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18 per cent nickel maraging steels Engineering properties Publication No. 4419 Ni DI Distributed by

18 per cent nickel maraging steels

Engineering properties

18 per cent nickel maraging steels Engineering properties Publication No. 4419 Ni DI Distributed by the

Publication No. 4419

Ni DI

Distributed by the Nickel Development Institute, courtesy of Inco Limited

Originally published in 1976. The information contained within this publication is dated: new alloys have been developed since the original publication. More recent information may be available through a variety of sources, including the Nickel Development Institute.

databooks Inco, the leading producer and marketer of nickel, conducts research and development programmes on

databooks

Inco, the leading producer and marketer of nickel, conducts research and development programmes on nickel alloys, products and processes, establishing engineering and per- formance data. This knowledge is collated in a library of INCO databooks, which are freely available.

Conversion factors for stress and impact energy units

Sl metric units have been adopted as the standard throughout this publication. To assist readers who may be more familiar with other units to which they have been accustomed, factors are given below for conversion of the more important of these to Sl metric units and vice versa.

Stress units:

1 tonf/in 2 = 15.44 N/mm 2

1

10

1 = 0.0647 tonf/in 2 or 0.102 kgf/mm 2 or 0.145 10 3 lbf/in 2 or 0.1 hbar

kgf/mm 2 =

3 lbf/in 2

N/mm

9.807 N/mm 2

= 6.895 N/mm 2

2

1 = or 1 KN/mm 2 or 0.145 10 6 lbf/in 2 or 0.102 10 3 kgf/mm 2 or 100 hbar

GN/m 2

1 GPa

Note that the newton per square millimetre (N/mm 2 ), meganewton per square metre (MN/m 2 ) and megapascal (MPa) Sl units of stress are arithmetically identical.

Impact energy units:

1

1

1

= kgf m = 9.807 J

ft Ibf

1.356 J

J

= or 0.102 kgf m

0.7375 ft Ibf

1 J (Charpy V impact) = 0.1275 kgf m/cm 2

1 J (Charpy U impact) = 0.2039 kgf m/cm 2

1 J (DVM impact) = 0.1457 kgf m/cm 2

1 J (Mesnager impact) = 0.1275 kgf m/cm 2

Plane strain fracture toughness

(K 1c ) units:

1 MNm 3 / 2 = 0.910 10 3 lbf in 3 / 2 (ksiin) or 31.623 Nmm 3 / 2 or 3.225 kgf mm 3 / 2 (kp mm 3 / ) or 3.162da Nmm 3 / 2 (hbarmm)

1 ksiin =1.0988 MNm 3 / 2 or 34.748 Nmm 3 / 2 or 3.543 kgf mm 3 / 2 (kp mm 3 / ) or 3.475 da Nmm 3 / 2 (hbarmm)

2

2

INCO is a trademark.

18 per cent nickel maraging steels

Engineering properties

Contents

Introduction

3

Commercial and national specifications

3, 5–9

Melting practice

3–4

Mechanical properties

4, 10–21

Physical properties

17–18

Processing and forming Hot working

17–19

Cold working

19–20

Heat treatment

20–21

Dimensional stability

21–22

Nitriding

22

Welding and joining

22–26

Machining and grinding

26–27

Descaling and pickling

27–28

Corrosion characteristics

28

Stress-corrosion characteristics

28–29

Electroplating and surface coating

29

The information and data in this publication are as complete and accurate as possible at the time of publication. The characteristics of a material can vary according to the precise method of production, fabrication and treatment. Wherever available, full details of the condition of the test pieces are included. As these data are derived from various sources, suppliers of materials should always be consulted concerning the specific characteristics of their products.

