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WORKSHOP PROJECT JUNE 2013

SHEET METAL SHOP

Group 1

Sahil Garg

12107007

Mechanical

Jaskaran Singh

12107018

Mechanical

Love Garg

12107028

Mechanical

Karandeep Singh Gujral

12107032

Mechanical

Siddhant Jain

12107033

Mechanical

Group with the final project

Group with the final project

Acknowledgment

Workshop experience has always been fun. Over 20 days of workshop training was really a great learning experience. To prepare a dustbin out of raw material in the Sheet Metal Shop was really an interesting task at hand. It was the immense support of our teacher Mr Gurmail Singh and other technicians. They paved a way for us to reach the summit of this project. It would have been difficult without their support to make this project. This project helped us in thinking innovatively. We would also like to thank our fellow groups who helped us in various ways. Last but not the least we would like to thank the Superintendent and the Lab Foreman who provided us with this great opportunity.

Introduction

Sheet metal is metal formed into thin and flat pieces (Sheets). It is one the most fundamental forms of work-piece used in metal working. It is the building material for various daily-use objects.

Sheets are manufactured of different thickness according to the requirement for various purposes. Technically thickness of sheets is measured in gauges Gauge varies from 30 to 8. Higher the gauge lesser the thickness. Many different metals can be formed into sheet metal like Aluminium, brass, copper, steel, tin, nickel, titanium and even gold, silver and platinum.

Applications of sheet metal include bodies of car, airplanes, roofs of buildings and many other things. Sheet metal of ferrous metals with magnetic permeability (laminated cores) are used in transformers and electric machines. Other uses include decorative craftworks, utensils, buckets and much more.

Workshop Layout

Cabin Hatch Stake Pipe Stake Circular Cutting Machine Anvil Leg Leg Vice Vic Nibbling Machine Hatch
Cabin
Hatch Stake
Pipe Stake
Circular
Cutting
Machine
Anvil
Leg
Leg
Vice
Vic
Nibbling
Machine
Hatch Stake
Surface
Table
Plate

OPERATIONS

  • 1. Bearing Out: In this process, fold or ribs in sheet if any are removed with the help of beating the sheet with mallet or passing the sheet through rollers.

  • 2. Cutting or Shearing: This operation is carried out with snip or a hand shear. Remember to keep as smaller piece of sheet on lower cutting blade facilitates the cutting.

    • a. Notching: It is removal of surplus material from corners or edges.

    • b. Trimming: It is the operation of cutting away excess metal in flange.

    • c. Nibbling: It is an operation of cutting any shape out of metal sheet or punching holes at fast speed. It is done on nibbling machine

    • d. Punching: It is producing circular holes on sheet metal by punch and die.

    • e. Piercing: It is the process of producing hole of any desired shape.

    • f. Slitting: Process of producing a recess or slot.

  • 3. Turning Up: It is done to make sharp bends to sheets for seaming, hemming, etc.

  • 4. Bending: It is an operation to bring the material to any curved shape or any angular shape.

  • 5. Flanging: It is the operation to raise narrow edge to form right angle.

  • 6. Raising: In sheet metal shop, some articles to be made require a depressed surface as a tray or as a bowl. The process of making this depression is known as raising.

  • 7. Blanking: Indicates the shearing of metal blank from sheets of a metal piece which serves as initial body for subsequent forming is called blanking.

  • 8. Beading: It is a process of creating curved depression or raising up the surface for stiffening the article, to protect the hands and clothes of handler, to improve the appearance, to provide a stop to the body of a box so as to oppose the lid. It is mostly done on beading machine. 9. Hollowing: It is the process of beating a metal for giving it a concave shape. The process is done on a hollow stake.

    EDGE STIFFENING PROCESS

    1.

    HEMMING

    a. Single Hemming: If the edge is folded once it is called single hemming. The allowance for single hemming is 4-5 times the sheet thickness. b.Double Hemming: It is made by folding the edge over twice. The allowance for it is 10 times the thickness of sheet. 2.WIRING: A wire is inserted at the edge of sheet metal articles. It stiffens the edges.

    SHEET METAL JOINTS

    1. Lapseam: in this one edge overlaps the other and then these are soldered, brazed or riveted. 2.Grooved Seam: it is made by hooking the two single rolded edges & then locking them a groover.

    3.Single

    Seam:

     

    it

    is

    used to

    join

    a bottom

    to

    a

     

    vertical body or cylindrical, square or rectangular shaped vessel.

    4.Double

    Seam:

    this

    seam connects

    the part

    or

    knocked up joint of the container than strong joint

    is reqd. at the bottom. Double seam can be used on rectangular, square or cylindrical shaped vessel. 5.Dove Tail Seam: it is used to join section such as one pipe to another or flat pipe to a pipe. Square as well as cylindrical objects can also be joined by this seam.

    Tools and Equipments

    The tools and equipments used in the sheet metal shop can be divided into two categories:

    • 1. Common hand tool

    • 2. Production tools and equipments

    Common Hand Tools

    Scribber: It a steel wire 3 to 4 mm dia and 10 to 20 cm long grounded to pointed shape on end or on both ends. It is used

    for making and scratching lines layout patterns.

    on sheet

    metal surface to

    Steel Rule: It is a ruler made out of steel with appropriate markings of inches and centimeters.

    Dividers: Dividers are used for drawing circular arcs and for marking desired distance between two points. Divide lines and circles into equal parts.

    Trammel Points: It consists of bar with two movable heads. It used to draw large circle or arcs that are beyond the limit of the dividers.

