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Chapter 1 Introduction and Vibration of Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems.........

... 21
1.1 Introduction........................................................
........ 21
1.1.1 Degrees of Freedom and Generalized Coordinates............
............ 21
1.1.2 Scope of Study............................................
............ 27
1.2 Newtons Second Law, Angular Momentum, and Kinetic Energy.............
...... 28
1.2.1 Particles.................................................
............ 28
1.2.2 Systems of Particles......................................
............ 29
1.2.3 Rigid Bodies..............................................
............ 33
1.3 Components of Vibrating Systems.....................................
........ 37
1.3.1 Inertia Elements..........................................
............ 37
1.3.2 Stiffness Elements........................................
............ 42
1.3.3 Energy Dissipation........................................
............ 50
1.3.4 External Energy Sources...................................
............ 54
1.4 Modeling of One-Degree-of-Freedom Systems...........................
........ 58
1.4.1 Introduction and Assumptions..............................
............ 58
1.4.2 Static Spring Forces......................................
............ 59
1.4.3 Derivation of Differential Equations......................
............ 62
1.4.4 Model Systems.............................................
............ 68
1.4.5 One-Degree-of-Freedom Models of Continuous Systems........
............ 69
1.5 Qualitative Aspects of One-Degree-of-Freedom Systems................
........ 76
1.6 Free Vibrations of Linear Single-Degree-of-Freedom Systems..........
........ 83
1.7 Response of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom System Due to Harmonic Excita
tion.... 90
1.7.1 General Theory............................................
............ 90
1.7.2 Frequency-Squared Excitation..............................
............ 93
1.7.3 Motion Input..............................................
............ 95
1.7.4 General Periodic Input....................................
............100
1.8 Transient Response of a Single-Degree-of-Freedom System.............
........102
Chapter 2 Derivation of Differential Equations Using Variational Methods........
....106
2.1 Functionals.........................................................
........106
2.2 Variations..........................................................
........110

2.3
......112
2.4
......119
2.5
......123
2.6
......131
2.7
........141

EulerLagrange Equation...............................................
Hamiltons Principle..................................................
Lagranges Equations for Conservative Discrete Systems................
Lagranges Equations for Non-Conservative Discrete Systems............
Linear Discrete Systems.............................................

............141
2.7.2 Differential Equations for Linear Systems.................
............144
2.7.3 Linearization of Differential Equations...................
............146
2.8 Gyroscopic Systems..................................................
........149
2.9 Continuous Systems..................................................
........155
2.10 Bars, Strings, and Shafts..........................................
........157
2.11 EulerBernoulli Beams................................................
......169
2.12 Timoshenko Beams...................................................
........185
2.13 Membranes..........................................................
........189
Chapter 3 Linear Algebra........................................................
....192
3.1 Introduction........................................................
........192
3.2 Three-Dimensional Space.............................................
........193
3.3 Vector Spaces.......................................................
........196
3.4 Linear Independence.................................................
........201
3.5 Basis and Dimension.................................................
........204
3.6 Inner Products......................................................
........208
3.7 Norms...............................................................
........212
3.8 GramSchmidt Orthonormalization Method................................
......216
3.9 Orthogonal Expansions...............................................
........221
3.10 Linear Operators...................................................
........225
........231
3.12 Positive Definite Operators........................................
........238
3.13 Energy Inner Products..............................................
........241
Chapter 4 Operators Used in Vibration Problems..................................
....244
4.1 Summary of Basic Theory.............................................
........244

4.2 Differential Equations for Discrete Systems.........................

........246
4.3 Stiffness Matrix....................................................
........246
4.4 Mass Matrix.........................................................
........252
4.5 Flexibility Matrix..................................................
........253
4.6 M1K and AM...........................................................
......259
4.7 Formulation of Partial Differential Equations for Continuous Systems
........261
4.8 Second-Order Problems...............................................
........264
4.9 EulerBernoulli Beam..................................................
......272
4.10 Timoshenko Beams...................................................
........281
4.11 Systems with Multiple Deformable Bodies............................
........285
4.12 Continuous Systems with Attached Inertia Elements..................
........291
4.13 Combined Continuous and Discrete Systems...........................
........297
4.14 Membranes..........................................................
........302
Chapter 5 Free Vibrations of Conservative Systems...............................
....305
5.1 Normal Mode Solution................................................
........305
5.2 Properties of Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors..........................
........310
............310
5.2.2 Positive Definite Operators...............................
............315
5.2.3 Expansion Theorem.........................................
............316
5.2.4 Summary...................................................
............320
5.3 Rayleighs Quotient...................................................
......321
5.4 Solvability Conditions..............................................
........324
5.5 Free Response Using the Normal Mode Solution........................
........327
5.5.1 General Free Response.....................................
............327
5.5.2 Principal Coordinates.....................................
............332
5.6 Discrete Systems....................................................
........334
5.6.1 The Matrix Eigenvalue Problem.............................
............335
5.7 Natural Frequency Calculations Using Flexibility Matrix.............
........344
5.8 Matrix Iteration....................................................
........348
5.9 Continuous Systems..................................................
........359

5.10 Second-Order Problems (Wave Equation)..............................

........360
5.11 EulerBernoulli Beams................................................
......378
5.12 Repeated Structures................................................
........393
5.13 Timoshenko Beams...................................................
........416
5.14 Combined Continuous and Discrete Systems...........................
........427
5.15 Membranes..........................................................
........432
5.16 Greens Functions....................................................
......448
....454
........454
6.2 Discrete Systems with Proportional Damping..........................
........458
6.3 Discrete Systems with General Damping...............................
........463
6.4 Discrete Gyroscopic Systems.........................................
........469
6.5 Continuous Systems with Viscous Damping.............................
........475
Chapter 7 Forced Response.......................................................
....481
7.1 Response of Discrete Systems for Harmonic Excitations...............
........481
7.1.1 General Theory............................................
............481
7.1.2 Vibration Absorbers.......................................
............486
7.2 Harmonic Excitation of Continuous Systems...........................
........496
7.3 Laplace Transform Solutions.........................................
........506
7.3.1 Discrete Systems..........................................
............507
7.3.2 Continuous Systems........................................
............513
7.4 Modal Analysis for Undamped Discrete Systems........................
........517
7.5 Modal Analysis for Undamped Continuous Systems......................
........520
7.6 Discrete Systems with Damping.......................................
........532
7.6.1 Proportional Damping......................................
............532
7.6.2 General Viscous Damping...................................
............533
Chapter 8 RayleighRitz and Finite-Element Methods................................
..540
8.1 Fourier Best Approximation Theorem..................................
........540
8.2 RayleighRitz Method..................................................
......543
8.3 Galerkin Method.....................................................
........546

8.4 RayleighRitz Method for Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes..........

......547
8.5 RayleighRitz Methods for Forced Response.............................
......566
........571
8.7 Assumed Modes Method................................................
........575
8.8 Finite-Element Method...............................................
........585
8.9 Assumed Modes Development of Finite-Element Method..................
........590
8.10 Bar Element........................................................
........592
8.11 Beam Element.......................................................
........599
Chapter 9 Exercises.............................................................
....609
9.1 Chapter 1...........................................................
........609
9.2 Chapter 2...........................................................
........616
9.3 Chapter 3...........................................................
........625
9.4 Chapter 4...........................................................
........628
9.5 Chapter 5...........................................................
........631
9.6 Chapter 6...........................................................
........634
9.7 Chapter 7...........................................................
........636
9.8 Chapter 8...........................................................
........639
References......................................................................
....641
Index...........................................................................
....643