© Copyright 1976

Inco Europe Limited

The 18 percent nickel maraging steels Engineering properties

Introduction

The development of the nickel maraging steels began in the Inco research laboratories in the late 1950s and was based on the con- cept of using substitutional elements to produce age-hardening in a low-carbon iron-nickel martensitic matrix. Hence the term ‘maraging’ was given to them to signify this strengthening mechanism. The work led to the discovery that balanced additions of cobalt and molyb- denum to iron-nickel martensite gave a combined age-hardening effect appreciably greater than the additive effects of these elements used separately. Furthermore, the iron-nickel-cobalt-molybdenum matrix was found to be amenable to supplemental age- hardening by small additions of titanium and aluminium. Thus the 18 per cent nickel- cobalt-molybdenum family of maraging steels was developed. There are basically four wrought com- mercial maraging steels of the 18 per cent nickel family and one cast grade currently available from special steel manufacturers. The nominal compositions and 0.2 per cent proof stress values are presented in Table 1. The reader should note that the numbers ascribed to the various grades in this publication correspond to the nominal proof stresses given in SI units, whereas the identical grades in some countries have designations with lower numbers corres- ponding to the units traditionally used for proof stress values, e.g., in the U.S.A. the maraging steel numbers refer to the nominal 0.2 per cent proof stress values in kilo- pounds/inch 2 . These steels have been designed to develop high proof stress with optimum toughness for the various strength levels. In contrast to conventional ultra-high-strength alloy steels in which carbon is an essential constituent and the formation of hard

TabIe 1. Nickel maraging steels.

carbon-martensite is necessary for the development of high strength, nickel maraging steels have a very low carbon content and their high strengths are derived by age-hardening of relatively soft low- carbon martensite. In consequence, the toughness of the maraging steels is distinctly superior to that of conventional steels at the same strength levels, as shown for example by the comparison of notched tensile strengths of the several steels illustrated in Figure 1. Because the physical metallurgy and pro- perties of maraging steels are unique they have many commercial advantages which are summarized in Table 2 (page 4). Since the production of the first commercial heat in December, 1960 the range of applications has steadily grown and is ever widening. A sample of typical applications is given in Table 3 (page 4).

Commercial and national specifications

The composition ranges developed by Inco to provide several combinations of pro- perties are detailed in Table 4 (page 4). These have formed the basis for commercial production throughout the world with minor variations sometimes being adopted in the manufacture of proprietary desig- nated grades and in some authoritative specifications. Tables 5 and 6 (pages 5–9) summarize the requirements of several commercial specifications used in various countries as national and international standards.

 

Nominal 0.2% proof stress

   

Nominal composition.

 

Type

 

Weight %

N/mm 2

10

3 lbf/

tonf/

kgf/

hbar

Ni

Co

Mo

Ti

AI

in 2

in 2

mm

2

18Ni1400

1400

200

90

140

140

18

8.5

3

0.2

0.1

18Ni1700

1700

250

110

175

170

18

8

5

0.4

0.1

18Ni1900

1900

280*

125

195

190

18

9

5

0.6

0.1

18Ni2400

2400

350

155

245

240

17.5

12.5

3.75

1.8

0.15

17Ni1600(cast)

1600

230

105

165

160

17

10

4.6

0.3

0.05

* This steel is generally designated the 300 ksi grade in the U.S.A 260,000 to 300,000 lbf/in 2 .

the 0.2 per cent proof stress normally ranging from

2 . the 0.2 per cent proof stress normally ranging from Figure 1. The toughness of

Figure 1. The toughness of maraging steels is demonstrated by their ad- herence to the relationship Notched tensile strength/Tensile strength 1.5, up to higher strength levels than for conventional steels.

Melting practice

Nickel maraging steels are generally pro- duced by vacuum melting, or by a double melting and refining procedure involving both air and vacuum melting, while double vacuum melting is often employed. What- ever the process the objective is (i) to hold composition within the prescribed limits with close control over impurities, (ii) minimize segregation, (iii) obtain a low gas content and a high standard of cleanliness. The degree to which these objectives are reached will influence the toughness and to some extent the strength of finished mill products. Small amounts of impurities can decrease the toughness significantly. In particular sulphur should be kept as low as possible and silicon and manganese must not exceed a combined level of 0.2 per cent. The elements P, Pb, Bi, O 2 , N 2 and H 2 are all maintained at low levels in good melting practice. Ingot sizes and shapes and pouring prac- tice should be selected to ensure Sound ingots with minimum alloy segregation.

