Sei sulla pagina 1di 104

rand

il

LIBRARY

TORONTO

Register No..

19

THE APOSTLES CREED

BY THE SAME AUTHOR.

SOURCES OF THE APOSTOLIC CANONS.


TRANSLATED BY

LEONARD

WHEATLEY

A.

WITH AN INTRODUCTORY ESSAY ON

THE ORGANISATION OF THE EARLY CHURCH AND


THE EVOLUTION OF THE READER
BY THE REV. JOHN OWEN.
Demy

Zi o, cloth,

price

js. (xi.

net.

CHRISTIANITY AND HISTORY.


TRANSLATED, WITH THE AUTHOR

SANCTION, BY

THOMAS BAILEY SAUNDERS,


With an Introductory Note.
Second Edition.

Crown

Sr-c,

cloth, price is.

(xi.

net.

THOUGHTS ON THE PRESENT POSITION


OF PROTESTANTISM.
TRANSLATED BY
Crown

A.

&

C.

THOMAS BAILEY SAUNDERS.


8vo, cloth, price is. bd. net.

BLACK, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON.

AGENTS

IN

AMERICA

THE MACMILLAN COMPANY


66 FIFTH

AVENUE,

NEW YORK

THE

APOSTLES CREED
BY

ADOLF HARNACK

A TRANSLATION FROM AN ARTICLE IN THE


THIRD EDITION OF HERZOG S REALENCVCLOPADIE
11Y

REV.

THE

STEWART MEANS

REVISED AND EDITED BY

THOMAS BAILEY SAUNDERS

LONDON

ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK


1901

THE APOSTLES CREED


THE

first

the three creeds,

to place

Apostolic, the

the

Nicene-Constantinopolitan,

and the Athanasian, side by


1

side, as

full

Notwithstanding the earlier labours of Laurentius

Valla and Erasmus, the writer

who may be described

as

the pioneer in the branch of investigation which deals

with the origin of the creeds in the ancient

De Romanae

Usher,

Church

is

sytnbolo apostolico vetere

fidd formulis turn ab occidentalibus turn ab

aliisque

orientalibus
solitis

ecclesiae

in

prima

Diatriba,

catechesei

Next

1647.

et

baptismo proponi

come

the

names

of

and Bingham. Walch


Rules of Faith and the Symbols in his

Vossius, Pearson, Witsius, King,


collected the

"

"

Hiblwth. Symbol, vctus, in 1770.

seded

in

842 by Hahn

His work was super

Bibliothek.

forty-three years a fresh interest has


field

of

labour

by

Heurtley

During the
been given

Harmoniu

last

to this

Symbolica

THE APOSTLES CREED

expression of the ecumenical confessions


in

the

Church (with the addition of the

Te Deiim Laudamus] was probably Luther.


Certain
(1858).

it is

More

that

it

was only

after his time,

particularly since the year 1866, Caspari,

a second Usher, has, by his various works, enormously


increased the material for a study of this subject, and he

has also sifted the material with the most


Ungedruckte,

critical care,

und we nig beachtete Quellen


Taufsymbols und der Glaubensregeln,

unbeachtete

zur Geschichte des


3 Bde., 1866-69-75

Alte

Taufsymbols und
labours enabled Hahn
father s Bibliothek in

und neite Quellen zur


son to

His

make a new work

of his

Among German

1877.

Geschichie

1879.

der Glaubensregeln,

des

scholars,

von Zezschwitz, System der Katechetik, 2 Bde., 2 te Auf.


1872, the present writer in the second edition of the
Realencyclopadie and in the

first

volume of

his

Dogmengeschichte,
apostolische Sytnbolum, and
above all, Kattenbusch, have taken a share in these in
Zahn, Das

vestigations.
first

In 1894.

t ^ie

last-named writer issued the

volume of a great monograph upon the Creed, which


the eagerness with which its continuation is

justifies

awaited.

Among

English scholars

may be mentioned

Harvey, The History and Theology of the Three Creeds,


with other
1854; Foulke, The Athanasian Creed
.

