Sei sulla pagina 1di 56

Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.

: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033

MB0033

Registration No.: 520966021

Page No: 1 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Set – 1

Q1. Define a) Project b) Project Management c) Process d)


Resources e) Project Cost

Ans 1:

Definition of a Project
Several definitions of a project are available, some of which are:

 PMBOK defines project as "a temporary endeavor undertaken to produce


a unique product, service or result."

 The British standard BS6079 defines a project as "a unique set of


coordinated activities, with definite starting and finishing points, undertaken
by an individual or organization to meet specific objectives within defined
schedule, cost and performance parameters.

 A general definition is given by Mr.J.M.Juran, a quality guru who defines


project as a "problem scheduled for solution".

The definition of a project may vary with respect to the combination of


words used. The commonalities and the differences between „Projects‟ and
„Operations‟ can be understood as under.
Organizations perform work to achieve a set of objectives. Generally work
can be categorized as either projects or operations. They share the following
characteristics:

Performed by people

 Constrained by limited resources

 Planned, executed and controlled.


Projects and Operations differ primarily in that operations are ongoing and
repetitive, while projects are temporary and unique. Also, the objectives of
projects and operations are fundamentally different. The purpose of a
project is to attain its objective and then terminate it i.e.. a project
concludes when its specific objectives have been attained. Conversely, the
objective of an ongoing operation is to sustain the business.

Definition of project management


PMBOK defines project management as “the application of knowledge, skills,
tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements”.
Project management is accomplished through the application of and
integration of the project management processes of initiating, planning,
executing, monitoring and controlling, and closing. The project manager is
the person responsible for accomplishing the project objectives.

Page No: 2 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Managing a project includes:

 Identifying requirements

 Establishing clear and achievable objectives

 Balancing the competing demands for performance, scope, time and cost.

Project management is both an art and a science. The "Art" aspect of project
management relates to the fact that projects are really about getting things
done by people. Hence it requires a keen knowledge of human behavior and
the ability to skillfully apply appropriate interpersonal skills.
The "Science" aspect comprises a set of principles, methods and techniques
that people use to effectively plan and control project work. These principles
and techniques help the project manager and the project team to complete
projects on schedule within budgeted cost and in full accordance with
project specifications. At the same time, they help achieve the other goals of
the organization, such as productivity, quality and cost effectiveness. Hence
the objective of project management is to optimize project cost, time and
performance (includes quality).
Today large and small organizations recognize that project management,
with its structured approach to planning and controlling of projects, is a
necessary core competency for success. Like general management, project
management also involves all aspects of planning, organizing, implementing
and controlling .However, it has its own techniques like work breakdown
structure, critical path analysis, PERT (Program evaluation & review
technique), which will be discussed in later units.
In many strategic projects the function of project management will involve
disciplines like:
Finance
Preparation of financial statements which will form part of the project
proposal, as well as the basis for managing the costs of the project.
Personnel
Identification of skill requirements of personnel who will form the project
team, selecting the personnel, and maintaining a good working
environment.
Operations
Managing the activities /operations that are repetitive in nature.
Supply Chain Management (procurement management)
Sourcing of materials, equipment/machinery/services by identifying eligible
suppliers of each and negotiating with them for procuring the same, and
managing the logistics for smooth project implementation.
R&D
New product development & quality assurance.
Marketing
Marketing the project idea to sponsor (sponsor can be internal or external to
the company).

Defination of Process
PMBoK organizes Project management processes into five groups, defined as
the Project Management Process Groups, each group comprising one or

Page No: 3 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


more processes. This grouping helps in understanding the relevance and
significance of the sequence of, and interaction between the various
processes in project management. However, a process group is not a totally
discrete phase occurring in isolation from another process group, and the
processes have inherent interactions between themselves throughout the
implementation of a project. We will briefly define these process groups as
under, while a more detailed explanation of each process group follows
subsequently.
Initiating process group – defines and authorizes the project or a project
phase.
Planning process group – defines and redefines objectives and plans the
course of action required to attain the objectives and scope that the project
was undertaken to address.
Executing process group – integrates people and other resources to carry
out the project management plan for the project.
Controlling process group – regularly measures and monitors progress to
identify variances from the project management plan so that corrective
action can be taken when necessary to meet project objectives
Closing process group – formalizes acceptance of the product, service or
result and brings the project or a project phase to an orderly end.

Broadly, the process groups tend to be deployed in the sequence listed as


the project progresses. In the event that a project goes off-course, re-
planning comes into play, and if a project is found to be in serious trouble, it
may have to go all the way back to the initiating process to be restarted.
To summarize, the result or output of one process group often becomes an
input to another. In the central process groups planning, executing and
control), all the links are looped i.e. the links of these central process groups
are iterated – planning provides execution with a documented plan early on,
and then provides documented updates to the plan, as the project
progresses. Fig. 2A illustrates this.

Fig. 3-1: Links among Process Groups in a Phase

Page No: 4 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Also, though these process groups are presented above as discrete, one-
time events; these events overlap and take place at different levels of
activity across each phase in the project life cycle. Fig. 3-2 illustrates this
overlapping.

Definition of Resources: We discussed earlier that the most important


step to arrive at the relationship between the four constraints is to make an
accurate assessment of the resources required, and the costs thereof. At
this stage, we shall broadly classify the resources required under four
categories.

 Manpower

 Materials

 Tools and Plants

 Infrastructure
Introduction to Project Management Unit 1 Sikkim Manipal University Page
No. 14

Page No: 5 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Manpower refers to all the man hours required from various personnel
working directly or indirectly on the project.
Materials refer to all materials that become part of the project. In the case of
a building this will include cement, steel, aggregates, doors & windows,
mechanical electrical/instrumentation equipment and materials, finishing
materials like tiles water proofing, ironmongery, consumables utilized in the
construction etc etc. – in summary all materials that become part of the
building structure.
Tools and Plants are those items that are deployed to aid the construction of
the project like lifting equipment (cranes etc.), concreting equipment,
welding machines, dozers, transport vehicles and all machineries deployed
as construction aids. They do not become part of the project, they are
utilized for the implementation of the project, and they are transferred to
other projects after such utilization for the ongoing project. The owner may
own some of these tools and plants in which case he will need to apportion
an internally predetermined hiring cost of the same to the project. For the
tools and plants deployed for the project and not owned by the owner, hiring
costs charged by the external agencies shall be apportioned to the project.
Infrastructure refers to temporary arrangements that need to be provided
for project implementation and dismantled at the end of the project.
Examples are labor camps, electric power and water supply systems built for
the construction of the project, dedicated telecommunication facilities
during construction at project sites etc.
Each one of the abovementioned resources has a cost associated with it and
the sum total of these costs will form a part of the project cost.
It should however be noted that several additional cost elements contribute
to the total project cost like financing costs, insurance costs, overheads etc

Definition Project cost

The total project cost is the sum total of the costs of all the resources
required to complete the activities mentioned in the scope of the project.

Although by implication this would appear to be a financial analyst‟s job, the


technical analysis invariably is closely involved with the cost estimation for
the project. The quantum as well as the technical specifications, quality
requirements of all the equipment and materials that go into the project
being the major contributor to the project cost, a reliable equipment list and
bill of materials need to be generated by the design team to get preliminary
quotations from suppliers, and carrying out cost estimations. For grass roots
projects, this is usually done in the technical feasibility report assigned to a
consultant firm.

Page No: 6 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Q2. Write a detailed note on project planning, scoping, planning tools and estimation.

Ans 2
The primary purpose of a project is to deliver a product and/or service to a
customer (the customer can be internal to the company or an external
Client) as per the specified time, cost, detailed scope and performance
requirements as contracted with the customer.
Accordingly we note here that a project is characterized by four constraints.
S (Scope) Magnitude or size of the project
P (Performance) Functional requirements & Technical requirements
(Quality requirements are included in these)
C (Cost) Total cost incurred by owner for the project.
T (Time) Time specified to complete the project
The relationship between these four constraints is
C = f (P, T, S)
This implies that Cost is a function of Performance, Time and Scope. Graphically it can
be represented as a triangle in which P, C and T are the sides and S is the area (fig. 1-
3). If we know the area and the two sides, we can compute the length of the remaining
side.

Fig. 1-3: Triangles showing the relationship between P, C, T, & S


Source: Project planning Scheduling and Control – James P. Lewis Chapter 1, Fig. 1.2

This translates into a very practical rule of project management – the sponsor can
assign values to any three variables but the project manager must determine the
remaining one.
It is common for the client to ask for too much to be delivered with regard to scope and
quality within the time and cost specified by the client himself i.e. all four parameters
end up as being specified by the client. Here the project manager needs to be proactive
in striking a balance between these constraints by making the client aware of the
limitations pertaining to time, budget, technicalities etc. In striking this balance, he
needs to plan the deployment of resources in sufficient detail.
While the parameters S, P, C and T are dealt with in detail in subsequent units, an
overview of these can be made as under:
Scope:
Briefly, scope refers to the end product or the deliverables required from the project.
The scope document should describe all the activities that are to be performed and the
resources that will be consumed. For the scope to be documented in sufficient detail, a
Detailed Project Report is often prepared (DPR).