Table 2. Advantages of nickel maraging steels.

 

Excellent Mechanical

Good Processing and Fabrication Characteristics

 

Simple Heat

Properties

Treatment

1.

High strength and

1.

Wrought grades are

1.

No quenching required.

high strength-to-weight

amenable to hot and cold

Softened and solution treated by air cooling

ratio.

deformation by most techniques. Work-

from 820–900°C.

2. High notched strength.

hardening rates are low.

2.

Hardened and

3. Maintains high strength

2.

Excellent weldability.

strengthened by ageing at

up to at least 350°C.

either in the annealed or aged conditions. Pre-heat

450–500°C.

4.

High impact toughness

not required.

3.

No decarburization

and plane strain fracture

effects.

toughness.

3. Good machinability.

4.

Dimensional changes

4. Good castability.

during age hardening are

very small – possible to finish machine before hardening.

5.

Can be surface hardened

by nitriding.

Table 3. Typical applications.

Aerospace

Tooling and Machinery

Structural Engineering and Ordnance

Aircraft forgings (e.g., undercarriage parts. wing fittings).

Solid-propellant missile cases.

Punches and die bolsters for cold forging.

Lightweight portable

military bridges.

Extrusion press rams and mandrels.

Ordnance components.

Fasteners.

Jet-engine starter

Aluminium die-casting and extrusion dies.

impellers.

Aircraft arrestor hooks.

Cold reducing mandrels in tube production.

Torque transmission shafts.

Zinc-base alloy die-casting dies.

Aircraft ejector release units.

Machine components:

gears

index plates

lead screws

Table 4. Composition ranges – weight per cent – of the 18 per cent Ni-Co-Mo maraging steels.

(1)

   

Wrought

 

Cast

 

Grade

18Ni1400

18Ni1700

18Ni1900

18Ni2400

17Ni1600

Nominal 0.2% proof stress N/mm 2 (MPa) tonf/in 2

1400

1700

1900

 

2400

1600

90

110

125

155

105

 

10

3 lbf/in 2

200

250

280

(2)

350

230

kgf/mm 2

140

175

195

245

165

hbar

140

170

190

240

160

 

Ni

17–19

17–19

18–19

17–18

16–17.5

Co

8.0–9.0

7.0–8.5

8.0–9.5

12–13

9.5–11.0

Mo

3.0–3.5

4.6–5.1

4.6–5.2

3.5–4.0

4.4–4.8

Ti

0.15–0.25

0.3–0.5

0.5–0.8

1.6–2.0

0.15–0.45

AI

0.05–0.15

0.05–0.15

0.05–0.15

0.1–0.2

0.02–0.10

C

max.

0.03

0.03

0.03

0

. 01

0.03

Si

max.

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.10

0.10

Mn max.

0.12

0.12

0.12

0.10

0.10

Si+Mn max.

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

0.20

S

max.

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.005

0.010

P

max.

0.010

0.010

0.010

0.005

0.010

Ca added

0.05

0.05

0.05

 

none

none

B

added

0.003

0.003

0.003

none

none

Zr

added

0.02

0.02

0.02

none

none

Fe

Balance

Balance

Balance

Balance

Balance

(1)

(2)

The composition ranges given are those originally developed by Inco which broadly cover current commercial practice. Slight changes in these ranges have been made in some national and international specifications. See footnote of Table 1.

Castings The 17Ni1600 grade developed for cast- ings has slightly different composition compared with the wrought grades (see

Tables 1 and 4) in order to minimize reten- tion of austenite that might otherwise occur in more highly alloyed regions of the structure due to micro-segregation which

tends to persist in the absence of hot work- ing. This steel has good fluidity and pouring temperatures much higher than 1580°C are

generally not desirable if segregation is to be minimized.

