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Daniel Istrate

NT GREEK SYNTAX SUMMARIES1


NOUN CASES
Nominative

1. Direct Address - w/out w=, except in Acts


2. Emphatic or Emotional - with w=, except in Acts

4. Apposition
5. Place - in
6. Sphere - in the sphere/realm of
7. Time (point in time) - th/| h`me,ra| th/| tri,th|
8. Association - (used w/ "sun-" verbs) - (in assoc) with
9. Manner (q: how?)- with, in ("speaks with boldness")
10. Means/Instrument (q: by what means?) - by means of
11. Cause - because of
12. Object:
a. Of certain verbs (of trusting, obeying, serving )
b. Of certain nouns (usu. related to the vbs above)
c. Of certain adjectives (of likeness, )
d. Of certain prepositions (e.g.: env, su,n)

Genitive

Accusative

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Subject
Predicate Nominative2
Nom in Apposition3
Nominative Absolute - in intro. material, not a sentence
Nominativus Pendens - with reference to x :
Parenthetic Nom - subj of explan clause w/in other clause
Nom. for Vocative - in direct address
Nom. of Appellation - treated as proper name:
"you call me 'Teacher' and 'Lord')

Vocative

1. Descriptive - characterized by
1. Direct Object
2. Possessive - belonging to
2. Double Accusative:
3. Relationship - VIa,kwboj o` tou/ Zebedai,ou (ancest./descend.) a. Person & thing ("he taught you something")
4. Partitive ('Wholative') - which is part of
b. Obj-complement ("he made us [as, to be] sons")
5. Attributive (Gen = attrib adj; word of life = living word) 3. Predicate (joined to 1st acc by equative inf or ptc)
6.* Attributed (head noun = adj; newness of life = new life) 4. Subject of Infinitive (Mk 8:29) or Ptc (Acts 7:12)
7. Material - made out of, consisting of (cup of glass)
5. Apposition
8. Content - full of, containing (cup of water)
6. Manner - adj functions as adv in regard to vb
9. Apposition (simple apposition - see footnote #3)
7. Measure/Extent:
10. Epexegetical - which/that is, namely (the land of Egypt)
a. Space (extent of space; q: how far?) - for
11.* Subordination - over (king of Israel = king over Israel)
b. Time (extent of time; q: how long?) - for
12.* Production - produced by (o` karpo.j tou/ pneu,matoj)
8. Respect/Reference - regarding, with reference to
13.* Product - which produces (o` qeo.j th/j evlpi,doj)
9. Object of certain prepositions (e.g.: eivj, pro,j)
14.* Separation - away from, from
ARTICLE
15. Source/Origin - out of, from (Jesus of/from Nazareth)
1. As a Pronoun:
16. Comparison - than
a. Personal (w/ me,n)))de,, or only w/ de,) - he, she, it
17. Subjective - "the coming of Christ"
b.Relative (usu before a phrase [gen, preposit])
18. Objective - the blasphemy of the Spirit
c. Possessive (Oi` a;ndrej( avgapa/te ta.j gunai/kaj)
19. Plenary (both Subj & Obj) - "love of God"
2. With Substantives (a-g Individualizing):
20. Time (kind of time) - h=lqen pro.j auvto.n nukto.j
a. Simple Identification - distinguishes a from b
21. Absolute (Gen noun/pron as subject to Gen participle)
b. Anaphoric - denotes previous reference
22. Association (used w/ "sun-" nouns) - (in association) with
c. Deictic - points to something/someone present
23. Object
d. Par Excellence (the extreme in a class) a. Of certain verbs (of perception, emotion, sharing)
- ~O profh,thj ei= su, [Are you the prophet?]
b. Of certain adjectives and adverbs (e.g.: a;xioj)
e. Monadic (one-of -a-kind) - the devil, the sun
c. Of certain prepositions (e.g.: evk, avpo,)
f. Familiar (well-known to those involved) - 3 Jo 15
Dative
g. Abstract (art + abstract noun) - usu not translated
1. Indirect Object - to
h. Generic (distinguishes one class from another)
2. Interest (advantage , disadvantage) - for; against
- a;xioj o` evrga,thj tou/ ))) any laborer, as a class
3. Reference/Respect - with reference to
3. As a Substantiver - w/adv, adj, ptc, inf, Gen word or
phrase, prep phrase, clauses, statements, quotes
1

Adapted and developed from W. Mounce, A Graded Reader of Biblical Greek (Zondervan, 1996) xxv-xxvi, as
well as D. Wallace, Greek Grammar Beyond the Basics (Zondervan, 1996).
2
Three tests: subject is pronoun, articular, or proper noun; two priority checks: pronoun priority and word-order
priority. Convertible prop: both nomin have to pass at least one of the 3 tests; if not, it's a subset proposition.
3
Two nouns are in apposition when: (1) Adjacent, (2) In same case, (3) Refer to same thing/person, & (4) In
same syntact relationship to rest of sentence (sentence using only 1 st noun = sentence using only 2nd noun.