Page No: 7 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Performance:
We discussed that there are two kinds of performance requirements – functional
requirements and technical requirement (quality requirements being included in these).
Defining performance requirements of a project is a major part of project definition. This
defining needs to be done correctly and adequately in order to prevent project failures.
Time:
The time of completion for a project is generally specified by the client. The cost of a
project is inversely related to the time specified i.e. the cost of a project increases as
the time available for its completion decreases. It is therefore important that the
resources required to complete the project in the specified time are accurately
assessed upfront to determine the project cost, as every resource has a cost
associated with it.
Cost:
The total project cost is the sum total of the costs of all the resources required to
complete the activities mentioned in the scope of the project.
Resources:
We discussed earlier that the most important step to arrive at the relationship between
the four constraints is to make an accurate assessment of the resources required, and
the costs thereof. At this stage, we shall broadly classify the resources required under
four categories.

Manpower

Materials

Tools and Plants

Infrastructure
Manpower refers to all the man hours required from various personnel working directly
or indirectly on the project.
Materials refer to all materials that become part of the project. In the case of a building
this will include cement, steel, aggregates, doors & windows, mechanical
electrical/instrumentation equipment and materials, finishing materials like tiles water
proofing, ironmongery, consumables utilized in the construction etc etc. – in summary
all materials that become part of the building structure.
Tools and Plants are those items that are deployed to aid the construction of the project
like lifting equipment (cranes etc.), concreting equipment, welding machines, dozers,
transport vehicles and all machineries deployed as construction aids. They do not
become part of the project, they are utilized for the implementation of the project, and
they are transferred to other projects after such utilization for the ongoing project. The
owner may own some of these tools and plants in which case he will need to apportion
an internally predetermined hiring cost of the same to the project. For the tools and
plants deployed for the project and not owned by the owner, hiring costs charged by the
external agencies shall be apportioned to the project.
Infrastructure refers to temporary arrangements that need to be provided for project
implementation and dismantled at the end of the project. Examples are labor camps,
electric power and water supply systems built for the construction of the project,
dedicated telecommunication facilities during construction at project sites etc.
Each one of the abovementioned resources has a cost associated with it and the sum
total of these costs will form a part of the project cost.

Page No: 8 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


It should however be noted that several additional cost elements contribute to the total
project cost like financing costs, insurance costs, overheads etc.

Page No: 9 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Q3. Explain the various phases of project management life cycle.

Ans 3:

Project phases and Project life cycle


Since projects are unique undertakings with a certain degree of uncertainty,
organizations performing the project need to divide each project into several project
phases, the phases arranged in a sequential logic. This is necessary to improve
management control and to coordinate the project activities with those of the
organization. A phase is a collection of related project activities required for completion
of one or more deliverables. A deliverable is a tangible, verifiable work product such as
a feasibility report, WBS, Critical path, a project budget. A review of the performance of
the deliverable / deliverables of each phase is conducted at the end of every project
phase
– To check if the project can proceed to the next phase
– To identify and correct mistakes in a timely and cost effective manner.
From a holistic viewpoint, four basic phases of a project can be identified.

 Initiation phase

Here the need is identified. The project actually begins when an appropriate response
to the need is determined and described. In this phase the issues of feasibility (can we
do the project?) and justification (should we do the project?) are addressed.

Planning phase
Here, the product solution is further developed in as much detail as possible. The final
deliverable of the project is broken into intermediate deliverables, along with the
strategy for producing them. Formulating this strategy involves breaking down the
project into work elements (tasks) and sequence of executing them (the sequence
determines the schedule), estimating the amount of money & time required to perform
the work, and when the work is to be done. The question of feasibility and justification
surfaces again, as formal approval to proceed with the project is normally sought before
continuing.

 Execution phase

Here, the prescribed work is performed under the watchful eye of the project manager.
Progress is continuously monitored and appropriate adjustments are made and
recorded as variances from the original plan. Throughout this phase, the project team
remains focused on meeting the objectives developed and agreed upon at the outset of
the project.

 Close-out phase

Here, the emphasis is on verifying that the project has satisfied or will satisfy the
original need. A successful project culminates with a smooth transition from the
deliverable creation (Project) to the deliverable utilization (post-project cycle). Through
this phase, the members of the project team are gradually redeployed and the project is
finally shut down.
Project Life cycle

Page No: 10 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Collectively, the project phases are known as the project life cycle. Thus the project life
cycle serves to define the beginning and end of the project. For example, when an
organization identifies an opportunity, it will conduct or authorize a feasibility study to
decide if it should undertake the project. The project life cycle definition will determine
whether the feasibility report is treated as the first project phase, or as a separate
standalone project. The phase sequence defined by most project life cycles generally
involves transfer of deliverables (or technology) such as:
Requirements to design
Design to production or construction
Production to distribution
Construction to operation

Deliverables from preceding phase are usually approved before work starts on the next
phase. The requirement of speedy completion of the total project will often necessitate
overlapping of phases i.e. a subsequent phase is begun prior to approval of the
previous phase deliverables, when the risks involved are deemed acceptable. This
overlapping is termed fast tracking.
Typical sequence of phases in a project life cycle shown hereunder (fig. 1-7)

Figure 1-7: Typical sequence of phases in a project life cycle


Source: Chapter 2, Fig. 2-3 of PMBoK. PMI

Q4. Explain the various concept of managing conflicts and maintaining quality.

Ans 4:

This process determines the information and communication needs of the project
stakeholders and also establishes an appropriate way to satisfy them. The nature and
mode of communication differ from project to project. The main input is the project
scope statement and the organizational process assets. The output is the Project
communication plan, which includes guidelines for project status meetings, e-meetings,
e-mail and video-conferencing. The main tool used in this process is the
communications methodology (which includes communication technology) , which may

Page No: 11 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


vary from brief conversations, periodic meetings between team-members, meetings
with stakeholders, written documents, electronic communication like

e-meeting, e-mail to video-conferencing. Project communication planning and human


resource planning are closely interlinked. The main inputs to this process are
organization’s HR assets, project scope and project management plan. Additional time
and attention needs to be given to communication planning when in-house manpower
expertise is not available for some functions. This would involve creation of virtual
teams, where expert personnel located in different geographical areas need to be
deployed to work with the project management team. Virtual teams can be managed by
use of electronic communication referred above, which saves expenses incurred for
personnel’s travel or relocation. Communication planning requires special attention also
when work is subcontracted to other agencies. In such cases, communication planning
will involve setting clear expectations, develop protocols for resolving conflicts,
including people in decision-making, sharing credit for successes etc.

 Risk management planning: This process is necessary to decide how to approach,


plan and execute risk management activities for a project. The main inputs are the
Project scope statement and the Project management plan. The output is the Risk
management plan.

 Risk identification: This process is for identifying and recording the risks which
might affect the project. Risks can be internal or external – internal risks are those
factors that can be controlled and influenced by the project team eg. a critical
construction aid like a very high capacity crane owned by the organization, planned to
be deployed on the project, and not being available for the project when it is needed on
account of repair or necessity to deploy on another project etc. ; external factors are
factors that are beyond the control of the project team e.g. escalation in the cost of
materials, force majeure conditions. The main inputs are the Risk management plan,
Project Scope statement, the Project management plan and the organizational process
assets. The output is the Risk register. Risk register is a document containing the
details of all identified risks with description, category, cause, probability of occurring,
impacts on objectives, proposed responses, and owners. The risk register is a
component of the project management plan.

Qualitative risk analysis: After identifying the risks, it is necessary to prioritize them
for further analysis or action by assessing and combining their probability of occurrence
and impact. This process addresses these aspects. The main inputs for this process
are the Risk register, risk management plan, Project scope statement and the project
management plan. The output of this is a Risk register update.
Some important factors while prioritizing are:
– One risk element actually occurring in one deliverable can have a cascading effect on
other deliverables e.g. delay in delivery of a key equipment for a project can lead to
delay in project schedule, overrun in project cost and levy of penalty by Client.
– An opportunity for one stakeholder can become a threat to another stake holder
– While mathematical techniques are used in risk analysis, they may convey a false
impression of accuracy and credibility.

 Quantitative risk analysis: This process is for numerically analyzing the effect on
overall project objectives of the identifying risks. The inputs are the Risk register the

Page No: 12 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


same as for Quantitative risk analysis, but including their updates. The output is again a
Risk register update.

The commonly used techniques for quantitative risk analysis are:


– Sensitivity analysis
– Expected monitory value analysis
– Decision tree analysis

 Risk response planning: This process is to develop strategies to utilize


opportunities and minimize threats to project objectives. It follows the qualitative and
quantitative risk analysis processes. The inputs re the Risk register and the risk
management plan as updated. The output is a Risk-related contractual agreement. This
means that contractual agreements such as agreements for insurance, purchases,
services & other items should be prepared stating each party’s responsibility for specific
risks, should they occur.
Project Quality
Definition and Standards
American Society for Quality (ASQ) defines quality as “The totality of features and
characteristics of a product or service that bears on its ability to satisfy stated or implied
needs”.
Another definition of quality is given by identifying three categories of definitions.

 User based definition says “quality lies in the eyes of the beholder”. This definition is
preferred by marketing people to whom higher quality means better performance, nicer
features, and other (sometimes costly) improvements.

 Manufacturing based definition says quality means conforming to standards and


“making it right the first time”. This definition is preferred by production managers.