Mechanical properties of

wrought maraging steels

The usual heat treatment applied to the 18Ni1400, 1700 and 1900 grades of maraging steels comprises solution annealing at 820°C followed by ageing 3 hours at 480°C. Similar annealing is applied to the 18Ni2400 steel, but ageing is effected by heating for 3 hours at 510°C or longer times at 480°C. The normally expected mechanical properties after these treatments are given in Table 7 (page 10) while Tables 8–11 (pages 10–11) present typical mechanical test data for material of various section sizes obtained from production casts.

Elastic and plastic strain characteristics The uniaxial tensile deformation behaviour of maraging steels is shown by the stress- strain and true stress-true strain curves of Figs. 2 and 3 (page 11), respectively. Plastic yielding occurs at stresses of the order of 95 per cent of the ultimate tensile stress. The strain hardening moduli of maraging steels subjected to plastic strain are:

Steel Type Strain Hardening Modulus

18Ni1400

18Ni1700

18Ni1900

18Ni2400

724 N/mm 2 758 N/mm 2 793 N/mm 2 827 N/mm 2

Fracture toughness The ability of metallic alloys to resist rapid propagation of a crack or unstable fracture originating at an imperfection (i.e., brittle fracture), particularly in materials of high strength, is of great importance in deter- mining their utility for engineering purposes. As with other high-strength alloys, various methods have been employed to evaluate the fracture characteristics of maraging steels with the results described in the sections on pages 10 and 12.

Table 5. 18 per cent nickel maraging steels. Chemical compositions quoted in national and international specifications.

Country

Specifying

Specification

 

Method of

Form of

 

Composition, per cent

 

body

manufacture

product

Ni

Co

Mo

Ti

C

Other

 

max.

United

Ministry of

DTD 5212

Double vacuum

Billets

Bars

           

Kingdom

Technology.

(Jan. 1969)

melted (induction

Aerospace

Material

vacuum arc

+

remelt)

Forgings

17.0–

7.0–

4.6–

0.30–

Specification.

DTD 5232

(Aug. 1969)

Single vacuum

melted (air melt

+

vacuum arc

remelt)

19.0

8.5

5.2

0.60

0.015

a, c, d

International

Association

AICMA–

Vacuum melted

 

Bars

           

Internationale des

FE–PA95

or vacuum

Plates

Constructeurs de

Material

Aerospatiale

(provisional

recommenda-

tion Dec. 1965)

remelted

Forgings

17.0–

19.0

7.5–

8.5

4.6–

5.2

0.30–

0.50

0.03

a, b

Germany

Normenstelle

Luftfahrt.

(Aeronautical

standards)

I.6359

(Nov. 1973)

Consumable

electrode

remelt

 

Sheet

Plate

Bars

Forgings

17.0–

19.0

7.0–

8.5

4

5

6–

2

0.30–

0.60

0.03

a, c

I.6354

(Nov. 1973)

Consumable

electrode remelt

 

Bars

Forgings

17.0–

19.0

8.0–

9.5

4.6–

5.2

0.60–

0.90

0.03

a, c

I.6351

Melted and cast under argon or vacuum* (Shaw or precision casting methods)

 

Precision

           

(Draft

castings

specification

Aug. 1973)

16.0–

18.0

9.5–

11.0

4.5–

5.0

0.15–

0.45

0.03

a, c

U.S.A.

A.S.T.M.

A538-72a:

Grade A

  


Electric furnace air melt. Vacuum arc remelt. Air – or vacuum – induction melt

 

Plates

17.0–

19.0

7.0–

8.5

4.0–

4.5

0.10–

0.25

0.03

a, e

Grade B

  




17.0–

19.0

7.0–

8.5

4.6–

5

. 1

0.30–

0.50

0.03

a, e

Grade C

18.0–

19.0

8.0–

9.5

4.6–

5.2

0.55–

0.80

0.03

a, e

A579-70:

Grade 71

  


Electric arc air melt. Air – or vacuum – induction melt. Consumable electrode remelt

or combination

of these

 

Forgings

17.0–

19.0

8.0–

9.0

3.0–

3.5

0.15–

0.25

0.03

a, f

Grade 72

  




17.0–

19.0

7.5–

8.5

4.6–

5.2

0.30–

0.50

0.03

a, f

Grade 73

18.0–

19.0

8.5–

9.5

4.6–

5.2

0.50–

0.80

0.03

a, f

S.A.E.

