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Exercise (9.4.1). Determine whether the following polynomials are irreducible in the rings
indicated. For those that are reducible, determine their factorization into irreducibles. The
notation F _{p} denotes the ﬁnite ﬁeld Z/pZ, p a prime.
(a) 
x ^{2} + x + 1 in F _{2} [x]. 

Note that 0 ^{2} + 0 + 1 = 1 = 0, and 1 ^{2} + 1 + 1 = 3 ≡ 1 
= 0, so the polynomial has 

no roots in F _{2} [x]. By Proposition 9.4.10, it is then irreducible in F _{2} [x]. 

(b) 
x ^{3} + x + 1 in F _{3} [x]. 

Note that 1 is a root since 1 ^{3} +1+1 = 3 ≡ 0 mod 3. So, (x−1) is a factor. By long 

division, we get (x−1)(x ^{2} +x+2), or equivalently (x+2)(x ^{2} +x+2). Note that x ^{2} +x+2 

is 
irreducible since it has no roots in F _{3} [x]. Thus, x ^{3} + x + 1 = (x + 2)(x ^{2} + x + 2) 

is the factorization into irreducibles. 

(c) 
x ^{4} + 1 in F _{5} [x]. 

Note, (x ^{2} +3)(x ^{2} +2) = x ^{4} +5x ^{2} +6 ≡ x ^{4} +1 in F _{5} [x]. Also, note that these factors 

are irredicible in F _{5} [x] since none of x = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 are roots of x ^{2} + 3 or x ^{2} + 2. 

(d) 
x ^{4} + 10x ^{2} + 1 in Z[x]. 
Let’s assume that it factors into the polynomials below,
x ^{4} + 10x ^{2} + 1 = (x ^{2} + ax + b)(x ^{2} + cx + d),
and determine what the coeﬃcients must be. Note,
(x ^{2} + ax + b)(x ^{2} + cx + d) = x ^{4} + (c + a)x ^{3} + (d + b + ac)x ^{2} + (ad + bc)x + bd,
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and hence
c + a 
= 0 
d + ac + b 
= 10 
ad + bc 
= 0 
bd = 1.
First, we note that c = −a. Since we want integer coeﬃcients, bd = 1 implies that either b = d = 1 or b = d = −1. If b = d = 1, d + ac + b = 10 implies a ^{2} = −8, which has no integer solutions. If b = d = −1, this would imply a ^{2} = −12, which again has no integer solutions. So we conclude that no factorization exists, so x ^{2} + 10x + 1 is irreducible over the integers.
Exercise (9.4.2). Prove that the following polynomials are irreducible in Z[x]:
(a) 
x ^{4} − 4x ^{3} + 6 

Proof. Note that the prime 2 divides 4 and 6, but 2 ^{2} does not divide 6. By Eisen 

stein’s criterion, the polynomial is irreducible. 


(b) 
x ^{6} + 30x ^{5} − 15x ^{3} + 6x − 120 

Proof. Note that the prime 3 divides the coeﬃcients 30, 15, 6, and 120, but 3 ^{2} does 

not divide 120. By Eisenstein’s criterion, the polynomial is irreducible. 


(c) 
x ^{4} + 4x ^{3} + 6x ^{2} + 2x + 1 [substitute x − 1 for x.] 
Proof. If
we let f (x) = x ^{4} + 4x ^{3} + 6x ^{2} + 2x + 1, and deﬁne
g(x) = 
f (x − 1) = (x − 1) ^{4} + 4(x − 1) ^{3} + 6(x − 1) ^{2} + 2(x − 1) + 1 
= 
x ^{4} + (−4 + 4)x ^{3} + (6 − 12 + 6)x ^{2} + (−4 + 12 − 12 + 2)x + (1 − 4 + 6 − 2 + 1) 
=
x ^{4} − 2x + 2.
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Note that 2 divides both terms, but 2 ^{2} does not divide the constant term. 
By 
Eisenstein’s Criterion, g is irreducible, and hence f is irreducible. 