 Product based definition views quality as a precise and measurable variable

PMBoK defines quality as „the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfill
the requirements‟. PMBoK also emphasizes that product quality measures and
techniques are specific to the particular type of product, while project quality
management must address both the
Quality management concepts:
As we noted in the previous section, „Quality‟ is relative, and different definitions of
quality are given by different professionals. Earlier, project firms as well as
manufacturing firms believed that higher quality increased project costs or product /
service costs. Today, all established and reputed companies realize that improved
quality increases business as well as profitability of business. The growing competition
in all markets as well as the growing size and complexity of projects has forced firms to
concentrate on quality at every stage.
Evidently, the cumulative effect of defects in every stage leads to a considerable
reduction in the quality of the project deliverables or end products / services.
Typically for a manufacturing firm, the figure hereunder shows that improvement
in quality help firms increase sales and reduce costs, both of which can increase
profitability. Increase in sales often occurs as firms speed response, lower selling prices
as a result of economies of scale, and improve their reputation for quality products.
Similarly, improved quality allows costs to drop as firms increase productivity and lower
rework, scrap and warranty costs.

Page No: 13 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033

Q5. Write down the nine steps pertaining to the new horizons of project management .
Ans 5:
Project processes are performed by the project team and generally fall into one of two
major categories:

 Project management processes describe and organize project activities. Project


management processes that are common to most projects have been classified into
nine classifications by PMBoK. Each of these processes is discussed in detail in Unit 2.
Though each of these processes discusses the significance of individual activities in
relation to the project, all the processes are interrelated. For instance, project
procurement management, which is a process for acquiring goods and services from a
firm external to the project organization, will need to be performed to satisfy the project
requirements implicit in scope management, cost management, quality management
etc.

1. Project Integration management


2. Scope management
3. Time management
4. Cost management
5. Quality management
6. Human resource management
7. Communications management
8. Risk management
9. Procurement management

 Product-oriented processes specify and create the project's product. These


processes are typically defined by the project life cycle. Examples of product processes
specific to products such as construction project, pharmaceutical project are shown in
Unit 1.6 under Project life cycle.

Project management processes and product-oriented processes overlap and interact


throughout the project. For example the scope of the project cannot be defined in the
absence of some basic understanding of how to create the product.

Q6. Read the following case and answer the question given below:
The National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) Board approved last week
additional funding for 10 foreign-assisted projects with P8.2 billion in cost overruns.
However, release of the funds is still subject to the results of a reevaluation of the
projects, NEDA director for project monitoring Rolando Tungpalan said. The
reevaluation will determine if the foreign-assisted projects remain viable and identify the
cause of the cost overruns. The NEDA official said funding is needed since the projects
are official development assistance (ODA) commitments. Additional ODA funding for
new projects could be hampered if the cost overruns are not addressed, he added.
Cost overruns are additional expenses incurred by a project in the course of its
implementation. Mr. Tungpalan said the 10 foreign- assisted projects had cost overruns
ranging from 29% to 131% of their original cost.In last week's NEDA Board meeting,

Page No: 14 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


representatives from various executive departments agreed to adopt a new framework
for approving projects. Mr. Tungpalan said with the tight financial position of the
National Government, the Board agreed to limit spending to priority projects. He said
the projects should fall under the poverty alleviation agenda together with that of
agricultural modernization.
Except for two projects, the rest of the ODA-funded projects are seen as viable, Mr.
Tungpalan said. These are the Metro Manila (MM) Urban Transport Project, South
Luzon Expressway Extension, EDSA-Shaw Interchange, Disaster Prevention and Road
Rehabilitation Project, Rural Roads Network Development Project, President's Bridge
Program, MM Flood Control Project, and the Lower Agusan Development Project. The
odd men out are the Small Water Impounding Management Project and the Pampanga
Delta Development Project.

Page No: 15 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Mr. Tungpalan said release of the funds will depend on the approval of the Cabinet
Investment Coordinating Committee (ICC). A NEDA Board report said that with most of
the cost overrun projects under the jurisdiction of the Department of Public Works and
Highways (DPWH), the agency has been asked to conduct a comprehensive review of
its projects. Mr. Tungpalan said the ICC has instructed the DPWH to submit right-of-
way acquisition and financing plans for its projects, noting that right-of-way acquisition
costs were the largest factor contributing to the cost overruns.
Aside from this, it noted implementing agencies approve contracts that are higher than
the appraised value. The NEDA Board noted that private contractors do not include
additional works or that designs in their project site are sometimes neglected during the
project estimates. These conditions add to costs once the project is under way.
Because of this, the ICC has directed the DPWH to periodically review and update the
cost parameters of its projects.
[Source : Proquest :Project with cost overruns get additional gov't funding
BusinessWorld. Manila: Oct 14, 1998. pg. 1 Copyright Asia Intelligence Wire from FT
Information Oct 14, 1998]
Question :
Bring out the essential characteristics of project management from the above case.

Page No: 16 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Set – 2

1. Write brief note on need for project management ,


project management knowledge areas and relationships.
ANS.

Need for project management

Project management is necessary because-

• A project requires huge investments which should not go waste

• A loss in any project would have direct or indirect impact on the


society

• Prevent failures in project

• Scope of the project activity may undergo a change

• Technology used may change during the course of project execution

• Consequences of negativity in project related problem could be very


serious

• Change in economic condition may affect a project

Project management knowledge areas and relationship

it comprises of various techniques needed to manage project, the practical


methodologies adopted in formulating a project and managing the resources
which would affect the project completion. Relation with other
management discipline is essential for project to be successful. Supporting
disciplines includes law, strategic planning, logistics, human resource
management and domain knowledge.

Page No: 17 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033

2. Explain the various estimation approaches and


estimation tools.
ANS. Estimation approach – there are two types of estimation approaches:

• Bottom up approach:-

The bottom up approach consists of the following –

The factors mentioned above may play a vital role in a project’s failure, and
this is the reason why numerous organizations have turned to a bottom-up
management style or at least some of its elements. The New York Times is
one of the good examples. The bottom-up approach implies proactive team
input in the project executing process. Team members are invited to
participate in every step of the management process. The decision on a
course of action is taken by the whole team. Bottom-up style allows
managers to communicate goals and value, e.g. through milestone planning.
Then team members are encouraged to develop personal to-do lists with the
steps necessary to reach the milestones on their own. The choice of
methods and ways to perform their tasks is up to the team. The advantage
of this approach is that it empowers team members to think more
creatively. They feel involved into the project development and know that
their initiatives are appreciated. The team members’ motivation to work and
make the project a success is doubled. Individual members of the team get
an opportunity to come up with project solutions that are focused more on
practical requirements than on abstract notions. The planning process is
facilitated by a number of people, which makes it flow significantly faster.
The to-do lists of all the team members are collected into the detailed
general project plan. Schedules, budgets and results are transparent. Issues
are made clear by the project manager to avoid as many surprises as
possible. Bottom-up project management can also be viewed as a way of

Page No: 18 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


coping with the increasing gap between the information necessary to
manage knowledge workers and the ability of managers to acquire and
apply this information.

However, despite all it the advantages, the bottom-up style alone will not
make your projects flourish. According to many experts, the bottom-up
approach is not the perfect solution, as sometimes it lacks clarity and
control. The best way is to find a balance between the two opposite
approaches and take the best practices from both of them.

• Top down approach:-

The top-down approach remains extremely popular in contemporary project


management. The phrase “top-down” means that all the directions come
from the top. Project objectives are established by the top management.
Top managers provide guidelines, information, plans and fund processes.
All of the project manager’s expectations are clearly communicated to each
project participant. Following this approach, ambiguity opens the door for
potential failure, and the managers should be as specific as possible when
communicating their expectations. Process formality is very important for
this approach. Examples of the top-down approach applications can be
found in many organizations. One of such example is the New York Times,
a leader in the newspaper industry. Several years ago, American Journalism
Review (www.ajr.com) reported that The Times’ executive management
felt that they were far from what was necessary for creation of a vibrant
workplace and a successful organization. Power was centralized and
masthead editors experienced overall control. Editors introduced the same
management pattern in the projects for which they were responsible. One
person’s emotions and opinions influenced all the project decisions, and
this person was the project manager. What was the result? Team members
felt that they weren't listened to, that their voices didn't count. There was no
effective collaboration between the journalists. They were not morally
motivated to do their jobs. The managing executives then realized that they
needed to give more freedom to the teams and change their management
style. It took quite a while to introduce bottom-up management to the
organization. But, obviously, it was worth the time and effort, as New York

Page No: 19 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Times employees say that collaboration became much more efficient, and
team members now work together more productively. Similar problems
caused by utilizing the top-down approach can be observed in many
organizations with a traditional management style. Experience shows that
this top-down management often results in reduced productivity and causes
bottlenecks or so-called lockdowns. A lockdown gives the project manager
total control over his team. Such lockdowns can lead to unnecessary pain
and significantly slow down a project’s completion.

