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ASSIGNMENT #11 DUE 11/19/14

TJ BARRY

Exercise (9.4.1). Determine whether the following polynomials are irreducible in the rings

indicated. For those that are reducible, determine their factorization into irreducibles. The

notation F p denotes the ﬁnite ﬁeld Z/pZ, p a prime.

 (a) x 2 + x + 1 in F 2 [x]. Note that 0 2 + 0 + 1 = 1 = 0, and 1 2 + 1 + 1 = 3 ≡ 1 = 0, so the polynomial has no roots in F 2 [x]. By Proposition 9.4.10, it is then irreducible in F 2 [x]. (b) x 3 + x + 1 in F 3 [x]. Note that 1 is a root since 1 3 +1+1 = 3 ≡ 0 mod 3. So, (x−1) is a factor. By long division, we get (x−1)(x 2 +x+2), or equivalently (x+2)(x 2 +x+2). Note that x 2 +x+2 is irreducible since it has no roots in F 3 [x]. Thus, x 3 + x + 1 = (x + 2)(x 2 + x + 2) is the factorization into irreducibles. (c) x 4 + 1 in F 5 [x]. Note, (x 2 +3)(x 2 +2) = x 4 +5x 2 +6 ≡ x 4 +1 in F 5 [x]. Also, note that these factors are irredicible in F 5 [x] since none of x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 are roots of x 2 + 3 or x 2 + 2. (d) x 4 + 10x 2 + 1 in Z[x].

Let’s assume that it factors into the polynomials below,

x 4 + 10x 2 + 1 = (x 2 + ax + b)(x 2 + cx + d),

and determine what the coeﬃcients must be. Note,

(x 2 + ax + b)(x 2 + cx + d) = x 4 + (c + a)x 3 + (d + b + ac)x 2 + (ad + bc)x + bd,

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and hence

 c + a = 0 d + ac + b = 10 ad + bc = 0

bd = 1.

First, we note that c = a. Since we want integer coeﬃcients, bd = 1 implies that either b = d = 1 or b = d = 1. If b = d = 1, d + ac + b = 10 implies a 2 = 8, which has no integer solutions. If b = d = 1, this would imply a 2 = 12, which again has no integer solutions. So we conclude that no factorization exists, so x 2 + 10x + 1 is irreducible over the integers.

Exercise (9.4.2). Prove that the following polynomials are irreducible in Z[x]:

 (a) x 4 − 4x 3 + 6 Proof. Note that the prime 2 divides -4 and 6, but 2 2 does not divide 6. By Eisen- stein’s criterion, the polynomial is irreducible. (b) x 6 + 30x 5 − 15x 3 + 6x − 120 Proof. Note that the prime 3 divides the coeﬃcients 30, -15, 6, and -120, but 3 2 does not divide -120. By Eisenstein’s criterion, the polynomial is irreducible. (c) x 4 + 4x 3 + 6x 2 + 2x + 1 [substitute x − 1 for x.]

Proof. If

we let f (x) = x 4 + 4x 3 + 6x 2 + 2x + 1, and deﬁne

 g(x) = f (x − 1) = (x − 1) 4 + 4(x − 1) 3 + 6(x − 1) 2 + 2(x − 1) + 1 = x 4 + (−4 + 4)x 3 + (6 − 12 + 6)x 2 + (−4 + 12 − 12 + 2)x + (1 − 4 + 6 − 2 + 1)

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 Note that 2 divides both terms, but 2 2 does not divide the constant term. By Eisenstein’s Criterion, g is irreducible, and hence f is irreducible.

(d)

(x + 2) p 2 p

x

, where p is an odd prime.

Proof. Note that by the binomial theorem,

Hence,

(x + 2) p = p x p 2 0 + p

1

0

x p1 2 1 + p x p2 2 2 +

2

.

.

.

+

p 2 x 2 2 p2 + p 1 x 1 2 p1 + p

p

p

p x 0 2 p

= x p +

p! (p 1)! 2x p1 + 2(p

p! 2)! 4x p2 +

.

.

.

+

p!

(p 2)!2 2 p2 x 2 +

p!

1)! 2 p1 x + 2 p .

(p

(x + 2) p 2 p

x

= x p1 + 2px p2 + 2px p3 +

+ p(p 1)2 p3 x + p2 p1 .

Note that the prime p divides each coeﬃcient except the leading one, but p 2 does not

divide the constant term since p

the polynomial (x + 2) p 2 p

= 2 by assumption. Thus, by Eisenstein’s Criterion,

is irreducible.

x

Exercise (9.4.5). Find all the monic irreducible polynomials of degree 3 in F 2 [x], and the

same in F 3 [x].