Inquiries

on

Creeds in

General,

1872;

Lumby, The

THE APOSTLES CREED


that

is,

second half of the sixteenth

after the

Protestants

century,

that

definitely

of the

Yet

also certain

is

it

West

that in the

had been
enjoyed

in

as

strict

sense

three

first

ancient

spoke

symbols.

on the other hand

these very three symbols

use in the churches, and had


consideration,

great

much

five

at

the

word,

as

In

the

however,

the

centuries earlier.

of

least

"

predicate

applies only to the

"ecumenical

History of the Creed, 1873; Hort,

1876

and, above

all,

symbol

Dissertations,

Swainson, The Nicene and Apostles

The

Creed, London, 1875.


to the

Two

relation of the old

Formulas of Faith

Roman

the pre-Catholic

in

period has been treated by the present writer in his


Patr. App.

Das

Opp.

apostol.

ii.

edit,

i,

2,

1878

Glaubensbekenntniss,

(cf.

26 te

A.

Harnack,

Auf.

1893).

Reference should also be

made

History of

the controversies periodically

Dogma.

In

to

the text-books on the

Creed a great number of


brochures regularly appear which need not be enumer

occurring over the Apostles

ated here.
1

Kollner, Symbolik,

i.

ed. 1837, p.

5.

THE APOSTLES CREED

Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed,

for

in

the Eastern Church neither the Apostolic

nor

Athanasian

the

confession

has at any time received


tion.

of

official

faith

recogni

Indeed, the Eastern Church has at

no time traced any creed


origin, or designated

to an Apostolic

any as Apostolic
2

the strict sense of the word.

in

In the West,

on the other hand, the three symbols form


part of the

confessional

writings

of the

main Church, and the shortest of them

(Symbolum minus) bears the very name


But we also find the
Apostolicum."
"

Gass, Symbolik

Das

Kattenbusch,
2

d.

griech. Kirche, 1872, pp.

apost. Symbol. Bd.

i.

S.

i,

Sguropolis, Hist.

a-rfj./3oXoi

gedrncktc
1869,

Condi. Florent.

Rob. Creyghton,

oi8a.fj.fv

S.

16

ff.;

testimony of Archbishop Marcus Eugenicus

Cf. the

at the Council of Florence, in 1438, as given

edit.

1894.

06

ff.

1660:

ly/xeis

orre

TMV aTroo-roAum

Quellen

2.

Gesch.

by Sylvester

sect. vi. c. 6, p.

150,

^o/xr, oure

Vide Caspari, Undes

Taufsymbols,

ii.

THE APOSTLES CREED


name

"

"

Apostolic

and

lished

of the

nation

here and there estab

West

use in the

in

as a desig

Nicene-Constantinopolitan

among Greeks
The three
who had become latinised.
Creed

nor

this

is

only

West

chief churches of the

Symbolum Apostolicum
in

agrees

Receptus

essential

all

We

").

in

the

possess

a form which

points

("Textus

shall therefore

have

to

begin by treating of the origin of the creed


in this form.

THE

"

"

Textus

can,

Receptus

with

satisfactory degree of certainty, be traced

back, except in certain minute details, to

the beginning of the sixth, or to the end

of the
1

S.

fifth

Caspari,

115, n. 88;

century.
ibid.
iii.

\.

1866,

But there
S.

1875, S. 12,

242,
n.

22.

n.

is

45;

a strong
ii.

1869,

THE APOSTLES CREED

probability that this form of the

not previously

in official

symbol was

use in any church,

whether as a part of the Interrogationes de


fide or the Traditio and Redditio Symboli ;
nay, there

no discoverable sign of the

is

existence of this particular form before the


fifth

at all events,

come

Eastern

shown

provincial

ally differ

to the

and

have been
churches

the fourth and

the

century.

Church,
to

fifth

scarcely existed in

in

ibid.

can

be

in

various

West during

the

"

"textus

we may
its

S.

receptus
infer

that

of
it

received form earlier

probably did not assume

Kattenbusch,

the

use

in

did not,

West from

symbols

than the middle of the

it

centuries which materi

from the

Apostolicum,

As

middle of the

189

fifth
its

ff.,

century, and

present shape,
who

curiously dis

putes this view, has hitherto only partly stated his reasons
for dissenting

from

it.