Perfect balance

If you have tried introducing the best bottom-up practices to your


organization, you have probably found it difficult to do that while utilizing
traditional tools for project management. Traditional project management
software, like Microsoft Project, was mostly designed to fit the use of the
top-down approach and is not meant for the bottom-up management style.
This software is focused on the project manager and places him or her in
the center of the project communications. Team members very often have
read-only access to the project plan and cannot make any contributions or
changes. The employees send their updates to the project manager in
disconnected files via e-mail. The project

manager then has to collect all the data and put the information manually
into the project plan. After that, he or she has to communicate the changes
to the corporate executives. All these routine procedures lead to a situation
where the project manager's talents often are buried by the routine work.
The huge amount of mechanical control/synchronization work often leaves
little very time for leadership from the project manager. The good news is
the situation is changing thanks to the transformations going on in how
people share and receive information. More methods for the successful
implementation of the bottom-up management best practices have emerged.
These methods include are Enterprise 2.0 technologies – wikis, blogs,
social networks, collaboration tools, etc. They come into organizations and
change the original way of executing projects. They turn traditional project
management into Project Management 2.0 and bring new patterns of
collaboration, which are based on collective intelligence. Collective

Page No: 20 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


intelligence is a collection of valuable knowledge from different fields that
each project team member is an expert in. This knowledge is now
successfully collected and shared shared in a flexible, collaborative
environment brought by second-generation project management software.
The project manager is the one to conduct the work of his team and choose
the right direction for the project development, based on the information
received from the individual employees. Thus, the role the project manager
plays in the project changes. Project Management 2.0 software facilitates
delegation. It means that people become less dependent on the manager as a
to-do generator. The project manager turns from a taskmaster into a project
leader. His role is to facilitate the team communications, provide a creative
working environment and guide the team. He or she becomes a visionary
able to leverage the team strengths and weaknesses and adjust the project
development, based on various external changes. Individual team members
still have the freedom and responsibility to find their way to the next
milestone. With the help of the second-generation project management
tools, managers can merge the advantages of the two management
approaches. These tools help them to combine control and collaboration,
clarity of project goals and visibility of internal organizational processes.
Thousands of companies, such as Bell Canada, Sun and Yahoo now
confirm that bottom-up project management, implemented with the help of
Enterprise 2.0 tools, improved their business performance. Some
companies created corporate blogs to streamline project communications;
others introduced wikis to get their customers’ feedback. Even giants, such
as IBM, realize the benefits of allowing contributors to have a more active
hand in how collaborative work is organized. My conclusion will be that
democratizing project management is never an end in itself. The primary
goal is always to find ways to make project management and project
collaboration more efficient. New technologies applied to projects offer us
the ability to make projects more successful and teams more productive. At
the end of the day, projects are delivered faster, and this is to everyone’s
benefit.

Estimation tools:-

Page No: 21 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


An estimate, as defined in the PMBOK® Guide, is an assessment of the
likely quantitative result of a project, an activity, or series of activities .
Since we cannot predict the outcome of a project activity with 100%
certainty, we estimate the outcome using various tools and techniques that
can help us determine what should happen depending on the many
conditions that may impact the outcome. Estimation tools are designed to
assist in the process of approximating task or activity duration, level of
effort required and/or costs associated with project resources and other
factors. Generally speaking, they provide the estimator with:

Estimates of the effort (labor hours) needed to do the project

Estimates of the duration (calendar time) required for the project

Estimates of the labor costs of the project

Estimates of the material cost

It is important to note that estimating project work is a project management


core competency. Project managers should be familiar with, and be able to
use or direct the project team, to use the appropriate tools to ensure that
estimates provided during the planning process are reliable. Estimation
tools are driven by historical data and many can serve as a parametric
model which can be scalable based on the size of the project. Based on the
specific estimation tool, the user is required to provide at least a few and
sometimes many attributes or parameters that describe the work in
question, the group that will do the work, and the process that will produce
the product. The work is generally described by providing a definition of
the size of the project or task. The group is generally described by measures
that deal with skill levels, experience, labor costs, knowledge of the work
product, etc. The process is generally described by measures that deal with
development methods and models, security and control requirements,
quality requirements, reuse requirements, documentation requirements, etc.
The better the data in each of these areas, the better the estimate for the
project will be. From a metrics perspective, the estimates of effort,
schedule, and cost provide the basis for several metrics. For example, they

Page No: 22 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


are the foundation for the computation of variances related to effort,
schedule, and cost metrics and the basis for earned value management.

Common Estimating Tools and Techniques

The project manager has several tools or techniques available for estimating
activity duration, project costs, and preparing the project plan.

Analogous estimating, also known as top-down estimating, relies on


previous or similar projects to establish a broad or high level estimate. This
type of estimate relies on expert judgment, lessons learned, and usually
requires adjustments throughout the project.

Parametric estimating utilizes mathematical models such as the cost per


square foot to build a house or commercial building.

Bottom-up estimating requires a detailed work breakdown structure, more


time and possibly additional experience resources, but will produce a more
definitive and more accurate estimate.

There are also several tools available for use by the project manager and
team to provide the required estimates. These include project management
software, commercial data bases, and internal organization check sheets and
estimating models.

An important factor to remember is that estimation tools, like other niche


tools, are usually not designed to be metrics tools. Any measurement or
metrics type information obtained from an estimation tool is a by-product,
or an extra feature. Over time, estimation tools are acquiring more and
more utilitarian functions, some of which will support additional
capabilities to produce measurement or metrics data or information. This is
based on demands from the user community most specifically, the members
of that community willing to pay for such capabilities. Some tools use the
user's actual project results to adjust the estimating tool's database
parameters to provide for a more accurate estimate with the next project.
Periodically the maintenance users receive updates that reflect input from
users' communities, so the tool continues to improve the accuracy in each
new version.

Page No: 23 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Any estimating tools will have to be adjusted over time to accommodate
new information and material cost (construction) if the integrity of the
database is to be kept maintained. With software estimating tools, the
development platform and the environment both have to be considered. On
software development projects where much interaction is necessary with
groups of people in various departments, another consideration is how well
the interaction with these people is. If these departments are resistant to the
project, then the estimate could take considerably longer than with
departments where there is great cooperation.

Estimation Concerns

There are a number of factors that should be considered during the


estimating process. Every project is different regardless of how similar it
may seem to other projects that have been performed in the past.
Remembering this simple fact can make a big difference in the quality and
accuracy of estimates. Other items to consider include:

misinterpretation of the statement of work or scope statement, omissions to


the scope, an overly optimistic schedule, incorrect skill levels applied to
project activities, a failure to account for risks, failure to account for cost
escalations such as contractual labor rate increases, inflation, and the effects
of market demand. It is also extremely important to ensure that project
requirements for quality in connection with features, functions, operability,
safety, and fitness for use have been considered.

Estimate the labor cost

Once requirements are identified, review the task-based estimate of the


project to determine the total hours of effort required. Apply the resource
cost rates to derive a total labor budget amount. Besides labor costs, be sure
to include travel expenses, living accommodations for team members, and
expenses resulting from team meetings and facilitated sessions. Consider
variable and fixed costs when estimating labor costs. The total labor
amount for each task is calculated by multiplying the labor rate by the total
assigned hours for each task. Note that some items are considered support
costs and relate to costs associated with legal, marketing, pre-sales, etc.

Page No: 24 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Each organization will tend to have methods to categorize them. Just be
careful not to omit or double anything and remember "garbage in provides
garbage out." To prevent this from occurring, it's important to utilize the
functional managers, or the people who will actually do the work to provide
the estimates. There is always some room to negotiate, so make sure you
keep your team involved. This will help to obtain and maintain team buy-in
to the final plan.

3. What are the activities and approaches of monitoring a


project and controlling the project?
ANS. Project management is the discipline[1] of planning, organizing
and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of
specific project goals and objectives. A project is a finite endeavor (having
specific start and completion dates) undertaken to create a unique product
or service which brings about beneficial change or added value. This finite
characteristic of projects stands in contrast to processes[2], or operations,
which are permanent or semi-permanent functional work to repetitively
produce the same product or service. In practice, the management of these
two systems is often found to be quite different, and as such requires the
development of distinct technical skills and the adoption of separate
management. The primary challenge of project management is to achieve
all of the project goals[3] and objectives while honoring the project
constraints.[4] Typical constraints are scope, time and budget.[5] The
secondary—and more ambitious—challenge is to optimize the allocation
and integration of inputs necessary to meet pre-defined objectives.

Monitoring and Controlling


Monitoring and Controlling consists of those processes performed to
observe project execution so that potential problems can be identified in a
timely manner and corrective action can be taken, when necessary, to
control the execution of the project. The key benefit is that project
performance is observed and measured regularly to identify variances from
the project management plan.

Page No: 25 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033

Monitoring and Controlling Process Group Processes.


Monitoring and Controlling includes:
• Measuring the ongoing project activities (where we are);
• Monitoring the project variables (cost, effort, ...) against the project
management plan and the project performance baseline (where we
should be);
• Identify corrective actions to properly address issues and risks (How
can we get on track again);
• Influencing the factors that could circumvent integrated change
control so only approved changes are implemented
In multi-phase projects, the Monitoring and Controlling process also
provides feedback between project phases, in order to implement corrective
or preventive actions to bring the project into compliance with the project
management plan.
Project Maintenance is an ongoing process, and it includes:
• Continuing support of end users
• Correction of errors
• Updates of the software over time

Page No: 26 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033

Monitoring and Controlling cycle


In this stage, auditors should pay attention to how effectively and quickly
user problems are resolved.
Over the course of any construction project, the work scope changes.
Change is a normal and expected part of the construction process. Changes
can be the result of necessary design modifications, differing site
conditions, material availability, contractor-requested changes, value
engineering and impacts from third parties, to name a few. Beyond
executing the change in the field, the change normally needs to be
documented to show what was actually constructed. This is referred to as
Change Management. Hence, the owner usually requires a final record to
show all changes or, more specifically, any change that modifies the
tangible portions of the finished work. The record is made on the contract
documents – usually, but not necessarily limited to, the design drawings.
The end product of this effort is what the industry terms as-built drawings,
or more simply, “asbuilts.” The requirement for providing them is a norm
in construction contracts.
When changes are introduced to the project the viability of the project has
to be assessed again. It is important not to lose sight of the initial goals and
targets of the projects. When the changes accumulate, the forecasted end
result may not justify the proposed investment.