_{(}_{d}_{)}
(x + 2) ^{p} − 2 ^{p}
x
, where p is an odd prime.
Proof. Note that by the binomial theorem,
Hence,
(x + 2) ^{p} = ^{p} x ^{p} 2 ^{0} + ^{p}
1
0
^{} _{x} p−1 _{2} 1 _{+} ^{} ^{p} ^{} _{x} ^{p}^{−}^{2} _{2} ^{2} _{+}
2
.
.
.
+
p − 2 ^{} _{x} 2 _{2} p−2 _{+} ^{} p − 1 ^{} _{x} 1 _{2} p−1 _{+} ^{} ^{p}
p
p
_{p} x ^{0} 2 ^{p}
= x ^{p} +
p! (p − 1)! ^{2}^{x} p−1 ^{+} 2(p
p! _{−} _{2}_{)}_{!} 4x ^{p}^{−}^{2} +
.
.
.
+
p!
(p − 2)!2 ^{2} p−2 ^{x} 2 ^{+}
p!
_{1}_{)}_{!} 2 ^{p}^{−}^{1} x + 2 ^{p} .
(p −
(x + 2) ^{p} − 2 ^{p}
x
= x ^{p}^{−}^{1} + 2px ^{p}^{−}^{2} + 2px ^{p}^{−}^{3} +
+ p(p − 1)2 ^{p}^{−}^{3} x + p2 ^{p}^{−}^{1} .
Note that the prime p divides each coeﬃcient except the leading one, but p ^{2} does not
divide the constant term since p
the polynomial ^{(}^{x} ^{+} ^{2}^{)} ^{p} ^{−} ^{2} ^{p}
= 2 by assumption. Thus, by Eisenstein’s Criterion,
is irreducible.
x
Exercise (9.4.5). Find all the monic irreducible polynomials of degree ≤ 3 in F _{2} [x], and the
same in F _{3} [x].
Proof. In F _{2} [x], note that the linear monic polynomials x and x + 1 are irreducible. Higher
degree polynomials are irreducible if and only if they do not have a root. Note that any
irreducible polynomial must have a constant term of 1, since a constant term of 0 would make
0 a root. Hence, the irreducible polynomials of degree ≤ 3 are of the form x ^{3} + ax ^{2} + bx + 1
or x ^{2} + cx + 1 for some a, b, c ∈ F _{2} . This gives 6 potential polynomials, and by testing each
for a root x = 1, we ﬁnd that the ones without a root, and hence irreducible to be x ^{2} + x + 1,
x ^{3} + x + 1, and x ^{3} + x ^{2} + 1.
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In F _{3} [x], again the linear polynomials x, x + 1, and x + 2 are irreducible F _{3} [x]. Again, the irreducible polynomials are the ones without a root in F _{3} . For each the constant term must be nonzero, otherwise 0 would be a root. So, the polynomials are of the form x ^{3} +ax ^{2} +bx+c, or x ^{2} + dx + c, where c = 1 or 2, and a, b, d ∈ F _{3} . This gives us 24 polynomials to check. By exhaustively testing each remaining polynomial for the roots x = 1 and x = 2, we ﬁnd the irreducibles to be:
x ^{3} + 2x ^{2} + 2x + 2,
x ^{3} + x ^{2} + 2,
x ^{3} + 2x ^{2} + x + 1,
x ^{3} + 2x ^{2} + 1,
x ^{3} + x ^{2} + 2x + 1,
x ^{3} + x ^{2} + x + 2,
x ^{3} + 2x + 2,
x ^{3} + 2x + 1,
x ^{2} + 2x + 2,
x ^{2} + x + 2,
x ^{2} + 1
Exercise (9.4.6). Construct ﬁelds of each of the following orders: (a) 9, (b) 49, (c) 8, (d) 81 (you may exhibit these as F [x]/(f (x)) for some F and f . [Use 9.2.2, 9.2.3] By Exercise 9.2.2, if F is a ﬁnite ﬁeld of order q, and f (x) is a polynomial in F [x] of degree n ≥ 1, then F [x]/(f (x)) has q ^{n} elements. By Exercise 9.2.3, this space F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld when f (x) is irreducible.
(a) 
Note that 9 = 3 ^{2} , so let F = Z/3Z, and f (x) = x ^{2} + x + 2, which was shown in Exercise 9.4.5 to be irreducible in F [x]. Then F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld of order 9. 
(b) 
Note that 49 = 7 ^{2} , so let F = Z/7Z, and f (x) = x ^{2} +1. Note that f (x) is irreducible in F since it has no roots in F . Then, F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld of order 49. 
(c) 
Note that 8 = 2 ^{3} , so let F = Z/2Z, and f (x) = x ^{3} + x ^{2} + 1, which was shown in Exercise 9.4.5 to be irreducible in F [x]. Then F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld of order 8. 
(d) 
Note that 81 = 3 ^{4} , so let F = Z/3Z, and f (x) = x ^{4} + 2x ^{2} + 2. Note that since the prime 2 divides both the coeﬃcient of x ^{2} and the constant term, but 2 ^{2} does not divide the constant term, so f (x) is irreducible by Eisenstein’s Criterion. Thus, F [x]/(f (x)) is a ﬁeld of order 81. 
Exercise (9.4.18). Show that 6x ^{5} +14x ^{3} −21x+35 and 18x ^{5} −30x ^{2} +120x+360 are irreducible in Q[x].