THE APOSTLES CREED


in

complete

In

year 500.
the

of Aries.

that

time

first

detail,

every

before about the

The immediate

Caesarius symbol,

appears for

it

shape

a sermon

in

of Caesarius

predecessor of

as the case

or,

of the Apostolicum as

we have

may
is

it,

be,

very

probably that of Faustus of Rietz, about


460, but

it

does not admit of being

reconstructed.

factorily

On

the

satis

other

hand the stage succeeding that of the old

Roman symbol
Creed

Apostles

the

in
is

direction

Bratke

in

the

Berne

discovered

Codex,

regard with him as a Gallican,


1

S.

Pseudo-Augustin.

164

Halm

symbol
-

ff.,

cf.

also

Symbole,

2 te Auf.

or,

N. 645, saec.

vii.

(\/A

S.

as the

ibid.

the texts are in

47-49, and the

the Missulc dallicanumvetits (Hahn,

Halm, 38; Kattenbusch,

by

which

244, vide Kattenbusch,

Senno 240 and 241

Hililiothek der
is in

n.

by the

represented

highly interesting symbol

of our

1586*".

1895, S. 153).

36).

THE APOSTLES CREED

case

may

assign to the fourth century.

Roman symbol

from the old


of

additions

"

passus,"

These

nam."

four

only by the

and

"

additions

same time prove

the

the

four

ceptus,

torum

oldest

all

and

etc."

are later.
"

terrae

and

Against
Apostles

"

mortuus

as

it

influence of
1

"con-

Creatorem

are also earlier.

of

origin

des

the

Roman

symbol, inas

was undoubtedly through the

Rome

That the Greek

As

et

coeli

that

texts

of

it

the

in

later

to these texts,

Taufsymbols, Bd.

iii.

cf.

times

Gallicanum-textus

receptus are translations, no one disputes (Hahn,


49).

sanc

Creed, called by modern writers

the later and longer

much

whilst

"

Roman

the

are

they

"communionem
"

in

lie

Creed and

that

additions,

"

ad

vitam aeter-

the direction of our Apostles


at

differs

It

descendit

"

"catholicam,"

inferos,"

and

be, a Gallico- British symbol,

Caspari, Quellen

s.

47/8,

Geschichte

THE APOSTLES CREED

attained universal authority in the West,

we may oppose
found

not

Ages, that

Rome

in
is

to say,

it

was

Middle

the

until

centuries after

many

had

existence

its

the fact (i) that

been

attested

by

Caesarius of Aries, and (2) that from the end


of the

fifth,

or the beginning of the sixth

century, until the tenth, the Nicene-Con-

Creed

stantinopolitan

Greek, and the

in

Apostles Creed, were used


traditio symboli?

and

in

Rome

in

the

so far as the

that,

use of a shorter symbol side by side with


the Constantinopolitan

was known

in

Rome

during the Byzantine period (the sixth to


the eighth century),

it

was not

Our Apostles

with the Apostles Creed.

Creed

points

very

identical

plainly

to

Southern

Gaul, and to a period about the year 500.

But the spread of the


1

Caspar!,

iii.

S.

201

f.,

"

226,

textus
ii.

S.

14

receptus"

f.

n.

88.

io

THE APOSTLES CREED

of the

Symbolum Apostolicum throughout

Western Europe

the sixth century was

in

soon accompanied by
1

wonderful
such

the

That

origin.

ginning bear the name

than

another
"textus

the

form

fifth

must

receptus,"

later creed or
a-vfj./3o\i]

between

or

plexio,"

"

and

"indicium,"

distinction

sug

has a history

the

to

and that
the

summa

its

text

origin to a

also

bears

"

or
that

the sense

Hahn,

new

involves a confusion

which

between
1

be

contention that this

a-v/j./3o\ov,

in

the

preceded

symbol traced

o-u/z/SoX?;

of

the attributes of which

"collatio"

meaning of

it

have

The

it.

symbol

from

century,

were then transferred


supplanting

its

"Apostolic"

gests the conjecture that


earlier

origin should

recent

of

legend

"

brevis

ft.

com-

is,

"signum,"

not

only of a

Christians and
46

the

non-

THE APOSTLES CREED

between

and

or

Christians,

Christians

heretics, but also in the sense of

The name

"

"

West

Symbolum

in

The legend

century.

twelve Apostles,

in

their separation,

in

East, not

the

in

of

beginning
4

found

first

is

Cyprian;the

after

until

tessera

a token or deed of agreement.

militum,"

the

"

the

sixth

that each of

the

a general session before

contributed a phrase to

the creed, was exploded even as early as


5
Laurentius Valla and Erasmus, but seems

Caspar!,

ii.

