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INFORMATION
TECHNICAL-

~5 0644 00001089 6

""

- - - - - - - - - - - ---

II

- - -

I
SII

I>I
NO.

II

',iPPLICATION

In

12610I

OF COMPOSITE MATERIALS

TO TRUCK COMPONENTS:
LEAF SPRINGS AND PROPELLER.........
SHAFTS FOR 5-TO'N TRUCKS"

Department of Army Contract NumherF'.,AE 30-79-C-0146

November 1981

by

EXXON ENTERPRISES MATERIALS


US 276 & Old Laurens Road
Fountain Inn, South Carolina

S,1-'oo
Approved for public
release,
distribution unlimited.

U.S. ARMY TANK-AUTOMOTIVE COMMAND


RESEARCH
AND DEVELOPMENT
R
Warren,
Michigan
48090 Aa.9 CENTER

loI

DIVISION

29644

o,

UNCLASSTFTED
SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (When Data Entered)

REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE


I.

REPORT NUMBER

f
4.

READ INSTRUCTIONS
BEFORE COMPLETING FORM

2. GOVT ACCESSION NO.

RECIPIENT'S CATALOG NUMBER

S.

TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED

12610

TITLE (and Subtitle)

Application of Composite Materials to Truck


Components: Leaf Springs and Propeller Shafts
for 5-Ton Truck
7.

3.

AUTHOR(e)

Final Report
6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER
8.

R. L. Daugherty

"S.PERFORMING

DAAK 30-79-C-0146

ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS

10.

Exxon Enterprises Materials Division


US 276 & Old Laurens Road
Fountain Inn, South Carolina 29644
i1.

CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(a)

PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK


AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS

219 2040

CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS

12.

REPORT DATE

U.S. Army Tank-Automotive Command


ATTN:
DRSTA-RSC
Warren, Michigan

"14. MONITORING

November 1981

:
48090

13. NUMBER OF PAGES

AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(If different trom Controlling Office)

IS.

SECURITY CLASS. (of this report)

Unclassified
1Sa.

16.

DECLASSI FICATION/DOWNGRADING

SCH EDULE

DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report)

Unlimited

17. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of the abatraci entered In Block 20, If different from Report)

IS.

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES

19.

KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse aide If necessary and Identify by block number)

Composite Materials
Truck-Automotive Components
Resin Matrix Composites
2(L

ABSTRACT (Caautlrue am reverse

de bf IHI weea'y

Graphite-Epoxy
Fiberglass-Epoxy

d Identify by block number)

The objective of the program was to develop lightweight experimental truck


components, fabricated from synthetic materials.
In particular, leaf springs
and propeller shafts for the 5-ton Army truck are designed using resin matrix
composite materials.
Both design studies and prototype fabrication and testing
are included in the program.
For the leaf springs (both front and rear) a hybrid design using steel

DD

FOR

143

ED#T1ON OF I NOV65 ISOBSOLETE


SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (W11

Date Entered)

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(ehm, Data Entered)

leaves in combination with fiberglass-epoxy leaves produced the most costeffective solution. The propeller shaft design employed graphite-epoxy tubes
with adhesively bonded steel end sleeves.
The results of the design-material trade studies are included in the
report. The fabrication processes employed in making prototype parts are also
included as well as the test results obtained for the prototype parts.

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE(WIfthn Data Entered)

TABLE OF GONTENTS

Page

Section

INTRODUCTION

COMPOSITE MATERIAL PROPERTIES


2.1
2.2
2.3

Graphite-epoxy Systems
Fiberglass-epoxy Systems
Adhesives

27

3.1

Leaf Spring Assemblies


Design Criteria
3.1.1
Trade Study
3.1.2
Analysis of Composite Assemblies
3.1.3
Chosen Designs for Composite Assemblies
3.1.4

3.2

Propeller
3.2.1
3.2.2
3.2.3
3.2.4

Shafts
Design Criteria
Material Trade Study
Analysis of Composite Tubes and Joints
Chosen Designs for Composite Shafts

FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE

4.2

57
57
61
64
78

93
93
93

Assembly

Propeller Shafts
4.2.1
Composite Tube Fabrication
Assembly
4.2.2

93
93
97
98

TEST PROGRAM
5.1
5.2
5.3

27
27
29
33
51

93

MPONENTS

Leaf Spring Assemblies


Leaf Fabrication
4.1.1
4.1.2

11
11
12

DESIGN STUDIES

4.1

11

98
98
98

Non-Destructive Evaluation
Leaf Spring Assemblies
Propeller Shafts

BUDGETARY COST ESTIMATE FOR PRODUCTION

116

6.1

Leaf Spring Assemblies


6.1.1
Production Fabrication Process
Non-Recurring Investment
6.1.2
Production Costs
6.1.3

116
116
120
121

6.2

Propeller
6.2.1
6.2.2
6.2.3

Shafts
Production Fabrication Process
Non-Recurring Investment
Production Costs

124
124
124
129

6.3

Estimated Production Costs

131

section

Page

CONCLUSICS AND REPOMMENDATICMS

133

APPENDIX A Fabrication Process Sheets


For Leaf Spring
APPENDIX B Fabrication Process Sheets
For Propeller CmTposite Tube

A-I

APPENDIX C Ultrasonic C-Scan Results

C-i

APPENDIX D Leaf Spring Test Procedure

D-I

DISTRIBUT'ION LIST

B-I

LIST CF TABLES
TABLE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

TITLE

PAGE

Material Properties for HyEl048AIE


Material Properties for AS/1904
Material Properties for EF7172
Material Properties for 3M-SP250
Adhesive Properties: Lap Shear for HighStrength Graphite-Epoxy Bonded to Steel
Rear Spring Assembly Results of Materials
Study
Front Spring Assembly Results of Materials
Study
Results of Materials Study for Propeller
Shaft 11669147
Results of Materials Study for Propeller
Shaft 8332248
Final Design for High-Strength Graphite-Epoxy
Tube for P/N 8332248
Final Design for High-Strength Graphite-Epoxy
Tube for P/N 11669147
Final Design for High-Strength Graphite-Epoxy
Tube for P/N 8332245
Final Design for High-Strength Graphite-Epoxy
Tube for P/N 8332246
Weight omparison for TACOM Propeller Shaft
Tube Sections
Weight of Composite Spring Assemblies
Summnary of Initial Spring Rates for Front
Spring Assemblies
Vertical Fatique Results for Front Steel
Assembly
Vertical Fatique Results for Front COposite
Assembly S/N 1
Vertical Fatique Results for Front C(mposite
Assembly S/N 2
Summay of Initial Spring Rates for Rear Spring
Assemblies
Vertical Fatique Test Results for Rear Steel
Assembly
Vertical Fatique Test Results for Rear Composite
Assembly S/N 1
Vertical Fatique Test Results for Rear OCmsite
Assembly S/N 2
Vertical Fatique Test Results for Rear Composite
Assembly S/N 3
Estimated Production Costs

13
16
19
22
25
31
32
62
63
67
71
75
79
80
95
101
102
104
106
108
109
i1
113
114
132

LIST OF ILLUSTRATICNS
FIGURE
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

TIL

PAE

Glass-Epoxy Flexural Fatique Results


Glass-Epoxy Interlaminar Shear Fatique Results
Steel Main Leaf Under an Applied Torque Load
loading on Composite Leaves Due to an Applied
Torque
Steel Main Leaf Under an Applied Torque Load
Loading on Composite Leaves Due to an Applied
Torque
Windup Torque Force Reactions
Wiiposite Rear Leaf Spring Assembly
(cxrosite Front Leaf Spring Assembly
Omposite Design for P/N 8332248
Cmnposite Design for P/N 11669147
Composite Design for P/N 8332245
Omuposite Design for P/N 8332246
TEle
ooling for Leaf Spring Fabrication
Tooling for Propeller Shaft Omposite Tube Fabrication
Spring Assembly Test Set-Up
Clamped Spring Rate as a Function of Cycles
for Front Steel Assembly
Claped Spring Rate as a Function of Cycles
for Front Oamposite Assembly S/N 1
Clamped Spring Rate as a Function of Cycles
for Front Composite Assembly S/N 2
Clamped Spring Rate as a Function of Cycles
for Rear Steel Assembly
Clamped Spring Rate as a Function of Cycles
for Rear Omiposite Assembly S/N 1
Injection Molding Process
Cm--p ssion Molding Process
Learning Curves for OCuposite Rear Spring
Assembly
Learning Curves for Cmposite Front Spring
Assembly
Fabrication Process for Composite Tube
Learning Curves for Omposite Tube

34
34
40
40
47
47
49
52
54
81
84
87
90
94
96
99
103
105
107
110
112
118
119
125
126
127
130

SUMMARY
Exxon Enterprises Materials Division was awarded a contract by the U.S.
Army Tank-Automotive Command for the design, fabrication, and testing of components
for the 5-ton truck using synthetic materials. The development covered the
period from October 1979 through October 1981.
Exxon Enterprises Materials Division was responsible for the design trade
study for the front and rear leaf springs and the propeller shafts, the prototype
fabrication, and the initial laboratory testing of the fabricated parts.

PREFACE
The work described in this report was supported by the U.S. Army TankAutomotive Command under Contract Number DAAK 30-79-C-0146.
The contract was monitored by Mr.
Laboratory, Warren, Michigan.

Avery H. Fisher7 Tank Automotive Systems

The project was managed for Exxon Enterprises Materials Division by


Richard L. Daugherty, Manager of Engineering.

1
INTRODUCTION
1.1

Introduction and Background

Composite materials are materials with high strength-to-weight and


stiffness-to-weight ratios. These properties along with the advancing stateof-the-art for designing and fabrication with them and the dramatic reduction
in raw material costs make their application to commercial and industrial
components feasible. Weight reductions approaching 50% are achievable when
replacing conventional metal structures with advanced composite structures.
These materials can benefit the Army in several ways in truck applications.
Weight reductions will result in increased fuel efficiency and overall agility.
This will permit larger payloads to be transported.
In addition, composite
truck components are potentially more reliable than metallic components
because of their improved fatique and corrosion resistant properties.
Our objective was to show the feasibility of composite materials when applied
to the leaf springs and propeller shafts of the Army's 5-ton truck. The first phase
of the program was a material trade study to determine the weight savings possible
with the composite material systems appropriate for these applications. Four
factors were considered in the choice of the designs for further study: weight
savings, cost, fabricability, and interchangeability of the design with currently
fabricated components.
For the leaf springs, E-type fiberglass-epoxy designs offer weight savings
similar to those for the graphite-epoxy systems.
Cost factors, both for the raw
material and the fabrication, were the deciding factors for choosing the fiberglassepoxy design for prototype studies. The propeller shaft material trade studies showed
the graphite-epoxy designs to be the most effective.
In Phase II of the program, prototypes of the fiberglass-epoxy leaf springs
and graphite-epoxy propeller shafts-were fabricated.
For the leaf springs, expendable tooling and an
employed. Although this was a cost effective way of
components, geometric irregularities resulted. Such
used for production; therefore, these irregularities
for this program.

autoclave cure process were


producing prototype
a method would not be
were considered acceptable

The propeller shafts were fabricated using female tooling with an internal
rubber bladder to apply pressure during cure. Because of the joint necessary
between the composite tube and metal end sleeves, this tooling was extensive.
In prodution, filament winding could be substituted for this process.

Laboratory testing of the components was performed as the final phase of


the program. Both steel and composite material leaf springs were fatique tested;
the results demonstrated the fatique characteristics of the composite assemblies
were similar to those of the steel assemblies. The propeller shafts were tested
under the conditions established by the industry for the steel shafts. The static
strength of the composite shafts was well in excess of the required load. The
fatique tests showed the joint between the composite tube and the steel sleeves
failed after several thousand cycles; steel shafts fail after 75,000 - 100,000
cycles. These test results are to be related to actual requirements in field tests
to be performed by TACOM.
This report presents the results of the program performed by EEMD. To
establish the design properties for the composite materials considered appropriate for leaf springs and propeller shafts, a test program for E-type fiberglassepoxy and high-strength graphite-epoxy systems was performed. The results are
given in Section 2. The design study results, including the material trade
studies and final designs, are given in Section 3. The fabrication processes
used for producing the prototype parts are discussed in Section 4, while the
test results for the component testing are discussed in Section 5. Finally,
budgetary cost estimates for production of these components are presented in
Section 6.

10

2
COMPOSITE MATERIAL PROPERTIES
The material trade off studies, presented in Section 3, show that E-type fiberglassepoxy and high-strength graphite-epoxy are the material systems appropriate for leaf
springs and propeller shafts, respectively, for the 5-ton truck components.
In this
Section, the results of the material property testing program for these systems are
presented. Also presented are the test results for the adhesives considered for the
joint between the composite tube and steel end sleeves for the shafts.
The following tests were performed on unidirectional laminates for each
material system.

2.1

a.

Tensile test per ASTM D3039; properties were determined in both


the fiber and transverse to fiber directions.

b.

Flexural test per ASTM D790 with a 32:1 span to depth ratio.

c.

Shear test per ASTM D2733; performed at 50*C.

d.

Shear test per ASTM D2344; performed at room temperature (RT).

e.

Impact test per ASTM D256, Method A (Izod).

Graphite-Epoxy Systems
Two high-strength graphite-epoxy systems were tested:
-Fiberite HyE 1048 AlE, with Union Carbide Thornel
300 fiber.
-Hercules AS/1904, with Hercules AS-4 fiber.

The results are presented in Tables 1 and 2. The HyE 1048 system was chosen
for the prototype studies because of EEMD's processing experience with it; both
systems exhibit similar mechanical properties.
2.2

Fiberglass-Epoxy Systems
Two E-type fiberglass-epoxy systems were tested:
-3M SP-250 E
-U.S.

Polymeric EF-7172

The results are presented in Tables 3 and 4. The 3M SP-250 system was chosen
for the prototype studies because of its superior properties and EEMD's processing
experience with it.
11

2.3

Adhesives

The propeller shaft designs incorporate metallic end sleeves; the shaft
end fittings are welded to these end sleeves. To allow for interchangeability
of the composite shafts with the present metallic shafts, the end sleeves were
fabricated from the metal tube presently used.
The fabrication process for the composite tubes incorporates an adhesive
joint with the end sleeves formed during cure of the tube. Four adhesive
systems were tested to determine the most appropriate adhesive for this
application:
-3M AF13
-Hysol EA9628
-Metlbond 1133
-Cyanamid FM-73M
The selected process included contacting each major adhesive company, explaining the application, and allowing them to select the best adhesive from their
line. Only standard products were considered appropriate. This process
resulted in the list shown above.
The results of lap shear tests, in which high-strength graphite-epoxy
was bonded to steel, are given in Table 5.
The test procedure was in accordance
with ASTM D1002.
The results showed Metlbond 1133 to be the choice from shear strength
considerations; it is also the one with which EEMD has the most experience.
Therefore, Metlbond 1133 was used in the prototype fabrication program.

12

Table 1
Material Properties for HyE 1048 AlE

(a)

Specimen
No.

TENSILE - FIBER DIRECTION

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in. Thickness, in.

Maximum
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

0.500

0.0430

5908

274,800

21.9

0.500

0.0440

5820

264,600

21.9

0.499

0.0430

5897

274,800

21.2

0.500

0.0413

5401

261,600

21.5

0.501

0.0450

5953

264,000

21.3

268,000

21.6

6,400

0.3

Average
Std. Dev.

(b)

Specimen
No.

TENSILE - TRANSVERSE-TO-FIBER DIRECTION

Specimen Dimensions
Width,

in.

Thickness,

Maximum
in.

Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength,

Modulus,
psi

msi

1.000

0.0545

326

5,990

1.34

0.999

0.0546

349

6,410

1.32

0.999

0.0544

430

7,910

1.28

0.997

0.0548

355

6,500

1.32

1.001

0.0546

337

6,170

1.35

6,600

1.32

800

0.03

Average
Std. Dev.

13

(c)

Specimen
No.

FLEXURAL

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in. Thickness, in.

Maximum
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

1.001

0.0945

410

204,000

18.0

1.001

0.0927

408

211,000

18.0

1.002

0.0925

452

234,000

18.3

1.002

0.9003

373

205,000

17.3

1.007

0.0927

408

209,000

18.5

213,000

18.0

12,300

0.5

Average
Std. Dev.

Specimen
No.

(d) IMPACT (Izod)


Specimen Dimensions
Width, in.
Length, in.

Load
lbs

S
ft-lbs/in.