Proof. In F 2 [x], note that the linear monic polynomials x and x + 1 are irreducible. Higher

degree polynomials are irreducible if and only if they do not have a root. Note that any

irreducible polynomial must have a constant term of 1, since a constant term of 0 would make

0 a root. Hence, the irreducible polynomials of degree 3 are of the form x 3 + ax 2 + bx + 1

or x 2 + cx + 1 for some a, b, c F 2 . This gives 6 potential polynomials, and by testing each

for a root x = 1, we ﬁnd that the ones without a root, and hence irreducible to be x 2 + x + 1,

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In F 3 [x], again the linear polynomials x, x + 1, and x + 2 are irreducible F 3 [x]. Again, the irreducible polynomials are the ones without a root in F 3 . For each the constant term must be nonzero, otherwise 0 would be a root. So, the polynomials are of the form x 3 +ax 2 +bx+c, or x 2 + dx + c, where c = 1 or 2, and a, b, d F 3 . This gives us 24 polynomials to check. By exhaustively testing each remaining polynomial for the roots x = 1 and x = 2, we ﬁnd the irreducibles to be:

x 3 + 2x 2 + 2x + 2,

x 3 + x 2 + 2,

x 3 + 2x 2 + x + 1,

x 3 + 2x 2 + 1,

x 3 + x 2 + 2x + 1,

x 3 + x 2 + x + 2,

x 3 + 2x + 2,

x 3 + 2x + 1,

x 2 + 2x + 2,

x 2 + x + 2,

x 2 + 1

Exercise (9.4.6). Construct ﬁelds of each of the following orders: (a) 9, (b) 49, (c) 8, (d) 81 (you may exhibit these as F [x]/(f (x)) for some F and f . [Use 9.2.2, 9.2.3] By Exercise 9.2.2, if F is a ﬁnite ﬁeld of order q, and f (x) is a polynomial in F [x] of degree n 1, then F [x]/(f (x)) has q n elements. By Exercise 9.2.3, this space F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld when f (x) is irreducible.

 (a) Note that 9 = 3 2 , so let F = Z/3Z, and f (x) = x 2 + x + 2, which was shown in Exercise 9.4.5 to be irreducible in F [x]. Then F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld of order 9. (b) Note that 49 = 7 2 , so let F = Z/7Z, and f (x) = x 2 +1. Note that f (x) is irreducible in F since it has no roots in F . Then, F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld of order 49. (c) Note that 8 = 2 3 , so let F = Z/2Z, and f (x) = x 3 + x 2 + 1, which was shown in Exercise 9.4.5 to be irreducible in F [x]. Then F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld of order 8. (d) Note that 81 = 3 4 , so let F = Z/3Z, and f (x) = x 4 + 2x 2 + 2. Note that since the prime 2 divides both the coeﬃcient of x 2 and the constant term, but 2 2 does not divide the constant term, so f (x) is irreducible by Eisenstein’s Criterion. Thus, F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld of order 81.

Exercise (9.4.18). Show that 6x 5 +14x 3 21x+35 and 18x 5 30x 2 +120x+360 are irreducible in Q[x].

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Proof. Since the coeﬃcients are elements of Z, which has the fraction ﬁeld Q, we can apply Eisenstein’s Criterion to show that these polynomials are irreducible. In the case of 6x 5 + 14x 3 21x + 35, note that the prime π = 7 does not divide the leading coeﬃcient of 6, but it does divide all others. Since 7 2 does not divide the constant term, that polynomial is irreducible in Q[x]. As for the polynomial 18x 5 30x 2 + 120x + 360, we note that the prime π = 5 does not divide the leading term of 18, but does divide all others. Since 5 2 does not divide the constant term, the polynomial is irreducible in Q[x].

Exercise (9.5.1). Let F be a ﬁeld and let f (x) be a nonconstant polynomial in F [x]. Describe the nilradical of F [x]/(f (x)) in terms of the factorization of f (x). (cf. 7.3.29)

Proof. Let g(x) be an element of the nilradical of F [x]/(f (x)), so there is a positive integer n such that (g(x)) n = 0. That is, (g(x)) n (f (x)), and hence (g(x)) n = f (x)h(x) for some h(x) F [x]. These polynomials have a factorization into irreducibles, g(x) = g 1 (x) ·

g 2 (x) ··· g r (x),

f (x) = f 1 (x) · f 2 (x) ··· f s (x), h(x) =

h 1 (x) · h 2 (x) ··· h t (x). Thus,

g n (x) · g

1

n

2

(x) ··· g

n

r

(x) = f 1 (x) · f 2 (x) ··· f s (x) · h 1 (x) · h 2 (x) ··· h t (x)

By Exercise 9.2.1, g(x) has order strictly less than f (x), so r < s. These factorizations are unique up to associates, so up to a possible reordering, we have g i (x) = u i (x)f i (x) for each 1 i s. That is, each irreducible factor of f (x) divides an irreducible factor of g(x), and

therefore divides g(x).

every irreducible factor of f (x).

