Sei sulla pagina 1di 2

PERSIAN Chart for South Asia Post-Classical Civilizations

ERA:

600 1450

POLITICAL

Leaders/groups

Forms of government

Empires

State building/expansion

Political structures

Courts/laws

Nationalism/nations

Revolts/revolutions

ECONOMIC

Agricultural, pastoral

Economic systems

Labor systems/ organizations

Industrialization

Technology/industry

Capital/money

Business organizations
RELIGIOUS

Belief systems/ teachings

Philosophy

Holy books

Conversion

Key figures

Deities

Delhi Sultanate
Mameluk Dynasty
Muslims took over parts of Indus Valley early in the 8th Century (during the
Umayyad Dynasty).
By the early 13th century they established the Dehli Sultanate.
The Muslim rulers allowed the native Hindus and Buddhists to keep their
beliefs, though they had to pay taxes.
Muslim empire NOT tied to Baghdad.
Sultans commanded an army of 3,000.
the leaders for the next 300 years called themselves sultans, however they
never fully controlled the regional Hindu leaders.
Sultans never established a permanent bureaucracy
Urbanization Delhi was the second largest Muslim city in the world
Agricultural yields increased significantly
Regional trade and trans-regional trade
Merchant and artisan guilds became more influential
Indian Ocean Basin trade

Islamic government
By 1500 C.E. about a quarter of the population converted to Islam
Sufis were the most effective agents of conversion to Islam
some Buddhists ,low-caste and outcastes converted to Islam because of
egalitarian aspects
some converted to Islam to avoid taxes
to respond to the threat of losing converts to Islam, Hindus started
BHAKTI cults (open to women & untouchables) where mystical practices
involved chants and drugs
Growth in Hindu devotional cults that offered salvation and moral thought,
due to the influence of Islam and Buddhism

SOCIAL

Family/ kinship

Gender roles/relations

Social and economic classes

Racial/ ethnic factors

Entertainment

Lifestyles

Haves & have nots

INTERACTIONS

War/conflict

Diplomacy/treaties

Alliances

Exchanges between
individuals, groups, &

Muslim princes adopted regal practices that were Hindu-like and contrary to
the Quran
Muslims developed a type of caste system
With the growth of trade, new merchant sub-castes formed in the form of
workers guilds
women forced to marry at a young age and could not remarry. Ritual of SATI
practiced (widows burned when husband died)
Traditionalist Hindus and Traditionalist Muslims strongly condemned the
apparent mingling of Muslim & Hindu traditions
South Asia remained the least converted of Muslim territories

Interaction between Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists and outcastes extensive, but


assimilation never widespread
Muslims maintained power with armies
most invaders of India eventually became Indian / not the Muslims
problem between Muslims & Hindus major conflict today.

PERSIAN Chart for South Asia Post-Classical Civilizations

empires/nations
Trade/commerce
Globalization

ARTS

Art / Music

Writing/ Literature

Philosophy

Math / Science

Education

Architecture

Technology/ Innovations

Transportation
ENVIRONMENTAL

Location

Physical

Human/environment

Migration/movement

Region

Demography

Neighborhood

Settlement patterns

Disease

Urbanization/ cities (2 major)

Interactions through trade with Southeast Asia heavily influenced Southeast


Asian society. Political and cultural traditions began to match those in South
Asia. South Asian rulers adopted the term raja for their rulers, Hindu deities
became popular, Sanskrit became the language of business, the city of Angkor
was a reflection of the Hindu world, and later Buddhist influence will be
added (Angkor Wat). Islam was also spread to Southeast Asia through
Islamic merchant communities. It became popular with the growth of
Melaka, a significant port.

some religious poetry written by women (Kabir) and were written in the
regional languages
pictures and poetry of bhaki movement show personalized devotion
Dhows larger ships for Indian Ocean trade.

Muslims controlled a large area of India, but their it was never an extension
of the Middle East Muslim empire
The sultans established their capital at Delhi, a strategic site controlling
access from Punjab to the Ganges valley.