Daniel Istrate

4. As Function Marker
Number
a. Denoting adjectival positions (attrib & predic)
1. Neuter Plural Subject w/ Singular Verb (Mat 10:2)
b. With nouns that have a possessive pronoun attached 2.* Collective Sg Subj w/ pl Vb (Lk 6:19)
c. In Gen phrases usu both nouns have/have not the art4 3. Compound Subj w/ Sg Vb (John 2:2)
d. With indeclinable nouns (to show to noun's case)
4. The Indefinite plural - 'they' = 'someone' (Lk12:20)
e. With nouns related to a demonstrative in pred position
(convert into a passive - they will require of you
to indicate attributive function
your soul = your soul will be required of you)
f. With Nom nouns, usu to denote Subject
Voice (shows how subject relates to the action or state
g. To distinguish between Subject and Pred Nom
of the verb - See Chart 41, p. 409)
h. With Infinitives (no signif, just a formal attachment) 1. Active
5. Absence of Article - an anarthrous noun can be:
a. Simple Active - subj performs the action
a. Indefinite - indicates simple membership in a class
b. Causative Act - subj causes the action, but does
b. Qualitative - stresses quality, nature, essence
not perform it personally (Jn19:1)
c. Definite - stresses individual identity
c. Stative Act - subj exists in the state indic by vb
1) Proper Names, Nouns w/ Ordinal Numbers,
d. Reflexive Act - subj acts upon himself; reflex
Monadic Nouns (e.g.: sun), Nouns w/ Pronom Adj
pron (e.g.: e`auton) is used as DO (Mk 15:30)
(e.g.: pa/j), and Generic Nouns (avndro,j, 1 Cor 11:7) 2. Middle
do not need the article to be definite.
a.* Reflexive M - subj acts on himself (gradually
2) Anarthrous Nouns as Object of Prep may be def.
replaced in koine Gk by Reflexive Active)
3) Anarthrous PN preceding copula may be def5
b.* Redundant M - use of middle + reflex pron
4) Anarthrous Complement preceding the Object in an c. Indirect M - subj acts for himself, for own interest
Obj-Compl Construct. may be def (pate,ra, Jo 5:18) d.* Permissible M - subj allows s-thing to be done for
5) Abstract Nouns - best labeled as qualitative-definite,
Him (transl as passive if possible)
occur w/ or w/out the art.
e.* Reciprocal M - w/ pl subj to express interaction among
6) Nouns in Gen Constructions - when both nouns are
members of subject ("they decided together" - Mat 26:4)
anarthrous, they usu have same semantic force (D-D f. Deponent M - no active form for a particular
[most often], Q-Q, or I-I [least likely]; also, one-step
principle part, but evidently active in force (it needs to
diff not infrequent (e.g.: D-Q, Q-D, on the D-Q-I
be shown that the vb's middle force is absent)
continuum), but a two-step diff very rare (e.g.: I-D)6
e.g.: de,comai & kta,omai need be parsed as indirect middle
6. Special Uses and Non-uses
rather than deponent middle (see list on p. 430)
a. Colwell's Rule's signif for exegesis: An Anarthrous
3. Passive (note the idea of agency, which could
pre-verbal PN is normally qualitative, sometimes def,
be expressed [ultimate agent, indirect agent, or
and only rarely indefinite.7
impersonal means] or unexpressed)
b. Granville Sharp's Rule: In the TSKS construction (art- a. Simple Passive - subj receives the action
subst-kai,-subst, with S1 & S2 in the same case) S2 has
b. Causative P - implies consent, permission or
the same reference as S1 if neither is impersonal, plural,
cause of action (Lk 7:7; Eph 5:18)
or a proper name.8
c. Deponent P - active in meaning, passive in form
VERB
(e.g. evgenh,qhn = I became, the 6th principle part
Person
of gi,nomai)
1. First person for third person - "I" = someone, anyone
Mood - morphological feature of vb that indicates a
2. First Person plural Constructions - "we" can be:
speaker's portrayal of the certainty of the verbal action
a. Editorial - refers only to author
or state (whether an actuality or potentiality; See
b. Exclusive - refers only to author and his associates;
- See table 8, p. 4469
c. Inclusive - refers to author + associates + audience
- 4 moods: Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive, & Optative
4

This is known as Apollonius' Canon (pp. 239-40).