Aerospace

AMS 6512

(May 1970)

 


  



Vacuum arc

remelt or

consumable

electrode remelt

in air using

vacuum induction melted electrodes

 

Bars

Forgings

17.0–

19.0

7.0–

8.5

4.6–

5.2

0.30–

0.50

0.03

a, e, g

Material

Specification

AMS 6514

(May 1970)

Tubes

Rings

18.0–

19.0

8.5–

9.5

4.6–

5.2

0.50–

0.80

0.03

a, e, g

AMS 6520

(May 1969)

Sheet

Strip

Plate

17.0–

19.0

7.0–

8.5

4.6–

5.2

0.30–

0.50

0.03

a, e, g

AMS 6521

(May 1969)




18.0–

19.0

8.5–

9.5

4.6–

5.2

0.50–

0.80

0.03

a, e, g

* Casting in air may be adopted if agreed between supplier and purchaser.

a. Si 0.10 max. Mn 0.10 max. S 0.010 max, P 0.010 max. Al 0.05–0.15.

b. B 0.003 max, Zr 0.02 max.

c. Ca, B and Zr may be added in amounts of 0.05 per cent max, 0.003 per cent max, and 0.02 per cent max, respectively.

d. Cr 0.25 max (DTD 5212) and 0.20 max (DTD 5232).

e. The following specified additions shall be made to the melt: B 0.003 per cent. Zr 0.02 per cent and Ca 0.05 per cent.

f. The following specified additions shall be made to the melt: B 0.003 percent. Zr 0.02 percent and Ca 0.06 percent.

g. Cr 0.5 max. Cu 0.50 max.

Table 6. 18 per cent nickel maraging steels. Mechanical properties quoted in the specifications listed in Table 5. (Minimum values except as stated otherwise)

Radius for

180° bend

test

 

 

 

 

 

39

 

3 × thickness

8 mm thick

for plate

           
 

Impact energy value

   

kgf/ 2

cm

 

 

   

(a)

4

(a)

2

 

   

   

(a)

3

(a)

2

   

4

 

4 †

   

ft Ibf

 

18

8

 

 

 

12

6

 

     

   

J

 

24

11

J/cm 2

 

39

20

 

 

16

8

J/cm 2

 

29

20

 

J/cm 2

   

20

   

Test-

 

lzod

Longit.

Transv.

KCU

 

Longit.

Transv.

 

lzod

 

Longit.

Transv.

KCU

 

Longit.

Transv.

 

KCU

Longit.

 

Longit.

KCU

Reduction area % of

       

 

25

   

 

20

   

 

25

       

 

40

   

 

35

   

45

 

40

Elongation

     

Longit. Transv. Longit. Transv. piece

= 5.65 SoLo

 

 

5

   

 

4

   

 

4

%

       

 

8

   

 

6

   

8

 

6

5

     

Transv.

h bar

 

 

180–

   

 

180–

   

 

 

Tensile strength

(MPa) 2

N/mm

 

 

1800– 200

2000

   

 

1800– 200

2000

   

 

   

Longit.

h bar

 

 

180–

   

 

180–

 

kgf/ 2

mm

 

175–

195

 

175–

175

 

(MPa) 2

N/mm

 

 

1800– 200

2000

   

 

1800– 200

2000

   

1720–

1910

 

1720– 195

1910

1720 195

1910

     

Transv.

h bar

 

 

170

   

 

170

   

 

 

0.2% proof stress

(MPa) 2

N/mm

 

 

1700

   

 

1700

   

 

   

Longit.

h bar

 

 

170

   

 

170

 

kgf/ 2

mm

 

165

 

165

165

 

(MPa) 2

N/mm

 

 

1700

   

 

1700

   

1620

1620

1620

Hardness

   

321HB

355HV

 

520–

620HV

321HB

335HV

 

520–

620HV

 

331HB

max.

350HB

max.

