Revision: 0
Date: 29 March 2013
Author: Dharmit Thakore
MOONISH ENT. PTY. LTD |
Executive Summary
The main objective of this project was to understand the Finite Element Analysis capability of Open
Source Software Salome for Pre-processing and Post-processing and Code_Aster for analysis of a
Pressure Vessel Nozzle junction. Main goal was to calculate Stresses by hand and compare them with the Finite Element Analysis results.
Analysis was carried out on a quarter section of a pressure vessel with nozzle in the middle of the geometry, with sufficient symmetry and other boundary conditions added for stability of the model. Linear analysis using Tetrahedral elements was carried out for this study.
Salome version 6.3.0 and Aster version 1.10.0 was used for this analysis.
From the study it can be seen that hand calculations closely match the Finite Element Analysis results. Further studies are required to evaluate stresses and analyse them based on ASME Section
VIII Division 2.
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Table of Contents
Executive Summary |
1 |
Introduction |
3 |
Model Geometry |
4 |
Loads and Restraints |
5 |
Mesh |
6 |
Analysis of results |
7 |
Hoop Stresses |
7 |
Longitudinal Stresses |
9 |
Internal Pressure |
11 |
Only Force |
13 |
Force and Internal Pressure Combined Loading |
15 |
Conclusions |
17 |
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Introduction
The main goal of this study was to validate Finite Element Analysis performed for following cases
1. Internal Pressure with Hoop stress only
2. Internal Pressure with Longitudinal stresses only
3. Internal Pressure with both Hoop and Longitudinal stress
4. Force of 9000N in direction going left to right if facing the nozzle
5. All of the above four cases combined
Based on the results and findings of this study, my higher goal is to learn Pressure Vessel Design based on ASME Section VIII Division 2 Part 5. A very small part of the Pressure vessel design is considered in this study, the Junction of Nozzle and Pressure vessel.
In this study Static Linear Finite Element Analysis was used to obtain results. Quadratic mesh was not considered for this study as the main goal of this study was to investigate whether the real world experience can be modelled in Finite Element Analysis.
Vonmises stresses were calculated for the 5 load cases above and they were compared with hand calculations using first principles.
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Model Geometry
The model geometry is a quarter section of a Pressure Vessel modelled in positive X-Y-Z zone of the co-ordinate system. This pressure vessel has a nozzle at the centre of it pointing in positive X-Y direction.
The geometry modelling is carried out in Salome Geometry module, meshing was carried out in Salome Mesh module and then the mesh was exported in .msh format. Finite Element Analysis was carried out in Code_Aster and the result was exported in another .msh format. This result mesh was imported in Salome again and Post Processing was carried out where Displacements and Vonmises stresses were evaluated.
Quarter model of the entire pressure vessel was used in this study as the not-
modelled section of the pressure vessel
was very remote to the Nozzle geometry. Flange was not modelled on the nozzle end to minimise mesh size and computation time as this is
the standard practice used in commercial software packages.
Figure 1: Model Geometry
Solid modelling was carried out in this study. Comparable results can be obtained by using shell elements, and in future another study may be carried out to understand the difference between the two modelling approaches.
OD of Pressure Vessel Shell = 3000mm |
ID of Pressure Vessel Shell = 2980mm |
OD of Nozzle = 300mm |
ID of Nozzle = 280mm |
Height of the Pressure Vessel Shell = 3000mm |
Height of the Nozzle = 200mm |
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Figure 2: Restraints
Loads and Restraints
Vertical faces are given symmetric boundary condition. Vertical Face in the XOZ plane gets boundary condition of DY=0. Vertical Face in the YOZ plane gets boundary condition of DX=0. Horizontal bottom face gets boundary condition of DX=0, DY=0 and
DZ=0
Five Load cases were considered for this study. To balance the unbalanced pressure an equivalent force is applied on the front face of the nozzle.
Loads to be considered for this study are
Internal Pressure = 0.5 MPa
Force = 9000 N
Modulus of Elasticity (E) = 210 GPa
As the nozzle is facing positive XY direction, force on the nozzle face was reduced in X and
Y direction and then applied to the face. So the force of 9000N in lateral direction of the nozzle shell junction is reduced to 6363N in +Y direction and 6363N in –X direction.
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Mesh
3D tetrahedron mesh was used for this study. Tetrahedron maximum volume was restricted to maximum 50 in Salome.
Global geometry was meshed with the above configuration using automesh. Automatic tetrahedron Hypothesis was used for global geometry. The edges of the nozzle (inside and outside) at both ends were given a Sub-mesh with equi-distance division of 100.