See Colwell's Rule under Special Uses (#6).
6
This is known as Apollonius' Corollary (p. 250).
7
Colwell's Rule simply states that definite pre-verbal Predicate Nominatives usually lack the article misunderstood to say that a anarthrous pre-verbal PN is usu definite, which is not what the rule says but its
converse (which is not a logical deduction from the rule).
Note the discussion on John 1:1 & Colwell's Rule (pp. 266-69).
8
See pp. 270-77, and esp. the discussion on Christologically significant passages, pp. 276-77 (Tit 2:13 - "our
great God and Savior, Jesus Christ; & 2 Pet 1:1 - "our God and Savior, Jesus Christ).
9
Page numbers refer to Wallace's book.
5

Daniel Istrate

Indicative - action/state of the vb portrayed as certain

Imperfect

1. Declarative Ind - a non-contingent statement asserted


1. Instantaneous - transl as simple past (usu. e;legen)
2. Interrogative Ind - expects a declarative Ind as answer
2. Progressive - vividness or simult. w/ another action
3. Conditional Ind - used w/ eiv in 1st and 2nd class conditions 3. Inceptive (ingressive) - began doing s/thing (Mt 5:2)
4. Potential Ind - w/ vbs of oblig, wish, desire, + an infin
4. Iterative - repeated action; kept on doing (Mt 9:21a)
5.*Cohortative Ind - Future Ind as command (OT quotes)
5. Customary - used to, habitually, regularly (Lk 2:41)
6. {Oti + Ind - in substantival, epexeg, & causal clauses
6. Conative - desired/unsuccessful attempt (Lk 1:59)
Subjunctive - vb action/state not certain, but probable
7. Indir Discourse - impf retained from dir disc (Jn 9:18)
1. Hortatory S - usu. w/ 1st plural / 5x 1st sg (Let us)
Aorist
2. Deliberative S - either real or rhetorical question
1. Constative - views action as a whole, summarily
3. Emphatic Negation S - w/ ouv mh, (not at all, by no means) 2. Inceptive (ingressive) - began to do10/became Mt22:7a)
4. Prohibitive S - mh, + Aor Subjunctive (Do not )
3. Consummative/Culminative - stresses action's cessation
5. Conditional S - used w/ eva,n in 3rd class cond sentences
in contrast to the 'Inceptive' (die, arrive, bring, persuade)
6. Subjunctive w/ i[na-clauses
4. Gnomic - timeless fact; transl as pres (Matt 23:2)
a. In purpose (final, telic) clauses
5. Epistolary - from the audience's time frame (Phil 2:28)
b. In result clauses
6. Proleptic - future event as already completed (Rom 8:30)
c. In purpose-result clauses - w/ divine purpose &result
7.* Immediate - just now (hvkou,sate in Matt 26:65)
d. In substantival clauses
8.* Dramatic - pres event as past for dram. effect (Jn 13:31)
7. Subjunctive w/ indef relative clauses (whoever/whatever) Future
8. Subjunctive w/ indef temporal clauses (whenever/until) 1. Predictive - evleu,sontai & nhsteu,sousin in Mk 2:20
9. *Subjunctive w/ vbs of fearing, warning,
2. Imperatival - usu in OT quotations (Matt 22:37)
10. *Subjunctive in indir questions (kli,nh| in Lk 9:58)
3.*Deliberative - in questions, 1st Sg or Pl (Rom 6:2)
Optative - vb action/state portrayed as possible
4.*Gnomic - a generic event, timeless fact (Matt 6:24; 4:4)
Voluntative Opt - expresses an obtainable wish or prayer
5.* Subjunctive equivalents - in emphatic negations, i[na
Imperative - the mood of intention
clauses, & indef relative clauses (instead of Subjunctive)
1. As a Command - most common use (Mk 10:21 - 4 impvs) Perfect & Plueperfect
2. As a Request/Entreaty - usually in addressing a superior
1. Intensive/Resultative - emphasis on results of past action;
3. Prohibitive Impv - mh, + Pres Impv (Do not)
transl as present (ge,graptai - Matt 4:4)
4.*Permissive Impv - conveys the idea of toleration
2. Extensive/Consummative - emphasis on completed past
5. Conditional Impv - usu: Impv+kai,+Ftr Ind ("Ask, &")
action or process; transl as perf (1 John 1:10)
6. As a Pronouncement - in passive ("Be cleansed!" Mk 1:41) 3. Certain vbs are used in pf w/ a present force (esp oi=da),
7. As a Stereotyped greeting-cai/re, cai,rete= Greetings, Hail
or in plpf w/ a simple past force (esp h[|dein, plpf of oi=da)