0.0895

2.50

4.40

0.0900

2.50

2.20

24.4

0.0929

2.50

2.14

23.0

0.0924

2.50

2.45

26.5

0.0906

2.50

1.62

17.9

Average

>23.0

Std. Dev.

3.7

* Incomplete Break

14

Specimen
No.

SHEAR STRENGTH AT 500C


(e)
Maximum
Specimen Dimensions
Load, lbs
Width, in. Area, in2

Strength
psi

0.999

0.487

1239

2,550

1.000

0.504

1246

2,470

0.999

0.503

1164

2,320

2,450

Average
Std. Dev.

120

Specimen
No.

(f)
SHEAR STRENGTH AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
Maximum
Strength
Specimen Dimensions
Load, lbs
psi
Width, in. Thickness, in.

0.250

0.130

534

12,310

0.250

0.130

551

12,720

0.251

0.126

525

12,440

0.251

0.126

513

12,160

0.251

0.126

540

12,810

.Average

12,500
300

Std. Dev.

15

Table 2
Material Properties for AS/1904

(a)

Specimen
No.

TENSILE - FIBER DIRECTION

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in. Thickness, in.

Maximum
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

0.498

0.0309

3825

248,600

19.6

0.498

0.0302

3858

256,500

19.9

3.

0.497

0.0308

3649

238,400

19.7

0.497

0.0307

4057

265,900

19.5

0.497

0.0310

3860

250,600

18.7

252,000

19.5

10,200

0.5

Average
Std. Dev.

Specimen
No.

(b) TENSILE - TRANSVERSE-TO-FIBER DIRECTION


Specimen Dimensions
Maximum
Ultimate
Width, in. Thickness, in.
Load, lbs
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

1.011

0.0390

288

7,370

3.86

1.006

0.0398

358

8,950

3.92

1.002

0.0400

335

8,360

3.77

0.999

0.0398

316

7,940

3.45

0.999

0.0397

380

9,570

3.76

8,400

3.75

900

0.18

Average
Std. Dev.

16

Specimen
No.

(c)
FLEXURAL
Specimen Dimensions
Maximum
Width, in. Thickness, in.
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

0.999

0.0840

400

226,000

17.5

1.000

0.0810

419

255,000

17.2

1.001

0.0835

382

218,000

16.7

1.001

0.0822

430

254,000

17.3

1.001

0.0853

416

228,000

16.5

236,000

17.0

17,000

0.4

Average
Std. Dev.

Specimen
No.

(d)
IMPACT (Izod)
Specimen Dimensions
Width, in.
Length, in.

Load
lbs

S
ft-lbs/in.

0.0810

2.50

2.65

32.7

0.0805

2.50

3.30

41.0

0.0807

2.50

2.18

27.0

0.0810

2.50

2.20

27.2

0.0802

2.50

2.20

Average

>32.0

Std. Dev.

6.6

* Incomplete Break

17

(e)

Specimen
No.

SHEAR STRENGTH AT 50*C

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in. Area, in2

Maximum
Load, lbs

Strength
psi

1.002

0.477

1318

2,760

0.999

0.471

1279

2,720

1.003

0.473

1182

2,490

Average

2,660

Std. Dev.

150

(f)

Specimen
No.

SHEAR STRENGTH AT ROOM TEMPERATURE

Specimen Dimensions
Width,

in.

Thickness,

Maximum
in.

Load,

Strength

lbs

psi

0.250

0.114

557

0.250

0.114

562

14,740

0.250

0.115

571

14,950

0.250

0.114

556

14,600

0.250

0.115

546

14,280

Average

14,620

14,600
200

Std. Dev.

18

Table 3
Material Properties for EF 7172

(a)

Specimen
No.

TENSILE - FIBER DIRECTION

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in. Thickness, in.

Maximum
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

0.496

0.0335

2822

169,800

6.34

0.496

0.0323

2646

165,200

6.34

0.495

0.0319

2579

163,300

6.34

166,100

6.34

Average
Std.

Dev.

3,300

(b)

Specimen
No.

TENSILE - TRANSVERSE-TO-FIBER DIRECTION

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in. Thickness, in.

Maximum
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

1.001

0.0658

318

4,820

1.88

0.993

0.0658

299

4,570

1.88

1.001

0.0636

295

4,640

1.86

4,680

1.87

130

0.01

Average
Std. Dev.

19

Specimen
No.

(c) FLEXURAL
Specimen Dimensions
Maximum
Width, in. Thickness, in.
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

1.001

0.106

428

190,000

6.49

1.001

0.100

358

178,000

6.33

1.001

0.105

417

185,000

6.47

184,300

6.43

Average
Std. Dev.

6,000

Specimen
No.

(d) IMPACT (Izod)


Specimen Dimensions
Width, in.
Length, in.

Load
lbs

.09

S
ft-lbs/in.

0.104

2.500

8.15

0.099

2.500

8.10

81.72

0.1037

2.500

7.05

68.45

0.105

2.500

7.15

68.10

Average

>72.76

Std. Dev.

7.76

*No Break

20

Specimen
No.

(e)
SHEAR STRENGTH AT 500C
Specimen Dimensions
Maximum
Width, in. Area, in2
Load, lbs

Strength
psi

1.001

0.505

1120

2,220

1.001

0.482

1186

2,460

1.001

0.488

1248

2,550

Average

2,410

Std. Dev.

Specimen
No.

170

(f)
SHEAR STRENGTH AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
Specimen Dimensions
Maximum
Strength
Width, in. Thickness, in.
Load, lbs
psi

0.251

0.102

269

7,850

0.251

0.103

282

8,200

0.251

0.104

245

7,020

0.251

0.104

284

8,140

0.251

0.105

270

7,690

Average

7,780

Std. Dev.

470

21

Table 4
Material Properties for 3M-SP250

(a)

Specimen
No.

TENSILE - FIBER DIRECTION

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in. Thickness, in.

Maximum
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

0.498

0.0335

3164

189,600

6.74

0.497

0.0333

2998

181,200

6.74

0.497

0.0328

3087

189,300

6.67

186,700

6.72

4,800

0.04

Average
Std. Dev.

Specimen
No.

(b) TENSILE - TRANSVERSE-TO-FIBER DIRECTION


Specimen Dimensions
Maximum
Ultimate
Width, in. Thickness, in.
Load, lbs
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

0.998

0.0400

234

5,850

2.33

0.999

0.0393

260

6,630

2.31

1.000

0.0390

288

7,380

2.44

6,200

2.36

770

0.07

Average

Std. Dev.

22

(c)

Specimen
No.

FLEXURAL

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in. Thickness, in.

Maximum
Load, lbs

Ultimate
Strength, psi

Modulus,
msi

1.000

0.0725

309

202,500

6.86

1.000

0.0729

306

198,900

6.60

1.000

0.0717

293

196,800

6.61

1.000

0.0715

298

200,800

6.74

1.000

0.0718

291

194,700

6.62

198,700

6.69

Average

Std. Dev.

3,100

(d)

Specimen
No.

.23

IMPACT (Izod)

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in.
Length, in.

Load
lbs

S
ft-lbs/in.

0.1015

2.500

8.1

0.1015

2.500

0.1011

2.500

8.2

80.1

0.1008

2.500

7.8

77.4

0.1004

2.500

7.3

72.7

Average

79.8
*

>77.5

Std. Dev.

3.4

*No Break

23

Specimen
No.

(e) SHEAR STRENGTH AT 50"C


Specimen Dimensions
Maximum
Width, in. Area, in2
Load, lbs

Strength
psi

1.000

0.509

1312

2,580

1.000

0.512

1312

2,560

0.999

0.497

1310

2,640

Average

2,590

Std. Dev.

40

Specimen
No.

(f)
SHEAR STRENGTH AT ROOM TEMPERATURE
Specimen Dimensions
Maximum
Strength
Width, in. Thickness, in.
Load, lbs
psi

0.250

0.129

459

10,630

0.250

0.128

474

11,130

0.251

0.132

441

10,020

0.251

0.130

483

11,120

0.251

0.129

446

10,310

Average

10,640

Std. Dev.

490

24

Table 5
Adhesive Properties:
Lap Shear for High-Strength
Graphite-Epoxy Bonded to Steel

Adhesive

Specimen

Specimen Dimensions

Maximum

Average Shear

Load, lbs

Strength, psi

System

No.

3MAP13

0.978

0.984

3516

3,650

0.984

1.008

3593

3,620

0.995

1.021

3715

3,660

0.983

1.007

2660

2,700

Width, in.

Length,

in.

Average

3,410

Std. Dev.
Hysol
EA9628

Metlbond
1133

470

0.987

1.009

1279

1,280

0.973

0.996

4089

4,220

0.995

1.016

3373

3,340

0.951

0.969

1764

1,850

Average

2,670

Std. Dev.

1,490

0.991

1.025

2557

2,520

0.983

1.007

4221

4,260

0.988

1.018

3593

3,570

0.985

1.013

4101

4,110

Average

3,620

Std. Dev.

790

25

Adhesive
System

Specimen
No.

Cyanamid
FM-73M

0.974

Specimen Dimensions
Width, in.
Length, in.

Maximum
Load, lbs

Average Shear
Strength, psi

1.003

2161

2,210

0.927

1.034

3208

3,360

0.921

1.029

2668

2,820

0.937

1.008

2745

2,910

Average

2,830

Std. Dev.

470

26

3
DESIGN STUDIES
3.1

Leaf Spring Assemblies

The objective of this program was to develop lightweight experimental truck


components fabricated from synthetic materials. For this prototype program,
P/N 7409613 (rear spring assembly) and P/N 7411110 (front spring assembly) for
the 5-ton truck were two of the chosen components.
3.1.1

Design Criteria

The general design criteria for the composite material leaf springs designs
are structural integrity, 40-50+% weight savings when compared with the
present parts, interchangeability of the prototype parts with the present
parts, and cost. Structural integrity was the major design criteria. Since
this is a prototype program, interchangeability of parts was also considered
important. Cost and weight savings were considered to be of equal importance.
For both the front and rear spring assemblies the general requirements can
be summarized as follows:
a.

The designs are to use at least a steel main leaf to ensure


structural integrity. For the front spring, this will maintain a
steel spring eye in a steel leaf; it is known that the complex stress
distribution in the eye area can be handled by such a design. For
the rear spring, this will provide a wear surface, with the remainder
of the suspension system, of known characteristics.

b.

The supporting leaves shall be fiber-reinforced composite for reduced


weight. Weight reductions of 50% are anticipated. Cost shall be a
determining factor as to which fiber-reinforced composite is chosen
for the final design.

c.

Areas of the composite leaves that contact other materials shall be


suitably protected from stress risers due to cutting, abrasion, heat
build-up and/or indentation which might result in premature failure.

d.

The design shall be interchangeable with the present steel multi-leaf


designs without modification to suspension components.
For the rear
spring this implies that two steel leaves be maintained because of the
dimensional envelope restraints of the brackets.

e.

Means shall be provided for leaf alinement to simplify installation


and to prevent dislocation in service.

f.

Present production frame height should not be altered.

27

The performance requirements to be met by each spring assembly are as


follows:
Rear Spring Assembly
a.

The rated load capacity shall be 15,810 pounds at the spring pad.

b.

The unclamped spring rate at the rated load capacity shall be 5,983
pounds per inch.

c.

The design shall be capable of withstanding the following maximum


in service loads:
(1) Vertical Load

(2)

- 2g (rated load + lg - 31,620 pounds)

Transverse Load - 0.75g (11,850 pounds)

Front Spring assembly


a.

The rated load capacity shall be 5,560 pounds at the spring pad.

b.

The unclamped spring rate at the rated load capacity shall be 2,780
pounds per inch.

c.

The design shall be capable of withstanding the following maximum


in service loads:

d.

(1) Vertical Load

2g (rated load + lg - 11,120 pounds)

(2)

Transverse Load

0.75g (4,170 pounds)

(3)

Longitudinal Load -

0.8g (4,448 pounds)

The design shall withstand acceleration and braking windup torques


of 39,817 inch-pounds at the axle seat.

Both Assemblies
a.

The design shall be capable of sustaining 11s of longitudinal twist


from the axle seat to the eye when a 2g vertical load is applied.

b.

The design shall meet the performance requirements at ambient temperatures ranging from -40*F to +160*F on a vehicle loaded to rated capacity.

c.

The impact strength shall be suitable to meet life requirements.

d.

Physical properties shall not deteriorate when exposed to any vehicle


fluids, i.e., gasoline, diesel fuel, windshield washer fluid, transmission and axle lubes, engine oils, antifreeze, ether, freon, brake
fluid, battery acids and steering fluid.
28

e.

The design shall be suitably protected from excessive heat build-up


due to internal friction, interleaf friction and/or accumulation of
foreign matter such as mud, stones, dust or salt.

f.

The design shall be capable of withstanding and maintaining a 150,000


pound clamp load, exerted by the U-bolts at axle seat while in service.

The spring assemblies shall be.laboratory tested for static load and rate
as well as undergo development fleet durability and fatique testing.
3.1.2

Trade Study

To meet the general requirements of interchangeability of the present and


prototype spring assemblies, two steel leaves are maintained for both the rear
and front springs.
The rear assembly must fit into brackets at the ends of the spring. These
limit the total spring tip height. Since composite materials have poor shear
strength, the composite leaves must all be of the same length. Thus, two
steel leaves, each 54 inches long, will be employed along with composite
support leaves that are 49 inches long.
The front assembly requires maintaining the present steel main leaf because
of the eye area. The second steel leaf is needed because of the longitudinal
load taken by the military wrap. Thus, if possible, the currently employed
first and second steel leaves will be used in the new design.
For comparison purposes, both front and rear springs will be designed using
the two steel leaves from the present multileaf steel designs with support leaves
of:
a.
b.
c.

graphite-epoxy
fiberglass-epoxy
a sandwich construction using graphite-epoxy faces
and a fiberglass-epoxy core

These comparisons are shown in Tables 6 and 7.


For the rear spring assembly, the fiberglass-epoxy design results in the
least number of leaves.
It also produces a 50% weight savings. On the basis
of material costs using 1980 anticipated prices:
Material System

Cost, Dollars/Pound

Steel
Fiberglass-Epoxy
Graphite-Epoxy

0.50
7.00
34.00

29

The three designs would have estimated material costs of:


Design of
Support Leaves

For Spring Leaves


Materials Cost,
Comparative
Dollars
Materials Cost

Graphite-Epoxy
Sandwich Construction
Fiberglass-Epoxy

1778
1054
509

3.49
2.07
1.00 (Ref)

Thus, on the basis of materials and fabrication costs, the chosen design for the
rear spring assembly is:
a.
b.

two steel leaves


support leaves of fiberglass-epoxy

All the front spring assembly designs have the same number of support
leaves and all have a weight savings of at least 50%.
The estimated
material costs for the different designs are shown below:
For Spring Leaves
Design of
Support Leaves
Graphite-Epoxy
Fiberglass-Epoxy
Sandwich Construction

Materials Cost,
Dollars
517
194
277

Comparative
Materials Costs
2.66
1.00 (Ref)
1 .43

Fiberglass-epoxy support leaves are chosen on the basis of cost. Another


reason for choosing fiberglass-epoxy support leaves is their damage tolerance:
fiberglass-epoxy is approximately twice as good as graphite-epoxy.

30

Table 6
REAR SPRING ASSEMBLY
RESULTS OF MATERIALS STUDY

MATERIAL SYSTEM
FOR SUPPORT LEAVES

WEIGHT OF LEAVES,
STEEL
SUPPORT
MAIN
LEAVES
LEAVES

NUMBER OF
LEAVES

POUNDS
TOTAL

High-Strength
Graphite-Epoxy

2 + 7

74.9

51.2

126.1

E-Type
Fiberglass-Epoxy

2 + 5

74.9

67.4

142.3

Sandwich Construction
of Graphite-Epoxy
Faces and FiberglassEpoxy Core

2 + 8

74.9

Present Steel Design

13

74.9

31

68.5
(19.9 of graphite
48.6 of glass)

218.5

143.4

293.4

Table 7
FRONT SPRING ASSEMBLY
RESULTS OF MATERIALS STUDY

MATERIAL SYSTEM
FOR SUPPORT LEAVES

High-Strength

WE IGHT OF LEAVES,
STEEL
MAIN
SUPPORT
LEAVES
LEAVES

NUMBER OF
LEAVES

POUNDS
TOTAL

2 + 2

48.6

14.5

63.1

E-Type
Fiberglass-Epoxy

2 + 2

48.6

24.4

73.0

Sandwich Construction
of Graphite-Epoxy
Faces and FiberglassEpoxy Core

2 + 2

48.6

Present Steel Design

11

48.6

Graphite-Epoxy

32

19.1
(4.4 of graphite
14.7 of glass)

100.4

67.7

149.0

3.1.3
a.