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Proof. Since the coeﬃcients are elements of Z, which has the fraction ﬁeld Q, we can apply Eisenstein’s Criterion to show that these polynomials are irreducible. In the case of 6x ^{5} + 14x ^{3} − 21x + 35, note that the prime π = 7 does not divide the leading coeﬃcient of 6, but it does divide all others. Since 7 ^{2} does not divide the constant term, that polynomial is irreducible in Q[x]. As for the polynomial 18x ^{5} − 30x ^{2} + 120x + 360, we note that the prime π = 5 does not divide the leading term of 18, but does divide all others. Since 5 ^{2} does not divide the constant term, the polynomial is irreducible in Q[x].
Exercise (9.5.1). Let F be a ﬁeld and let f (x) be a nonconstant polynomial in F [x]. Describe the nilradical of F [x]/(f (x)) in terms of the factorization of f (x). (cf. 7.3.29)
Proof. Let g(x) be an element of the nilradical of F [x]/(f (x)), so there is a positive integer n such that (g(x)) ^{n} = 0. That is, (g(x)) ^{n} ∈ (f (x)), and hence (g(x)) ^{n} = f (x)h(x) for some h(x) ∈ F [x]. These polynomials have a factorization into irreducibles, g(x) = g _{1} (x) ·
g _{2} (x) ··· g _{r} (x),
f (x) = f _{1} (x) · f _{2} (x) ··· f _{s} (x), h(x) =
h _{1} (x) · h _{2} (x) ··· h _{t} (x). Thus,
g ^{n} (x) · g
1
n
2
(x) ··· g
n
r
(x) = f _{1} (x) · f _{2} (x) ··· f _{s} (x) · h _{1} (x) · h _{2} (x) ··· h _{t} (x)
By Exercise 9.2.1, g(x) has order strictly less than f (x), so r < s. These factorizations are unique up to associates, so up to a possible reordering, we have g _{i} (x) = u _{i} (x)f _{i} (x) for each 1 ≤ i ≤ s. That is, each irreducible factor of f (x) divides an irreducible factor of g(x), and
therefore divides g(x).
every irreducible factor of f (x).
Thus, each element of the nilradical of F [x]/(f (x)) is divisible by
Exercise (9.5.3). Let p be an odd prime in Z and let n be a positive integer. Prove that x ^{n} − p is irreducible over Z[i]. [Use Prop 18 in Ch. 8 and Eisenstein’s Criterion.]
Proof. Since p is an odd prime in Z, either p ≡ 1 mod 4, or p ≡ 3 mod 4. If p ≡ 1 mod 4, then Proposition 18 in Chapter 8 says that p = a ^{2} + b ^{2} = (a + bi)(a − bi), where a and b are unique up to sign change or interchanging a and b, and the factors a + bi and a − bi are irreducible in Z[i]. Then, x ^{n} −p = x ^{n} − (a + bi)(a − bi). Note that (a + bi) is a
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prime ideal of Z[i]. Since p is an element of the ideal (a + bi) but not an element of (a + bi) ^{2} ,
x ^{n} − p is irreducible by Eisenstein’s Criterion.
If p ≡ 3 mod 4, then Proposition 18 in Chapter 8 says that p is irreducible. Then (p)
is a prime ideal of Z[i], and p ∈ (p) but p ∈/ (p) ^{2} . By Eisenstein’s criterion, x ^{n} − p is
irreducible.
In these exercises R is a ring with 1 and M is a left Rmodule
Exercise (10.1.1). Prove that 0m = 0 and (−1)m = −m for all m ∈ M .
Proof. Let m ∈ M be arbitrary. Since M is an abelian group, it has an identity 0 where
0 + 0m = 0m. Hence,
0 + 0m = 0m = (0 + 0)m = 0m + 0m.
By cancellation in the abelian group, we have 0 = 0m.
In the ring, 0 = 1 + (−1), and hence
0 = 0m = (1 + (−1))m = 1m + (−1)m = m + (−1)m,
since 1m = m by deﬁnition.
desired.
By adding −m to this equation we have −m = (−1)m, as
Exercise (10.1.8). An element m of the Rmodule M is called a torsion element if rm = 0
for some nonzero element r ∈ R. The set of torsion elements is denoted
Tor(M ) = {m ∈ M  rm = 0 for some nonzero r ∈ R}.
(a) Prove that if R is an integral domain then Tor(M ) is a submodule of M (called the
torsion submodule of M ).
Proof. Let m, n ∈ Tor(M ) be arbitrary. Then there are some nonzero r, s ∈ R such
that rm = 0 and sn = 0. Note that since R is an ID it is commutative and rs
= 0.
Note,
rs(n + m) = (rs)n + (rs)m = r(sn) + s(rm) = r0 + s0 = 0,
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so n + m ∈ Tor(M ). Now, let x ∈ R be arbitrary and note,
r(xm) = (rx)m = (xr)m = x(rm) = x0 = 0,
and hence xm ∈ Tor(M ). Thus, Tor(M ) is a submodule of M since it is a closed
group and closed under the ring operation.
(b) 
Give an example of a ring R and an Rmodule M such that Tor(M ) is not a sub 
module. [Consider the torsion elements in the Rmodule R.] 

