Sei sulla pagina 1di 5

Gases and their Properties

April 23, 2007

• Airbags are filled with N2 gas in an accident.


• Gas is generated by the decomposition of Sodium Azide, NaN3.
• 2NaN3  2Na + 3N2
• NaN3 is very stable gas when wet but when it dries out it is an instant explosive.
• There is a lot of “free” space in a gas
• Gases can be expanded infinitely.
• Gasses occupy completely and uniformly.
• Gasses diffuse and mix rapidly.
• Gasses can be molded –
o V-Volume (measure in liters or L).
o T-Temperature (measure in degrees Kelvin or °K).
o N-amount (measured in moles).
o P-Pressure (measure in atmospheres).
• 32 feet under water is 1 atmosphere.
• 1 standard atm.(atmosphere)=
o 760 mm(mercury)
o 29.9 inches Hg
o About 34 feet of water
• SI unit of pressure is Pascal(Pa), where 1 atm= 101.325 kPa

April 25, 2007

Ideal gas law:

PV=nRT

• Brings together gas properties.


• Can be derived from experiment and theory.
• Boyle’s Law
o If n and T are constants, then
PV= (nRT)==k
o This means, for example, if P goes up then V goes down.
o Robert Boyle lived from 1629-1691. He was the son of Earl of Cork,
Ireland
o If you compress a gas it heats up, If you release it, it cools very fast.

Charles law:
- If P and n are constant then:
V= (n R/P)T=KT
- V and T are directly related.
- Jacques Charles loved from the year 1746 through the year 1823.
- Isolated boron and studied gases. Balloonist.

• V is proportional to 1/p
• V is proportional to T
• V is proportional to n
• V is proportional to nT/P
• V= 22.4 L for 1 mil when T = 273K and P=1.00 atm

How much N2 is required to fill a small room with a volume of 960 cubic
feet (27,000L) to P= 745 mm Hg at 25°K.

R= 0.082057 L x atm / k x mol


V=27,000
T=25°C + 273° =298°K
P= 745 mm Hg (1 atm / 760 mm Hg)
=0.98 atm

PV=nRT
Therefore n= PV / RT
N= (0.98 atm) (2.7 x 104) / (0.0821 L x atm / k x m) (298°K) = 1.1 x 103 mol or
about 30kg of gas

Decompose 1.1g of H2O2 in a flask with a volume of 2.50 L. What is


the pressure of O2 at 25° C? of H2O?

n H2O2 = 1.1g H2O2 x 1 mol/24,0 g = 0.032 mol


n O2 = 0.032 mol H2O2 x 1 mol O2 / 2 mol H2O2 = 0.016 mol O2
P of O2 = nRT/V
= (0.015 mol)(0.0821 L x atm/ K x mol)(298°K) / 2.50 L = 0.16
atm
P of O2 = 0.16 atm
- Interesting Fact: You can pour bromine vapor from one container to
another
- Lake Nyos is Cameroon was a volcanic Lake.
o CO2 build up in the lake and was released explosively on August
21, 1986
o 1700 people and hundreds of animals and trees died

Review of PH, H+, Molarity, and Electron Configuration

June 4, 2007

pH = -log[H+]
H+ = molarity
If H+ = 1.587 x 1011
pH = -log[1.587 x 1011]
pH= 10.79

molarity = H+
H+ = 10-pH
If pH= 6.7542
H+ = 10-6.7542
= 1.76 x 10-7

• HI – Hydroiodic Acid –strong acid


H2SO4 – Sulfuric Acid – strong acid
NH3 – Ammonia – weak base
• Molarity = moles/L

- If you have 13.754g NaCl in 1250 ml, what is the molarity?


Molarity = moles/L
Moles= x-g x 1 mol/x-grams
molarity = 12.754g NaCl x 1 mol/ 58 grams x 1/1.25 L = 0.1897M

Electron Configurations:

K- Atomic number is 19. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1


Cu- Atomic number is 29. 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1 3d10
W- Atomic number is 74. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d4
Ti- Atomic number is 81. 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p1
Rn-Atomic number is 86.1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p65s24d105p66s24f145d106p6

Before Chapter 5 notes (review)


June 7, 2007
• Moles-Mass(grams)

Mole x Atomic mass/1 mole= grams

• Mass(grams)-Moles
Grams (g) x 1mole/Atomic mass = moles

• 1 mole = 6.022 x 1023 atoms


• Ions- Ions are atoms with either extra or missing electrons
• Cation-Ion carrying a positive ion
• Anion-Ion carrying a negative ion
• Ionic Compound- Substance composed of oppositely charges ions.
• Molecular Formula – Formula indicating the actual number of atoms of each
element.
• Structural Formula – A representation of a molecule, radical or ion
o Co3-2 + Ca+2  CaCO3
o Ca+2 + 2F-1  CaF2
o Ca+2 + SO4  CaSO4
o Fe2O3  2Fe+3 + 3O-2
o 2 As+3 + 3S-2 As2S3

• Shorter the distance, stronger the attraction between ions


• When bonds are broken energy is released as heat, x-ray radiation or light.

Balancing:

C6H12O6 + O2  CO2 + H2O=


C6H12O6 + O2  6CO2 + H2O=
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O=
C6H12O6 + 6O2 CO2 + H2O

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O

-Atomic Number (#) = Number (#) of neutrons + Number (#) of protons


-Number (#) of Protons = Number (#) of Electrons
-Number (#) of Neutrons= Atomic Number (#) - Number (#) of protons.