The linear mesh has 88712 tetrahedron elements.
At this stage, linear mesh is used with automatic meshing for the global mesh with 100 linear elements on the nozzle edges were modelled as Sub-mesh to make the edges fine and have more finite elements for better results around the nozzle shell junction.
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Analysis of results
Hoop Stresses
For the first load case, stresses were obtained for internal pressure on the shell and nozzle junction with force modelled on the nozzle face for balancing unbalanced pressure. The displacement and VonMises plot are shown below in Figures 4 and 5 respectively.
Figure 4: Hoop Stress – Displacement
Change in Diameter for this Pressure Vessel is calculated as follows
Change in Diameter
=
∗ ^{}
_{} _{∗} _{} _{∗} _{} ∗ (2 − ν) =
. ∗ ^{}
∗ ∗
_{}_{}_{}_{}_{}_{} ∗ (2 − 0.3) = 0.898mm
FE analysis above in Figure 4 shows displacement in Yellow colour highlight as 0.6mm. One of the major reason to contribute to the lower displacement compared to manual calculation is that the boundary conditions are very close to each other and the presence of Nozzle in the centre of the model.
Hoop stress for this Pressure Vessel is calculated as follows
Hoop Stress
= |
∗ |
^{=} |
. ∗ |
= |
75MPa |
∗ |
∗ |
As can be seen in Figure 5 below, the VonMises stresses for the majority of the shell away from boundaries and Nozzle is at an average of 75 MPa
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Figure 5: Hoop Stress – VonMises
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Longitudinal Stresses
For the second load case, stresses were obtained for force acting on the top face of the shell to simulate Longitudinal Stresses. The displacement and VonMises plot are shown below in Figures 6 and 7 respectively.
Figure 6: Longitudinal Stress - Displacement
Longitudinal stress for this Pressure Vessel is calculated as follows
Longitudinal Stress
= |
∗ |
^{=} |
. ∗ |
= |
37.5MPa |
∗ |
∗ |
As can be seen in Figure 7 below, the VonMises stresses for the majority of the shell away from boundaries and Nozzle is at an average of 37 to 40 MPa
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Figure 7: Longitudinal Stress – VonMises
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Internal Pressure
For the third load case, stresses were obtained for both Internal Pressure acting on the internal face of the Pressure Vessel and Nozzle to simulate Hoop stress and Force acting on the top face of the shell to simulate Longitudinal Stresses. The displacement and VonMises plot are shown below in Figures 8 and 9 respectively
Figure 8: Internal Pressure – Displacement
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Figure 9: Internal Pressure - VonMises
Combined stress for this Pressure Vessel is calculated as follows
Combined Stress = _{} ( ^{} − !" #$" %& ^{} ) = _{} (75 ^{} − 37.5 ^{} ) = 64.95MPa
As can be seen in Figure 9 above, the VonMises stresses for the majority of the shell away from boundaries and Nozzle is at an average of 65 MPa
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Only Force
For the fourth load case, stresses were obtained for Lateral force acting on the nozzle face. The displacement and VonMises plot are shown below in Figures 10 and 11 respectively
Figure 10: Force Only – Displacement
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Figure 11: Force Only - VonMises
Some close up screen shots of nozzle-shell interface are shown below. First screenshot is for the VonMises stress on the outside surface of the nozzle shell junction.
Figure 12: ForceOnly Closeup of Outside surface
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Second screenshot below is for the VonMises stress on the Inside surface of the Nozzle shell junction.
Figure 13: ForceOnly Closeup of Inside surface
Force and Internal Pressure Combined Loading
For the fifth load case, stresses were obtained for Lateral force acting on the nozzle face and Internal Pressure acting on the inside face of the shell and nozzle. The displacement and VonMises plot are shown below in Figures 14 and 15 respectively
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Figure 14: Force and Internal Pressure Combined – Displacement
Figure 15: Force and Internal Pressure Combined - VonMises
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Conclusions
From this study it can be concluded that Finite Element analysis results match that of hand calculations. This study is not exhaustive and was conducted to try doing Finite Element analysis of a Pressure Vessel Nozzle section using Salome for modelling and post-processing and Code_Aster for analysis
This study is just a preliminary analysis. For further study following actions are recommended
1. Use of Hexahedral elements
2. Use of 2 ^{n}^{d} order or Higher order elements
3. Mesh refinement around the nozzle shell junction
4. Have minimum 5 elements in the thickness of the shell and nozzle
5. Evaluate Stresses based on ASME Section VIII Division 2 Part 5 rules.
6. Use larger surface of the shell so that the distance between the nozzle and boundary conditions is more than what is used in this study.
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