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Endocrine Anatomy and Function of Fish

Endocrine Anatomy and Function of Fish The hormones produced by the endocrine system control virtually all

The hormones produced by the endocrine system control virtually all aspects of the

fish's life, including reproduction, growth, and metabolism.

The following tells about the different endocrine tissues and glands and their

functions.

Endocrine System of Fish:

For the most part, the endocrine system of fish is comparable to that of higher vertebrates. However, some of the endocrine tissue do not form distinct glands in fish as they

do in other animals, although almost all of the same hormones are produced.

The fish has some endocrine tissues, such as the caudal neurosecretory tissue and

the corpuscles of Stannius , which higher vertebrates do not ossess.

The hormones produced by the endocrine system control virtually all aspects of the fish's life, including reproduction, growth,

and metabolism.

life, including reproduction, growth, and metabolism. 1 Ir Agoes Soeprijanto MS Lab. Reproduksi Perbenihan Dan

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Sistim Hormonal/Endokrin pada Ikan 2 Ir Agoes Soeprijanto MS Lab. Reproduksi Perbenihan Dan Pemuliaan Ikan

Sistim Hormonal/Endokrin pada Ikan

Sistim Hormonal/Endokrin pada Ikan 2 Ir Agoes Soeprijanto MS Lab. Reproduksi Perbenihan Dan Pemuliaan Ikan Fakultas

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Pituitary Gland  Adrenal Gland  Thyroid/parathyroid  Gonads  Others 
Pituitary Gland
Adrenal Gland
Thyroid/parathyroid
Gonads
Others
Pituitary Gland  Adrenal Gland  Thyroid/parathyroid  Gonads  Others 
Pituitary and Thyroid gland

Pituitary and Thyroid gland

Pituitary gland

This gland is often called the "master gland", because it controls other endocrine gland activity.

The pituitary gland releases oxytocin and vasotocin, hormonal secretions associated with osmoregulation and reproduction.

Thyroid gland

The thyroid gland produces several hormones which appear to be greatly varied in function.

Not all of the effects are well understood, but it thought that the thyroid helps control the rate of oxygen consumption, as well as altering carbohydrate and protein metabolism. It also produces hormones which affect motor activity, growth, and central nervous system

function.

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 Located at base of brain = hypophysis  “Master gland” of endocrine system ◦

Located at base of brain = hypophysis “Master gland” of endocrine system

Neurohypophysis (pars nervosa)

Adenohypophysis

(pars distalis)

Pars intermedia

of endocrine system ◦ Neurohypophysis (pars nervosa) ◦ Adenohypophysis (pars distalis) ◦ Pars intermedia
of endocrine system ◦ Neurohypophysis (pars nervosa) ◦ Adenohypophysis (pars distalis) ◦ Pars intermedia
of endocrine system ◦ Neurohypophysis (pars nervosa) ◦ Adenohypophysis (pars distalis) ◦ Pars intermedia
of endocrine system ◦ Neurohypophysis (pars nervosa) ◦ Adenohypophysis (pars distalis) ◦ Pars intermedia
of endocrine system ◦ Neurohypophysis (pars nervosa) ◦ Adenohypophysis (pars distalis) ◦ Pars intermedia

Ultimobranchial gland

This gland is located below the esophagus, near the sinus venosus of the heart.

It secretes calcitonin, a hormone thought to

control calcium metabolism.

Chromaffin tissue

This tissue is distributed around the post-cardinal

veins.

Chromaffin tissue secretes adrenaline, which

controls the heart rate, blood pressure, and dilation

of the pupils.

In times of stress, this tissue is stimulated, causing more adrenaline to be produced.

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• Interrenal tissue • This tissue is found around the head kidney and secretes steroids.

Interrenal tissue

This tissue is found around the head kidney and secretes steroids.

These steroids control osmoregulatory processes associated with the gills, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract.

Islets of Langerhans

This tissue is also often referred to as the pancreatic islets.

It is distributed around the pyloric caeca, intestine, spleen, and gall bladder.

The pancreatic islets produce insulin, a hormone necessary for carbohydrate metabolism, and in the conversion of glucose to

glycogen.

Intestinal mucosa- Hormones produced by the intestine regulate functions of the pancreas.

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Kidney The kidney produces renin, a hormone associated with the function of blood vessels in the kidney.

Gonads The sex glands of both sexes secrete steroids which are responsible for reproductive behavior

including courtship, nest building, and spawning.

These hormones also stimulate development and maintenance of secondary sex characteristics, as well as the production of gametes. Ovaries produce estrogen-like hormones that attract males.

The testes produce androgens, mainly testosterone,

which are important in sexual behavior and spawning activities of the male.

Gonad stimulation and development by gonadrotropin hormones.

Production of estrogens, progesterone, maturation factors, testosterone by gonads.

