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Indian NGOs

Indian Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) can be set up under various Indian laws, and the different
legal entities under which civil society organizations can register themselves are:
1. Registered Societies
Societies Registration Act, 1860 is a central act for registering not-for-profit organizations. Almost all the states
in India have the central Act for creating state level authorities for registering various types of not-for-profit
entities.According to the act any seven persons who subscribe to the Memorandum of Association (MOA) can
register a society. The memorandum should include names of the society, its objectives, its names, addresses and
occupations of the members subscribing to it as well as the first governing body to be constituted on registration.
E.g.1. Phool Kumari Devi Memorial Educational Society (Regd.).2. Ashmita Samajik Punrutthan evam Vikas
Samiti(Regd.)
2. Public Trust
Public trust can be created for public charitable purposes. There is no All India Level Act for setting up public
charitable trusts..An NGO can be created only under a public trust act.Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan have
independent state level public trust acts.
A trust can be registered in one state, but the same has the scope to operate in any number of states. In the state
of Maharashtra and Gujarat, all organizations that are registered as 'Society' are by default also registered as
Public Trust.
3. Private Trust
A private trust, Acreated under and governed by the Indian Trusts Act of 1882, aims at managing assigned trust
properties for private or religious purpose. A private trust does not enjoy the privileges and tax benefits that are
available for public trusts or NGOs.
4. Non Profit Companies (Section 25)
Conferring of corporate personality to associations that promote cultural and charitable objectives, but exempting
them from the operation of some cumbersome requirements are the noteworthy features that are provided under
the companies act, 1956.
According to section 25(1): "Where it is proved to the satisfaction of the Central Government that an association
is about to be formed as a limited company for promoting commerce, art, science, religion, charity or any other
useful objectives, intends to apply its profits, if any, or other income in promoting its objectives, and to prohibit
the payment of any dividend to its members, the Central Government may, by license, l direct that the
association may be registered as a company with limited liability, without addition to its name of the word
"Limited" or the words "Private Limited"
5.

Co-operative Societies

In India, cooperative societies are regarded as instruments to mobilize and aggregate community effort to
eliminate layers of middlemen in any product or service supply chain hence resulting in greater benefit sharing
for the grassroot farmer, worker or artisans. The Cooperative Credit Societies Act, 1904 enabled formation of
cooperatives for supplying to farmers cheap credit and protect them from exploitation in the hands of the
moneylenders. The cooperative act 1912 expanded the sphere of cooperation and provided for supervision by
central organization.

6.

Multi-State Co-operative Societies (MACTS)

The Multi-state Co-operative Societies Act, 2002 which substitutes the earlier statute of 1984, facilitates the
incorporation of cooperative societies whose objects and functions spread over to several states. The act provides
for formation of both primary (with both individual and institutional members) and federal cooperatives (with
only institutional memberships). Any application for the registration of a multi-state cooperative society, of
which all the members are individuals, should be signed by at least fifty persons from each of the states
concerned. In case of a society of which members are cooperative societies, it should be signed by duly
authorized representative of at least five such societies registered in different states
7.

Trade Unions

Trade union means any combination, whether temporary or permanent, formed primarily for the purpose of
regulating the relations between workmen and employers or between workmen and workmen or between
employers and employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business, and
includes any federation of two or more Trade Unions.

