as of 1 July 2006: 57,590 Copyright © 2006

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 3

Project Overview Project Aims & Objectives • To develop an intelligent system in identifying problematic

Project Overview

Project Aims & Objectives

• To develop an intelligent system in identifying problematic relays and performance trending

• To optimise maintenance schedule of relays

Deliverables

• A database to store and manage all relay test data

• A system to capture relay test data, with automated/intelligent algorithm for analysis/trending and maintenance optimisation

Relay test

results

and maintenance optimisation Relay test results Intelligent System Relay parameters: • Analysis/trending
and maintenance optimisation Relay test results Intelligent System Relay parameters: • Analysis/trending
and maintenance optimisation Relay test results Intelligent System Relay parameters: • Analysis/trending
and maintenance optimisation Relay test results Intelligent System Relay parameters: • Analysis/trending
and maintenance optimisation Relay test results Intelligent System Relay parameters: • Analysis/trending
Intelligent System
Intelligent
System

Relay

parameters:

Analysis/trending of

relay performance

Relay Maintenance frequency

of relay performance • Relay Maintenance frequency age, make etc Relay Criticality Copyright © 2006 TNB

age, make etc

Relay

Criticality

Relay Maintenance frequency age, make etc Relay Criticality Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve
Relay Maintenance frequency age, make etc Relay Criticality Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve

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Slide No. 4

Proposed Research Methodology Methodology Flow Diagram START Initial Phase: Lit. Review & Data Identification

Proposed Research Methodology

Methodology Flow Diagram

START

Initial Phase: Lit. Review & Data Identification
Initial Phase: Lit. Review & Data Identification
Hypothesis Development Data Collection, ie. historical data from relay test sets. Progress Phase: Initial Statistical
Hypothesis Development
Data Collection, ie. historical data from relay test sets.
Progress Phase: Initial Statistical Data Analysis
Design of Data Structure/Format, System Interfacing
Development of Intelligent System
Results validation, modification & improvement
Final Phase: Final analysis & Report of findings
Final Phase: Final analysis & Report of findings Adoption strategies Involve to Solve END Copyright ©

Adoption strategies

Involve to Solve

END

Report of findings Adoption strategies Involve to Solve END Copyright © 2006 TNB Research S l
Report of findings Adoption strategies Involve to Solve END Copyright © 2006 TNB Research S l

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

Slide No. 5

Scope of Work Data collection To study the numerical relay data in Negeri Sembilan Initial

Scope of Work

Data collection To study the numerical relay data in Negeri Sembilan Initial Statistical Data Analysis

Enable identification of patterns/trend from relay test data

D

l

f I

eve opment o

lli

nte

gent

S

ystem

To investigate factors that contribute towards optimisation of relay maintenance eg. Relay parameters, test data, criticality etc. To develop a model for relay maintenance optimisation (AI algorithm for Data Mining Microsoft SQL Server 2005)

(AI algorithm for Data Mining Microsoft SQL Server 2005) Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to
(AI algorithm for Data Mining Microsoft SQL Server 2005) Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 6

Data Capture • How shall the data be obtained? • TNB Distribution (Engineering Services) has

Data Capture

How shall the data be obtained?

• TNB Distribution (Engineering Services) has given the consent and commitment to co-operate with data collection [Tn. Hj. Subian, En. Norazman Atib]

• Data to be obtained from distribution maintenance engineers (paper copy)

What shall be done to ensure data integrity?

• Data obtained will be examined and any doubts will be verified with TNBD (Engineering Services)

any doubts will be verified with TNBD (Engineering Services) Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to
any doubts will be verified with TNBD (Engineering Services) Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 7

Data Requirement eg. Relay Inverse Time Test Involve to Solve Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

Data Requirement eg. Relay Inverse Time Test

Involve to Solve Copyright © 2006 TNB Research
Involve to Solve
Copyright © 2006 TNB Research
Requirement eg. Relay Inverse Time Test Involve to Solve Copyright © 2006 TNB Research S l

Slide No. 8

Data Collection • All relay overcurrent and earthfault test data were collected from the state

Data Collection

• All relay overcurrent and earthfault test data were collected from the state of Negeri Sembilan.

• The data collected are historical data dated back from 1995.

• A total of 1316 no of relays data were collected. These are the historical data used in the AI Engine.

These are the historical data used in the AI Engine. Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve
These are the historical data used in the AI Engine. Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 9

Data Analysis • How shall the data be analysed? • Depending on the TMS and

Data Analysis

How shall the data be analysed?