Analysis of Composite Assemblies


Starting Point for Analysis of Fiberglass-Epoxy Designs

The starting point for the final design is the requirement of the vertical
load to be carried by the spring. This load is to be applied to the spring 150,000
times without failure. The material system to be used is fiberglass-epoxy.
Typical fatique curves for fiberglass-epoxy are given in Figure 1.
flexural fatique properties are taken as:

The

Axial Modulus = 5.5 msi


Flexural Strength = 55,000 psi
This means that the material is assumed to be exposed to a maximum stress of
55,000 psi and an alternating stress of about 25,000 psi. This implies a fatique
life of greater than 1,000,000 cycles, as shown in Figure 1.
The fatique shear strength is taken as 4,000 psi; the static allowable
shear strength is 8,000 psi. Thus, as seen in Figure 2, the fatique life is
greater than 1,000,000 cycles.
The density of fiberglass-epoxy is 0.073 pounds/inch 3 .
b.

Analysis of Rear Spring Assembly

The dimensions of the present steel spring are given in the TACOM drawing
for P/N 7409613. For the analysis of the load distribution, the spring is
taken in the flat condition. Thus, the distance from the support to the
center bolt is 27.00 inches.
Because of the brackets currently used at the spring support, only the first
two leaves can extend the full 54 inches. The maximum length allowable for
the other leaves is 49 inches if these brackets are to be used in the redesign.
Composite materials have poor fatique shear strength compared to metals. This
means that all composite leaves must be of the same length if major weight
penalties are not to be incurred. Therefore, two steel leaves, each spanning
between the supports, will be used. The composite leaves will all be 49
inches long. The preliminary designs presented above do not include this
length restriction. The fiberglass-epoxy support leaf case has been investigated with this restriction and the results are presented below.
The preliminary design with composite leaves being 49 inches long would
result in a maximum flexural stress in the steel leaves of 198,000 psi. The
maximum flexural stress in the multi-leaf steel design is 158,000 psi. There
are three means of reducing the maximum stress in the hybrid design to 158,000
psi:

33

Tensile Strength

120

100
ompressive Strength

40

Cycles to Failure

FIGURE 1

GLASS-EPOXY
RES ULTS

FLEXURAL FATIQUE

1.0C
0.911HM

I I I

0.6
0.7
r

0.5
S0.4

S0.3

0.2

0.1

3M Scotchply 10032 Glass-Epoxy


R-*0.1 Sin usoidal Frequency-4 cps
Residual Strength -96% of Static Ult.

Cycles

FIGURE 2

GLASS-EPOXY INTERLAMINAR SHEAR


FATIQUE RESULTS

34

a.
b.
c.

Reduce the thickness of the steel leaves


Change the initial curvature of the steel leaves
so that a pre-load would negate this additional
stress
Increase the number of support leaves

Maintaining the current steel leaves results in the highest structural integrity.
To minimize weight, option b. was investigated and found to yield the required
stress redistribution.
Using the 0.558-inch thick steel leaves gives the following stress analysis
results:
a.

Steel Main Leaf


The 0.558-inch thick present steel main leaf has a spring
rate of 530 pounds/inch:

L1
27

.00"-

27.004-

S=PL3
48EI
E - 30 x 10 6 psi

I - 1
12

(4)

(0.558)3

where
S = deflection under the load P
thus
P/S= 530 pounds/inch

35

(2)

The composite leaves, therefore, need to have a spring rate


of
K - 5,983 - 2(530) -

4,923 pounds/inch

Because the composite leaves are only 49 inches long, they


must be designed to a spring rate of
K - 4,923 (27)2

T4

6,231 pounds/inch

The length of 24 inches was chosen from considerations of


the load transfer.
The portion of the vertical load carried by the steel main leaves
is:
Load in Steel Leaves - 1,060

(31,620)

5,602 pounds

5,983
Thus, the design criteria for the composite leaves are:
Spring rate - 6,231 pounds/inch
Load - (27) (31,620 - 5,602) - (1.13) [26,018] - 29,270 pounds
TT
where the factor is required because of the shorter composite leaves.
Using these and the material properties in the composite program for
leaf springs developed by EEMD, gives a spring assembly of two steel
leaves, each 0.558 inch thick, and five fiberglass-epoxy leaves. The
composite leaves are tapered with a seat thickness of 1.432 inches per
leaf and a tip thickness of 0.724 inches per leaf. They are all of the
same length and span. The total weight of the spring leaves is:
74.9 pounds of steel
72.3 pounds of fiberglass-epoxy
147.2 pounds total
This is a 49.8% weight savings over the multileaf steel spring.
This results in a stack height for the composite spring of 8.576 inches;
this is 1.322 inches more than the present steel spring. However, frame
height of the vehicle is unchanged.
Accepting this design as final, an analysis of it
that is meets the other design criteria.

36

is performed to show

c.

General Design Requirements


The design given previously meets the general design requirements (see

3.1.1):
a. The design utilizes two steel leaves; this insures the
structural integrity of the attaching member since it employs
the presently used leaves
b. The supporting leaves are of fiberglass-epoxy; the weight of
the spring assembly has been reduced by more than 145 pounds
through this redesign
c. The composite leaves have wear pads between them and the other
components of the spring assembly to protect them
d. The steel fiberglass design is interchangeable with the present
. steel design
e. To provide leaf alignment, a center bolt will be used. This
bolt is in an area of zero bending load if the seat clamp is
tight. As such, the stress concentration in the composite due
to the hole is not a problem.
If the seat clamp is not tight,
some stress will exist in the leaves in the area of the hole.
In the composite, the stress concentration factor caused by the
hole is approximately 6, whereas in steel the factor is about 4
(see Advances in Joining Technology, J. Burke, A. Gorum, and
A. Tarpinian, 1976, p. 405-452).
Thus, the use of a center bolt
is acceptable.
f. Frame height has not been altered
d. Performance Requirements for Spring Assembly
Some of the performance requirements for the spring assembly were
criteria of the design process:
a. The unclamped spring rate of the assembly is 5,983 pounds/inch.
b. The spring has a design life of 150,000 cycles under the vertical load of 31,620 pounds.
c. Fiberglass-epoxy has the required impact resistance to meet
life requirements.
d. The properties used for fiberglass-epoxy in the design are
appropriate for the temperature range of -40OF to 160*F. These
properties do not deteriorate when exposed to vehicle fluids.
37

e. The design has


them from wear
pads have been
foreign matter

wear pads between the composite leaves to protect


and excessive heat buildup due to friction. Wear
used in previous designs without accumulation of
in the spring assembly.

The remaining performance requirements must be investigated.


a. The design shall be capable of withstanding a transverse load of
0.75g - 11,850 pounds. This load acts on the steel main leaf and
causes a maximum shear stress of:
:.-3

(11,850/2)

4 x 0.558

3,982 psi

The fatique allowable shear stress in the steel is greater than 40,000 psi.
b. The design shall be capable of sustaining 11" of longitudinal
twist from the axle seat to the eye when the 31,620 pound
vertical load is applied.
Consider a steel leaf of the dimensions shown in Figure 3. This beam is clamped
at one end and has a ii1 twist at the other. Using formulae developed in Theory
of Elasticity by S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, the torque T required is:
T

- c2

G a b3

7
where

SL
a
G

ll
- 0.192 radians
- 23.50 inches
- 4,
b- 0.558,
c 2 - 0.300
- ll.54Msi

- 19,660 lb-in.

then
The maximum shear stress resulting from this load is:
C1l

where
C1

3.34

or

"Z- 52.725 psi

38

Since the present steel design has to meet this same criterion, this stress level
It is below the maximum allowable shear stress.
is therefore acceptable.
The composite leaves can be analyzed assuming that the load resultant of 30,544
pounds takes place at each end of the spring as shown in Figure 4.
It is shown below that, with the preload, the load to be carried by the composite
leaves is 30,544 pounds.
This causes an applied torque on the leaves of:
T

(30,544)

(2)

2
- 30,544 inch-pounds
or, per leaf
T

= 30,544

6,109 inch-pounds

5
This results in a maximum shear stress of:
"

c1

- 4,

-- T
Tab 2

-= 3.42

b=-0.724, cl = 3.42
6,109
(4) (0.724)-

"r= 9,965 psi

The shear allowable is 12,000 psi; the margin of safety is then


20.4%.
c. The design shall be capable of withstanding and maintaining a
150,000 pound clamp load, exerted by the U-bolts, at axle seat
while in service.
The plate area for the seat clamp is:
A

11.5 x 4

2
= 46.0 inches

39

FIGURE 3

STEEL MAIN LEAF UNDER AN


APPLIED TORQUE LOAD

32556

lb

4"

FIGURE 4

LOADING ON COMPOSITE LEAVES


DUE TO AN APPLIED TORQUE

40

A clamping load of 150,000 pounds thus causes a compressive


stress in the leaves of:
O-= 150,000
46.0

3,260 psi

The allowable compressive stress in the composite is 16,000


psi while that in the steel is greater than 40,000 psi.
e.

Stresses in Steel Main Leaf in Final Design

The SAE Manual on Design and Appliction of Leaf Springs, SAE J788a,
1970, gives formulae for symmetrical semi-elliptic leaf springs. The
equation for maximum normal stress in the spring is:

a--=3LP
where
L is shown in the figure below
t = thickness of leaves
N = number of leaves
w = width of leaves

tp
L

--"

Spring Geometry
For the presently used steel design:
w = 4 inches
t = 0.558 inch
N = 13
L = 54.00 inches

and, thus, the maximum normal stress under the fatique load of 31,620
pounds is:
0' -

3(54) (31,620)
2(4)

=r
-

(13)

(.558)A

158,200 psi

41

One method for analytically determining the maximum stress in the steel
leaves of the hybrid design is to note the measurements of the deflections and
stresses in very accurately made multileaf springs have shown that the same
formulae apply as if it were a one-leaf spring of appropriate width. This is
a preliminary procedure for determining the lengths of the leaves in a multileaf spring. To apply this method to the hybrid spring design, the width of
the composite leaves must be adjusted to simulate the constant thickness steel
leaves:
(EI)composite leaf

(EI) simulated leaf

where
(EI) simulated leaf

E steel (1 ) (b)
12

(t3)

and
t - thickness of steel main leaf
b - resulting width of simulated leaf
Using this process, the stresses in the steel leaves of the hybrid design
were calculated. For the case of 0.558 inch thick steel leaves, the maximum
normal stress is 198,000 psi. This is greater than in the current steel spring;
it may be reduced to 158 ksi by introducing a preload. This will place an additional 1,274 pound load in the composite leaves. Analysis of the composite
leaves under this load yields a maximum flexural stress (in the composite leaves)
of 54 ksi. This is acceptable.
f.

Analysis of Front Spring Assembly

The dimensions of the present steel spring are given in the TACOM drawing
for P/N 7411110.
For the analysis of the load distribution, the spring is taken
in the flat condition. Thus, the distance from the eye to the center bolt is
25 inches.
For the three-inch wide leaves, the results are:
(1) Steel Main Leaf
The 0.447 inch thick present steel main leaf has a spring rate of
268 pounds/inch:

42

+l

25.oo"

--

25.00'q

48EI
E = 30 x 10 6 psi
I =

1
12

(3)

(.447)3

where
6 = deflection under the load P
thus
P/s = 268 pounds/inch
(2) The composite leaves, therefore, need to have a spring rate
of:
K = 2,780 - 2(268)

= 224 pounds/inch

The portion of the vertical load carried by the steel main


leaf is:
Load in Steel Leaf

= (268)
2,780

(11,120)

1,072 pounds

Thus, the design criteria for the composite leaves are:


Spring rate

2,244 pounds/inch

Load

11,120 - 2,144

8,976 pounds

Using these and the material properties in the composite program for
leaf springs developed by EEMD gives a spring assembly of two steel leaves,
each 0.447 inch thick, and two fiberglass-epoxy leaves. The composite leaves
are tapered with a seat thickness of 1.60 inches per leaf and a tip thickness
of 0.643 inch per leaf. Both are of the same length and span between the two
end supports. The total weight of the leaves is:

43

48.6 pounds of steel


24.4 pounds of fiberglass-epoxy
73.0 pounds total
The result of this design is a stack height of 4.2 inches; this is 0.70
inches less than the present steel spring and will change the frame height of
the vehicle. This will be increased to match present stack height by using
risers in the final design.
Accepting this design as final, an analysis is performed to show that
it meets the other design criteria.
g.

General Design Requirements

The design given above meets the general design requirements (see Section
3.1.1):
(1) The design utilizes two steel leaves; this ensures the structural
integrity of the attaching member since it employs the presently
used leaves.
(2) The supporting leaves are of fiberglass-epoxy; the weight of
the spring assembly has been reduced by more than 76 pounds
through this redesign (neglecting riser plates)
(3) The composite leaves have wear pads between them and the other
components of the spring assembly to protect them
(4) The steel-fiberglass design is interchangeable with the present
steel design
(5) To provide leaf alinement, a center bolt will be used. This
bolt is in an area of zero bending load if the seat clamp is
tight. As such, the stress concentration in the composite due
to the hole is not a problem.
If the seat clamp is not tight,
some stress will exist in the leaves in the area of the hole.
In the composite, the stress concentration factor caused by the
hole is approximately 6, whereas in steel the factor is about 4
(see Advances in Joining Technology, J. Burke, A. Gorum, and
A. Tarpinian, 1976, p. 405-452).
Thus, the use of a center bolt
is acceptable.
(6) Frame height has been altered; risers will be added in the final
design to eliminate this problem.

44

h.

Performance Requirements for Spring Assembly

Some of the performance requirements for the spring assembly were criteria
on the design process:
(1) The unclamped spring rate of the assembly is 2,780 pounds/inch.
(2)

The spring has a design life of 150,000 cycles under the vertical
load of 11,120 pounds.

(3)

Fiberglass-epoxy has the required impact resistance to meet life


requirements.

(4)

The properties used for fibeglass-epoxy in the design are


appropriate for the temperature range of -40*F to +1600F.
These
properties do not deteriorate when exposed to vehicle fluids.

(5)

The design has


them from wear
pads have been
foreign matter

wear pads between the composite leaves to protect


and excessive heat build-up due to friction. Wear
used in previous designs without accumulation of
in the spring assembly.

The remaining performance requirements must be investigated.


(1) The design shall be capable of withstanding a transverse load of
0.75g = 4,170 pounds. This load acts on the steel main leaf and
causes a maximum shear stress of:
=

(4,170/2)

3 x .447

2,332 psi

The fatique allowable shear stress in the steel is greater than


40,000 psi.
(2)

The design shall be capable of withstanding a longitudinal load


of .8g = 4,448 pounds.
This load acts on the steel main leaf and
results in a normal stress of:
-=

4,448

= 3,317 psi

3 (.447)
Fatique allowable stress in the steel is 80,000 psi.
(3)

The design shall be capable of sustaining 11 of longitudinal


twist from the axle seat to the eye when the 11,120 pound vertical load is applied.

45

The beam is clamped at


Consider a steel leaf of the dimensions shown in Figure 5.
Using formulae developed in Theory of
one end and has a ii* twist at the other.
Elasticity by S. Timoshenko and J. N. Goodier, the torque T required is:
T

c2
C

G a b3

L
where
L-

11" - 0.192 radians.


20.75 inches

3,

S-

b - 0.447,

c2 - 0.298

G = 11.54 Msi

then
T

8526 inch-pounds

The maximum shear stress resulting from this loading is:

ab2
where
cl - 3.36

or
"r

- 47,790 psi

Since the present steel design has to meet this same criterion, this stress level
is therefore acceptable.
It is below the maximum allowable shear stress.
The composite leaves can be conservatively analyzed assuming that the load resultan
of 8,976 pounds takes place at each end of the spring as shown in Figure 6.
This causes an applied torque on the leaves of:
T

(8,976)
2

(1.5)

- 6,732 lb-in.

46

FIGURE 5

STEEL MAIN LEAF UNDER AN


APPLIED TORQUE LOAD

8976

FIGURE

lb
lb.

LOADING ON COMPOSITE LEAVES


DUE TO AN APPLIED TORQUE

47

or, per leaf


T

6,732
2

- 3,366 inch-pounds

This results in a maximum shear stress of:

3,

b - 0.643,

3.47

cI - 3.47

3,366
(3) (.643)4

9,417 psi

The shear allowable is 12,000 psi; the margin of safety is then


21.5%.
(4)

The design shall withstand acceleration and braking windup


torques of 39,817 inch-pounds at the axle seat.
The reactions due to the applied torque are 796 pounds as
shown in Figure 7.
Since the spring design is based on the fatique condition, this
additional vertical loading has already been included in the
analysis.