Proof. Let R = Z/6Z. Note that 2, 3 ∈ Tor(R) since 2 · 3 = 6 ≡ 0 mod 6. However, 

2+3 ∈/ Tor(R) since x·5 = 0 for all x ∈ R. Thus, Tor(R) is not a submodule because 

it is not a subgroup.


(c) 
If R has zero divisors show that every nonzero Rmodule has nonzero torsion ele 
ments.
Proof. Let r, s ∈ R be nonzero such that rs = 0. Let m ∈ M be nonzero. If sm = 0,
then m ∈ Tor(M ), and we are done. Otherwise, note that
r(sm) = (rs)m = 0m = 0,
so sm ∈ Tor(M ). Thus, the Rmodule always contains nonzero torsion elements.
Exercise (10.1.9). If N is a submodule of M , the annihilator of N in R is deﬁned to be
{r ∈ R
 rn = 0 for all n ∈ N }.
Prove that the annihilator of N in R is a 2sided ideal of R.
Proof. Let A denote the annihilator of N in R. Let a ∈ A. Then for any r ∈ R and n ∈ N ,
an = 0, and hence (ra)n = r(an) = r0 = 0, so ra is in A.
submodule, rn ∈ N , and hence (ar)n = a(rn) = 0, since a ∈ A.
conclude that it is a twosided ideal.
Thus, ar ∈ A, and we
Now, note that since N is a
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Exercise (10.1.10). If I is a right ideal of R, the annihilator of I in M is deﬁned to be
{m ∈ M  am = 0 for all a ∈ I}.
Prove that the annihilator of I in M is a submodule of M .
Clearly
Now, let r ∈ R be
arbitrary, and we want to show that rm is in the annihilator of I . Note that for any a ∈ I ,
a(rm) = (ar)m = 0 since ar ∈ I as I is a right ideal, and m is in the annihilator of I. Thus,
rm is in the annihilator, and we conclude that it is a submodule.
Proof. Let m and n be in the annihilator of I.
this is closed under addition since a(m + n) = am + an = 0 + 0 = 0.
That is, am = an = 0 for all a ∈ I.
Exercise (10.1.11). Let M be the abelian group (i.e., Zmodule) Z/24Z × Z/15Z × Z/50Z.
(a) 
Find the annihilator of M in Z. (i.e., a generator for this principal ideal). Let 

(a, b, c) ∈ M . The annihilator of M in Z is a nonzero integer α such that α(a, b, c) = (0, 0, 0). That is, αa = 0 ≡ 24 , αb = 0 ≡ 15m, and αc = 0 ≡ 50n for some , m, n ∈ Z. Taking α = lcm(24, 15, 50) = 600 suﬃces, and this is the generator for 

the 
annihilator of M . 