S. 88.

Ep. 69 ad Magnum,
Caspar!,

S.

i.

24

c.

designations of the creed,

tenbusch, S.

S.

ff.,

t/i

Hahn,

47

f.

Monrad, Die
s/.

\-

d/><

Symb.

S.

retained

it.

ff.

37

Bel.

Konfessionskunde,
4

cf.

30; Nitzsch, ZTIiK.

S.

iii.

7.

ff.

i.

S.

Kollner,
erste

As

28.

n.

f.

Caspari,
Ikl.

iii.

to
i.

S.

various

the

S. 2

332

f.

n.

ft .;

26,

Kat-

Lehrbuch der vergleichenden


5

ff.

//</.

S. 7

f.

I<?ontr(rverse

Inn be nsbckcnntnisscs

Caspari,
iiber d.

ii.

S.

93

f.

Urspntng

Kattenbusch, Apost.

The Roman Catechism has

nevertheless

12

THE APOSTLES
-

to point to a

confirml^>n

above hazarded as

the

to

This conjecture, which

by a glance

at the

the creed and


is

its

of the conjecture*

is

earlier

form.

also suggested

very simple contents of

clear

strikingly confirmed

and compact form,


by

history.

II

THE

fact

that the

between

period

also

partly

250 and 460


1

later,

religious services

Roman Church

the

in

and

A.D.,

used a symbol

which was held

in

in

its

very

great honour and to which no additions

were permitted, has been well known ever


since

Usher

particularly

At Rome

investigations,

but was more

proved by Caspari

this

s researches.

symbol was believed

been obtained from the Apostles


form

in

which

it

was used, and

the supposition that

Rome.
1

The

idea of

Vide Gregory the Great.

to

the

in

this led to

Peter brought
its

have

it

to

Apostolic origin
2

Usher,

op.

cit.

THE APOSTLES CREED

14

did not arise later than the fourth century.

We

find

Roman

creed,

complete

existing
1

number of

shorter

symbol, the older,

this

in

quite independently of

texts,

the sources from which

could be at least

it

partially reconstructed.
1

of

few of the more important of these texts

named

here

a Greek text

Roman

to the

Ancyra

in the Epistle of

may be

Marcellus

bishop, Julius, about the year

337 or 338 A.D. (Epiphan. Panar. haer. 52 (72),


T.

i.

cit.

836, ed. Petav.

p.

S.

iii.

Biblioth.

ix.

the

so-called Psalterium Aethel-

16;

(Hahn,

The

161-203).
35, in

the

Cottoniana,

saec.

stani,

S.

f.,

Latin text

a MS.

in

is

iii.

Caspari,
in the

iii.

in the British

162

S.

f.

Museum,

Creeds, 1875, p.

161

f.)

initiandos, attributed to
to

Maximus

T.

vii.

p.

30

1784
it

f.,

S.

A,

in

17);
of about

and Apostle?
ad

the Explanatio Symboli

Ambrose

of Turin (A.

xx.,

or,

as the case

Mai, Script.

Vet.

may be,
Nova Coll.

is6f. 1883), B. Brunus, Maximi Tur. Opp.

p.
f.,

Hahn,

the eighth century (Swainson, The Niccne

makes

S.

Codex Laudianus

Bodleian Library, belonging to the sixth or

seventh century (Caspari,


also

Opp.

Hahn, ibid. 15
Caspari, op.
28-161), and also in a MS. of the
;

Hahn,

20;

Caspari,

probable that the treatise

ii.

S.

48

ff.,

who

came from Ambrose.

THE APOSTLES CREED


The Greek

must be regarded as

text

Rome

the original, for at

the symbol was

a long time used only

for

was not
was

in

Greek.

in

It

text

use that the Latin text was adopted

What happened

just the opposite of

is

here,

what happened

the case of the longer symbol.

in

long after the Greek

until

as a parallel form.
then,

15

The

Against this view Kattenbusch urges some weighty con


siderations, which, however,

sive

cf.

and
S.

ed.