(5)

The design shall be capable of withstanding and maintaining a


150,000 pound clamp load, exerted by the U-bolts at axle seat
while in service.
The plate area for the seat clamp is:
A -

8.5 x 3

25.5 inches 2

A clamping load of 150,000 pounds thus causes a compressive


stress in the leaves of:
O

150,000
25.5

5,882 psi

The allowable compressive stress in the composite is 16,000 psi


while that in the steel is greater than 40,000 psi.

48

39,817 in-lb

F1

F2

50 inches

FIGURE 7

WINDUP TORQUE FORCE


REACTIONS

49

i.

Stresses in Steel Main Leaf in Final Design

The SAE Manual on Design and Application of Leaf Springs, SAE J788a,
1970, gives formulae for symmetrical semi-elliptic leaf springs. The equation
for maximum normal stress in the spring is:
-

3LP

is
-

shown in the figure below


thickness of leaves
number of leaves
width of leaves

where
L
t
N
w

p
I-

I-

Spring Geometry
For the presently used steel design:
w - 3 inches
t - 0.447 inch
N - 11
L - 50.00 inches
and, thus, the maximum normal stress under the fatique load of 11,120
pounds is:

0'

3(50)(11,120)
2(3)(11)(.447)7

126,485 psi

One method for analytically determining the maximum stress in the steel

leaves of the hybrid design is to note that measurements of the deflections


and stresses in accurately made multileaf springs have shown that the
same formulae apply as if they were a one-leaf spring of appropriate width.
This
is a preliminary procedure for determining the lengths of the leaves in a multileaf spring. To apply this method to the hybrid spring design, the width of
the composite leaves must be adjusted to simulate the constant thickness steel
leaves:

50

(EI)composite leaf

(EI)simulated leaf

(EI) simulated leaf

Esteel ( 1 ) (b) (t 3 )

where

12

and
t
b

= thickness of steel main leaf


= resulting width of simulated leaf

Using this process, the stresses in the steel leaves of the hybrid
design were calculated.
For the 0.447 inch thick steel leaves, the
maximum normal stress is 89,177 psi. Since this method can only yield
approximate results, it is concluded that this stress is equivalent to or
less than that in the present multileaf steel design. Therefore, the
currently used steel leaves can be employed in the composite design.
3.1.4

Chosen Designs for Composite Assemblies

Figures 8 and 9 show the final composite designs for the rear and front
leaf spring assemblies.
These designs were used for the prototype fabrication program.

51

HEH

iE-1

rzl

52

ITEM

PART

QUAN.

NO.

REQD.

10032-1

10032-2

PART OR MATERIAL NAME

Steel Leaf No. 1 from TACOM Assembly


(7409613)
Steel Leaf No. 2 from TACOM Assembly
(7409613)

10032-3

Composite Leaf 3M SP-250-E

10032-4

Composite Leaf 3M SP-250-E

10032-5

Composite Leaf 3M SP-250-E

10032-6

Composite Leaf 3M SP-250-E

10032-7

Composite Leaf 3M SP-250-E

10031-13
Sheet 2

Bolt,1/2-20 UNF 2A See Dwg


10031 Sheet 2

Nut,1/2-20 UNF 2A Std

10

Spacer

11

20

Wear Pad

Clip

13

AR

Hysol EA-8

14

AR

Hysol 934

15

AR

EA 3532

12

10031-14
Sheet 2

Figure 8 (b)

See Dwg 10032


See Dwg 10032

See Dwg 10031 Sheet 2

COMPOSITE REAR SPRING PARTS LIST (P/N 10032)

53

E-4

04

54

It

Lo

d.

I.,

0*0

0E-4

rrn~~rn~~flrH

orz

CM

D~mrnL~F-4m

gu

*JP
,j

Lo

tz

IsH
of0
InH
'Ir1

55~

ITEM

PART

QUAN.

NO.

REQD.

PART OR MATERIAL NAME

10031-1

Steel Leaf No. 1 from TACOM Assembly


(7411111)

10031-2

Steel Leaf No. 2 from TACOM Assembly


(7411112)

10031-3

Composite Leaf 3M SP-250-E

10031-4

Composite Leaf 3M SP-250-E

10031-5
Sheet 2

Bolt, 1/2-20 UNF-2A See Dwg


10031 Sheet 2

Nut, 1/2-20 UNF 2A Std

Spacer

Wear Pad

Clip

10

AR

Hysol EA-8

11

AR

Hysol 934

12

AR

EA 3532

10031-9
Sheet 2

Figure 9 (c)

See Dwg 10031 Sheet 1


See Dwg 10031 Sheet 1

See Dwg 10031 Sheet 2

COMPOSITE FRONT SPRING PARTS LIST (P/N 10031)

56

3.2

Propeller Shafts

Two propeller shafts for the 5-ton truck were chosen for study as part of
the program to develop lightweight, experimental truck components.
We studied
two 5-ton trucks. The design results for all four shafts are presented in this
section; however, only two of the shafts were fabricated.
The initial contract incorporated an internal pressure requirement for the
shafts. This requirement resulted from a test for weld strength which is no
longer used by the industry. Therefore, this requirement was deleted.
3.2.1

Design Criteria
The design studies were performed for the following four shafts:
P/N
P/N
P/N
P/N

8332248
11669147
8332245
8332246

For all designs, the structural integrity and interchangeability with


existing parts were considered primary design criteria. The design philosophy
accepted was to incorporate a composite material tube with end sleeves using
the existing steel tube into the existing end fittings. This meets the interchangeability and structural integrity criteria including:
a.

Maximum Operating Angle for the two-joint shaft shall be 3*40'


at 4,500 RPM.

b. Length changes shall be allowed for by a spline yoke.


c.

c.

Excitation Limits shall be the same as for the present shaft:


(1)

Torsional excitation limit shall be taken as 400 rad/sec 2 .


This is controlled by the universal joints employed.

(2)

Inertia excitation limit shall be taken as 1,000 rad/sec 2 .


This is a function of driveshaft tube inertia.

(3)

Secondary couple excitation limit.


controlled condition.

This is a support

Environmental Conditions: Designs shall meet the performance


requirements at ambient temperatures ranging from -40*F to
+160*F.

57

a.

Design Criteria for P/N 8332248


(1)

Dimensional requirements:
(a)

Outside diameter of shaft - 3.50 inches

(b)

Length of shaft is 30.625 inches (centerline to


centerline) while the tube section length is
11.625 inches

(c)

End fittings, yoke, and joints shall be the same as for


present component
Dana Yoke P/N 5-3-4581X
Dana Yoke P/N 5-28-167
Dana Shaft P/N 5-40-491

(2)

Performance Requirements:
(a)

Design shall withstand the following applied torques:


Continuously Applied Torque 7,680 lb-in.
Short Duration Torque
43,800 lb-in.
Torsional Strength Minimum 57,270 lb-in.
Elastic Limit

(b)

b.

Maximum Operating Speed of the shaft shall be 4,500 RPM.


Since
this is a heavy truck application, the critical speed is taken
as 4,500/0.75 or 6,000 RPM

Design Criteria for P/N 11669147


(1) Dimensional requirements:
(a)

Outside diameter of shaft

(b)

Length of shaft is 46.781 inches (centerline to


centerline) while the tube section length is
37.50 inches

(c)

End fittings, yokes, and joints shall be the same as for


present component

58

- 3.50 inches

Dana
Dana
Dana
Dana
(2)

Yoke P/N 5-28-627


Yoke P/N 5-4-1721
Yoke P/N 5-53-141
Center Bearing P/N 210084-2X

Performance Requirements:
(a)

Design shall withstand the following applied torques:


Continuously Applied Torque
Short Duration Torque
Torsional Strength Minimum
Elastic Limit

(b)

c.

7,680 lb-in.
43,800 lb-in.
78,000 lb-in.

Maximum Operating Speed of the shaft shall be 4,500 RPM.


Since
this is a heavy truck application, the critical speed is taken
as 4,500/0.75 or 6,000 RPM

Design Criteria for P/N 8332245


(1) Dimensional requirements:

(2)

(a)

Outside diameter of shaft

(b)

Length of shaft is 53.625 inches (centerline to


centerline) while the tube section length is
53.625 inches.

(c)

End fittings, yokes, and joints shall be the same as for


present component
Dana Yoke P/N 5-3-1341
Dana Yoke P/N 5-28-167
Dana Yoke P/N 5-40-491

- 3.50

Performance Requirements:
(a)

Design shall withstand the following applied torques to which


the present shaft is exposed
Continuously Applied TorqueShort Duration Torque
Torsional Strength Minimum
Elastic Limit

(b)

7,680 lb-in.
43,800 lb-in.
57,270 lb-in.

Maximum Operating Speed of the shaft shall be 4,500 RPM. Since


this is a heavy truck application, the criteria speed is taken
as 4,500/0.75 or 6,000 RPM

59

d.

Design Criteria for P/N 8332246


(1)

(2)

Dimensional requirements:
(a)

Outside diameter of shaft

(b)

Length of shaft is 46.375 inches (centerline to


centerline) while the tube section length is
25.281 inches.

(c)

End fittings, yokes, and joint shall be the same as for


present component: P/N 204581-1 with 1710 couplings.

3.50

Performance Requirements:
(a)

Design shall withstand the following applied torques to which


the present shaft is exposed:
Continuously Applied Torque
Short Duration Torque
Torsional Strength Minimum
Elastic Limit

(b)

10,800 lb-in.
57,600 lb-in.
89,170 lb-in.

Maximum Operating Speed of the shaft shall be 4,500 RPM. Since


this is a heavy truck application, the critical speed is taken
as 4,500/0.75 or 6,000 RPM.

60

3.2.2

Material Trade Study

Material trade studies were performed for P/N 0000432 and 8332248
considering the following materials for the composite tubes:
high-strength graphite-epoxy
high-modulus graphite-epoxy
E-type fiberglass-epoxy
Previous studies have shown that aramid epoxy systems are not appropriate for
these applications.
Tables 8 and 9 give the results of the studies.
As shown, all possible
designs are similar on the basis of weight: none is more than 6% greater
than the minimum. On the basis of material costs using 1980 anticipated
prices:
Material System

Cost, Dollar/Pound

Fiberglass-epoxy

7.00

High-strength graphite-epoxy
High-modulus graphite-epoxy

34.00
48.00

The high-strength graphite-epoxy design is the best.


Since hybrid designs can experience failures from resin and fiber mixing,
the all high-strength graphite-epoxy designs were chosen for the prototype
program.

61

02

:o

C.

-1

5N

cI

02I

WI

Nz

I-

I,

CI
aw

n 0,k
04

0)

IR

C;

wI

Ic

cH

0-i

ON

*-

co

om

Hj

o-4

(34

0
WI0

c HC

CO

44:a

cIf

aaa

'A

5-4
00

AJ04)

a0

E-

'-

,a

rz

w 64

Aok N

'.

'

M
H~

:V

ae

(n

L'O

H)

A
r-41

Ah
m

IT

N ML

Hn

U3coa

-4

.4

C4

C
ra-a-

c
0

00
cio

__O

4-

-V

-D

-4

CN

4'

U4

ON-

00
rz

0:

41

='
0%

'

3c'

"

4'

3.2.3

Analysis of Composite Tubes and Joints

Given below are stress analysis results for the final design for each
shaft using a high-strength graphite-epoxy tube with steel end sleeves.
Several possibilities exist for the joint between the composite tube and
the steel end sleeves, The lack of composite and adhesive property
data as well as inadequate available stress analysis suggest the best design
procedure for bonded composite joints is to treat each joint as an individual
structure, test it, and modify it as the tests results indicate. Studies have
shown that varying the adherences has little impact on the adhesive shear stress
distribution. For bolted joints, the strength is dependent on many factors:
-the
-the
-the
-the

edge distance to bolt diameter ratio


side distance to bolt diameter ratio
laminate thickness to bolt diameter ratio
orientation of the reinforcing fibers.

Experimental studies, including some performed under this program, have


shown that under torsional fatique loadings, bolted joints do not offer
better structural integrity than bonded or bolted and bonded joints.
Therefore, bonded joints were chosen for the final design.
a.

Analysis for P/N 8332248


The final design is shown in Table 10.

The tube will have metal end sleeves of Dana Spicer tubing which has
an outside diameter of 3.50 inches and a wall thickness of 0.095 inch.
This

results in shear stresses under the applied loads of:


Applied Torque,

psi

lb-in.

Tacting,__

57,270
43,800
7,680

34,000
26,000
4,560

(yield stress
of material)

The composite tube will have an outside diameter of 3.46 inches.


the applied torques the margins of safety are:
App l ied Tor q ue ,

lb-in.

'rac ting,P si
at

' ral l,P si

M .S.?

M.S., %

,s__ls

57,270
43,800
7,680

23,143
17,578
3,104

33,700
25,275
16,850

46
44
443

45,000

18,185

23,590

30

64

Under

The torsional instability torque is:


= (21.74)(0.67) D(2,2).

Tbuck

6 2 5fA(l,)

A(2,2)

A(1,2)

.375

A(2,2)3

.O.
where

A and D are material property matrixes


rave is the average radius
L

length of shaft

30.625 inches

and for the composite tube


Tbuck= 67,585 lb-in.
while
52,270 lb-in.

Tmax

or
M.S.

18.0%

The critical speed, in RPM, of the shaft is:


Wc

94.2

386.4 EI

Jp

A L4

where
I
OD
ID

p
A

-Ir (OD4 - ID 4 )
64

outside diamter of tube


inside diameter of tube
3
0.06 pounds/inch
2 - ID 2 )
(OD
= 1r
4
=

For the composite tube, this gives 16,890 RPM while the required critical
speed is 6,000 RPM.
The allowable material properties used in the design account for the tube
being exposed to the temperatures in the range of -40"F to 1600F.

65

Metallic end sleeves are required for the composite tube so that the end
fittings can be welded to the tube. The load transfer in the scarf joint between
these metallic end sleeves and the composite tube requires a bond length as
follows:
(IT) (D)

(L)

(TALL)

where
D - mean diameter of bond area, taken as 3.41 inches
T - applied torque

ALL

allowable shear stress in the adhesive, taken to be


Applied Torque
lb-in.

TALLpsi

57,270
43,800
7,680
L

1,500
1,000
500

length of bond area

Thus,
2.09 inches based on ultimate torque
2.40 inches based on limit torque
0.84 inches based on fatique torque

L or
L

2.09 inches

In addition, a 2-inch length of metallic sleeve at each end is required for the
welding operation. A bond length of 2.85 inches was chosen for the final design.

66

Table 10
FINAL DESIGN FOR HIGH-STRENGTH GRAPHITE-EPOXY TUBE
FOR P/N 8332248
Laminate Configuration
Thickness of +45e plies,

inch

Thickness of 90' plies, inch


Total Thickness

0.120

0.030
0.150

Static Allowable Mechanical Properties


of Unidirectional Laminate Used In Design
Ell,Msi

18

E2 2 ,Msi

1.5

G1 2 ,Msi

0.6

""12

0.2

(r1 +,Ksi

160

al 1-,Ksi

135

a,2+,Ksi

6.4

,2- ,Ksi

13 .5
8

112,Ksi

Resulting Laminate Properties


Ex,Msi

3.2

EyMsi

5.4

Gxy ,Msi
V xy

3.9
0.44

(rX+,Ksi

13 .8

Ox-,Ksi

28.9

cry+,Ksi

41.1

Oy- ,Ksi
1

31.0

T xy,Ksi

33.7

67

b.

Analysis for P/N 11669147


The final design is shown in Table 11.

The tube will have metal end sleeves of Dana Spicer tubing which has an
outside diameter of 3.50 inches and a wall thickness of 0.134 inch. This
results in shear stresses under the applied loads of:
Applied Torque,

lb-in.

actin_,_psi

(34,000 is the yield


stress of the material)

33,955
19,070
3,345

78,000
43,800
7,680

The composite tube will have an outside diameter of 3.46 inches.


the applied torques, the margins of safety are:
Applied Torque,
lb-in.
78,000
43,800
7,680
45,000

- all,PSi

actingPsi

26,240
14,733
2,583
15,138

M.S._,%

38
84
600
67

36,220
27,165
18,110
25,354

The torsional instability torque is:


Tbuck"

6 25{A(ll)

(21.75) (0.67) D(2,2)0.