Heat

treatment

condition

 

S.A. 810°–

830°C

 

S.A. 810°– 830°C + 3h 475°–

485°C

 

S.A. 810°–

830°C

 

S.A. 810°–

830°C+

3h 475°–

485°C

   

S.A. 810°–

830°C+

3h 475°–

485°C

S.A. 810°–

830°C

(as-supplied)

S.A. 810°–

475°–

830°C+

   485°C

3h

S.A. 810°–

3h 475°–

830°C+

485°C

Form of

Product

   

Billets

Bars

Forgings

Billets

Bars

Forgings

 

Bar test- coupon, 16 mm dia.

 

Bars

Plates

Forgings

100 mm dia.

Forgings

Bar

Plate 10 mm thickness

Specification

   

DTD5212

DTD5232

 

AICMA-

FE-PA95

 

Table continued on pages 8 & 9

 

3 × thickness for sheet or plate 8 mm thick (transv. test)

 

   

 

– – – – – ––

 

   

   

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

J

Longit.

30

20

Transv.

 

J

20

Transv.

Longit.

12

   

   

DVM

 

 

DVM

   

   

25

 

 

20

   

   

40

 

 

30

 

Lo =

5 3 mm

       

= 5.65 SoLo

4

Lo = 5.65 So

   

 

3.5

 

– – – – – – ––

 

   50 (f)

 

6

 

 

4.5

   

   

 

 

 

2

(MPa)

   

1720

           

2

(MPa)

       

N/mm

 

1720

N/mm

 

1960

   

   

 

 

 

2

(MPa)

   

           

2

(MPa)

       

N/mm

 

1720

N/mm

 

1960

   

   

   

 

2

(MPa)

   

1620

           

2

(MPa)

       

N/mm

 

1620

N/mm

 

1910

   

   

   

 

2

(MPa)

     

           

2

(MPa)

       

N/mm

   

1620

N/mm

 

1910

 

350HV

 

(480

   HV)

353HB – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

(480

HV)

 

353HB

(542

HV)

 

S.A. 810°–

air-cooled

830°C,

 

470°–490°C

S.A. and

3h

aged

air-cooled

 

S.A. 810°

830°C,

air-cooled

S.A. and

470°–490°C,

air-cooled

3h

aged

 

S.A. 810°–

830°C,

air-cooled

35h 0 C,   

air-cooled

480°–500

and

aged

S.A.

 

hot- 10mm      

> or 0.5–6.0mm polished 6

descaled)

thickness

thickness

rolled,

Sheet

(cold-

Plate

or

Sheet and

plate:

thick

4>

6 mm

6 3 ≤ ≤ mm

> 2–3

mm

10

Bar

mm mm dia.

Forgings

2–100

70

thickness

mm dia.

thickness

Forgings 2100 Bar

70 mm

   

mm dia.

thickness

Forgings 2–100 Bar

70 mm

mm dia.

thickness

Forgings 2100 Bar

70 mm

Normenstelle

Lultfahrt

Werkstoff Nr.

I.6359:

I.6359.9

Werkstoff Nr.

I.6359.4

Werkstoff Nr.

I.6359.9

Werkstoff Nr.

I.6359.4

Normensielle

Luftfahrt

Werkstoff Nr.

I.6354:

I.6354.9

Werkstoff Nr.

I.6354.4

 

Table 6. continued

Radius for

180° bend

test

   

 

   

–48

 

Impact energy value

 

kgf/

cm 2

             

 

–Lo

Charpy V -notch

 

ft Ibf

   

Charpy V-notch

     

 

ftlbf

35

20

15

J

   

J

 

(16)

(14)

 

 

J

 

21

20

Test-

piece

           

 

 

Reduction area % of

             

40 (c)

35 (d)

35 (c)

30 (d)

30 (c)

25 (d)

 

Longit. Longit. Transv. Longit.