Page No: 27 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033

4. Explain in detail the organizational evolutionary and


revolutionary changes.
ANS. Change is both and natural and necessary for the healthy
development of any organization. Management is constantly faced with
decisions that will alter the direction of the organization. The types of
change that management can allow fall into two categories: evolutionary
and revolutionary.

Evolutionary change happens gradually over time. Management allows


many small changes to take effect rather than relying on sudden or drastic
changes. One example of evolutionary change is total quality management
(TQM). The goal of TQM is to constantly monitor all business functions in

Page No: 28 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


an effort to improve quality whenever possible. The hallmark of TQM is
consistent, incremental change that results in quality improvements. Over
time, evolutionary change leads to fundamental shifts in the organization’s
culture (George & Jones, 2008).

Revolutionary change is a sudden alteration of an organization’s culture or


environment. Often revolutionary change is hard on an organization since
individuals do not have an opportunity to grow into the changes.
Revolutionary change may come about in response to rapidly decreasing
performance or at the behest of managers looking to adopt the latest
management fads. Although the impact of this kind of change can be jarring
for established employees, revolutionary change is not necessarily a sign of
faulty management. For example, a company with shrinking profits might
find that its structure has become top heavy and relies on too many levels of
management. Flattening the organization will result in layoffs in middle
management but serve to reignite the passion of employees who are now
closer to the decision making process (George & Jones, 2008).
Management fads represent a special kind of revolutionary change that has
no guarantee of success.
As Annie Paul (2004) illustrates, management fads often have
little to no basis in scientific research. These fads are often championed by
a popular spokesperson and gain momentum as insecure leaders fear they
and their organizations are being left behind (Paul, 2004). The danger in
these fads is without scientific evidence there is no guarantee of success,
but there is a definite cost on terms of expenditure and human resources. As
middle management scrambles to implement the management fad of the
month, employees are distracted from their normal work flows and
performance suffers.

5. Write a detailed note on Review templates and post


review activities.
ANS.
Review Templates
Each IT Project Management Review meeting starts with an introduction of
the face-to-face and meet-me call participants and an opportunity for

Page No: 29 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


general comments. The remainder of the Review meeting focuses on six
categories of information. Each category is associated with a standard set of
project management reporting requirements as follows:
Category First Time Review Ongoing Review
(FTR) (OGR)
General Overview FTR slides 3-6 Used only when
changes occur
Status of Action Items from Prior Not applicable OGR slide 3
Review
Project Status FTR slides 7-15 OGR slides 4-9
Product Status FTR slides 16-24 OGR slides 10-13
Issues and Risks FTR slides 25-26 OGR slide 14
Project Unique Information FTR slides 27-29 OGR slides 15-17

Three sets of electronic templates are available to assist project staff in the
preparation of the IT Project Management Review briefings: First-Time
Reviews, Ongoing Reviews, and Samples. The Samples templates include
slides from actual DOE projects and references for completing the First
Time and Ongoing review slides. The Samples slides will continue to be
updated with examples from subsequent IT Project Management Quarterly
Reviews.

The briefing templates were developed in Microsoft PowerPoint and can be


retrieved from the Departmental Software Quality and Systems Engineering
(SQSE) Web site: http://cio.doe.gov/ITReform/sqse/template.htm In the
ANotes Page@ view of the PowerPoint slides, additional information is
provided on the frequency, purpose, sources of information, and process to
follow in collecting data and producing the slides.
The templates serve as a means of standardizing the reporting requirements
and enabling a common set of criteria for evaluating the health and progress
of the Department=s corporate and major information systems. Presenters
may choose to develop their own set of slides as long as the requested
information is covered.

1.1 General Overview

Page No: 30 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


This category sets the stage for the remainder of the information provided
during the Review. Four slides are included in this set. For the First Time
Review, all four slides should be covered. In subsequent reviews, the slides
should be included only if any of the information has changed. Slide 6 may
need to be provided the first quarter of each fiscal year since it documents
the Objectives by Year and is required in Ongoing Reviews if information
has changed.

1.2 Status of Action Items from Prior Review

This slide provides accountability and closure for issues or action items that
were raised during the prior review. Issues and action items are listed in the
Review report that are distributed after the Review by the OCIO staff. The
project manager is expected to check this list in preparation for the current
review, include all listed items on the slide, and provide the status of each
item. Issues and action items that are closed during the period from the
prior review to the current review should be reported in addition to any
items that remain open.

1.3 Project Status

The project status category focuses on the management approach (e.g.,


schedule, cost, decision points, ROI funding status) used for the project.

Information presented in this category should cover:

• The project plan including a logically laid out schedule


with dates for significant items and decision points over
the current fiscal year as well as the out-years.

• What has occurred during the last quarter

• What was accomplished including any changes from


previously identified project deliverables (the baseline)

• Accelerated or slipped dates

• Any significant newly identified/requested user


requirements and their impacts on schedule, costs, etc.

Page No: 31 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


• Dates planned to achieve the project objectives.

1.3.1 Project Schedule/Decision Points

The project plan and project schedule should demonstrate the inclusion of
plans to address known or likely obstacles, and identified points where
decisions or involvement by the CIO or the project manager=s management
is necessary. It should include expected achievement dates for the
item/activity performance metrics (overall project performance metrics),
requirements, and review times.

Critical decisions are defined in DOE O 413.3, Program and Project


Management for the Acquisition of Capital Assets, as formal determinations
or decisions at specific points in a project stage that allow the project to
proceed to the next stage and commit resources. Include key decision points
such as when the project exits one stage and enters another, the
contractor(s) comes aboard, date that changes will be frozen for a particular
phase of installation, when deployment and/or conversion to the new
system are to occur, and date that the new system becomes the system of
record.

An updated project plan with a work breakdown structure should be


maintained that contains the details for the next 12-18 months, and less
detail for the out-years. The out-year breakdown should contain the
key/major items and decision points, as a minimum. Provide the detailed
work breakdown structure (WBS) as background material for each review
to handout as part of the presentation and to be posted on the IT Project
Management Review information repository.

1.3.2 Development Funding Status

If any portion of the project moves into production while modules are still
under development, the slide should also include funding status for the
maintenance costs.

1.3.3 Estimated FTEs and Total Cost

Page No: 32 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


The Statement of Federal Financial Accounting Standards, Number 10,
Accounting for Internal Use Software, effective October 1, 2000, requires
all Federal agencies to capitalize software acquired or developed for
internal use if the software=s expected service life is two or more years and
its cost meets or exceeds the agency=s threshold for internal use software.
DOE=s threshold is currently set at $750,000.

The standard requires capitalization of direct and indirect costs, including


employee salaries and benefits for both Federal and contractor employees
who materially participate in the software project. The DOE CFO has
developed a Web site data collection system for tracking and documenting
costs. The Software Project Tracking System is available at
https://crinfo.doe.gov/swprojects. The system is intended for recording
Federal employee time spent on individual projects. The program/project
manager is responsible for ensuring that capitalization costs are captured
for the project. Capitalization should be projected in the business case and
then captured and tracked for each year of the project thereafter. For more
information contact the DOE CFO=s office.

1.3.4 Maintenance Funding Status

This slide is used to identify the maintenance costs and funding sources for
the project. The intent of the slide is to help in forecasting, planning and
justifying expenditures for maintenance of new systems. Maintenance
funding needs to be documented and issues or concerns raised as quickly as
possible. Display projected maintenance costs beyond development
completion. Record the project maintenance funding by source for the next
seven years of the project.

1.3.5 ROI Refresh

Return on Investment (ROI) is the calculated benefit that an organization is


projected to receive in return for investing money (resources) in a project.
Within the context of the Review Process, the investment would be in an
information system development or enhancement project. ROI information
is used to assess the status of the business viability of the project at key
checkpoints throughout the project=s lifecycle.

Page No: 33 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


ROI may include the benefits associated with improved mission
performance, reduced cost, increased quality, speed, or flexibility, and
increased customer and employee satisfaction. ROI should reflect such risk
factors as the project=s technical complexity, the agency=s management
capacity, the likelihood of cost overruns, and the consequences of under- or
non-performance. Where appropriate, ROI should reflect actual returns
observed through pilot projects and prototypes.

ROI should be quantified in terms of dollars and should include a


calculation of the break-even point (BEP), which is the date when the
investment begins to generate a positive return. ROI should be re-calculated
at every major checkpoint of a project to see if the BEP is still on schedule,
based on project spending and accomplishments to date. If the project is
behind schedule or over budget, the BEP may move out in time; if the
project is ahead of schedule or under budget the BEP may occur earlier. In
either case, the information is important for decision-making based on the
value of the investment throughout the project lifecycle. Any project that
has developed a business case is expected to refresh the ROI at each key
project decision point (i.e., stage exit) or at least yearly.

Exclusions

If the detailed data collection, calculation of benefits and costs, and


capitalization data from which Return on Investment (ROI) is derived was
not required for a particular project, then it may not be realistic or practical
to require the retrofit calculation of ROI once the project is added to the
Review portfolio.

In such a case, it is recommended that a memorandum of record be


developed as a substitute for ROI. The memorandum should provide a
brief history of the program, a description of the major benefits realized to
date with as much quantitative data as possible, and a summary of the
process used to identify and select system enhancements.

Some of the major benefits experienced by sites that installed the


information system that would be important to include in the memorandum
are:

Page No: 34 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


• Decommissioning of mainframe computers

• Reduction/redirection of labor

• Elimination of redundant systems

• Ability to more cost effectively upgrade all sites with one standard
upgrade package

In each case above, identify the specific site, systems, and labor involved in
determining the cited benefit. Identify any costs or dollar savings that are
known or have been estimated. The memorandum will be used as a tool for
responding to any future IG or GAO audit inquiries on project ROI.