Environmental pollutants can increase cell destruction, or mimic sex steroids. Artificial manipulation of spawning, sexual manipulation in aquaculture.

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GONADS

GONADS

GONADS
 Not a discrete, organized gland in fish  Located in inter-renal tissue and suprarenal

Not a discrete, organized gland in fish

Located in inter-renal tissue and suprarenal gland

Production of stress hormones

Corticosteroids - cortisol

Catecholamines epinephrine,

norepinephrine

Adrenal Glands Stress response of adrenal hormones
Adrenal Glands Stress response of adrenal hormones
Adrenal Glands Stress response of adrenal hormones
Adrenal Glands Stress response of adrenal hormones
Adrenal Glands Stress response of adrenal hormones

Adrenal Glands

Stress response of adrenal hormones

Regulasi Neuroendokrin pada Reproduksi Ikan

Regulasi Neuroendokrin pada Reproduksi Ikan
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• Pineal organ • This organ is located above and behind the eye.It secretes melatonin,
• Pineal organ • This organ is located above and behind the eye.It secretes melatonin,

Pineal organ

This organ is located above and behind the eye.It secretes melatonin, which aggregates melanin.

This hormone is associated with growth.

•
Caudal neurosecretory system
Caudal neurosecretory system

This system is located near the end of the

spinal cord.

Little is known about the function of the hormones produced in this area, but it is thought that they help control water balance and sodium regulation.

•
Corpuscles of Stannius
Corpuscles of Stannius

These are found in the kidneys. The corpuscles are lobulated and are highly

vascularized.

Secretions produced are involved with proper osmoregulation.

Regulasi Neurohormonal pada testis

Regulasi Neurohormonal pada testis

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Induced ovulation & spermiation

Neuroendocrine control of female reproduction CNS Anti-estrogens/dopamine agonists Hypothalamus Gonadotropin releasing
Neuroendocrine control of female reproduction
CNS
Anti-estrogens/dopamine agonists
Hypothalamus
Gonadotropin releasing hormone
Pituitary
Gonadotropin (GTH)
Ovary
releasing hormone Pituitary Gonadotropin (GTH) Ovary Spawning behavior Vitellogenesis Final oocyte maturation

Spawning

behavior

Vitellogenesis

Pituitary Gonadotropin (GTH) Ovary Spawning behavior Vitellogenesis Final oocyte maturation Hydration & Ovulation

Final oocyte maturation

Pituitary Gonadotropin (GTH) Ovary Spawning behavior Vitellogenesis Final oocyte maturation Hydration & Ovulation
Pituitary Gonadotropin (GTH) Ovary Spawning behavior Vitellogenesis Final oocyte maturation Hydration & Ovulation

Hydration & Ovulation

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Male Hormonal Control

Male Hormonal Control

FSH Testosterone
FSH
Testosterone
FSH Testosterone Hypothalamus GnRH Anterior Pituitary LH Testes Leydig Cells Sertoli Cells Formation and Development

Hypothalamus

GnRH
GnRH
FSH Testosterone Hypothalamus GnRH Anterior Pituitary LH Testes Leydig Cells Sertoli Cells Formation and Development
FSH Testosterone Hypothalamus GnRH Anterior Pituitary LH Testes Leydig Cells Sertoli Cells Formation and Development
FSH Testosterone Hypothalamus GnRH Anterior Pituitary LH Testes Leydig Cells Sertoli Cells Formation and Development

Anterior Pituitary

LH
LH

Testes

Leydig

Cells

Sertoli

Cells

Hypothalamus GnRH Anterior Pituitary LH Testes Leydig Cells Sertoli Cells Formation and Development of Sperm Inhibin

Formation and Development of Sperm

Inhibin

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Female Hormonal Control

Female Hormonal Control

Female Hormonal Control Hypothalamus GnRH Anterior pituitary LH FSH Ovary follicle growth, vittelogenesis oocyte

Hypothalamus

GnRH
GnRH

Anterior pituitary

LH FSH
LH
FSH
Ovary follicle growth, vittelogenesis oocyte maturation, ovulation

Ovary

Ovary follicle growth, vittelogenesis oocyte maturation, ovulation
follicle growth, vittelogenesis oocyte maturation, ovulation
follicle growth, vittelogenesis oocyte maturation, ovulation

follicle growth, vittelogenesis oocyte maturation, ovulation

Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH

Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH

Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH
Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH
Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH
Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH
Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH
Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH
Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH
Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH
Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH

Estrogen

ovulation Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH Estrogen Progesterone, estrogens Corpus luteum Forms, recovery
ovulation Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH Estrogen Progesterone, estrogens Corpus luteum Forms, recovery
ovulation Rising estrogen stimulates surge in LH Estrogen Progesterone, estrogens Corpus luteum Forms, recovery

Progesterone,

estrogens

Corpus luteum Forms, recovery

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