Topic 2 E-GOVERNANCE
E-governance is the application of information and communication technology(ICT) for delivering government
services, exchange of information communication transactions, integration of various stand-alone systems and
services between government-to-customer (G2C), government-to-business (G2B), government-to-government
(G2G) as well as back officeprocesses and interactions within the entire government framework.Through egovernance, government services will be made available to citizens in a convenient, efficient and transparent
manner. The three main target groups that can be distinguished in governance concepts are government, citizens
and businesses/interest groups. In e-governance there are no distinct boundaries.
Generally four basic models are available government-to-citizen (customer), government-to-employees,
government-to-government andgovernment-to-business.
Difference between E-Government and E-Governance
"E-government" is the use of the ICTs in public administration - combined with organizational change and new
skills - to improve public services and democratic processes and to strengthen support to public.So, the
perspective of the e-governance is "the use of the technologies that both help governing and have to be
governed".The Public-Private Partnership(PPP) based e-governance projects are hugely successful in India.
United Telecoms Limited known as UTL is a major player in India on PPP based e-governance projects
E-governance is the future, many countries are looking forward to for a corruption-free government. Egovernment is one-way communication protocol whereas e-governance is two-way communication protocol. The
essence of e-governance is to reach the beneficiary and ensure that the services intended to reach the desired
individual has been met with.E-governance is by the governed, for the governed and of the governed.
1.Government to customer : is offer a variety of ICT services to citizens in an efficient and economical manner,
and to strengthen the relationship between government and citizens using technology.Two-way communication
allows citizens to instant message directly with public administrators, and cast remote electronic votes (electronic
voting) and instant opinion voting. Transactions such as payment of services, such as city utilities, can be
completed online or over the phone. Mundane services such as name or address changes, applying for services or
grants, or transferring existing services are more convenient and no longer have to be completed face to face.
G2C Concerns

A full switch to Government to Customer e-Governance will cost a large amount of money in development and
implementation.In addition, Government agencies do not always engage citizens in the development of their eGov services or accept feedback.
Customers identified the following barriers to Government to Customer e-Governance: not everyone has Internet
access, especially in rural or low income areas, G2C technology can be problematic for citizens who lack
computing skills. some G2C sites have technology requirements (such as browser requirements and plug-ins)
that wont allow access to certain services, language barriers, the necessity for an e-mail address to access certain
services, and a lack of privacy.
2.Government to employees
E-Governance to Employee partnership (G2E) Is one of four main primary interactions in the delivery model of
E-Governance. It is the relationship between online tools, sources, and articles that help employees maintain
communication with the government and their own companies. E-Governance relationship with Employees
allows new learning technology in one simple place as the computer. Documents can now be stored and shared
with other colleagues online.[8] E-governance makes it possible for employees to become paperless and makes it
easy for employees to send important documents back and forth to colleagues all over the world instead of
having to print out these records or fax[9] G2E services also include software for maintaining personal
information and records of employees. Some of the benefits of G2E expansion include:
E-Payroll- maintaining the online sources to view paychecks, pay stubs, pay bills, and keep records for tax
information.
E-benefits- be able to look up what benefits an employee is receiving and what benefits they have a right to.
E-training- allows for new and current employees to regularly maintain the training they have through the
development of new technology and to allow new employees to train and learn over new materials in one
convenient location. E-learning is another way to keep employees informed on the important materials they need
to know through the use of visuals, animation, videos, etc. It is usually a computer based learning tool, although
not always. It is also a way for employees to learn at their own pace (distance learning) . Although, it can be
instructor lead.
Maintaining records of personal information- Allows the system to keep all records in one easy location to
update with every single bit of information that is relevant to a personal file. Examples being social security
numbers, tax information, current address, and other information[10]
3.Government to Government[edit]
E-Government[edit]
From the start of 1990s e-commerce and e-product, there has rampant integration of e-forms of government
process. Governments have now tried to use their efficiencies of their techniques to cut down on waste. Egovernment is a fairly broad subject matter, but all relate to how the services and representation are now
delivered and how they are now being implemented.
Many governments around the world have gradually turned to Internet Technologies (IT) in an effort to keep up
with todays demands. Historically, many governments in this sphere have only been reactive but up until
recently there has been a more proactive approach in developing comparable services such things as e-commerce
and e-business.[11]
Before, the structure emulated private-like business techniques. Recently that has all changed as e-government
begins to make its own plan. Not only does e-government introduce a new form of record keeping, it also

continues to become more interactive to better the process of delivering services and promoting constituency
participation.
The framework of such organization is now expected to increase more than ever by becoming efficient and
reducing the time it takes to complete an objective. Some examples include paying utilities, tickets, and applying
for permits. So far, the biggest concern is accessibility to Internet technologies for the average citizen. In an
effort to help, administrations are now trying to aid those who do not have the skills to fully participate in this
new medium of governance, especially now as e-government progressing to more e-governance terms
An overhaul of structure is now required as every pre-existing sub-entity must now merge under one concept of
e- government. As a result Public Policy has also seen changes due to the emerging of constituent participation
and the Internet. Many governments such as Canadas have begun to invest in developing new mediums of
communication of issues and information through virtual communication and participation. In practice this has
led to several responses and adaptations by interest groups, activist, and lobbying groups. This new medium has
changed the way the polis interacts with government.
Municipal[edit]
The purpose to include e-governance to government is to make means more efficient in various aspects. Whether
it means to reduce cost by reducing paper clutter, staffing cost, or communicating with private citizens or public
government. E-government brings many advantages into play such as facilitating information delivery,
application process/renewal between both business and private citizen, and participation with constituency.