For the IT Project Management Review, it is recommended that the project


leader replace the text on the ROI slide template on slide 15 of the First
Time Review or slide 9 of the Ongoing Review with: (1) a note stating
which stage of its lifecycle the project is in; (2) a bulleted list of the most
important points from the memorandum of record; and (3) a copy of the
memorandum of record for the Review repository.

In subsequent Reviews of the information system, the ROI slide can be


eliminated from the package. There is one notable exception to this
guidance. Any internal use software project in the maintenance phase of its
lifecycle that adds a new site or undertakes an enhancement or technology
refresh that reaches the cost threshold established by the Statement of
Federal Financial Accounting Standards (SFFAS) Number 10: Accounting
for Internal Use Software will need to satisfy capitalization requirements. It
requires all Federal agencies to capitalize software acquired or developed
for internal use if the software's expected service life is two or more years
and its cost meets or exceeds the agency's threshold for internal use
software. DOE's threshold is currently set at $750,000. The standard
requires capitalization of direct and indirect costs, including employee
salaries and benefits for both Federal and contractor employees who
materially participate in the software project. DOE program managers are
considered to be the source of cost information for internal use software

Page No: 35 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


projects. If capitalization data is collected for the project in the future, the
project would be expected to calculate and track its ROI.

1.4 Product Status

The product status section focuses on the technical approach, e.g., system
architecture, project methodology and processes, product quality, and risks
and issues. Product measurements are used in quality assurance processes
to project and measure product quality. These include defect reporting,
testing status, and customer satisfaction measurements.

1.4.1 Performance Measures

Performance measurements are used in project management and quality


processes to determine and communicate status and accomplishments
measured against specific objectives, schedules, and milestones. These
measurements extend to include delivery of desired products and services
to customers, whether external or internal. The following definition of
performance measures is from the Performance-Based Special Interest
Group at http://www.orau.gov/pbm Performance-Based Management
Handbook, Volume 2, Establishing an Integrated Performance
Measurement System, developed for DOE.

APerformance Measurement is the ongoing monitoring and reporting of


program accomplishments, particularly progress towards pre-established
goals. It is typically conducted by program or agency management.
Performance measures may address the type or level of program activities
conducted (process), the direct products and services delivered by a
program (outputs), and or the results of those products and services
(outcomes). A Aprogram@ may be any activity, project, function, or policy
that has an identifiable purpose or set of objectives.@ OMB Circular A-
130 indicates that, as part of an agency=s Capital Planning and Investment
Process, it must institute performance measures and management processes
that monitor actual performance to expected results. Measurements can be
reported at the program and project level and include resource and cost
goals, schedule and progress goals, trade-offs and risk outcomes, product
quality goals, and customer satisfaction goals.

Page No: 36 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Basic categories of performance measurements include: Measures of
efforts. Efforts are the amount of financial and non-financial resources (in
terms of money, material, etc.) that are put into a program or process.

Measures of accomplishments. Accomplishment measures report what was


provided and achieved with the resources used. There are two types of
measures of accomplishments - outputs and outcomes. Outputs measure the
quantity of services provided; outcomes measure the results of providing
those outputs.

Measures that relate efforts to accomplishments. Efficiency measures that


relate efforts to outputs of products or services. These indicators measure
the resources used or cost (for example, in dollars, employee-hours, or
equipment used) per unit of output. They provide information about the
production of an output at a given level of resource use and demonstrate an
entity=s relative efficiency when compared with previous results, internally
established goals and objectives, generally accepted norms or standards, or
results achieved by similar entities.

More information on OMB Guidance on Performance Measures can be


found at the OMB Web site at http://wwww.whitehouse.gov/omb.

1.5 Issues and Risks

Any Congressional, OMB, GAO, IG, or other external interests or issues


should be covered by the project manager. Issues are expected to be
resolved during project team meetings or stage exits. Significant issues
whether resolved or not should be documented and discussed at the IT
Project Management Review for lessons-learned purposes so that (1) the
same difficulties are not repeated during subsequent enhancements or
upgrades nor by other corporate or major systems, and (2) solutions are
shared throughout the Department. Any project unique items that the
program or project manager feel should be brought to the attention of
management or senior management, e.g., the CIO. The issues or concerns
that need to be addressed by the CIO, as well as the status of other project
issues or risks.

1.5.1 Concerns/Issues Requiring OCIO Attention

Page No: 37 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


This slide is used to present the issues or concerns that need to be addressed
by management or senior management, e.g., the CIO. Bring to the
awareness of the OCIO those concerns or issues either about the project or
the proposed IT solution that may be resolved by support from the OCIO.
This information is typically identified and raised by the project manager
(system owner). It differs from the issues that may be raised by the OCIO
and documented in Slide 3 - Status of Action Items from Prior Reviews.

1.5.2 Risks/Issues

This slide is used to identify project risks and issues that do not require
OCIO support at the present time, but still may impact the outcome of the
project as mandated by OMB Circular A-130.

1.6 Project Unique Information

This slide (or set of slides) is used to provide any project information that
the program manager or project manager would like to present to
management or senior management, e.g., the CIO.

Create presentation slides to highlight any additional project information to


include in the IT Project Management Review. Also include Next steps.

1.7 Overview of Project Status (last)

This is the last slide in the set. Its purpose is to communicate a visually-
oriented "thumbnail" view of the project's status. The status will be reported
as either Green, Yellow, or Red, using the criteria documented below. Refer
to the notes section of the slide template for detailed guidance on
completing other sections of the slide.

The data presented on this slide should be a cumulative representation of


the project status communicated in the slide set and the presentation (if one
was conducted). Based on all the slides presented, all parties present at the
review should reach consensus that this slide fairly represents the status of
the project, as it will be used for (upper) management reporting purposes.

2.0 Post-Review Activities

Page No: 38 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Once the IT Project Management Review has been conducted, the OCIO
will follow up with program/project managers on any issues or concerns
requiring OCIO attention, the status of open items from the review, and
CIO reporting actions, e.g., reports to the Secretary and Congress and to the
CIO Council. The CIO may also recommend quality assurance analysis be
conducted.

2.1 Issues or Concerns Requiring OCIO Attention

The program/project manager is responsible for raising issues or concerns


that require OCIO assistance or guidance to the attention of the CIO. These
items should be communicated whenever they become known, and not held
to the next IT Project Management Review. The CIO will assign
appropriate OCIO staff are available to help resolve open items. The
program/project manager should communicate the status of these items in
each quarterly review until the items are resolved/closed.

2.2 Status of Open Items from Review

The program/project manager is responsible for tracking the open items


from the review and communicating the status in each quarterly review
until the items are closed. The OCIO staff supporting the scheduling of
reviews will coordinate with the program/project manager after the
quarterly reviews to help ensure that new items have been captured for
tracking and action by the program/project manager.

2.3 CIO Reports

The OCIO staff supporting the CIO Quarterly Reviews will prepare a
summary report after each IT Project Management Review. The Summary
report will include the following information:

• Summary Status

• Open Issues/Items

• Status Performance Objectives/Measures

• Status of Schedule/Cost

Page No: 39 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


The summary report will be provided to the program/project manager to
gain concurrence on the content. The summary report will be used by the
CIO when reporting status to the Secretary, Congress and the CIO Council.

6. Write a detailed note on the fundamentals of Application


software and support software.
ANS. Project management software is a term covering many types of
software, including scheduling, cost control and budget management,
resource allocation, collaboration software, communication, quality
management and documentation or administration systems, which are used
to deal with the complexity of large projects.
Scheduling

One of the most common tasks is to schedule a series of events, and the
complexity of this task can vary considerably depending on how the tool is
used. Some common challenges include:

• Events which depend on one another in different ways or


dependencies

• Scheduling people to work on, and resources required by, the various
tasks commonly termed resource scheduling

• Dealing with uncertainties in the estimates of the duration of each


task

• Arranging tasks to meet various deadlines

• Juggling multiple projects simultaneously to meet a variety of


requirements

Calculating critical path

In many complex schedules, there will be a critical path, or series of events


that depend on each other, and whose durations directly determine the
length of the whole project (see also critical chain). Some software
applications (for example, Dependency Structure Matrix solutions) can
highlight these tasks, which are often a good candidate for any optimization
effort.

Page No: 40 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Providing information

Project planning software needs to provide a lot of information to various


people, to justify the time spent using it. Typical requirements might
include:

• Tasks lists for people, and allocation schedules for resources

• Overview information on how long tasks will take to complete

• Early warning of any risks to the project

• Information on workload, for planning holidays

• Evidence

• Historical information on how projects have progressed, and in


particular, how actual and planned performance are related

• Optimum utilization of available resource

Approaches to project management software

Desktop

Project management software can be implemented as a program that runs


on the desktop of each user. This typically gives the most responsive and
graphically-intense style of interface.

Desktop applications typically store their data in a file, although some have
the ability to collaborate with other users (see below), or to store their data
in a central database. Even a file-based project plan can be shared between
users if it's on a networked drive and only one user accesses it at a time.

Desktop applications can be written to run in a heterogeneous environment


of multiple operating systems, although it's unusual.

Web-based

Page No: 41 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Project management software can be implemented as a Web application,
accessed through an intranet or extranet using a web browser.