(b) 
Let I = 2Z. Describe the annihilator of I in M as a direct product of cyclic groups. 
 am = 0 for all a ∈ I.
That is, all ordered triples (a, b, c) such that x(a, b, c) = 0 for even integers x. That
Thus, we
see a = 12, b = 15, and c = 25 are the least such numbers, and hence generate the
annihilator. Thus, the annihilator is (12Z) × (15Z) × (25Z).
is, we require xa = 24 , xb = 15m, and xc = 50n for some , m, n ∈ Z.
Proof. The annihilator of I in M
would be the set {m ∈ M
Exercise (10.2.1). Use the submodule criterion to show that kernels and images of Rmodule homomorphisms are submodules.
Proof. Let M and N be Rmodules, and ϕ : M → N a Rmodule homomorphism. Note that ϕ is also a homomorphism on the abelian groups M and N , and so ker ϕ is known to
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be nonempty. Let x, y ∈ ker ϕ, and r ∈ R be arbitrary. Then,
ϕ(x + ry) = ϕ(x) + ϕ(ry) = ϕ(x) + rϕ(y) = 0 + r0 = 0,
so x + ry ∈ ker ϕ, and thus it is a submodule. Now, consider the image ϕ(M ). Note it is nonempty since ϕ(0) = 0 by properties of the group homomorphism. Let x, y ∈ ϕ(M ). Then there are a, b ∈ M such that ϕ(a) = x and ϕ(b) = y. Note that a + rb ∈ M , and hence
ϕ(a + rb) = ϕ(a) + ϕ(rb) = ϕ(a) + rϕ(b) = x + ry,
so x + ry ∈ ϕ(M ), and we conclude that the image ϕ(M ) is a submodule.
Exercise (10.2.2). Show that the relation “is Rmodule isomorphic to” is an equivalence relation on any set of Rmodules.
Proof. Let ∼ denote the relation “is Rmodule isomorphic to,” and let M , N , and L be R modules. Clearly M ∼ M since the identity map i : M → M is an Rmodule isomorphism. Now, if M ∼ N , there is a Rmodule isomorphism ϕ : M → N . Note that ϕ is bijective, so the inverse function ϕ ^{−}^{1} exists, and this inverse is a Rmodule homomorphism. Thus,
N ∼ M so the relation is symmetric. Finally, if N ∼ M and M ∼ L, then there are Rmodule isomorphisms ϕ : N → M , and
ψ : M → L. Note that the composition ψ ◦ ϕ : N → L is a bijection, and a Rmodule
homomorphism. Thus, N ∼ L, and hence the relation is transitive. The relation ∼ is reﬂexive, symmetric, and transitive, and we conclude that it is a equivalence relation
Exercise (10.2.3). Give an explicit example of a map from one Rmodule to another which is a group homomorphism but not an Rmodule homomorphism.
Proof. Let R be the Hamilton quarternions, and M = R the Rmodule of R on itself. For the element i ∈ R, let ϕ : M → M be left multiplication by i, x → ix. Note that this map
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is a bijection, and it is a group homomorphism since for any x, y ∈ M ,
ϕ(x + y) = i(x + y) = ix + iy = ϕ(x) + ϕ(y).
Note that ϕ(j) = ij = k. If ϕ were a Rmodule homomorphism, we would have ϕ(rm) = rϕ(m), and hence
ϕ(j) = ϕ(j · 1) = jϕ(1) = j(i · 1) = ji = −k.
That is, ϕ(j) = k and ϕ(j) = −k, a contradiction. Thus, ϕ is not a Rmodule homormor
phism.
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