 

Test-piece obtained from cast test coupon

 

10

8

 

40 (c)

(d)

35 (c)

(d)

30 (c)

(d)

   

55

45

40

 

35

30

25

Elongation

     

= 5.65 SoLo

       

Lo = 2 in. or 50 mm

8

6

6

= 5.65So

 

%

   

(8)

 

4

3

8

6

6

 

12

10

9

 

Transv.

           

10 3 † Ibf/ in 2

210

240

280

 

 

Tensile strength

   

2

(MPa)

           

N/mm 2 † (MPa)

 

(900)

   

1600

1600

N/mm

1450

1650

1930

 

Longit.

 

10 3 † Ibf/ in 2

210

240

280

 

210

255

280

           

2

(MPa)

           
 

N/mm

1450

1650

1930

 

1450

1760

1930

 

Transv.

           

10 3 † Ibf/ in 2

200

235

230

260

275

305

 

 

0.2% proof stress

 

N/mm 2 † (MPa)

 

2

(MPa)

1380

 

1580

 

1900

       
 

(600)

   

14.50

1450

N/mm

1620

1790

2100

 

Longit.

 

10 3 † Ibf/ in 2

200

235

230

260

215

305

 

200

250

275

         

2

(MPa)

1380

 

1580

 

1900

       
 

N/mm

1620

1790

2100

 

1380

1725

1800

Hardness

   

(32

HRC)

 

(52 HRC)

 

 

Heat

treatment

condition

   

Homogenized

± 15°C,

air-cooled

   

Homogenized and aged 3 h 475°–

an-cooled

495°C,

 

S.A. 815°– 982 C (b)

   

S.A. and aged

 

1150°

+

3h 468°–

500°C

 

Form of

Product

   

Un-machined

castings

50 mm

section

thickness

 

Finished

cast parts

25 mm

> 25 50mm

thickness

section

 

Plate

Plate

Plate

 

Forgings

Forgings

Forgings

 

Specification

 

Normensteile

L uftfahrt

Werkstoff Nr.

I.6531;

I.6531.9

Werkstoff Nt.

I.6531.4

 

AS TM

A538-72a:

Grade A

Grade B

Grade C

 

ASTM A579-70 (e) :

Grade 71

Grade 72

Grade 73

Vacuum melting is normally required to achieve the listed properties, The indicated 0.2 per cent proof stress values

can usually be achieved at a depth = ¼ thickness in section sites up to 12 in (305 mm) in the direction of maximum

The minimum elongation value specified varies according to the thickness of the product and the test-piece gauge length as shown in the table below:

hot- working. Because of variations in forging configuration and processing it does not follow that the ductility and impact strengths listed can always be obtained at these depths.

Round test-piece. for plate thickness > 0.75 in (19 mm) a standard 0 . 5 in (12.7 mm) diameter test-piece shall be

used. for plate thickness 0.75 in (19 mm) sub-size round test-pieces or rectangular test-pieces may be used.

Lo = 5.65So for plate.

(c)
(e)

(f)
(g)

A double solution anneal is permissible. It is recommended that the lowest temperature is used, within the range

The KCU test is not a mandatory requirement of the specification, but impact values which may be expected are

specified. which will effect recrystallization at the mid-thickness position.

Specified value. Other values have been obtained by conversion.

figures in parentheses are approximate values to be expected.

quoted in the specification for guidance.

S.A. Solution annealed.

(a)

(b)

( )

 

       

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

       

 

Fracture toughness values are

 

high strength

 

 

Fracture toughness values are

 
 

 

Charpy V-notch

ftlbf

 

10

8

6

6

4

 

negotiated between purchaser

test is for suggested

and vendor. The ASTM

materials

sharp-notch

sheet

 

negotiated as stated above

 
 

   

J

 

14

11

8

8

5

 

 

 

       

Longit.

Longit.

Transv.

Longit.

Transv.

 

 

 

     

   

20

 

 

 

 

 

     

30

 

30

 

25

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

4

 

2

 

(g)

 

 

 

(g)

 

     

5

 

5

 

4

 

(g)

 

(g)

 

 

   

 

 

280

 

275

255

 

 

 

280

 

     

 

1930

 

1900

to be agreed between purchaser and vendor.

 

1760