This has all the usual advantages and disadvantages of web applications:

• Can be accessed from any type of computer without installing


software

• Ease of access-control

• Naturally multi-user

• Only one software version and installation to maintain

• Typically slower to respond than desktop applications

• Project information not available when the user (or server) is offline.

• Some packages do allow the user to "go-offline"

Personal

A personal project management application is one used at home, typically


to manage lifestyle or home projects. There is considerable overlap with
single user systems, although personal project management software
typically involves simpler interfaces. See also non-specialised tools below.

Single user

A single-user system is programmed with the assumption that only one


person will ever need to edit the project plan at once. This may be used in
small companies, or ones where only a few people are involved in top-
down project planning. Desktop applications generally fall into this
category.

Collaborative

A collaborative system is designed to support multiple users modifying


different sections of the plan at once, for example, updating the areas they
personally are responsible for such that those estimates get integrated into

Page No: 42 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


the overall plan. Web-based tools, including extranets, generally fall into
this category, but have the limitation that they can only be used when the
user has live Internet access. To address this limitation, client-server-based
software tools exist that provide a Rich Client that runs on users' desktop
computer and replicate project and task information to other project team
members through a central server when users connect periodically to the
network and other tasks. Some tools allow team members to check out their
schedules (and others' as read only) to work on them while not on the
network. When reconnecting to the database, any changes are synchronized
with the other schedules.

Integrated

An integrated system combines project management or project planning,


with many other aspects of company life. For example, projects can have
bug tracking issues assigned to each project, the list of project customers
becomes a customer relationship management module, and each person on
the project plan has their own task lists, calendars, and messaging
functionality associated with their projects. Similarly, specialised tools like
SourceForge integrate project management software with source control
(CVS) software and bug-tracking software, so that each piece of
information can be integrated into the same system.

SUPPORT SOFTWARE:-

ARROW overview

Why did ARROW want a repository?

The ARROW project was envisaged in a time when institutional


repositories and the software required for them were still in their infancy. In
2003 ePrints (www.eprints.org/) was essentially the only player in the field,
although DSpace (www.dspace.org/) had also made its first appearance.
Nevertheless, the ARROW partners recognised that there were a number of
compelling reasons to look at the repository space, and to start working on
options beyond the print equivalences that ePrints were concentrating on.
These reasons included:

Page No: 43 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


• the ability to provide a platform for promoting research output in the
ARROW context;

• a way of safeguarding digital information;

• a “place” to gather an institution's research output into one place;

• provision for consistent ways of finding similar objects;

• a method to allow information to be preserved over the long term;

• a method to allow information from many repositories to be gathered


and searched in one step;

• enabling resources to be shared, while respecting access constraints;


and

• ways of enabling effective communication and collaboration between


researchers.

A project proposal (http://arrow.edu.au/docs/files/ARROW%20project.pdf)


was written and submitted to the Australian Commonwealth Department of
Education, Science and Training (DEST) (www.dest.gov.au/), under the
Systemic Infrastructure Initiative
(www.dest.gov.au/sectors/research_sector/programmes_funding/general_fu
nding/research_infrastructure/systemic_infrastructure_initiative.htm)
Framework for Australian Higher Education funding scheme. This was
approved in 2003, with the funding covering three years until December 31,
2006.

The initial goal of the project is best expressed in this quote from the
original proposal:

The ARROW project will identify and test software or solutions to support
best practice institutional digital repositories comprising e-prints, digital
theses and electronic publishing. The project has met, and exceeded this
basic goal, by producing not only a test version of the software, but a
working repository solution that is currently in use at a number of
Australian universities, with more to come online shortly.

Page No: 44 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Who is ARROW?

The ARROW project has been managed by a consortium of Australian


institutions: Monash University (lead institution), the National Library of
Australia, the University of New South Wales and Swinburne University of
Technology. The project currently employs the equivalent of three full time
staff to manage the project on a day-to-day basis. The project partners also
provide staff time and other in kind services to increase the number of staff
available to work on development. These latter staff, however, are primarily
responsible for the management of the repository installed at their own site.

Since the beginning of 2006, several other Australian universities have also
signed up to use the ARROW solution for institutional repositories. These
ARROW members are also working on development projects to develop
and enhance the software.

What did the ARROW project set out to achieve?

The ARROW project had a number of specific goals that it wished to


achieve. The key one was the need for a solution for storing any digital
research output, regardless of format in which it was created. For the sake
of simplicity, and as a way to deal with familiar and accessible materials,
the initial focus was on digital objects with print equivalents, specifically
theses and journal articles. As the solutions for these areas have become
clearer the project has been looking at a range of other objects. These
include datasets, specifically those produced as a part of research and which
might usefully be attached to the published research, as well as learning
objects that might need to be organised and made available from a
repository.

From the beginning of the project there was a recognition that ARROW
needed to be able to deal with more than just open access materials, and
that some things stored in repositories need to be restricted for a variety of
important reasons, such as copyright, confidentiality or ethical
considerations, or because it is work in progress. Therefore the project had
done considerable work on the access and authentication issues related to
research outputs in digital repositories, often in partnership with the MAMS

Page No: 45 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


project (www.melcoe.mq.edu.au/projects/MAMS/). This work is ongoing
at time of writing.

The Australian Government has had a system of reporting research for the
purpose of tracking the output of universities. At the time the project was
conceived, this took the form of reporting eligible research publications.
This included the retention of copies at the reporting institution for the
purposes of audit. It was envisaged that a repository could be used to help
manage this process and to retain the audit copies. Since then there has
been a change in direction to a proposed Research Quality Framework
(RQF) system
(www.dest.gov.au/sectors/research_sector/policies_issues_reviews/key_iss
ues/research_quality_framework/default.htm), which will involve the
review of research outputs by experts from outside Australia. DEST have
identified that repositories offer the potential for widespread access to these
outputs in a less labour intensive fashion, and ARROW has been working
with them on how this might be achieved.

A key requirement of the project was to employ open standards to make


sure the data stored in the repository would be transferable in the future. In
conjunction with this it was determined that the project would develop and
deliver open source tools back to the Fedora Community. This was also a
requirement of the program under which ARROW was funded.

Of critical importance was the development of an overall solution that


could offer on-going technical support and development past the end of the
funding period. DEST and the developers of the project were concerned
that in many cases projects are not sustainable unless centrally funded, and
that this would not be appropriate in this area. The project needed to find a
solution that would mean the repository created would have a viable
strategy for ongoing sustainability.

The end result of these decisions is a software solution combining open


source and proprietary software, made up of open source repository
software called Fedora with a proprietary services layer called VITAL,
which has been developed by VTLS Inc. This is not a centralised or hosting
solution – each ARROW partner or member has their own hardware and

Page No: 46 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


software. As each ARROW partner or member is licensing the VITAL
software from a commercial provider, they will receive the following
benefits after the project ends (assuming they continue to pay the annual
license fee):

• installation support;

• helpdesk and customer service;

• new features included in successive versions of the software.

Building ARROW

ARROW requirements

ARROW wanted:

• a robust, well architected underlying platform;

• a flexible object-oriented data model;

• to be able to have persistent identifiers down to the level of


individual datastreams, accommodating its compound content model;

• to be able to version both content and disseminators (think of


software behaviours for content);

• clean and open exposure of APIs with well-documented


SOAP/REST web services.

Fedora

After a careful analysis of the candidates available at the time[1], it was felt
that only Fedora provided the right combination of attributes. Fedora™ can
best be thought of as services-mediation infrastructure, rather than an off-
the-shelf application. It can use web services technology
(www.w3.org/2002/ws/) to draw on services provided by other systems as
well as expose its own functionality using web services standards. Key to
the Fedora™ architecture is its underlying object-based model. Fedora™
stores digital content objects, either as datastreams contained within the
repository or as links to external resources. It also stores what Fedora™

Page No: 47 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


calls disseminators. These are stored programs which provide ways to
render these digital content objects. As an example, a Fedora™ repository
might contain an image disseminator which can take a stored image object
and render it on the fly into a thumbnail, a medium-resolution version or a
high-resolution version as required. The software maintains bindings
between content objects and their disseminators. Each object has a default
disseminator (which might just provide the sequence of bits that comprise
the object plus a Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) type
(www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2045.txt), much like a web server). Alternatively, the
repository might provide alternative disseminators which will allow the
object to be exposed in other ways. An example of this might be a
disseminator which exposes the internal structure of an Encoded Archival
Description (EAD) (www.loc.gov/ead/) as a navigation mechanism. This
architecture, which combines objects and disseminators, is very flexible,
and provides significant advantages as a platform on which to build other
applications (Lagoze et al., 2005) For more background on the reasons for
selecting Fedora for the ARROW project, see Treloar (2005).

Since the beginning of the project ARROW has worked actively and
closely with Fedora™ and the Fedora Community. The ARROW Project
Technical Architect is a member of the Fedora Advisory Board, which
provides long term guidance for the project. This commitment to Fedora is
reinforced by VTLS Inc. The VTLS President is a member of the Fedora
Advisory Board, and the VITAL Lead Developer is part of the Fedora
Development Group.

Open source

As indicated above, the project is creating open source components that


interoperate with Fedora as part of its output. Some of these have already
appeared:

• SRU/SRW;

• HANDLES;

• JHOVE Metadata extraction;

Page No: 48 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


• exposure to web indexing crawlers;

• VALET for web self-submission.

Others are scheduled to appear in 2006:

• LDAP authentication;

• administrative reporting;

• bulk citation export;

• statistics for public users;

• metadata synchronisation.