A(2,2)A A1,2)2'375

rave 1.25

L0 .5
where
A and D are material property matrixes
rave is the average radius
L

and,

length of shaft

46.781 inches

for the composite tube


98,320 lb-in.

Tbuck
while
Tmax

78,000 lb-in.

68

Under

or
M.S.

26.1%

The critical speed in RPM,


Wc

94.2384

Sp

of the shaft is:

A L

where
(OD4 - ID 4 )

=-

64
OD = outside diameter of tube
ID = inside diameter of tube
3
At = 0.06 pounds/inch
2 - ID 2 )
A = T (OD
4
For the composite tube, this gives 8,243 RPM while the required criteria
speed is 6,000 RPM.
The allowable material properties used in the analysis account for the tube
being exposed to temperatures in the range of -40*F to 160*F.
Metallic end sleeves are required for the composite tube so that the end
fittings can be welded to the tube. The load transfer in the scarf joint between
these metallic end sleeves and the composite tube requires a bond length as
follows:
(I_)

(D) 2 (L)

(TALL)

where
D - mean diameter of bond area, taken as 3.41 inches
T = applied torque

ALL

allowable shear stress in the adhesive,


Applied Torque
lb-in.

tALL,psi

78,000
43,800
7,680

1500
1000
500

69

taken to be

- length of bond area

Thus,
2.85 inches based on ultimate torque
2.40 inches based on limit torque
0.84 inches based on fatique torque

L -

or
L

2.85 inches

In addition, a 2-inch length of metallic sleeve at each end is required for the
welding operation. A bond length of 2.85 inches was chosen for the final design.

70

Table 11

FINAL DESIGN FOR HIGH-STRENGTH GRAPHITE-EPOXY TUBE


FOR P/N 11669147

Laminate Configuration
Thickness of +45* plies, inch

0.024

Thickness of 90* plies, inch

0.162

Total Thickness

0.186

Static Allowable Mechanical Properties


of Unidirectional Laminate Used In Design
Ell,Msi

18

E2 2 ,Msi

1.5

G1 2 ,Msi
-o 12

0.6

07 1 +,Ksi

160

(rI-,Ksi

135

r 2 +,Ksi
(r 2 -,Ksi

6.4

t'

12

0.2

13.5

,Ksi

Resulting Laminate Properties


Ex,Msi

4.2

Ey,MSi

3.0

GxyMs i
V xy

4.2
0.77

rx+,Ksi

31.9

Ox-,Ksi

23.8

(ry+,Ksi

12.9

Ty-,Ksi

25.8

" xyKsi

36.2
71

c.

Analysis for P/N 8332245


The final design is shown in Table 12.

The tube will have metal end sleeves of Dana Spicer tubing which has an
outside diameter of 3.50 inches and a wall thickness of 0.095 inch. This
results in shear stresses under the applied loads of:
Applied Torque,
lb-in.

.actingPsi

57,270
43,800
7,680

34,000
26,000
4,560

(34,000 is the yield


stress of the material)

The composite tube will hae an outside diameter of 3.46 inches.


the applied torques, the margins of safety are:
Applied Torque,
lb-in.
57,270
43,800
7,680
45,000

Tacting,Psi

all,Psi

21,888
16,740
2,935
17,198

30,900
23,175
15,450
21,630

H.S.,%
41
38
426
25

The torsional instability torque is:


Tbuck" (21.75) (0.67) D(2,2)

0 -6 2 5

A(l,l) A(2,2)-A(1,2) 2 0.
A(2,2)
J

rave 1.25

L0 .5-

where
A and D are material property matrixes
rave is the average radius
L

and,

length of shaft

46.781 inches

for the composite tube


Tbuck

69,695 lb-in.

while
Tmax

57,270 lb-in.

72

37 5

Under

or
M.S.

21.7%

The critical speed in RPM, of the shaft is:


Wc

E6 4

(94.2)

A LI

where
= t
(OD4 - ID 4 )
64
OD = outside diameter of tube
ID = inside diameter of tube
f = 0.06 pounds/inch 3
I

= =- (OD 2 - ID 2 )

4
For the composite tube, this gives 7,925 RPM while the required criteria
speed is 6,000 RPM.
The allowable material properties used in the analysis account for the
tube being exposed to temperatures in the range of -40F to 160*F.
Metallic end sleeves are required for the composite tube so that the end
fittings can be welded to the tube.
The load transfer in the scarf joint between
these metallic end sleeves and the composite tube requires a bond length as
follows:
(OT') (D) 2 (L)

( T ALL)

where
D = mean diameter of bond area, taken as 3.41 inches
T = applied torque

TALL

allowable shear stress in the adhesive,


Applied Torque

lb-in.

_ALL_,psi

57,270
43,800
7,680

1500
1000
500

73

taken to be

- length of bond area

Thus,
2.23 inches based on ultimate torque
2.56 inches based on limit torque
0.90 inches based on fatique torque

L -

or
L

2.56 inches

In addition, a 2-inch length of metallic sleeve at each end is required for the
welding operation.
A bond length of 2.60 inches was chosen for the final design.

74

Table 12
FINAL DESIGN FOR HIGH-STRENGTH GRAPHITE-EPOXY TUBE
FOR P/N 8332245
Laminate Configuration
Thickness of +45* plies, inch

0.116

Thickness of 90' plies, inch

0.044

Total Thickness

0.160

Static Allowable Mechanical Properties


of Unidirectional Laminate Used In Design
EllMsi

18

E2 2 ,Msi

1.5

G1 2 ,Msi
V 12

0.6
0.2

C01 +,Ksi

160

0Sl-,Ksi

135

a,2+,Ksi

6.4

6*2-,Ksi
'rl2, Ksi

13.5
8

Resulting Laminate Properties


ExMsi

6.7

EyMsi

3.3

Gxy,Ms i
-0 xy

3.6
0.73

0x+,Ksi

51.1

Ux-,Ksi

39.1

6'y+,KSi

14.2

COy-,Ksi

29.7

rxy,Ksi

30.9

75

d.

Analysis for P/N 8332246


The final design is shown in Table 13.

The tube will have metal end sleeves of Dana Spicer tubing which has an
This
outside diameter of 3.50 inches and a wall thickness of 0.095 inch.
results in shear stresses under the applied loads of:
Applied Torque,
lb-in.

tacting,Psi
33,985
21,955
4,115

89,170
57,600
10,800

(yield stress
of the material)

The composite tube will have an outside diameter of 3.46 inches.


the applied torques, the margins of safety are:
Applied Torque,
lb-in..

all,psi

actinS,Psi
27,784
17,947
3,365

89,170
57,600
10,800

37,900
28,425
18,950

M.S._,%

36
58
463

The torsional instability torque is:


Tbuck" (21.75) (0.67) D(2,2)0625[A(l,l) A(2,2)-A(l,2)2
A(2,2)

rav

1.25

where
A and D are material property matrixes
rave is the average radius
L

length of shaft

46.375 inches

and, for the composite tube


Tbuck

106,980 lb-in.

while
Tmax

89,170 lb-in.

76

0.375

Under

or
M.S.

20.0%

The critical speed in RPM, of the shaft is:


94.2/386.4

=-

PP

AL

where
I

(OD 4 - ID 4 )

64
OD = outside diameter of tube
ID = inside diameter of tube
3
f = 0.06 pounds/inch
A

=-T- (OD2

ID 2 )

4
For the composite tube, this gives 7,550 RPM while the required criteria
speed is 6,000 RPM.
The allowable material properties used in the analysis account for
the tube being exposed to temperatures in the range of -40*F to 160F.
Metallic end sleeves are required for the composite tube so that the end
fittings can be welded to the tube. The load transfer in the scarf joint between
these metallic end sleeves and the composite tube requires a bond length as
follows:
(r) (D) 2 (L)

( TALL)

where
D = mean diameter of bond area, taken as 3.26 inches
T = applied torque

TALL

allowable shear stress in the adhesive, taken to be


Applied Torque

lb-in.

_ALL,psi

89,170
57,600
10,800

1500
1000
500

77

- length of bond area

Thus,
3.57 inches based on ultimate torque
3.46 inches based on limit torque
1.30 inches based on fatique torque

L -

or
L

3.60 inches

In addition, a 2-inch length of metallic sleeve at each end is required for the
welding operation.
A weight savings comparison of these designs to the existing tubes is
shown in Table 14.
Because of the required steel end sleeves, weight savings
are as low as 26%.
3.2.4

Chosen Designs for Composite Shafts


The final designs are given in Figures 10 - 13:
Figure
Figure
Figure
Figure

10:
11:
12:
13:

Composite
Composite
Composite
Composite

Design
Design
Design
Design

for
for
for
for

P/N
P/N
P/N
P/N

8332248
11669147
8332245
8332246

Tolerances for all designs were chosen to agree with those for the
existing steel tube used to facilitate balancing of the shaft. These tolerances
are:
a.

Ovality T.I.R. maximum of 0.007 inch; this is the most significant parameter for balancing

b.

Straightness T.I.R. maximum runout of 0.012 inch

c.

Wall thickness of +0.005 inch; this is greater than the +0.003


inch required for the steel tube, but is not the major parameter
in balancing the shaft.

78

Table 13

FINAL DESIGN FOR HIGH-STRENGTH GRAPHITE-EPOXY TUBE


FOR P/N 8332246
Laminate Configuration
Thickness of +45* plies, inch

0.016

Thickness of 90* plies, inch

0.188
0.204

Total Thickness
Static Allowable Mechanical Properties
of Unidirectional Laminate Used In Design
Ell,Msi

18

E2 2 ,Msi

1.5

G1 2 ,Msi

0.6

"d 12

0.2

a + ,Ks i

160

C 1 -,Ksi

135

(r 2 +,Ksi

6.4
13.5

'2-,Ksi

"r12,Ksi
Resulting Laminate Properties

Ex,Msi

3.5

EyMsi

2.8

Gxy,Msi
"v xy

4.4

l'x+,Ksi
G'x-,Ksi
G'y+,Ksi

26.0

Ty-,Ksi

22.8

Txy,Ksi

37.9

0.77
19.3
11.9

79

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'92

4
FABRICATION OF PROTOTYPE COMPONENTS

4.1

Leaf Spring Assemblies


4.1.1

Leaf Fabrication

Individual leaves of fiberglass-epoxy were fabricated from billets


on expendable tooling. An example of the tooling is shown in Figure 14.
The
process involves laying individual prepreg plies of fiberglass-epoxy, cut to
lengths to form a billet of the desired final shapes for the leaf, on the
tooling. During lay-up, the material is compacted to minimize wrinkling of the
material during cure. After all plies are laid-up, a caul sheet is placed on
top. The billet is then cured at 85 psi and 250"F. Finally, the cured billet
is cut into leaves of the desired width. Appendix A gives the step-by-step
procedure for the composite leaves of the rear assembly; the process for the
front assembly is similar.
4.1.2

Assembly

After the composite leaves are fabricated, spacer and wear pads are
adhesively bonded to each leaf and the center bolt hole is drilled.
The assembly consists of the steel leaves, composite leaves, spacer and
wear pads, risers (if required), center bolt, and clips. The final assembly is
in accordance with the designs shown in Figures 8 and 9.
The assembly
process is given in detail in Appendix A for the front assembly, which is the
more complex of the two assemblies.
The proposed clip design is for prototype
samples only.
In production, the clip would be attached to the steel main leaf
by a rivet. The prototype clip was chosen to avoid the heat treat and shot
preening operations required after riveting.
If these operations are not
performed, the mechanical properties of the steel leaves will be inadequate for
service conditions.
It should be noted that the purpose of the clip is to aline the leaves and
to facilitate handling of the assembly.
Thus, if the adhesive bond of the
prototype design fails during service (which is expected), it does not affect
performance.
Component spring assembly weights are shown in Table 15.
4.2

Propeller Shafts
4.2.1

Composite Tube Fabrication

The graphite-epoxy tubes for the propeller shaft are fabricated on a steel
mandrel overwrapped with a silicone rubber bag; a typical mandrel is shown in
Figure 15. The composite prepreg plies, cut in accordance with the required

93

FIGURE 14
EXPENDABLE TOOLING FOR
LEAF SPRING FABRICATION

94

Table 15
WEIGHT OF COMPOSITE SPRING ASSEMBLIES

Weight, Pounds
Front Assembly
Rear Assembly

Component
Composite Assembly:
Steel Leaves and Clamp Bars

46.5

74.1

Composite Leaves

23.4

70.7

Brackets

2.0

3.0

Center Bolt

0.3

0.5

Risers

5.5

---

77.7

148.3

TOTAL
Steel Assembly

149.0

293.4

71.3
48

145.1
49

Weight Savings for Composite


Assembly
Pounds
Percent

95

FIGURE 15
TOOLING FOR PROPELLER SHAFT
COMPOSITE TUBE FABRICATION

96

patterns, are then laid on the mandrel.


The steel end sleeves are placed on
the mandrel before it is inserted into the mold cavity, shown in Figure 15.
The
tube is cured at 250*F with a pressure of 85 psi applied at the inner radius of
the tube. This pressure forces the composite material to expand to the mold
cavity. This expansion insures a good bond between the composite tube and the
end sleeves, minimizes material wrinkling, and produces a tube of the required
outside diameter.
This process is given in detail in Appendix B.
4.2.2

Assembly

The cured composite tube, with steel end sleeves, is designed to replace the
existing steel tube of the propeller shafts. The end fittings are welded to the
end sleeves. This assembly process was subcontracted to the Dana Corporation,
the supplier of the existing shafts. The end fittings and welding and balancing
processes employed to fabricate the existing shafts were followed. This procedure
maximized the structural integrity of the composite redesign effort.

97

5
TEST PROGRAM
The composite components fabricated in the program were subjected to nondestructive and destructive tests.
5.1

Non-Destructive Evaluation

All composite parts fabricated were ultrasonically C-scanned to verify


the fabrication process, investigate internal flaws in the material, and provide
a quality assurance standard. The results of the C-scans for the prototype
components are given in Appendix C.
5.2

Leaf Spring Assemblies

All leaf spring assemblies were tested statically to determine the spring
rate at the rated load. Figure 16 shows the test set-up. Several of the assemblies were also tested under fatigue conditions to determine the fatigue lives of
both the existing steel assembly and the composite designs. The tests were in
accordance with the procedures outlined in Appendix D.
For the front assemblies, the steel and composite designs results are
given in Tables 16-19 and Figures 17-19. As shown, the assemblies survived
150,000 cycles without any apparent failures. The spring rate does change with
cycling, as has been shown in previous studies.
The results for the rear assemblies are given in Tables 20-24 and Figures
20 and 21.
The static results are as predicted.
The fatigue results for the
steel assembly show that it survived 150,000 cycles without any apparent failures.
The composite assemblies experienced major problems during fatigue testing.
After several failures, see Tables 23 and 24, the problem was determined to be
load transfer between leaves. This was caused by the nonmatching curvatures of
the composite leaves in the spacer pad area. Such a problem results from the
fabrication process used for the prototype parts. A production process would not
exhibit this characteristic.
Therefore, the test results given in Table 22 are
considered indicative of the composite design: a fatique life of greater than
100,000 cycles.
It is concluded that the composite design does exhibit a fatigue
life common for heavy truck leaf springs and that the design is acceptable.
5.3

Propeller Shafts

Destructive testing of the fabricated propeller shafts consisted of a


static test to failure and a fatigue test. The static torque test was a continuously increasing load test. The fatigue test was a continuously applied torque
of +45,000 lb-in, at laboratory ambient temperature.

98

FIGURE 16(a)

SPRING ASSEMBLY TEST SET-UP


REAR ASSEMBLY

FIGURE 16(b)

SPRING ASSEMBLY TEST SET-UP


FRONT ASSEMBLY

99

II

FIGURE 16(c)

SPRING ASSEMBLY TEST SET-UP


FRONT ASSEMBLY

100

Table 16
SUMMARY OF INITIAL SPRING RATES
FOR FRONT SPRING ASSEMBLIES*

Clamped Spring Rate,


lb/in. at Rated Load
Material

S/N

Loading

Unloading

Average

2,625

2,669

2,647

3,500

3,303

3,402

3,172

3,019

3,095

3,478

3,391

3,435

4
5

3,172
3,347

3,041
3,281

3,107
3,314

3,347

3,259

3,303

Average

3,336

3,216

3,276

Steel
Composite

*Composite Assembly Design Spring Rate was not that


of the Steel Assembly

101

Table 17
VERTICAL FATIGUE TEST RESULTS
FOR FRONT STEEL ASSEMBLY

Clamped Spring Rate,

Torque on U-Bolts

Cycles

lb/in. at Rated Load

lb-in.