Append,

Cypr.

do not seem

also in Rufin. Expos, in


Fell, p.

7 f

also the so-called Florentine

290

and some statements

ff.;

the Great (Hahn,


1

me

to

Symb. Apost.
1682

see

Symbol

in the

Opp.

Hahn, 14

epist. of

iv.

Caspari,

24th

conclu
in

Leo

18).

See the reconstruction of the

text

in

my

treatise

upon the old Roman Symbol (Pair. Apost. Opp. 2 edit.


Kattenbusch s pro
I, 2, 1878), and more especially in

gramme,

Beitr.

Giessen, 1892

z.

a recension of the
authorities
side,
-

are

Gesch.

des

altkirchl. Taufsymbols,

also his Apost. Symbol. S. 59

Latin text

is

also given.

Caspari,

the use
iii.

S.

where

The

best

the Psaltcrium Acthelstani on the one

and the Codex Laudianus on the

On

ff.,

of Greek in the

267-466

upon the

other.

Roman
liturgical

Church,

cf.

use of the

THE APOSTLES CREED

16

Greek form

avrov rov

text

Hiareva)

Kal

roKpdropa

vijdevra

the

is

following

et9

^Irjcrovv

rov tcvpiov

Tri/eu/xaro?

shorter

or

deov rrarepa rrav-

etV

Xpicrrbv

fiovoyevr/,

e/c

of the

dylov

rov yev-

J/JLWV,

teal

vibv

(TOJ/)

Map/a?

TTJS

TrapOevov, rov eVt HOVTIOV Tli\drov crravpwOevra

Kal rafyevra,
ve/cpa)v,

ev Be^ia
teal

rplrrj rj^epa

dvaftavra

et9

avaa-Tavra

Kal

et?

etc

(TWV)

rou? ovpavovs,

rov irarpbs o6ev ep-^erai

ve/cpovs,

criav,

TIJ

itplvai

rrvevpa ayiov, ayiav

fa
KK\TJ

ci^eaiv dpapriwv, aapKos dvucrrao~i,v.

The legend

of the symbol having been

composed by the Apostles appears

as early

as the above-mentioned Explanatio Symboli

The

of Ambrose.

was aware of
articles

its

fact

that

the

writer

being divided into twelve

perhaps indicates that the legend

of each Apostle having contributed one of


Greek
cf. ibid,

text

in

the

West during

passim, and

iii.

466-510.

the early Middle Ages,

THE APOSTLES CREED


The

them was already known.


were arranged

articles

in three

The

four, or three tetrads.

however, appears

tetrads,
It

article

my

in

arose,

twelve

groups of

division into

nowhere

opinion, from

else.

the third

and the second half of the second


though composed of

appearing

as

members

each.

Kattenbusch

in his

four

Pro

thinks otherwise, but in his chief

gramme
work

17

his

modified.

statements on

point

are

however, convince

cannot,

the

myself that twelve divisions were origin


ally

intended.

No

one who wanted

to

twelve articles

in

construct a creed with

three main divisions would have been so

clumsy as to divide

+ 7 + 4,

it

into

all

events the legend

or,

rather, 2

+ 6 + 4.

did

originate in connexion with the

not
1

s. 8

Cf. Loofs,

At

ff.

/.

GgA. 1894,

ti.

S.

675.

i8

THE APOSTLES CREED

later

and longer

Roman

creed, that

is,

the

South Gallican or our present Apostles


Creed, for

it

already appears in the

symbol which Swain-

script of the shorter

son

published, and

first

where

to

about

it

is

also

proved else

apply to this creed.

who wrote

however,

all

later,

that he

composition of the

manu

Rufinus,

knows nothing

knows

is

the

common

Roman symbol by

the

Apostles soon after Pentecost and before


the separation.
to a traditio

But he

maiorum.

refers this legend


It

was doubtless,

therefore, in existence from the beginning

of the fourth century.

Rufinus

testify,

Both Ambrose and

moreover, that the

Roman

Church preserved the exact words of the


Apostles Creed with the most scrupulous
1

what

According to
earlier

Kattenbusch, Rufinus wrote

than the author of the Explanatio.

also Expos, in Symbol. Aposf. Praef.

some
See

THE APOSTLES CREED


The

fidelity.

is

symbol
2

Rufin.

ipsis

Roman
"

I.e.