Tense (6 tenses; See Chart 46, p.496)


INFINITIVE - undeclinable Verbal Noun
*Time: past, present, future; mainly an Indicative element Adverbial Uses
*Aspect: internal (progressive; seen from w/in)-Pres & Impf 1. Purpose - tou/, eivj to,, pro.j to,; to, in order to (Mt 5:17)
: external (summary; seen as a whole)-Aor & Ftr
2. Result - w[ste; so that (1 Cor 13:2)
: perfective-stative (completed/resultative)-Pf & Plpf 3. Time
Present
a. Antecedent - meta. to,; after (Mark 1:14)
1. Instantaneous (aoristic) - completed at moment of speaking
b. Contemporaneous - evn tw|/; while, as when (Mt 13:4)
2. Progressive - at this present time, right now
c. Subsequent - pro. tou/, pri,n, pri,n h;; before (Mt 6:8)
3. Extending-from-the-Past - transl as Engl pf (1 John 3:8)
4. Cause - dia. to,; because (John 2:24)
4. Iterative - repeatedly (Mat 17:15 - "often he falls ")
5.*Means - (evn tw|/) by doing (Acts 3:26)
5. Customary - customarily, habitually, continually (Lk18:12) 6. Complementary - completes vbs like a;rcomai, du,namai,
6. Gnomic - timeless fact, proverbial statement (1 John 3:3)
bou,lomai, evpitre,pw, zhte,w, qe,lw, me,llw, ofei,lw (Mt 6:24)
7. Historical - translated as past (John 2:3-5)
Substantival Uses
8.*Perfective - lexic. (h[kw)&contextual; transl as pf (Lk1:34) 1. Subject - inf or inf-phrase functions as subject; usually,
9.*Conative - desired/unsuccessful attempt (Jo10:32; Gal5:4) inf occurs w/ impers vbs (Phil 1:21; Mk 9:5; John 4:4)
10. Futuristic - about to (e;rcomai in Jo 14:3; 4:25)
2. Direct Object - inf/inf-phrase as DO of finite vb; inf usu
11. Indir Discourse - tense retained from the dir disc; (Mk2:1) occurs w/ the article (Phil 2:13; John 5:26)
10

Note that in the Inceptive Impf the action continues, while in the Aor there is no indication of continuation.