Thus, each element of the nilradical of F [x]/(f (x)) is divisible by

Exercise (9.5.3). Let p be an odd prime in Z and let n be a positive integer. Prove that x n p is irreducible over Z[i]. [Use Prop 18 in Ch. 8 and Eisenstein’s Criterion.]

Proof. Since p is an odd prime in Z, either p 1 mod 4, or p 3 mod 4. If p 1 mod 4, then Proposition 18 in Chapter 8 says that p = a 2 + b 2 = (a + bi)(a bi), where a and b are unique up to sign change or interchanging a and b, and the factors a + bi and a bi are irreducible in Z[i]. Then, x n p = x n (a + bi)(a bi). Note that (a + bi) is a

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prime ideal of Z[i]. Since p is an element of the ideal (a + bi) but not an element of (a + bi) 2 ,

x n p is irreducible by Eisenstein’s Criterion.

If p 3 mod 4, then Proposition 18 in Chapter 8 says that p is irreducible. Then (p)

is a prime ideal of Z[i], and p (p) but p / (p) 2 . By Eisenstein’s criterion, x n p is

irreducible.

In these exercises R is a ring with 1 and M is a left R-module

Exercise (10.1.1). Prove that 0m = 0 and (1)m = m for all m M .

Proof. Let m M be arbitrary. Since M is an abelian group, it has an identity 0 where

0 + 0m = 0m. Hence,

0 + 0m = 0m = (0 + 0)m = 0m + 0m.

By cancellation in the abelian group, we have 0 = 0m.

In the ring, 0 = 1 + (1), and hence

0 = 0m = (1 + (1))m = 1m + (1)m = m + (1)m,

since 1m = m by deﬁnition.

desired.

By adding m to this equation we have m = (1)m, as

Exercise (10.1.8). An element m of the R-module M is called a torsion element if rm = 0

for some nonzero element r R. The set of torsion elements is denoted

Tor(M ) = {m M | rm = 0 for some nonzero r R}.

(a) Prove that if R is an integral domain then Tor(M ) is a submodule of M (called the

torsion submodule of M ).

Proof. Let m, n Tor(M ) be arbitrary. Then there are some nonzero r, s R such

that rm = 0 and sn = 0. Note that since R is an ID it is commutative and rs

= 0.

Note,

rs(n + m) = (rs)n + (rs)m = r(sn) + s(rm) = r0 + s0 = 0,

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so n + m Tor(M ). Now, let x R be arbitrary and note,

r(xm) = (rx)m = (xr)m = x(rm) = x0 = 0,

and hence xm Tor(M ). Thus, Tor(M ) is a submodule of M since it is a closed

group and closed under the ring operation.

 (b) Give an example of a ring R and an R-module M such that Tor(M ) is not a sub- module. [Consider the torsion elements in the R-module R.] Proof. Let R = Z/6Z. Note that 2, 3 ∈ Tor(R) since 2 · 3 = 6 ≡ 0 mod 6. However, 2+3 ∈/ Tor(R) since x·5 = 0 for all x ∈ R. Thus, Tor(R) is not a submodule because it is not a subgroup. (c) If R has zero divisors show that every nonzero R-module has nonzero torsion ele-

ments.

Proof. Let r, s R be nonzero such that rs = 0. Let m M be nonzero. If sm = 0,

then m Tor(M ), and we are done. Otherwise, note that

r(sm) = (rs)m = 0m = 0,

so sm Tor(M ). Thus, the R-module always contains nonzero torsion elements.

Exercise (10.1.9). If N is a submodule of M , the annihilator of N in R is deﬁned to be

{r R

| rn = 0 for all n N }.

Prove that the annihilator of N in R is a 2-sided ideal of R.

Proof. Let A denote the annihilator of N in R. Let a A. Then for any r R and n N ,

an = 0, and hence (ra)n = r(an) = r0 = 0, so ra is in A.

submodule, rn N , and hence (ar)n = a(rn) = 0, since a A.

conclude that it is a two-sided ideal.