Government to business[edit]
The Main Goal of Government to Business- is to increase productivity by giving business more access to
information in a more organize manner while lowering the cost of doing business as well as the ability to cut
red tape, save time, reduce operational cost and to create a more transparent business environment when
dealing with government.

Lowering cost of doing business Cutting red tape- rules and regulation placed upon business normally
take time and are most likely to cause a delays Transparency- More information will be available, making G2B
easier to communicate.
Government to business Key points:
1.
Reduce the burden on business by adopting a process that enables collecting data once for multiple uses
and streamlining redundant data.
2.
Key lines of business: regulations, economic development, trade, permits/licenses, grants/loans, and
asset management.
India
E-governance is a wonderful tool to bring transparency, accountability and whistle blowing in India. However, it
has its own share of challenges that include administrative, legal and technological challenges. There may be
instances where e-governance can itself be a source of corruption.[14] Use of e-governance in India would also
require an efficient mechanism to deal with e-waste.[15] Absence of privacy [16] and data protection laws [17]
has also created many hurdles before successful implementation of e-governance in India. However, the biggest
hurdle before Indian e-governance initiatives comes from poor cyber security in India.[18] According to techno
legal experts, e-governance without cyber security is useless in India.[19] In fact, that makes the critical

infrastructure of India vulnerable to sophisticated cyber attacks.[20] Absence of mandatory e-governance


services in India is the main reason for apathy towards this crucial field.[21]

Impact of Technology
24/7 Service model: systems and processes have to be adapted to a completely new service model. intake
processes are made self-service and even in the middle of the night a citizen should get an
immediate(automated)response about the status of the application. Also E-mails should be seen as important
means of communication.
Need for content: websites consist of content that governments will have to collect, produce and constantly keep
updated. the content managers for each department will be in charge of keeping this information up to date.
Security: as government moves its core processes to the internet like any system it becomes more vulnerable to
external attacks. these attacks can be prevented by using tools such as anti-virus software, encryption technology
or authentic identification tools.
Privacy: with government having access to detailed information about clients and business which is sometimes
shared among other offices the privacy of these citizens and businesses can be in danger. therefore the
government is responsible for the utilisation and protection of private information
IT Department: With the implementation of e-governance IT is becoming more and more important in
government operations. The need for a professional IT department will inevitable increase, not only during
implementation, but also for maintenance of software, hardware and infrastructure.
Human Resources: Effective Use of ICTs in an organisation requires training as people should feel comfortable
with the tools they use. Maintaining technological infrastructure requires IT skilled resources which means
government will have to compete with the private sector for skilled IT technicians

1)Political Aspects: Formulating Strategies and Policies, Laws and Legislation, Decision-Making, Funding,
International Affairs, Political Stability
2)Social Aspects: Level of Education/Literacy,Employment,Income,Digital Divide,Rich vs. Poor,IT Skills
3)Economic Aspects:Funding,Cost-Savings,Business Models,E-Commerce,Spin-Offs of E-Governance
4)Technological Aspects:Software,Hardware,Infrastructure,Telecom,IT Trained Personnel,Maintenance
Safety and Security
Implementing E-governance
The first steps towards e-governance solutions, and the delivery of services, must combine short -term results
and long term goals.