Daniel Istrate

3. Indirect Discourse - after vb of perception/communication Logical Conjunctions - movement of thought


(doke,w, evrwta,w, le,gw, parakale,w ); the inf of indir disc expressing logical relationships between connected ideas
usu retains the tense of the dir disc (Mc 8:29; John 4:40)
1. Ascensive - final addition or focus; even (kai,( de,( mhde,)
4. Appositional - namely (Jam 1:27; 1 Thes 4:3)
2. Connective - adds another item; and, also (kai,( de,)
5. Epexegetical - explains/complements a noun/adj indicating 3. Contrastive - but, rather, however (avlla,( plh,n( kai,( de,)
authority, ability, freedom, desire, hope, need(1Thes 4:9) 4. Correlative - paired (me,n)))de,* kai,)))kai,* ou;te)))ou;te* ))))
PARTICIPLE - declinable Verbal Adjective
5. Alternative (disjunctive) - or (h;)
Adjectival aspects - comparable to the uses of the adj 6. Emphatic - avlla, intensified = certainly; ouv mh, = not at
1. Attributive - TAN (Matt 2:7); TNTA (John 4:11)
all, certainly not; true emphatics: ge( dh,(, nai,( nh,( me,ntoi
2.*Predicate - TNA (Acts 7:56a); ATN (Heb 4:12)
7. Explanatory - for, that is, namely (ga,r( de,( kai,( eiv)
3. Substantival11 - usu w/ art; takes place of noun (Jn 3:16)
8. Inferential - deduction/conclusion (a;ra( dio,ti( ou=n( w[ste)
12
Verbal aspects - stress on the verbal over the adj nuance 9. Transitional - change of topic; now, then (de,( ou=n)
- time is dependent on the main vb; aspect is usu as in Ind
Adverbial Conjunctions - amplify the verbal idea;
Adverbial Uses (~ 70% usu in Nom; anarthrous participles) usually involve subordinate conjunctions
1. Temporal - while; after; (when)
1. Causal - because, since (ga,r( o[ti( dio,ti( evpei,( w`j))))
a. Antecedent - usu Aor & Pf; after (Mt 4:2)
2. Comparative (manner) - kaqa,per( kaqw,j( ou[twj( w`sei)))
b. Contemporaneous - usu Pres; while (Mk 2:14)
3. Conditional - if (eiv( eva,n)
c.* Subsequent - Ftr; before
4. Local (sphere) - where, from where (o[qen( ou-( o[pou)
2.*Manner - by + ptc of emotion/attitude (Mt19:22;Ac5:41) 5. Purpose - that, in order that (i[na( o[pwj( mh,pwj( mh,pote)
3. Means - by means of, by (1 Cor 4:12a; labw,n in Phil 2:7) 6. Result - so that (w[ste( w`j( o[ti( i[na)
4. Cause - because (Mk 2:4a; Mt 1:19)
7. Temporal - when (o[te( o[tan( e[wj( a;cri( pote,( ouvke,ti))))
5. Condition - if (Lk 15:4; Gal 6:9)
Substantival Conjunctions - limited to introducing a
6. Concession - although (Mk 8:18; Eph 2:1)
noun clause & to epexegesis
7. Purpose (Telic) - usu transl as inf; in order to (Acts 3:26) 1. Content conjunctions - that (i[na( o[ti [also recitative,
8. Result - thus, w/ the result of (Jn 5:18; Lk 4:15)
when introducing a quote]( o[pwj( w`j)
Other Uses
2. Epexegetical Conjunctions - introduce a clause that
1. Attendant Circumstances - transl as main vb; supply 'and';
completes the idea of a noun or adj; that; (i[na( o[ti)
- Ptc is usu Aor, precedes main vb, & occurs usu in narrat
CLAUSES
literat; main vb is usu Aor Impv/Ind (Mt 9:18a; 28:19a) Independent/Main Clauses - stand on their own
2. Complementary-w/pau,w, stop; evpime,nw, continue (Eph1:16) 1. Introduced by a Coord Conj - a coord conj makes two
3. Supplementary - w/ perception/cognition vbs (Mt24:30)13
indep clauses coordinate (paratactic) to each other
4. Indir Disc -w/communic.vbs; Noun&Ptc in Acc (Acts7:12) 2. Introduced by a Prepositional phrase
5. Genitive Absolute - a noun/pron in Gen & a Ptc in Gen; the 3. Asyndeton (no formal introduction)
noun/pron becomes the subj of the Ptc (usu as temporally), Dependent/Secondary Clauses - a dependent clause
while main clause has a different subject (Mt 2:1; 9:18)
stands in a substantival or subordinate (hypotactic) relation
6. Periphrastic - w/ eivmi, or u`pa,rcw; (Jn1:41; Mt 7:29; Eph2:8) to another clause (either an indep or another depend. clause)
7. Redundant - w/ vbs of saying or thinking (Mt 12:38 ; 13:3) 1. Substantival: Subject, PN, DO, Ind Disc, Apposition
8.*Imperatival - connected to no vb in context (Rom 12:12) 2. Adjectival: modifies a noun, noun phrase, or other subst.
9.*Independent proper (as an Ind) - alone as ind vb (Rev1:16) 3. Adverbial: cause, comparison, concession, location,
CONJUNCTIONS
complementary, manner, means, purpose, result, time,
Form: Common Conjunctions:
condition - 4 classes: 1st class - condition assumed true for
1. Coordinating: kai,( de,( ga,r( avlla,( ou=n( h;( te( ouvde,( ouvte,( ei;te sake of argument; Prot: eiv + Ind; Apod: any tense/mood;
2. Subordinating: a) With Ind: o[ti( eiv( kaqw,j( w`j( ga,r( & o[te 2nd class - condition assumed untrue for sake of argument;
b) W/ Subjunctive: i[na( o[tan( eva,n( o[pwj( e[wj( mh,( mh,pote
Prot: ei, + past tense, Ind; Apod: (avn) +past tense, Ind
Function: Semantic Categories - three categories:
3rd class - prob future cond; Prot: eva,n + Subjunct; Apod: any
logical, adverbial, & substantival (See pp. 761-62)
4th class - less prob future cond; P: eiv + Opt; A: avn + Opt.
11

A sub-category of this is the Nominative Absolute Participle (p.654), where a substantival Ptc functions as a
Nominativus Pendens (with reference to X: ). E.g.: o` me,nwn in John 15:5; o` nikw/n in Rev 3:21
12
All participles in this category are anarthrous. An anarth ptc could also be adjectival; an attributive ptc could be
anarthrous only if noun is anarth; a pred ptc is always anarth; a subst ptc could also be anarth, though usu has the article.
13
Also w/vbs of opinion (Phil 2:3;2Jn 7). Wallace combines 3&4 under Indir Disc; but see BDF #416 & McCartney #288.