2,625*

260

260

260

260

10,000

3,172

180

180

150

150

35,000

3,347

200

200

230

220

60,000

3,412

220

250

180

160

85,000

3,894

250

260

250

260

110,000

3,894

245

250

255

260

135,000

3,937

250

255

255

255

150,000**

3,937

255

260

260

260

*Unclamped Spring Rate of 2,272 lb/in.


**Test completed, no apparent failures

102

>4
E-1
_

00

oN
H
C)1

rT4
0
0

r4
C12

E-4

C)

103

Table 18
VERTICAL FATIGUE TEST RESULTS
FOR FRONT COMPOSITE ASSEMBLY S/N 1

Clamped Spring Rate,

Torque on U-Bolts

Cycles

IbAn. at Rated Load

3,476*

260

260

260

260

10,000

3,346

180

220

200

180

35,000

3,522

200

215

225

230

60,000

3,566

230

255

250

230

85,000

3,544

260

245

265

260

110,000

3,522

260

245

255

260

135,000

3,588

260

255

260

265

150,000**

3,588

255

260

260

260

*Unclamped Spring Rate of 3,265 lbxin.


**Test completed, no apparent failures

104

lb-in.

00
00
ii--i

U0
C)C

C10
H
E-,

oc
en

poqpaqU
qou/.sund

CN1

p apUBu~dSpadup

10H

rXti

Table 19

VERTICAL FATIGUE TEST RESULTS


FOR FRONT COMPOSITE ASSEMBLY S/N 2

Clamped Spring Rate,

Cycles

Torque on U-Bolts

lb-in.

lb/in, at Rated Load


3,281

260

260

260

260

10,000

3,588

220

220

220

210

35,000

3,522

255

260

240

240

60,000

3,456

250

250

250

250

85,000

3,500

250

260

250

250

110,000

3,456

250

260

250

250

135,000

3,566

260

255

260

260

150,000*

3,500

260

260

260

260

*Test completed, no apparent failures

106

0
0
iE-4

z
0
0
0

C)
0

0
U

rT4I.
0
M0

0)

U)n

rz4
tt~tf/SPfl~d'p~o
pe~~~ ~

1070

tx

p~dI-T

Table 20

SUMMARY OF INITIAL SPRING RATES


FOR REAR SPRING ASSEMBLIES

Clamped Spring Rate,


lb/in. at Rated Load

Material

Loading

Unloading

Average

7,437

6,694

7,065

6,038

5,381

5,710

6,869

5,994

6,432

7,394

6,213

6,804

7,326

6,320

6,823

7,364

6,475

6,920

7,321

6,065

6,693

Average

7,052

6,075

6,564

S/N

Steel

Composite

108

Table 21

VERTICAL FATIGUE TEST RESULTS


FOR REAR STEEL ASSEMBLY

Clamped Spring Rate,

Cycles

lb/in. at Rated Load

7,437

10,000

10,588

35,000

11,375

60,000

11,113

85,000

11,681

110,000

11,419

135,000

11,594

150,000*

12,513

*Test completed, no apparent failures

109

U)

o
0

>4

>) 0

C)

144

04

o1

=110

0N

Table 22
VERTICAL FATIGUE TEST RESULTS
FOR REAR COMPOSITE ASSEMBLY S/N 1

Clamped Spring Rate,

Torque on U-Bolts

Cycles

lb/in, at Rated Load

lb-in.

6,038

260

260

260

260

25,000

6,912

150

17

150

150

50,000

6,606

200

230

200

200

75,000

7,131

225

230

230

235

100,000

6,781

270

260

270

270

--

--

108,000*

....--

*Steel main leaf broke

111

00
00

C)

0
z
r

rZ4

rz

00
110

112~

Table 23

VERTICAL FATIGUE TEST RESULTS


FOR REAR COMPOSITE ASSEMBLY S/N 2

Clamped Spring Rate,

Torque on U-Bolts

Cycles

lb/in. at Rated Load

6,869

260

260

9,460*

6,388

--.

--.

*Test terminated:

lb-in.
260
.

top composite leaf delaminated and vertical


crack propagated from spacer edge

113

260
..

Table 24
VERTICAL FATIGUE TEST RESULTS
MOR REAR COMPOSITE ASSEMBLY S/N 3

Clamped Spring Rate,


Cycles

lb/in, at Rated Load

7,394

7,500*

*Test terminated:

Torque on U-Bolts
lb-in.
260

260

---.--

.-

260

260
--

cracks formed in top composite leaf propagated


to next two leaves

114

Static failure test results are shown below.


Ultimate Torque,
lb-in.
Required
Experimental

Composite Design to Replace P/N


8332248
11669147

57,270
78,000

81,800
111,000

These results are considered excellent.


Fatigue testing of the shafts showed that the adhesive bond failed. This
was the result of the graphite tube shortening during loading; which is a result
of the laminate characteristics.
This shortening placed a positive transverse
normal stress on the adhesive; adhesives have poor tensile strengths.
This phenomenon was observed during testing of the composite design to
replace P/N 8332248; the fatigue life results are shown below.
Tube S/N

Fatigue Life, cycles

1
2
3

1,900

,40
2,400

A redesign to include a bolted and bonded joint between the composite tube
and the steel end sleeves was undertaken.
Changing the joint area was impossible
because of the tube length; see Figure 10. Shafts to replace P/N 11669147 were
fabricated to this new design and tested; the results are shown below.
Tube S/N
1
2

Fatigue Life, cycles


6,700
2,700

As shown, the bolts did not significantly change the results.


The failure
mode was not changed either. Therefore, it was decided to use only an adhesively
bonded joint for the prototype parts.
The fatigue results were interpreted by Dana Corporation personnel to mean
the following for the 5-ton Army truck:
-in peace time, probably indefinite life.
-in war time, where the truck is often in mud,
a life expectancy of 9 months.
It was, therefore, decided to fabricate shafts to the proposed design for field
testing.

115

6
BUDGETARY COST ESTIMATE FOR PRODUCTION
The following discussion assumes constant FY79 dollars for all cost calculations.
6.1

Leaf Spring Assemblies


6.1.1

Production Fabrication Process

For volume manufacturing, quantities of at least 25 units per day (6,250 per
year) are required. For quantities of these amounts and greater, there are several
manufacturing techniques which are applicable to the fabrication of composite leaf
springs.
The primary objective in the fabrication of any component is to reduce to a
minimum the number of processing steps and, in particular, those that require
heavy labor content. The principle processing steps involved in the manufacture
of a leaf spring are:
1.
2.
3.

The deposition of material.


The curing of the component.
Assembly of the spring pack.

Of these, the first is a major contributor to the cost of composite hardware.


It can range from a hand lay-up process in which plies are laid down individually
to the rapid lay-down of material via a filament winding process. One of the
primary considerations that determines which method is used is the type of
material to be deposited and how rapidly it can be positioned to form the thickness
and contour required by the product. Prepreg can be used and has the maximum
flexibility in positioning the material. Depositing the same amount of material
by filament winding would be faster; however, since the composite material leaf
has a variable contour, the winding operation would have to be stopped several
times to incorporate and position discrete plies in order to build up the variable
contour. A compromise is to fabricate prepreg using a filament winding machine.
One of the solutions to the rapid deposition of material is to use thicker
layers of reinforcement in order to reduce the number of pieces to be handled
either by machine or by hand. Investigations have shown this to be the best
trade-off in cost and in manufacturing rate. Two options are available. Unidirectional fiberglass can be used which will yield a per ply thickness between
0.020 and 0.030 inch. Or an XMC sheet molding compound material, which is available
in thicknesses ranging from 1/8 to 1/4 inch, can be used.
The manufacturing processes that utilize these material forms are discussed
below and are viable for the fabrication of composite leaf springs. They are
state-of-the-art processes and satisfy the production rates required for this
application.

116

a.

Resin Injection Molding Fabrication Process

Resin injection molding involves the placement of dry reinforcement in a


matched die cavity that is subsequently injected with liquid resin. The liquid
resin is injected under pressure and, by also using a vacuum, it infiltrates the
reinforcement held in the cavity. Once full injection has been accomplished, the
die is heated to effect a cure. Figure 22 shows the process sequence.
It is not economical to use this process on a discrete leaf element. The
proposed process is to fabricate a large billet, a minimum of 48 inches
wide, to yield 12-15 discrete leaves. One cavity would be required for each
of the leaf shapes in the assembly.
To use this method requires unidirectional fiberglass; this could be purchased
in 48 inch widths or fabricated using a filament winding machine.
This material
would be cut to the prescribed pattern lengths and placed in the cavity dry. The
resin can be any number of epoxy resin systems which exhibit low viscosity (for
the resin injection) and combine with the glass reinforcement to produce a cured
composite yielding the properties which are required of this application. Cure
times for currently available resins range from 60 to 90 minutes. Newer
resins now in the stage of advanced development and commercial application
indicate cure times on the order of 10 to 20 minutes are possible.
After cure, the billets would be cut into discrete leaf elements using a
profile cut-off saw programmed to cut the billet into the required width leaves.
The ends of the leaves would then be trimmed to length, the center bolt hole
drilled, the leaves inspected, and the discrete leaves assembled to form assemblies.
b.

Compression Molding Fabrication Process

This process involves the matched metal molding of XMC sheet molding compound
containing glass reinforcement and epoxy resin. The process sequence requires
that individual patterns be cut from the broadgoods sheets and placed into the
matched metal die. Again, these broadgoods sheets could be fabricated using
filament winding. Under pressures of 500 to 1500 psi and temperatures from 300
to 400 degrees F, the part is cured in 10 to 20 minutes.
It is then ejected from
the mold, the centerbolt hole drilled, and the leaf inspected.
Assembly into the
spring pack would take place after these operations. Figure 23 shows this process.
Currently available XMC materials containing epoxy resins are in the advanced
stages of development for some commercial applications. As a general rule they
are available in thicknesses of 1/8 to 1/4 inch and have a cross-plied
orientation of approximately 10 degrees. This orientation is appropriate for
leaf spring applications.
The material is received in a boardy (b-staged)
condition which requires it to be heated in order to be formed into the complex

117

00

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118...

Go.

119

-~

119

contours of the leaf. Upon heating and with the application of pressure, it will
flow and form readily to the leaf spring configuration. The compression molded
part can be directly assemblied into a spring pack after removal of mold flash.
Curing of the currently available epoxy XMC molding compounds is accomplished
at between 300 and 400 degrees F at pressures in excess of 500 psi. Cycle times
range from 10 to 20 minutes depending on the system, thickness of the
part, and the temperatures used. Present experience indicates that 15 to 20
minutes for currently available material is required to effect a cure on parts
having the thickness required of heavy truck leaf springs.
There are two major concerns associated with using XMC molding compounds.
The first is the distortion of the fiber orientation under the high pressure.
This could result in a lower strength and stiffness than would occur from other
processes. The second concern is that the thickness of the starting material is
such that to retain uniform fiber and resin distribution in a variable contour
build-up is difficult.
c.

Chosen Fabrication Process

At the present time, the compression molding process is a tried and proven
fabrication method for heavy truck leaf springs. The resin injection molding
process offers some cost advantages; but still needs to-be developed before it
can be used as a production method. Therefore, for this study, the compression
molding process has been chosen.
6.1.2

Non-Recurring Investment

The compression molding process requires a large press with a capacity of


100 to 300 tons. Such a press would cost $300,000 to $500,000. The work area
required for production of leaf spring assemblies, except for the press, would be
nominal. For this process, other required initial expenditures would be:
-the compression molds; one required for each leaf
configuration
-centerbolt drilling fixture
-routing facilities
Compression molds for heavy truck leaf springs cost approximately $40,000
per mold. This includes the cost of design and fabrication of each mold. The
other fixtures costs would be minimal in comparison. Thus, an estimate of initial
mold cost is:

120

Spring Assembly

Number of Composite
Leaves

Rear
Front

Total Cost of Molds,


Dollars

5
2

200,000
80,000

One set of molds would be able to produce about 10,000 parts per year;
the life of a mold should be in excess of 100,000 parts.
6.1.3

Production Costs

The compression molded process, once established, requires minimal


supervision; most supervision would occur through quality control.
Recurring
engineering and sustaining tool costs are considered negligible.
The material costs associated with the spring assemblies are:
-fiberglass fiber
resin: this can
Rejection and/or
duction is taken

in a compression moldable epoxy


be purchased for about $5 per pound.
scrap rate for this process in proas 25%'

-steel leaves, clips, riser plates, cnterbolts, etc:


this can be assumed to cost $0.50 per pound
-miscellaneous materials (spacer and wear pads,
adhesives, etc): the combined total per assembly
is about $15.00
Labor charges, which are estimated from work performed at EEMD in the
fabrication of compression molded leaf springs, are taken as:
-molding of leaf: 2 hrs of technician per leaf
-assembly:

2.5 hrs of technician per leaf

-Q.A.: 0.4 hrs of Q.A. technician


-supervision: 0.5 hrs of Engineer
There are no sub-contracted items associated with this process.
The budgetary cost estimate for production can be figured using the
following process:
a.

The total cost is calculated using the following elements


-Direct Labor Charges
-Labor Overhead at 140%

121

-Material Charges
-Material Handling Overhead at 12%
-Other Charges
b.

The selling price is calculated by


-including 15% for general and administrative expenses
-including an 8% profit /fee

This results in
a.

direct labor charges being multiplied by 2.13 to obtain the


portion of the selling price due to labor

b.

material charges being multiplied by 1.39 to obtain the portion


of the selling price due to material

c.

other costs being multiplied by 1.24 to obtain the portion of


the selling price to these items

Using FY79 dollars and rates, these result in selling price labor rates of
Burdened Labor Rate,
Dollars/Hour

Category

22.50
19.50
36.00

Technician
Q.A. Technician
Engineer
The burdened material costs are

Burdened Cost,
Dollars/Pound

Material

7.00

Fiberglass-Epoxy

High-Strength Graphite-Epoxy

35.00

Epoxy Resin

8.00

Steel (in fabricated form)

0.70

122

For the leaf spring assemblies,

a.

Rear Assembly
pounds
Burdened Cost,
or hours
$

Material
Fiberglass-epoxy
Steel
Miscellaneous
TOTAL

b.

c.

the cost estimates are then:

70.7
74.1
---

495
52
21
568

Labor for 1st Unit

Front Assembly
pounds
Burdened Cost,
or hours
$
23.4
46.5

164
33
21
218

Technician
Q.A. Technician
Engineer

27.5
0.4
0.5

619
8
18

14.0
0.4
0.5

315
8
18

TOTAL

----

645

---

341

Subcontracts

----

To estimate the cost of a unit, the material costs shown above are to be
used.
For estimating the labor hours associated with a unit, a learning curve
is appropriate.
Learning curves are predictive tools that must be applied with a
great deal of professional judgement. Nevertheless, they are the manufacturing
operations estimator's most powerful forecasting tool. They allow basic, standard
time data to be used for estimating production quantities. The learning curve
projects the actual time it will take to make units during the buildup to peak
efficiency.
The learning curve concept is that as quantities double, the rate of
learning remains the same.
Thus,y

kxn

where
y
x
k
n

=
=
=

average cost per unit


number of units
cost of the first unit produced
constant, representing the relation between x and y

On a log-log plot, the learning curve is a straight line:


log y

= log k -

n log x

123

Learning curves for machined or detailed parts are typically 95%.


Subassembly learning curves are generally near 87% and minor assembly curves are
about 86%. As unit complexity increases further, learning curve percentage
continues downward.
For the truck components being considered in this study
-a learning curve of 90% is considered achievable
-a learning curve of 87.5% is considered possible
-a learning curve of 85% is considered overly optimistic
For the composite spring assemblies, the labor costs, in FY79 dollars,
associated with each unit of production is shown in Figures 24 and 25. The
initial unit cost is taken as that calculated above.
To find the total cost
of a production unit, the material and labor costs must be combined
6.2

Propeller Shafts
6.2.1

Production Fabrication Process

The fabrication process for the composite tube of the propeller shaft used
in the prototype program is shown schematically in Figure 26.
The female mandrel
concept was employed for the reasons discussed in Section 4.
However, this
process does not lend itself to production:
it is labor intensive.
Since the majority of the fibers are at a +45* orientation, filament winding
is the obvious choice for production of the composite tubes. For this process, the
tooling is minimal, the fabrication process utilizes an automatable device which can
easily apply fiber at a 450 angle, and no special curing equipment is required.
Therefore, the filament winding process is chosen for the budgetary cost estimate for
production.
6.2.2

Non-Recurring Investment

In addition to filament winding machines which are available in many


composite fabrication facilities, only mandrels are needed to fabricate the
composite tubes.
The mandrel would consist of a steel tube or shaft of constant diameter
with machined slots to locate the end sleeves. Such a simple mandrel would cost
$2,000 to $2,500.
Production quantities would require the following number of
mandrels:

124

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H

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127

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1281

Yearly Production Rate

Number of Mandrels

1,020
5,100
10,200

10
36
68

A minimum economical yearly production rate would be 500.