17

p.

sermonum

puto,

Romae hoc non

Verum priusquam

2)

mos

et utique

reddere

quod

Migne)

(see

est,

to

sumpsit

fidelium populo

Augustine, Confess.

in fide,

Siric.

non admittit

P. n.

Credatur symbolo

quotation

from

Si unius apostoli scripturis nihil est

auditus."

(Opp. T.

Ambrose, Explanat. Symb.

56, according
"

illic

in

P.

ii.

i.

apostolorum,

Romana intemeratum semper

ecclesia

servat."

ulla

adiectionem unius saltern sermonis

Ambrose, Ep. 42 ad
p.

tamen urbis

servatus antiquus, eos, qui gratiam

eorum, qui praecesserunt

1125, ed

incipiam de

non importune

In ecclesia

quod neque haeresis


ibi

symbolum
;

I.

in diversis ecclesiis aliqua in

quod

baptismi suscepturi sunt, publice, id

viii. c.

by

deprehenditur factum, quod ego prop-

terea esse arbitror,

audiente,

asserted

bishops Celestin

his verbis inveniuntur adiecta.

et

this

virtutibus disputare, illud

commonendum

exordium,

of

origin

independently

by the

Jerome,
1

Apostolic

19

custodit et

Caspari,

Rev.

22.

ii.

18

detrahendum,

S.
ff.

nihil

addendum, quemadmodum nos symbolo, quod accepimus


ab apostolis traditum atque compositum, nihil debemus
detrahere, nihil adiungere.

quod Romana

ecclesia

Petrus sedit, et

communem

tenet,

Ep. ad Pammach. de

28 (Opp. T.

ii.

Hoc autem

p. 386, ed.

ubi

Migne).

symbolum,

primus apostolorum

sententiam eo
errorib.

est

detulit."

Joannis Hierosol.

n.

THE APOSTLES CREED

20

(422-431), -Sixtus

III.

Leo

(431-440),

tj.

(440-461), by Vigilius oTvThapsus, and- in

The

the Sacramentarium Gelasianum?

belief in the Apostolic origin of the creed

must therefore be regarded as originating


in the

Roman

Church.

it

Finally,

may be

added that Augustine must

also be claimed

as a witness for this shorter

Roman

Although he was

first

a presbyter and then

a bishop in a provincial church,


the recognised and

symbol.

official

which

in

symbol was one

which varied considerably from the Roman,

who

yet as a pupil of Ambrose, and as one.

was baptized
held to the

in

the church at Milan, he

Roman

symbol, with which,

according to the Explanatio Symboli, the

Milanese symbol was

In the

identical.

eight expositions of the creed which


1

S.

94

References in Caspar!,
f.;

Hahn,

46, n.

163.

ii.

S.

108

f.

n.

78

cf.

we
iii.

THE APOSTLES CREED


have from him

21

he follows the Milanese

form almost exclusively, and he follows


in

essential

all

In view of these

there can be no doubt that in the

facts

fourth

the

points.

it

and the

first

half of the fifth century

Roman Church made

extensive use in

the Redditio of a symbol, and a symbol,


too,

with

identical

one

the

mentioned

above, and allowed of absolutely no addi


tions to

the

Ambrose was

it.

only

one

who

certainly

expressly

protested

against any anti-heretical additions.

regarded
to take

it

as an attack

not

He

upon the Saints

account of contemporary

difficulties

the creed, however pressing these might

in

be.

"He

attributed to the creed the very

highest authority, higher even than that of

Apostolic writings composed by individual


1

Caspar!,

ii.

S.

264

f.

Hahn,

Cf. Celestin s position in the

21.

Nestorian controversy.

THE APOSTLES CREED

22

The

Apostles."

Julius

shows us

330-340

one

in

which
sifted,

epistle

use in
still

between the years

that

A.D., this

of Marcellus to

symbol was the

Rome;

but other testimonies,


to

require

be criticised

and

take us back with a sufficient degree

of certainty to

middle of the third

the

these the most import

Among

century.

ant are Novatian

s tractate

De

and the fragments from the

That the shorter


in

represented

the

Trinitate?

epistles

writings of Bishop Dionysius of

and

official

Rome. 2

Roman symbol

Epistle

and

as

of Marcellus

Psalterium AetJielstani was as

in the

early as about the year 250 the predomi

Rome, must be regarded as


one of the most positive results of histori
nant one

in

cal investigation.
1

Hahn,

Cf. e.g.