ICT FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT


The media is an indispensable pillar of democracy and information/knowledge is power. Information and
communication technologies (ICTs) are powerful tools for the effective dissemination of information or
knowledge gain across different areas, and have a potential for economic growth and social empowerment. better
utilization of knowledge gained over the years across different sections of society leads to development. ICTs are
a diverse set of technological tools and resources to create, store and disseminate the knowledge base by bringing
value addition to it by managing information in a creative manner.Having knowledge is not enough, its
applicability is more important in present day context.
ICTs are a range of electronic technologies which when converged in new configurations is flexible,
adaptable, enabling and capable of transforming organisations and redefining social relations.
India still breathes in villages as its majority of population resides in rural areas and is largely engaged in
low productivity agriculture and allied activities. Even after sixty years of independence, rural areas are lagging
behind urban areas in terms of necessary infrastructure and services such as transportation, health, education and
government services. Rural India is characterised by severe poverty, illiteracy, lack of health services, lack of
employment opportunities and backwardness. This generates a politically and ethically unacceptable disparity of
services and opportunities for rural populations and prevents them from participating appropriately and fully in
socio-economic and political life of the nation. Rural areas are information-poor and information provision has
always been a central component of rural development initiatives. Rural inaccessibility and deprivation can
negatively influence growth and certainly, growth cannot be feasible unless it is inclusive.

GROWTH AND ROLE OF ICTS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT


Rural development is the need of the hour for a country like India, which is on the threshold of being a
big world power with the capability to influence the course of events on our planet. The Indian economy is predominantly rural where more than seventy-two per cent of the Indian population resides in villages and rural
areas.
Rapid developments in ICTs over the past decade have considerably changed the media and the way in
which people access information. The modem (modulation and demodulation) revolutionised the entire standalone approach.It brought together the media, the computer and telecommunication technologies. Electronic mail
and the Internet with its World Wide Web developed in quick succession. Convergence of the various mass
media, computers and telecommunication technologies now became possible, reaching its acme in the multimedia systems so common today for the transfer and exchange of information, data, graphics and sound. In
addition, mobile telephone with its many value-additions came to exemplify the very embodiment of the
emerging age of convergence
ICTs are those technologies that interlink information technology devices such as personal computers
with communication technologies such as telephones and their telecommunication networks. In the developing
world, ICTs and new media, aid development and provide people living in poverty to access information that
helps them make decisions about their lives.Today, information spreads around the globe in seconds. Billions of
web sites provide information and commentary on a vast array of subjects, in any language and in different
forms.
The Rajiv Gandhi government initiated the information revolution opening up the Indian market to
foreign investors, gradual privatisation, reducing import and excise duties on electronic goods, computer
hardware and software, and providing other incentives for the development of the information industries (New
Computer Policy, 1984
.

In August 1995, Chief Minister of West Bengal, Shri Jyoti Batsu ushered in the cellphone revolution in
India by making the first call to Union Telecom Minister Sukhram By 2005, however, the phenomenal uptake of
mobile telephones led to the gradual decline of visitors to STD booths in the metros and large cities. In May
1994, the government of India announced a new telecommunication policy, which threw open the basic
telephone services to the private sector. The primary objective of this policy was to provide telephones
connections to all villages in India.
In the previous decade, India has gone through telecommunications revolution, which is due to the
effective regulatory and policy environment coupled with an enterprising telecommunications sector made of
both public and private service providers. Practically all growth has come from mobile telephony and the private
sector has played a huge role in this expansion.
The rising demand in the Indian mobile phone industry is the main reason for the rapid growth in the
telecom sector of the country. With low priced mobile phones and low-cost cellular services, a large number of
Indian customers are able to afford cell phones. Apart from mobile phones, demand for personal computers is
also increasing at a blistering pace due to rapid industrialization. The smart phone is the leading mode for
individual internet access suggesting a good market potential for wireless broadband services.
Provision of Broadband in rural and remote areas will also help in bridging the digital divide and the
widespread adoption of broadband in rural areas will have a multiplier effect over the long-term. It will help
improve productivity in rural areas, help overcome the constraints of an inadequate transport infrastructure and
overall improve the quality of life in rural areas. It is a known fact that wireless is the quickest and most efficient
medium to provide broadband services in the access
ICT IS THE NEW TOOL FOR RURAL DEVELOPMENT, HELPS IN:
STRENGTHENING RURAL GOVERANCE: Application of ICT in processes of governance can
be considered in two categories viz. for improving government processes and secondly for building
interaction with and within civil society. The examples of former category are dissemination of
public information, grievance redressal mechanisms, utility payments and billing services. This
intervention of ICT in public domain, managed by Government, is referred to as e-Government.
Secondly, ICT improves civil society participation in the governing process, which is also referred as
e-Governance. ICTs in rural India is anticipated to bring in changes in the whole process of rural
governance by improving transparency, accountability and administrative efficiency of rural
institutions, promoting participation of the poor in decision-making processes and improving the
efficiency and responsiveness of rural service delivery. It can facilitate speedy, transparent,
accountable, efficient and effective interaction between rural citizens.
ENCOURAGEMENT OF RURAL ECONOMIC GROWTH: ICTs provide crucial knowledge
inputs into productive activities of rural and poor households. It would stem urban migration by
generating greater income and employment potential in rural areas and bringing the market to the
people rather than forcing them to leave in search of the same.