Final machining of the cured tube would employ standard milling/cutting
equipment.
6.2.3

Production Costs

The methods outlined in Section 6.1.3 can be used to obtain the budgetary
cost estimates for the propeller shafts as well. The composite design replacing
P/N 11669147 was chosen as the example for the propeller shafts since its length
is near the average of the components considered.
The cost estimate is:
(a) Material

Pounds or hours

Burdened cost, dollars

2.75
1.20
3.0
----

96
10
2
2
110

Graphite Fiber
Epoxy Resin
Steel Sleeves
Miscellaneous
TOTAL
(b) Labor for 1st Unit
Technician
QA Technician
Engineer
TOTAL

38
0.5
0.4

855
10
15
880

(c) Subcontracts
End fittings,
Assembly, and
Balancing
(Existing technology used)

240

To estimate cost of a unit, use the material and subcontract costs shown
above and the labor costs given in Figure 27.

129

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130

6.3

Estimated Production Costs

Estimated production costs for each component can be calculated from the
data given in Section 6.1 and 6.2.
Table 25 gives the estimated production costs, neglecting non-recurring
investment, for the 1,000th, 5,000th, and 10,000th unit produced.

131

TABLE 25
ESTIMATED PRODUCTION COSTS

Component

Estimated Cost, in Dollars, for


1,000th
5,000th
10,000th
unit
unit
unit

Spring Assemblies:
Front
Rear
Propeller Shafts:
P/N 11669147
P/N 8332248

132

310
890

285
715

275
685

845
745

570
470

535
435

7
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The test results given in Section 5 indicate that the composite material
components designed and fabricated as part of the program will meet the life
requirements for these parts.
The cost data presented in Section 6 also indicate the economic benefits
The next step in pursuing these
possible for these lightweight components.
conclusions are:
-field testing of the prototype components
-development of production processes for the components

133

APPENDIX A

FABRICATION PROCESS SHEETS


FOR LEAF SPRING

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TACOM REAR LEAF SPRING / 386 / JUNE 9,

----------------

1980

INDIVIDUAL PLY LENGTHS.--------------PAGE

PLY THICKNESS IS 0.0166 INCHES

PLY NUMBER

FRONT LENGTH

REAR LENGTH

TOTAL LENGTH

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.00

24.00

54.00

10

24.00

24.00

54.00

11

24.00

24.00

54.00

12

24.00

24.00

54.00

13

24.00

24.00

54.00

14

24.00

24.00

54.00

15

24.00

24.00

54.00

16

24.00

24.00

54.00

17

24.00

24.00

54.00

18

24.00

24.00

54.00

19

24.00

24.00

54.00

20

24.00

24.00

54.00

21

24.00

24.00

54.00

22

24.00

24.00

54.00

23

17.20

17.20

34.40

24

16.40

16.40

32.80

25

15.80

15.80

31.60

A-8

TACOM REAR LEAF SPRING / 386 / JUNE 9,


--------------------

1980

INDIVIDUAL PLY LENGTHS ----------------- PAGE 2

PLY THICKNESS IS 0.0166 INCHES

PLY NUMBER

FRONT LENGTH

REAR LENGTH

TOTAL LENGTH

26

15.20

15.20

30.40

27

14.70

14.70

29.40

28

14.20

14.20

28.40

29

13.80

13.80

27.60

30

13.40

13.40

26.80

31

13.00

13.00

26.00

32

12.60

12.60

25.20

33

12.20

12.20

24.40

34

U1.90

11.90

23.80

35

11.60

11.60

23.20

36

11.20

11.20

22.40

37

10.90

10.90

21.80

38

10.60

10.60

21.20

39

10.30

10.30

20.60

40

10.00

10.00

20.00

41

9.70

9.70

19.40

42

9.50

9.50

19.00

43

9.20

9.20

18.40

44

8.90

8.90

17.80

45

8.70

8.70

17.40

46

8.40

8.40

16.80

47

8.20

8.20

16.40

48

7.70

7.70

15.40

49

7.40

7.40

14.80

A-9

TACOM REAR LEAF SPRING /

----------------

386 / JUNE 9,

1980

INDIVIDUAL PLY LENGTHS ----------------

PLY THICKNESS IS 0.0166 INCHES

PLY NUMBER

FRONT LENGTH

REAR LENGTH

TOTAL LENGTH

50

7.20

7.20

14.40

51

7.00

7.00

14.00

52

6.70

6.70

13.40

53

6.50

6.50

13.00

54

6.10

6.10

12.20

55

24.00

24.00

54.00

56

24.00

24.00

54.00

57

24.00

24.00

54.00

58

24.00

24.00

54.00

59

24.00

24.00

54.00

60

24.00

24.00

54.00

61

24.00

24.00

54.00

62

24.00

24.00

54.00

63

24.00

24.00

54.00

64

24.00

24.00

54.00

65

24.00

24.00

54.00

66

24.00

24.00

54.00

67

24.00

24.00

54.00

68

24.00

24.00

54.00

69

24.00

24.00

54.00

70

24.00

24.00

54.00

71

24.00

24.00

54.00

72

24.00

24.00

54.00

73

24.00

24.00

54.00

74

24.00

24.00

54.00

75

24.00

24.00

54.00

76

24.00

24.00

54.00

77

24.00

24.00

54.00

78

24.00

24.00

54.00

24.__2_054A-10

PAGE 3

FABRICATION PROCESS SHEETS


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Front Leaf Spring Assembly

A-24

APPENDIX B

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APPENDIX C

ULTRASONIC C-SCAN RESULTS

C-1

C-SCAN FOR LEAVES

C-2

LEAF SPRINGS

TAcom

UL-riZSONIC

AY6

PEAK~ OUTPUT

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6CAW SPECD

INTC~A

INDICATION -LEVEL

IAJ0ICqIT/0AJ

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4.<-SAcx grFLEc-nom

PESULTS:

7. lW

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0,.021 in.

INDEX

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6CAij S~eCo
INDICATION

Q, -1

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45

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1. > 'AfLoSQ.

bz762mIAJEa

4.7611.
~.100%

0 .0

J~

5'df14b?

ArT7-N.

DfLq'1

7 iP-5

' A p r

XDC9L F25a.

RANAr~fT_2CS

40B

vVCATE

OUTPUT

Px-,;

0-15"

2AI

kE~l

REP. RATE
AY6

TYPE

XD

IINSPECTIO&I

77E

DhSPRImG

SP'~RiN~s

LEA

iTH

Leuec.

-FIN1:51

13"

25"
C-2 1

3S16IA.-*

P?0.

13 t

SPRINS

LEA

TAcOm

ULT-QS0NtC- C-SCAM-

Oh 76*-*
!k

Noa-R4

REP. RATE

:ENIi

OUTPUT

.5CA~j SpecD

7N--

LEVEL
1. Nor, b~r,2ib

4.75%
100io%

7,c.

IIMOICA77OAN
1.

8J*Cx PiL,:5C7r15J 2. '/4


-Acm~
SACJk

-, 8ACMeR

Ar: suLTs:

x4cV

~40 dB

____________

A=TN.______
6,47-E WIDTH7

DEL4.f

o0-2S

FRE$.

in-

!Nr)x

DiRECtnotJ

7.e,4I7Js

2rA
5414.

4.

sQ. I N.

-5-2-4

SQ. 114.

~LSC -l o"J

6. < 4 So IN.

NA2o

Iji0 10 RT o'Js

E~o

s5p- Itjc

!rC~Aj T41

REPLE6C7,OAJ

QEpLecTjom.

GAI4

6ATE

V________

INDINCATION

io-,o86J

2-

-52.............

AYCG. I'ERJ

2. 2,5/

TYP5

41X~

INSIPEC71OP

sOCSI

-:==-I-

.EVEI-

26"'
C- 22

!SfAALL

A C

I-C

G3-s

2/3A

y 64v...05o)

LEAF SPOQINGS

TACOM

UlJr)ASOr~iC- C-5C~im

N-.

-SPP)NG

12

NI.

XDCP. TY'PS

2,

REP. RATEG'

Spec-D

IMD0TO

INODICATIObJ UrEUL
1.

NoT

bE-j,5MAJ~b

1. > Yf

2. 2s'%

2.

aACX R6JzC7/6AJ
3. So% 2Acx Rck po~
4*. 76/%sAcie !pe~c

100 '/.

"4.
A

ACJ

;ZE t-C7bCAJ

S8Ck' RELC-nomj

ESULTS

A (2-,4 3

~
42~~o~

AT7TN.

,9

?a~ Ae
15%~
in____

FREG.-

463 dB

G~qi

0024C

_______

XCP

101A7e-,

ArE Drtq'y

Q,-' V

AY6.' Prax OUTPUT


6cq~

,S

INJSPECTIONJ

IN
Cq

01

/Ilkz

16

dB

WIDTH~

DIRS-CriON

_______

'eA

T41S 51b"E

SQ. 1".

72~ Sq.z

31.
*z

4. 1- 2~ 50.
I

5. 2- -4

54J.

(a.<4

S~

-E-ve-l

,ce7/o'v'

2/.5

13''

CL:

26'I

C-2 3

j)-.

LTSO NI C C-SCrA.j

~P~I4G
o. -4
SP~ic.

43

stv

I.

Nor

UvSJL

2AC

4. 76%*&8Cd
4.

RCF6LEC7T/AJ

2. '/q

Q.EJL6,C7T10

4.

LF
LvEL. 3

Zele2
L~'c3
Z~a

@~eckvLE

AT7-,N.

W10rs

~4,2

eoqT43

SQ. , P.

72

54-"4-

2- SG. , t4.

6. <4

-C aAC)X RFLCTIOM

APESULTS

Saim

/31

d,27E4 Z

4etq 1

(PL'4

CtAJDS)

-21

qaea 2

'/+

2. ARE~A

c, ~3

4 t6

"

1'3-

13"

C-24

a2

XDC~k FZEe.

40 dB

/62

DELAc1

/NIDICAT/OAJ
1. > '/.f

(5 A1?

VCATE
Y9.

berammAJn

2. 2:5%

XrDCk T'YP5 0-75Pn'9Al1)re'5


_______2

AY6. APaY. OUTPUT

IN.SPECTION~

10-20-80.

ho 7-ST

5kE

REP. RATE

I IOICRTJoAJ

LEAF SPRINGS

TACOM

S0

/4dB
_____

...

LEAF SA~ipiss

TACOM

C-5CApj !tJSPC.CTIO&J

lJTASONIC

AY6. PEak. OUTPUT

aSA E DEL4'

vX

~cP~~~Peo

..io~c NCA

lNO)SCATlom LEvaLIJ

Q1

1O-2o

~ ~

64TE WIDTH

AJ-I

INDEV. DIRE~TOe70j

CTOI~~

1. Nor bU~?15PJch

'>

Vq

SQ

SC~

rpS

e~j

2. 2S,%

eiACK ReircTMAJ 2.1I4 - 'Iz :S.a.


I CA. 114.
3. 50% BACX REPU-070A.J3.
4.76% SAcl, REPi4CTnoA 4. IZso. r4.
;oo
100
BACk REPECTIOA)
C. 2.4 54. 11s.
(d.

- ACI

RESULTS:

Rraucniom

LEUCt Z

14. <4
Ae5~A

~~
a

C'rnwt.L

G6U6AE.4L.

26"1
C- 25

DiSC~lsU7r'ALJlT'&5

4 LL.

-7

LEAF SPRINSs

TACOM
lLTQrA SONI.c

Sk

REP. RATE

Ame. PEa

0.2

OUTPUJT

6p--1'

ICnP~
IAIOICATIOn

aAT

4i

1. >

2. 2S'% eqc)G ReFa6cT/6.D

2. IN' 3. 'A -

94. -

QEPV~Cfoi~j 4. 1-z
100 */% 8ACk REFIaCrioAj 9.2.4

so. i t.
34."A

3So*/ 2AC
4.7S*/. eAcjt

A esuLTs:

REPw'7.OAJ

LeV-L

~ q

/0
in

-2 0J

TNDrEX

-5AA

sq. m~.2

ATN

40 dB

6,9r- WOlTM
DIRECT)Oti

A t

1. NOT Ub7ETfPiIAEB

DEL4,q

0.62-5

bso~c TNAjcq
Imoic Ic~IAJ

LEveL,

INSIECTIOMJ

GAIN

EN

C-5CFtM

V3 t

C-2 6

r~H/:5 !TL)5*

i'8dB
____7

__

LEAF S~k"NGS

TACOM

C-SCAQ

LJI-T)ZASON\IC

to-t7-90-

D.4Tt
!PRjIMG

N,. R-4

REP. RATE
AYeS.

P--q

6cA~

XDCP TY"P5

GAIN

0,__2-__v

OUTPUT

LEVEL

IiJDICATIOA.

2. 25'% 8ACY. RC4C7-,j

2.

3r. 7-o/. SACI IEC7A


75%
10.
BACk REPLC-C7,oAJ

3.

Lve
Le

P&SULTS

ltPSj
- J

DE~~qf~

0. 02-

SO rrmp

AT7-TEN,.20 dB

40o dB

rj-E ior

15_20,u5

in.

'INDEX DiREC-71tJ

2o6Ad3L'

7JJOT

____5

le

A r

72i 5q.14
1~-2

9.2-4

ATE

__

REG.

XDCP.

0.15 PANAf17elcS

A__________2a

Sperm

INDICAT~ION..

-,,N 1~ '4

IIJSPCCTIOAJ

S.

54.

,..~

lt.niCA-r~otS

q-C~EA

~EIUDT'

13
SCA-A)

-~~

26'
C- 27

Lc-C-u&7H

TACOM

L)L1MASOtilJe

No.

Snm

L-~~IS 5N

Rep. RATE

IP401CA710OM

I. Nor
2.S2%
3.

SO%

jNCcJ
~.025

'I'i

84CXc RCFl6C7,dAJ.J
PepaC70A.J

7.601%SAcM, QERP4.ncTp.j
~.100 % SACk REFA.EC71M
(.,.
a ACM
Q9uCjCruo.,
PESULTS:

LC-28

DEtqy

0IP

xDca FPe

-40

lNbEx

M0

AT1N

dB
CATE

ILITh 4)
in

---

-14

AJIOTH

DIREC

dB
A/

5-1

05I~

1IijO CqT/OAJ 4,WC/.4-fDC


.> "'f So. "M.

LEvgSL

UnriuvAJra

BACX

GAIN

c:ArE

SPECO

INSPECTIOAJ

142"NAMcI~eles

0.2

OUTPUT

C-SCA~j

X'DCP TYPC L25


FNEG

Am6 PEnax

LEAF SP';N6Ss

3.

ie
4

4. 1Z2

SQ

S. 2-4

54. 11'.

4.(<4

So

A-24
e.4

---

--

LEAF SPRINGS

-TAcom

ULRAONIC

No. R-5 st

S~kj-

Sca

P~

OUTPUT

Speco

8A c~ xACp LEc Ti om

INFV
C~

sAcle JZE~FU77oAJ

0.025 in

2. 8Ilq - '/z sq. i A.


3. / ~-1I CA 1M

100 */O BIACk 9V:46iC7TjO

I~ac-A~a

/MoicwrToAI

2. 2S~% 8,c~c RrF(eCvdA!~J


3. SO% -BACXc RZE~-71A.

PESULTS

4. 1-Z

sQ. IN.

C- 2.4

1&.

M~.

1 4. < 4

/Atf5-jTd~4,v/4~~I

C-29

AM7N.
W)DrJ.
6A-2AJc~T

6ATE bFyl

INMMCATIOm~ LEVEL

7%
7.

DCA F;ZEQ.

40 dB

0.2v

4,1P5OS

INSPECTIOM

XDCP. TYPE 0-.52 ilswMERICS -

f~2

.s*2GAIM

REP. RATE
AY6

C-ScA?,

DIREe.TIOJ

~'

/Q

-*

16d

________

VeR

TAcom
U-712ASON.IC,

SPPM"G No.

Scrn
~

____

-X~r-k TYP15 0_50 P;Am~ErRC

CATE
IDC
s~

jD1EX

-q&

4pxA

LEvELIOIa/A

2. 2:5% 94cic ecjLwcr/dAj z. 'Iq - 'z sq.