    Straight

    Edge: these are flat graduated steel bar with a

    longitudinal edge bevel. It is Avaliable in length ranging from 1 m to 3 m. It is used for drawing long lines.

    Steel Square: These are L shaped piece of hardened steel with graduation marks on edges for measuring. It used for marking in the perpendicular direction to any base line.

    Sheet Metal Gauge: It a round disc of metal having slot cuts on the outer circumference of the disc. Each slot is numbered and number represents gauge number.

    Punches: It is used for marking and locating centers etc. in a permanent manner. They are of two types prick punch and center punch. Prick punch is used for making small marks while Center Punch is used for making the prick punch mark larger at the center of the hole

    Solid and Hollow Punches: These are used for making small holes and hollow punch for punching some bigger holes on sheet metal surface.

    Cutting and Shearing Tools: Hand tools used for cutting metal sheet resemble with scissor known as snip are available and are used for cutting metal sheet along straight and curved lines respectively. These snips are very light and are easy to handle. The heavy classes are known as bench shear and block shear etc. The cutting planes of these tools are made of medium and high carbon steel.

    Chisels: Chisels are used for cutting sheets, rivet bolts and chipping operations. It is made from high carbon steel. Flat round chisels are more commonly used. The cutting edge of the chisel should be beveled to an angle of 40 to 45 degrees approx.

    Forming and Shaping Tools

    Hammers: They are used for bending, stretching, throwing off but are more commonly used to strike a job. Hammers are made out of forged steel to various sizes. The size of hammer is known from its weight. Hammers are classified according to shape of peen such as ball peen, cross peen and straight peen. Some hammers are named as the operation it performs that is riveting hammer, setting hammer, raising hammer etc.

    Mallet: These are soft face hammers whereas metallic hammer is known as hard face hammers. Mallets are made from hard wood, hard rubber, copper, brass and are used to strike light and soft blow on metal sheet surfaces.

    Stakes: It is used as support while sheets are being bent, seamed, formed, sheared or shaped using a hammer or a mallet. The different shape and sizes are available for this purpose such as hatchet stake used as support to make straight, sharp bents and for folding and bending edges. Half Moon Stake is used for turning the edges of the round disc. The Pipe Stake is used as stake for circular, semicircular bending etc. Funnel Stake is used for hammering, tapering and operations on conical jobs.

    Leg Vice: It is a holding device for hammering and holding heavy stakes etc.

    Hand Grooving Tool: It is a tool used to make a locked groove seam or mechanical joints etc.

    Rivet Set: Tool used in riveting operation. It has got two holes with through hole and other is cup shaped hole. Through Hole is used to pull but the punched hole and cup shaped is used to make hand on the pulled out portion of rivet

    Project

    Planning

    The first step was to decide what was to be made as a project that should be feasible, useful, and could be easily made with the tools and machines provided in the workshop and in the course of time provided to us. Finally we came to a decision to make a DUSTBIN out of sheet metal.

    Sketch

    A rough isometric sketch of the Dustbin was prepared as the first step for our project. Its shape would be that of a frustum of a square pyramid with open top and a closed base. The dimensions and the shape are as descripted in the sketch below

    Forming Process

    Step 1 : First Step was to develop the lateral surface of the dustbin. Firstly we developed the surface on drawing sheets, with proper dimensions and clearances for joints and bends.

    Step 2 : Next we cut out the development that was made on the drawing sheet and marked its boundaries on a galvanised

    iron sheet

    of

    26

    gauge.

    All

    other

    markings

    were done

    accordingly.

    Step 3 : Next the development was cut out of the metal and bent in the form of a closed surface on the edges as marked using stakes and mallet

    Step 4 : The 3 mm clearance provided on each end was folded at 180 degrees one opposite to other so as to form two hooks. The these hooks were attached and a seam was formed using a hand grooving tool

    Step 5 : A base of

    proper dimension was cut out with 6 mm

    clearance on each side(for double seam joint)

     

    Step 6 : The Clearance at the base of the lateral surface(3 mm) was folded at 90 degrees using mallets on the stake. Then it was kept on the base sheet and marking was done for the double seam joint

    Step 7 : The clearance on the base was folded at 180 degrees on each side. The lateral surface was kept over it. Then the

    clearance of the base was folded on respective clearance of the surface. Then the joint formed was further folded along the surface to form a double seam

    Step 8 : A galvanised iron wire of 4 mm thickness with four times the edge length of top surface was cut out using a heck saw. The cut wire was first straightened out on the anvil and was then folded to form a square to give strength to the top boundary of the dustbin. The top clearance of the dustbin was folded around the wire square using tongs to get a good finishing.

    Step

    9

    :

    A metal

    strip of

    2

    inch

    with four

    times the edge

    length of the base and with an inch of clearance was cut out of GI 26 gauge sheet. It was folded about 1/2 inch of its width. Then it was folded to form a square pedestal for the dustbin and its free ends were riveted using MS rivets.

    Step 10 : The dustbin was kept on pedestal and riveted.

    Step 11 : Two 6 inch strips each of width 1 inch were cut out of GI sheet. Each sheet was folded 3mm from both sides along the length. Both of them were bent at specific lengths (1/2 inch and 1 inch) to form the handles for the opposite sides of the dustbin. These handles were then attached to the dustbin by using MS rivets.

    Step 12: Measurements of the PEC logo letters were taken and were marked on the GI sheet. Thereafter, the logo letters were cut out of the GI sheet and were riveted on one of the surfaces of the dustbin using aluminium rivets and were then painted accordingly.