RURAL BPOS/KPOS: With the spread of ICT to rural areas, rural business process outsourcing and
knowledge process outsourcing will become possible on a wide scale.

POSITIVE EXTERNALITIES: In purely economic terms, connecting more and more areas and
people in a country to the ICTs network, leads to a more intensive use of this infrastructure,
generating positive externalities.
SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: Connectivity fosters social development, including improved
education, health and increased citizen participation in civil society, which ultimately leads to social
transformation.

MAINSTREAMING RURAL INDIA: Access to ICT would allow Indians in rural and remote areas
to participate in the decision making process and would decrease their sense of isolation.
A BETTER QUALITY OF LIFE FOR RURAL POOR: ICT can ensure a better quality of life for
the rural poor with a better access to markets, health, and education. It pushes rural India towards
economic development, job creation and poverty-alleviation.
STRENTHENING THE INFORMATION-BASE OF RURAL COMMUNITIES: ICT can
improve their access to the information they need, provide support to the local governance, make
them aware of their rights, entitlements and the availability of various government schemes and
extension services.
ENHANCING PEOPLES PARTICIPATION IN NATION-BUILDING PROCESS: ICT is one of
the key elements in modernizing agriculture, in producing healthy, literate and trained workers for
industry and for bringing about effective participation in nation building activity.
INTENSIFYING EFFORTS TOWARDS IMPLIMENTATION OF THE RURAL
DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES: ICT plays a crucial role through demand-driven information and
communication services. The potential of using ICT to promote rural development lies in addressing
the information gaps and blockages by strengthening the decision-making capacity of the rural poor
as well as the resource institutions of every rural community.

CONCLUSION
The communication scenario in India has undergone a spectacular change since Independence. The country is
going through an ICT revolution and this has become an enabling force for the farmers and those living in rural
India to become active participants in the growth of the country. Rural development is the need of the hour for a
country like India, which is on the threshold of being a big world power with the capability to influence the
course of events on our planet. The Indian economy is pre-dominantly rural where more than seventy-two per
cent of the Indian population resides in villages and rural areas. Government is making continued efforts to
provide equitable growth opportunities to rural people by the ways of empowerment and upgrading the
information infrastructure in rural and remote areas. ICTs have played a catalytic role in dissemination of
information, knowledge transfer, healthcare, capacity building and improved governance. However, despite the
thunderous growth in ICT technology, main problems in adoption of ICT in rural segments are ICT illiteracy,
unavailability of relevant and localised contents in their own languages, uneasy and unaffordable accessibility.
India has attained tremendous increase in rural tele-density and the Governments focus is now directly on rural
broadband. Apart from universal and affordable access to ICTs, greater emphasis must be to the availability and
relevance of services and content in local language or multi-media/accessible format as per needs of target
beneficiaries. In addition, capacity building of various stakeholders to use ICTs is essential for rural
development. This requires a shift in focus away from purely technology related issues to the evolution of
policies, strategies and plannings that ensure cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder involvement and engagement
including most of all the local communities and target beneficiaries. The draft National Telecom Policy 2011,
telecom policies of the Indian government and the recent special initiatives of the USOF are steps in the right
direction. Both content and capacity building are essential to achieve the promised impact of ICT on rural
development