3~So% 2AC REA&OAJ 3. %,- I CA. 11.
4.75% 8.~
e~mEPLd~nOAJ
4. 1- so. 1r4.
1.00%0/

4. 8aG

RESULTS:

SRk QeF:LrECT'jO

ieger~Lc-rioA

S.2-4

$4.

4. <4

:sa im.

A26- 2

-J.

DELA~IO-o

O-25If.

INCA

xDC~kREG

40 dB

GAIN

0.2V

I?.SPCT10Ai

OCA5j

NERG'4

PERJY. OUJTPUT

INDICATIoA*

REP. RATEAMe

R-5 5m.

LEAF SPQINGSs

-213f

C- 30

~v

2,-J.fM'4

6TEwiDH

DIREe.TjotJ
r

7-16 .dB

ATnrN.

'S

_____

V~

LEAF SAQ".N6S

-TAcom

UJLT-ASON4C

No. RS2

SPIN

R~EP.

RATE

GIATE

50S% 2ACXC
SAcje

> Xf

PCFM.CMAS.J
REPa<77-0,4
IQE)PLa1Om

~.100%l SACk REjC7-JAJ


6.
C R-RCi
F~LECTtOJ

PESULTS:

t10o

GAIN
DELAI

/AImoieT-lomJAE

bETAMAM

2. 2:5% 8i

4.76%

FNEG

IND$CATION LEVEL
NOT

MScTo&

XDCP TYPE5 10-52 B""r-iC.

AY6. PERIL OUTPUJT .0.2

1.

C-SCA

4-

- '/;Z~.M
1 -IC.
-'M

b-Z sa. Im.

S. 2.4

)-'Ayrfw

Cr~

5*0"

2.'/'I

/) 0

r0 -dB

54. -l-

ea. <4 50

hFC~rFAJ/V//lOU

C- 31

-xocP FSZSZQ.'

ArTMN. 10-19 11
WT
o'OU. 's
~/0 05

LEAF SPR"N&S

TACOM
lLT~2A SoNc

rl . p~I

XDCPL TYPE

mc Na

!E

SIEP. RATE

0. 2 v

Ayva. PERIL OUTPUT

(NOICArIOA

NOT

1.

2. 2%

16LS

bP,,D.,h

eao~cx Rr.FmCrK,.Aj

Z. 'If

4. 12.24

100 '/@ BA.


5REMPLECTAJO
4

BACX

RESULTS:

a. <'4

QFit.rIC~OA

Id)~

GAIN

_______14z

AnIN. /, -1 d

.40 dB

DEL.~y

At~r

0.025 in.

'It4ODY
<C-PrNr

C6.qE WJDTN
DIPEC~TION
7H'S

SIDO&

sa.IM
Vz

SQ.,'.

sa. iNm.
SA

'J

soim

e/3S

pc~V~

/0>

/0

XDC

AgAM*RC

42rA

/IoicqrT)oA
I. > /-f

7.6
7/1 SAcig QELM~
16.

a~

l~o&7p.yca

LEvEL

0.5

2-

NERG'f

Sk

SCRN~j Spect)

C-SCA~ IN-SileCTIOA

~C-3 2

________

UR7

LEtF Sp~ziNs

MAOM

U.LT2ASON(jC

~55XDC

SIIki"G Na.

REP. RATE

C~
INDICiATfOi

t TYPG

0.2vV

OUTPUT

'

ArE

NJc

15

INOICARTIOAJ
1. > '-f so

LEVEL

0-7

DELq-f

Q 025 in.
4-A~AfNT-

1. Nor- bvETE1amr
Z. '1q - Vz/s.z2
SA/.ci Rntmcrh6A
2.%
3. 50% 8ACXc REP.L7oAJ3. 1 iCiM
4-.j 75Q EPV1JATCoAj 4. 1- zQ so.

~.tOV.
RES6, a S

C. 2.4

AC~k RE~LECTCA

(c

PF~uc-no

F-

a.

<~e
4

I".

54. a's.

2.

C-33

INJSPECTIONi

XDC9a

Pqiii'eLlC:

2GAIN

FNERG-'4

SA~

AY6. PtawI.

C-SCAM

FREQ.

.40 dB
10 1?4

ArrN.
.,7E

DIEToJ

,sSC

WIDTH1'4

_____

TACOM

ULrIZSON.IC

No. 9--

C~ir

REP. RATE
AVG. PERK

OUTPUT

INDICATIOMs

4.
f(l.

0.2

LEvaL

/JJOICRJAJ

DEL4,

xDCA Fl

JA~mmEreicZ

)oZw5

0 .02.5 in.

?0

A1EA

AT77E.0-04

-dB
4'
6E

'

JNDE'A

WiDTm

D I RE CTI 0J

SYA7-v

T,-/S

_____

iI6er

:5106

I. > "if so. I".

1 S.ca

REPad<710.J -14.

~.100% 8ACkd REL.CTloM


aAC'e q~ECR-jCr0$

A EsuLTS :DC VC-LL

fI.JSAtECTIOAJ

GAIN

(SATr

Ipt~Jb-TNCJ

ZIETE&PVAJEb

SO%/ BACX

C-5CPm

o.5'0

X~-J

E*NE~G'

Sk

,lcRqw specr,

1. NOT

SJ"' Ii 7YP

LEAF SPRING4SS

S. 2-4

$4.

sm

4.

4,ec-4

#%.
,1.

Jucr

j;

F2tT5iPC

nA

It

C-34____________________

RFd

7/'-

LE. F SA AINGsS

TACOM

C-.5Cv*.

LJLTIZASON~c

lk "%' NNo

XDC-P. T-YPG 0-120

REP. RATE_____

AM~

INODI!AT1tm

0,2v

1. Nor

bV.-mamwraJ

2. 2S% 84cic RCFWC71dJ


3. SO% 2ACXC Repi..c76AJ
+. 7SO/
S.

SAck

1001/
16 -AR

RESULTS.

1Q5PL6MO~

BACkd REALEC7T0A
RFLCTIO

DEL~y

6~AT

Imo0qICOA
1. > '/-1 so.

LEVEL

PpN,2mAirlefcs
GAIM.

ENE2G'I

PAnIX OUTPUT

INSPECTIOA3

,N

~40

xDcA R..~

ATTErN.

WIOTH

/2-,'9eTE

~)

ii

.IM
'/Z
I. '1q
1-4. ft.
2. "
4. 12SQ. I M.

4.2.4

Sa.

"A.

4. <4

:sa

(DC

LC~eL

_______

iC-35

/a.-'? dB.________

TAcom

LEAF SPQ'rGSs

ILJ.-A SONIC. C-SCAM

*E-NEeG-4

REP. RATE
Mrs- A

O UTPUT

.5CAW SIec"

cLc

pocpjj

0.025 in.

2. 2.5% 9,cix ReFacr,6,j 2. /aq - Y A t


S. So% 2ACX REPU-070AJ
.3.,/1- 1 9. 614.
4.7% 8."/cs~e eEPi4WTIoA. 4. 1-Z $4.1
100 */oo ACk SEFL.c~ThjAj

f(

< ACM

Fci
FUCTo~ION

S.2.4

Sa4. I'l.

40 dB

AIM

CArE DELAi

0.2v

1MSPCT,0AJ

4.(<4

C-36

ic)Pfe 1/5
"I

1V

A-mN.
CE WIDTH

D1 REC7TJOJJ

12iJ dl
________

L16er7

LEAF SPRINGS

TACOM

ULTRASONIC

SPRIkimG No. A-6

REP. 'RAT

SA1

AY6. PhRi

OUTPUT

SX~l f41

IN~sCATIOM

Jp~j~

'.

RESUL.TS

BACk REPfl.CTJAM

~~AC~~~UCIONI
(3

DEL4'I

0. 025

xDCSL FZE,$._______

JD- le dB

ArrN.

40d B

W02
CAE&.OTH

4P

in..

-j

~~u'

'ee

5-1c -'
VT

42CI~~TIM
A.t

LEVEL

> Y-

I. Norr bEQ.,amiia
2. 26% aeacx .CRej~,CraAj 2. '1'.
3.
3. SO% 82.CX REP4cl7OAJ
100 *.

GAIM
ArE

I.

S.

0.d

IAS~eTloAJ

T106 0-YO Pp,.JAm.r--cs

X~-

-ER

L~S
~n~j $p~rj

C-Sci~j

Levfl 2

o.IM
Va sq.iit*.
~.
Ca IN.

S.2-4

5A. I&'.

4. <4

sa

Zeq
Oe-RT#

C-37

,iZ)arOv

LEAF SA'RINS

TACOM

'

C-cA~

Uur2A SONC

INSPPCTI0AJ

10-31-80
~.

No.

S~km

REP. RATE

.5l*

AYS. PEaw. OUTPUT

~~cnjLj
6

XDC.ILI
TYPE 0.50 PpmErlelcs

E*NERG'4

gAl

0p
0.025

_____101c

/maJOicATOA

1. Nov bFa~.7sljjb

. > Xf SQ. IM.


3. Yq
4

-SQ
2

4S*.
7i%&'cle QEpcrion.

4. 1.-Z

so. i m.

~.100

1. 2-4

56. lIM.

era

*/. 8ACk Q.EPLC710A


a.ACM ggrLic-noptJ

k6L-

4.

<4

NOZI

5A-

Ift.

soIN

a-W

II

fie

in.

AREA

IMOMATtoAI LEVEcL

32S5% BAC

4O.&t

2S7

ATT7,N.

/0 20 t'f

DELqy1

ATE

0_____2_
V

xDCa FRSe.

&V

ATE LAJJOTI4

D~E 0-T10afJ
#

'

.51
F-

/,dB

-,-/o

A-IS

TACOM

Ue-r2ASONI~C-

SPskiw~G No.

.5*ENE2

REP. RATE

AY6. PERIL
~~~

GAN

dATE DEL~f

7~JNc*Q

aF-c,&mtCfbEmA

2. ~'

. 25o%

SACY. Rr)jac7dA-j

7 . 1/4

~'

4.

4. 7S 0 BAcit IQEPVW71Om. 4. i-Z $4. IN.


~.100 */o SACkd PELCTAIJ S. 2.4 54. .J
4. <4 ~
<- aACK REPLECTIONI
'

6O
iC.,,FI,c4A1r

FS#RcA

'Ajo/Q,,qT'0,Ve

C-39

______

/6ENdB

40rdB
(JiT

O-2,ovs69

Ad
I/OC~A

2. Nor

e.~

0.025 in.I~C-~~

11IN014ATIOIJ LEVEL.

A ESULTS:

I,.ISAECTIO'&

0.50 a~m~rkles

61P5x
Jp

C-SCAJ.j

XDO-P14T'fP6

0.2V

OUTPUT

LEAF SPRINGS

WJODTH

___

LEF SARIMGs

TACOM
U'LTRASON.IC

P.

XDC-

0.2 V

OUTPUT
D5

55A
peco

A0 dB
I

42CCT/AJ
ARE
if5

bF-aj"1,AJ-Fb

2.. 'Iq - V Q t
ArFLEcrKdA.
3 So%
8Acc R
07oAJ
3.
~.
CA
.
4f. 7S/. a~c QEPLd7ohj 4. 1, Z so. i.

2. 2:5% Soc.c

6.
i(.

100%
*/
aAg

AI.

ACX REF46CTIAJ

iQE

TI pJl

S .2.4

54A. 1

4. <4

50 am.

6,97E Wiorm

DIREC.TIO$J

'~vT/

.P.a
.

tcc-Z'1
Es-~

2Y-

___________

AMrN.

-,00 vs

IN'01

-0025'"in.
O.

l
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A DIVISION OF EXXON CO;;PORATION

C-54.

ND-~

-t

m~pPIeAloe
eoiuD

APPENDIX D

LEAF SPRING TEST PROCEDURE

D-1

D-1.

SCOPE
This test procedure presents the requirements for laboratory testing of a
leaf spring assembly under vertical loading.

D-2.

APPARATUS
D-2.1 Static Load and Rate
in the clamped condition in
rear lengths for the spring
in the suspension system of

Test: The spring assembly is to be positioned


a Universal Testing Machine. The front and
assembly are to be the same as these lengths
the vehicle.

D-2.2 Fatigue Portion of Test: The complete spring assembly is to be


used for this portion of the test. It is to be clamped and set-up in
an inverted position in a suitable machine at the attitude specified
for vehicle installation. The suspension system brackets and/or contact
supports are to be used in the test.
D-3.

CONDITIONING
D-3.1 Conditioning: Condition the test specimens at 23 + 2"C (73.4 +
3.6"F) and 50 + 10 percent relative humidity for not less than 40 hours
prior to test.
D-3.2 Test Conditions: Conduct tests in the Standard Laboratory Atmosphere
of 23 + 2"C (73.4 + 3.6*F) and 50 + 10 percent relative humidity.

D-4.

TEST PROCEDURE
D-4.1

Static Load and Rate Test:


D-4.1.1
The spring assembly is positioned clamped in a universal
testing machine. Load spring to 2000 pounds. The torque load in
each U-bolt at the clamp shall be 260 lb.-ft.
D-4.1.2

Release spring to no load position.

D-4.1.3 Compress the spring to the rated load. Rap the spring
thoroughly with a mallet and record the load reading and the
height.
D-4.1.4 An autographic record of load versus displacement is to
be performed: this is to be a slow-speed sweep of vertical load
from zero to 1.8 times the rated load and back to zero.
D-4.1.5 The clamped spring rate at the rated load shall be
determined.

D-2

D-4.2

Fatigue Test
D-4.2.1 The complete spring shall be clamped and set-up in
an inverted position in a suitable machine at the attitude
specified for vehicle installation.
D-4.2.2 An autographic record of load versus displacement
shall be made in accordance with D-4.2.7 before cyclic testing
is begun.
D-4.2.3 Each sample
loading from 25% of
the rated load when
U-bolt at the clamp

shall be subjected to a vertical cyclic


the rated load (compression) to 1.8 times
clamped and shackled.
Torque load on each
shall be 260 lb.-ft.

D-4.2.4 Each sample shall be tested to failure or a maximum


of 150,000 cycles.
D-4.2.5 The clamp and nuts shall be re-tightened after the
initial 10,000 cycles and at least every 25,000 cycles
hereafter.
D-4.2.6

The test speed shall be 25-110 CPM.

D-4.2.7 Before cycling and after every 25,000 cycles, an autographic record of load versus displacement shall be performed.
This is to be a slow-speed sweep of vertical load from zero to
1.8 times the rated load and back to zero. The clamped spring
rate at the rated load shall be determined.
D-5.

CALCULATIONS
D-5.1 Calculate the spring rate at the required load from the loaddisplacement curve:
K=

P
S

where

D-6.

- spring rate

P
S

= slope of the load-displacement curve at the required load

REPORT
D-6.1

The report shall include the following:


D-6.1.1 Sample identification and fatigue life determined for each
assembly.
D-6.1.2 The autographic records of load versus displacement recorded
during the rate test.
D-6.1.3

The spring rates calculated as required.

D-6.1.4

Looseness of U-bolts at clamp.

D-3

DISTRIBUTION LIST
COPIES
DEFENSE TECHNICAL INFORMATION CENTER
ATTN:
DTIC-CTA

12

Cameron Station
Alexandria, VA 22314
Commander
US ARMY MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT AND READINESS COMMAND
ATTN: DRCMT

5001 Eisenhower Avenue


Alexandria, VA 22333
Director
US ARMY MATERIALS AND MECHANICS RESEARCH CENTER
ATTN: DRXMR-RC

Watertown,

MA

02172

PLASTEC

Picatinny Arsenal
Dover, NJ 07801
Commander
US Army TACOM
ATTN:
DRSTA-TSL
DRSTA-R
DRSTA-NS
DRSTA-RCKM
DRSTA-G
DRSTA-RSC

Warren, MI
HQ,

3
1
1
1
1
2

48090

DEPT OF THE ARMY

Deputy Chief of Staff for Research,


Acquisition
ATTN:

Development and

DAMA-ARZ-E

Washington, DC

20310

EXXON ENTERPRISES MATERIALS DIVISION

PO Drawer H
Greer, SC 29651
EWALD ASSOC, INC
19450 Fitzpatrick
Detroit, MI 48276

COPIES
CIBA-GEIGY
Riggs Engineering Dept
8245 A Ramson Road
San Diego, CA 92111
UNIV OF WYOMING
ATTN: D. F. Adams
Rm 259, College of Engr
Laramie, WY 82071
NAVAL MATERIAL COMMAND
Code (MAT0424)
Washington, DC 20360