Developing with VTLS

ARROW decided that they needed to partner with a developer who could
not only produce the software but could also provide ongoing user support
and development after December 31, 2006. VTLS were identified by the
project team as a suitable partner in the process, and they were interested in
working in this area as well. They had already begun work on a repository
solution using Fedora, they were familiar with the library sector because of
their many years experience in developing an integrated library
management system (VIRTUA) and they were willing to produce a
combination of a proprietary solution, Fedora and other open source
software.

This decision has resulted in VITAL, which is ARROW specified software


created and fully supported by VTLS, and built on top of Fedora. This
software (as of the date of writing) includes a number of components:

• VITAL Manager – a Windows-based management tool, that allows


for ingest, management, editing and deletion of objects in the
repository.

• VITAL Portal – web-based tool for indexing and managing the


repository.

Page No: 49 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


• VITAL Access Portal – web-based searching front end for the
repository.

• VALET – web-based self-submission tool.

• Batch loader tool – tool for ingesting multiple similar objects into the
repository in bulk.

• Handles server – uses the CNRI technology[2] to create persistent


identifiers into the repository.

• Google indexing and exposure – to allow indexing of objects in the


repository.

• SRU/SRW support – to allow for other searching and harvesting of


the repository.

The interrelationships of these components can be seen in Figure 1.

Implementation decisions

During the start-up phase of the project, it was necessary to make a number
of decisions about how to construct the ARROW solution. The requirement
for many of these implementation decisions was inherent in the repository
solution that was chosen. The F in Fedora stands for Flexible. Fedora
provides few constraints, but this requires deliberate decisions.

Atomistic or compound objects

The sort of process the ARROW went through in making this decision can
be illustrated by the diagram taken from a whiteboard shown in Figure 2.

Fedora objects (broadly speaking) can either be modelled as atomistic, or


compound. Atomistic objects consist of an identifier, some metadata and
(usually) one datastream. Compound objects consist of an identifier, some
metadata, and multiple datastreams of different types. Thus a doctoral
thesis as submitted for examination might consist of the bound text of the
thesis, and an accompanying video. This could be modelled atomistically as
a series of Fedora objects: the abstract as plain text, a PDF of the entire
thesis, the XML of the entire thesis, an AVI of the video, and an MOV of

Page No: 50 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


the movie. It could also be modelled in a compound way as a single Fedora
object which consists of each of the above elements as datastreams within
the object.

ARROW elected to choose compound objects, basing its decision around


the majority use-cases:

• journal articles;

• conference papers;

• working papers;

• books;

• book chapters;

• theses.

It is anticipated that newer forms of research will lead to more content


models and variations.

Descriptive metadata

Early in the project ARROW spent some months examining the idea that a
single descriptive metadata schema for all the objects in the ARROW
repositories would be a sensible goal. After looking at the strengths and
weaknesses of numerous metadata schemas, and on considering the
diversity of object types ARROW repositories could be required to store, it
was decided that it was more realistic to accept that the project would need
to support multiple descriptive metadata schemas. As a result, ARROW has
decided to support the metadata generated by communities of practice to
accompany their digital objects. This implies that an ARROW repository
will contain a range of different metadata schemas attached to different
objects. The VITAL software currently transforms MARCXML and ETD-
MS metadata into Dublin Core for OAI-PMH and internal purposes. In the
longer term, and to support other schemas, ARROW is investigating the
possibility of using OCLC's interoperable metadata core (Godby et al.,
2003). It is also possible that ARROW may need to write something itself.

Page No: 51 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


Persistent identifiers

After careful consideration of all the available alternatives, ARROW


decided to use handles for all the partner university sites. The NLA decided
to proceed using its existing persistent identifier scheme. The Handles
System (www.handle.net/), developed by CNRI (http://cnri.reston.va.us/),
is a comprehensive system for assigning, managing, and resolving
persistent identifiers, known as handles, for digital objects and other
resources on the internet. Handles can be used as Uniform Resource Names
(URNs). Part of the work done by VTLS and released as Open Source has
been the addition of handles integration to the Fedora software.

The ARROW repositories were designed from the beginning to be as


flexible as possible. To this end, the project decided it would be good
practice to be able to persistently cite both objects and components of
objects. The ARROW software therefore assigns handles to each entire
ARROW object (such as a thesis), and to each component of an ARROW
object (such as the metadata, the thesis abstract, the thesis body, and the
reference list). This means that repository managers can disaggregate and
re-aggregate objects as required in the future without the user being aware
of it. It also means that the minimum persistently citeable unit can be made
as granular as is required.

External searching and harvesting

One of the project's aims was to develop a discovery service for Australian
institutional repositories. This service, which is called the ARROW
National Research Discovery Service (http://search.arrow.edu.au/) has been
one of the key work areas undertaken by the National Library. It provides a
national resource discovery service including:

• provision of an appropriate search interface, including simple search,


advanced search, and browse options;

• contributing metadata and gateways to other networks, such as


OAIster, Yahoo, Google;

Page No: 52 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


• ensuring appropriate local institutional and national “branding” of the
service, which occurs throughout the ADS interface and the
exchanged metadata;

• providing appropriate subject-based access, based on the Australian


Standard Research Classification list.

This service harvests metadata using OAI-PMH from a number of different


institutional research repositories at Australian universities. These
repositories use a range of software (e-prints.org software, DSpace and
Fedora) but all expose their metadata for harvesting. This service is now
live and available either through a link from the ARROW website or
directly at http://search.arrow.edu.au/. This service allows for searching
research outputs across the Australian university sector.

What has the project learnt so far?

A number of valuable lessons have been learnt during the course of the
project, even beyond solving the many technical challenges. For instance,
working with multiple partners has been very beneficial for the sharing of
information and experiences, the sharing of development work and the
multiple perspectives on issues of note. The multiple perspectives on issues,
however, have also led to scope creep and difficulty in managing
expectations across the group. This has put pressure on the project
management team who have acted as intermediaries between the project
and the developers. Software development feels slow, both commercial and
open source, but this is more a function of being trapped in the middle of it
than any failings by the developers or partners. Development with a
commercial partner can be tricky as well, as the priorities and needs of
commercial and educational partners can occasionally conflict. The nature
of standards in this area remain an ongoing problem, as the standards that
are in place leave a fair amount of leeway, which has forced the project to
spend large amounts of time discussing and trying to refine them for actual
use. The debate over open versus closed repositories, or information
management versus accessibility is an ongoing issue, with much work to be
done. The key finding is that there is no single rule that will work for all

Page No: 53 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


digital objects, and that flexibility will be needed into the future to make
repositories effective in all circumstances.

Repositories are only partly about software – advocacy, policy, institutional


engagement and grunt work need equal attention. Even with compulsory
deposit policies, there continues to be a great deal of work to be done to fill
the repository and encourage academics to submit their work. It is clear that
no amount of discussion about repositories will fill them – the relevant data
needs to be found. Copyright continues to be am major area of difficulty.
Even beyond the commonly discussed issues such as publisher versus
author versions, attempts to enter material in areas such as performing arts
will present a number of new challenges. For instance, a video of a dance
work may have musical, choreography and personal intellectual property
involved, any of which may prevent it being added to a repository.

PILIN – PERSISTENT IDENTIFIER AND LINKING


INFRASTRUCTURE

As the FRODO and MERRI projects have matured, there is a growing


realisation that sustainable identifier infrastructure is required to deal with
the vast amount of digital assets being produced and stored within
universities. This is a particular challenge for e-Research communities
where massive amounts of data are being generated without any means of
managing this data over any length of time.

The emphasis in the PILIN Project will be on building identifier


management infrastructure based on a technology (Handle) that is now
under development through the auspices of CNRI to underpin sustainable
global identifier infrastructure.

PILIN aims to meet a specific need common to e-Research communities,


the proposed work to be undertaken will be transferable to other
communities, such as the VTE sector, the Le@rning Federation and the
TILIS Project.

The project aims to take advantage of existing governance and consultative


mechanisms within the ARROW environment to ensure relevant and
sustainable outcomes and optimal return on investment. The project will be

Page No: 54 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033


run in partnership between ARROW and the University of Southern
Queensland (USQ), specifically through the RUBRIC Project.

Aims and Objectives

• Support adoption and use of persistent identifiers and shared


persistent identifier management services by the project stakeholders.

• Plan for a sustainable, shared identifier management infrastructure


that enables persistence of identifiers and associated services over
archival lengths of time.

Project Outputs

1. Best practice and policy guides for the use of persistent identifiers in
Australian e-learning, e-research, and e-science communities.

2. Use cases describing community requirements for identifiers and


business process analysis relating to these use cases.

3. E-Framework representations of persistent identifier management


services that support the business requirements for identifiers.

4. A “pilot” shared persistent identifier management infrastructure


usable by the project stakeholders over the lifetime of the project.
The pilot infrastructure will include services for creating, accessing
and managing persistent digital identifiers over their lifetime. The
pilot infrastructure will interoperate with other DEST funded
systemic infrastructure. The development phase of the pilot will use
an agile development methodology that will allow the inclusion of
“value-added” services for managing resources using persistent
identifiers to be included in the development program if resources
permit.

5. Software tools to help applications use the shared persistent identifier


infrastructure more easily.

6. Report on options and proposals for sustaining, supporting (including


outreach) and governing shared persistent identifier management
infrastructure

Page No: 55 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021


Name: Falguni Pandit Registration No.: 520966021
MBA – II SEM

PROJECT MANAGEMENT - MB0033

Page No: 56 Name: Falguni Pandit |Registration No.: 520966021