Thus, ar A, and we

Now, note that since N is a

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Exercise (10.1.10). If I is a right ideal of R, the annihilator of I in M is deﬁned to be

{m M | am = 0 for all a I}.

Prove that the annihilator of I in M is a submodule of M .

Clearly

Now, let r R be

arbitrary, and we want to show that rm is in the annihilator of I . Note that for any a I ,

a(rm) = (ar)m = 0 since ar I as I is a right ideal, and m is in the annihilator of I. Thus,

rm is in the annihilator, and we conclude that it is a submodule.

Proof. Let m and n be in the annihilator of I.

this is closed under addition since a(m + n) = am + an = 0 + 0 = 0.

That is, am = an = 0 for all a I.

Exercise (10.1.11). Let M be the abelian group (i.e., Z-module) Z/24Z × Z/15Z × Z/50Z.

 (a) Find the annihilator of M in Z. (i.e., a generator for this principal ideal). Let (a, b, c) ∈ M . The annihilator of M in Z is a nonzero integer α such that α(a, b, c) = (0, 0, 0). That is, αa = 0 ≡ 24 , αb = 0 ≡ 15m, and αc = 0 ≡ 50n for some , m, n ∈ Z. Taking α = lcm(24, 15, 50) = 600 suﬃces, and this is the generator for the annihilator of M . (b) Let I = 2Z. Describe the annihilator of I in M as a direct product of cyclic groups.

| am = 0 for all a I.

That is, all ordered triples (a, b, c) such that x(a, b, c) = 0 for even integers x. That

Thus, we

see a = 12, b = 15, and c = 25 are the least such numbers, and hence generate the

annihilator. Thus, the annihilator is (12Z) × (15Z) × (25Z).

is, we require xa = 24 , xb = 15m, and xc = 50n for some , m, n Z.

Proof. The annihilator of I in M

would be the set {m M

Exercise (10.2.1). Use the submodule criterion to show that kernels and images of R-module homomorphisms are submodules.

Proof. Let M and N be R-modules, and ϕ : M N a R-module homomorphism. Note that ϕ is also a homomorphism on the abelian groups M and N , and so ker ϕ is known to

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be nonempty. Let x, y ker ϕ, and r R be arbitrary. Then,

ϕ(x + ry) = ϕ(x) + ϕ(ry) = ϕ(x) + (y) = 0 + r0 = 0,

so x + ry ker ϕ, and thus it is a submodule. Now, consider the image ϕ(M ). Note it is nonempty since ϕ(0) = 0 by properties of the group homomorphism. Let x, y ϕ(M ). Then there are a, b M such that ϕ(a) = x and ϕ(b) = y. Note that a + rb M , and hence

ϕ(a + rb) = ϕ(a) + ϕ(rb) = ϕ(a) + (b) = x + ry,

so x + ry ϕ(M ), and we conclude that the image ϕ(M ) is a submodule.

Exercise (10.2.2). Show that the relation “is R-module isomorphic to” is an equivalence relation on any set of R-modules.

Proof. Let denote the relation “is R-module isomorphic to,” and let M , N , and L be R- modules. Clearly M M since the identity map i : M M is an R-module isomorphism. Now, if M N , there is a R-module isomorphism ϕ : M N . Note that ϕ is bijective, so the inverse function ϕ 1 exists, and this inverse is a R-module homomorphism. Thus,

N M so the relation is symmetric. Finally, if N M and M L, then there are R-module isomorphisms ϕ : N M , and

ψ : M L. Note that the composition ψ ϕ : N L is a bijection, and a R-module

homomorphism. Thus, N L, and hence the relation is transitive. The relation is reﬂexive, symmetric, and transitive, and we conclude that it is a equivalence relation

Exercise (10.2.3). Give an explicit example of a map from one R-module to another which is a group homomorphism but not an R-module homomorphism.

Proof. Let R be the Hamilton quarternions, and M = R the R-module of R on itself. For the element i R, let ϕ : M M be left multiplication by i, x ix. Note that this map

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is a bijection, and it is a group homomorphism since for any x, y M ,

ϕ(x + y) = i(x + y) = ix + iy = ϕ(x) + ϕ(y).

Note that ϕ(j) = ij = k. If ϕ were a R-module homomorphism, we would have ϕ(rm) = (m), and hence

ϕ(j) = ϕ(j · 1) = (1) = j(i · 1) = ji = k.

That is, ϕ(j) = k and ϕ(j) = k, a contradiction. Thus, ϕ is not a R-module homormor-

phism.