• Depending on the TMS and plug setting, the operating time T is calculated.

• A healthy relay should fall within +-10% of the calculated value.

• A collection of historical data for a particular relay shows the deviation (in %) from the reference operating time.

• The system developed will analyse the data for trending/pattern

system developed will analyse the data for trending/pattern Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 10

analyse the data for trending/pattern Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve S l i
Time/current characteristics of IDMT relay Involve to Solve Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Formula for
Time/current characteristics of IDMT relay Involve to Solve Copyright © 2006 TNB Research
Time/current
characteristics of IDMT
relay
Involve to Solve
Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

Formula for operating time of IDMT relay

2006 TNB Research Formula for operating time of IDMT relay Where: T = operating time I

Where:

T = operating time

I F = Fault current

I S = Setting current

TMS = Time multiplier setting

Panduan Kejuruteraan

Bil.A10/2006

I S = Setting current TMS = Time multiplier setting Panduan Kejuruteraan Bil.A10/2006 S l i

Slide No. 11

Data Analysis Example: -- Trending for a particular relay using 3 years of test data

Data Analysis

Example:

-- Trending for a particular relay using 3 years of test data

Time(s)

for a particular relay using 3 years of test data Time(s) Test data year 1 Test
Test data year 1 Test data year 2 Test data year 3 (relay failed)
Test data year 1
Test data year 2
Test data year 3
(relay failed)

± 10% Error thickness

year 1 Test data year 2 Test data year 3 (relay failed) ± 10% Error thickness

current

year 1 Test data year 2 Test data year 3 (relay failed) ± 10% Error thickness
year 1 Test data year 2 Test data year 3 (relay failed) ± 10% Error thickness

Involve to Solve

Slide No. 12

Overview of AI • The scatter will be the training data Artificial Neural Network •

Overview of AI

• The scatter will be the training data Artificial Neural Network

• Training data will enable te network to determine the right weightings for each perceptron and control its sensitivity.

• A trained network would enable the output to indicate if a relay is prone to failure or otherwise.

would enable the output to indicate if a relay is prone to failure or otherwise. Involve
would enable the output to indicate if a relay is prone to failure or otherwise. Involve
would enable the output to indicate if a relay is prone to failure or otherwise. Involve

Involve to Solve

Slide No. 13

The ArtificiaI Intelligence Engine Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve S l i

The ArtificiaI Intelligence Engine

The ArtificiaI Intelligence Engine Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve S l i d

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 14

The ArtificiaI Intelligence Engine Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve S l i d
What can the software reports on? • Faulty Relay Detector – can predict which relay

What can the software reports on?

• Faulty Relay Detector – can predict which relay is prone to become faulty for the current year.

• Normal listing of relay information, such as:

- list all relays based on different makes

- list all rela s accordin

to a

e

y

g

g

- list all relays in certain areas/SSUs

- list all relays that has been replaced and their test results, and many others.

• The reports generated will be updated automatically as new relay test data are added in the database.

as new relay test data are added in the database. Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve
as new relay test data are added in the database. Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 15

Conclusions • This project will save TNB in terms of their maintenance cost of protective

Conclusions

• This project will save TNB in terms of their maintenance cost of protective relays (optimum period for routine maintenance)

• Reduces unnecessary power outages due to mal- operation of protection relays

• Increase work efficiency of protection engineers

• Add value to distribution protection system/protection relays test activities by undertaking analysis of test result

• Identification of problematic relay types/model

• Enhanced decision-making process related to maintenance frequency for protection relays

related to maintenance frequency for protection relays Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve S
related to maintenance frequency for protection relays Copyright © 2006 TNB Research Involve to Solve S

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

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Slide No. 16

Thank You Contacts:- TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. No. 1, Lorong Ayer Itam, Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan,

Thank You

Contacts:-

TNB Research Sdn. Bhd. No. 1, Lorong Ayer Itam, Kawasan Institusi Penyelidikan, 43000 Kajang, Selangor, MALAYSIA

Tel: +603-89268818 Fax: +603-89268828 / 29

MALAYSIA Tel: +603-89268818 Fax: +603-89268828 / 29 Copyright © 2006 TNB Research S l i d

Copyright © 2006 TNB Research

Slide No. 17

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+603-89268818 Fax: +603-89268828 / 29 Copyright © 2006 TNB Research S l i d e N