Here, however, a series

7.

Athan.

De

decretis synodi NIC.

c.

26.

THE APOSTLES CREED

23

of questions arises, the answers to which

involve

and

the

combination

The most

important

are as follow
1.

complicated

very

How

different

of these

facts.

questions

the shorter

is

Roman symbol

Western symbols which were

related to the

used,

of

investigations

between the years 250 and 500

(800),

in the religious services of the provincial

churches

until

they were driven

the Nicene-Constantinopolitan

How

the shorter

is.

related to the longer, that

Apostles

3.

latter

is

to say, to the

When

How

why was

it

it

from the
displaced

and where did the shorter

symbol originate
4.

Roman symbol

Creed as we know

time of Caesarius, and

by the

by

Symbolum Apostolicum and

the (Gallican)

2.

out

is

the shorter

Roman symbol

THE APOSTLES CREED

24

related

to

Eastern

the

nopolitan symbols
5.

How

is

pre-Constanti-

the shorter

Roman symbol

related to the different forms of the Rules

we

of Faith with which


first

three centuries

These
only in

are familiar in the

five questions

can be separated

As

a matter of fact

abstract*).

they are so closely interwoven, each with


the others,

answer

that

to every

In what follows

definite

one of them

and separate
is

impossible.

these questions will be

discussed together and a general answer

attempted.

Ill

SURVEY of the provincial and private

confessions which remain to us from the

Western Church, belonging


from

the
1

century,

fourth

to

enables

us

to the period

the

sixth

(seventh)

to

make

six

important observations about them


i.

5,

the choice and

Hahn,

fullest

In

20-45

from

Caspar!,

appreciation, however,

and

in

is

is

very great, and

arrangement of
Bd.
in

the addenda, S. 392

symbols found

know

very

ii.

and

The

iii.

S.

Kattenbusch,
ff.

is still

59-

The number
increasing.

of

We

Rome, we have symbols


Milan, Turin, Ravenna, Aquileia, and possibly
of six Italian (besides

also Florence), African (but

none from Sardinia,

for the

very important one of the date 340-360, which Caspari

has discussed

fii.

S.

128

f.],

can scarcely be attributed

THE APOSTLES CREED

26

the single parts they

fundamental

exhibit the

all

type as

same

Roman

the shorter

symbol.

The

2.

more

the

Roman
of

Western symbol

shorter a
it

closely

approaches the shorter

The

symbol.

shortest

the provincial churches of

are

almost,

with

it.

3.

more

The
it

not

if

later a

is,

symbols
the

altogether,

identical

Western symbol

varies, as a rule in
1

additions, from the shorter

West

is,

the

consequence of

Roman.

With

the exception of a few expressions, like the


anti-modalistic
to that

"

et

invisibili

country; see Kattenbusch,

S.

impassibili,"

202

are also Spanish, Galilean (South Gallican


also one from Treves),
1

Hardly

ever

by

and

the

30

ff.

The

There

Irish.

omissions

Venantius Fortunatus, printed


busch, S.

f.).

and Prankish,

in

on

Hahn,

the

symbol

27, see Katten

question of alleged omissions

Western symbols may be put aside

uncertainty of the tradition.

of

in

in

view of the

THE APOSTLES CREED


added

to the

article

of the

Aquileia

omnipotente,"

"carnis,"

same

the

"remissionem

carnis

in

symbol

the

"

huius,"

the third
the

(this

in

as an
article

position

aeternam

per

"

ecclesiam

first

of

peccatorum, resurrectionem

vitam

et

in

symbol of the church of

the plerophoric

addition to

of

"

27

the

Carthaginian

arrangement, however,

sanctam

Church

may be ex

plained otherwise), none of these additions


are

of a

are

to

directly

be

extensions

polemical

nature,

but

regarded as completions and


held

to

be necessary

in

the

interest

of a clear understanding of the

Creed.

With these may be compared the

manifold and various additions to the


article

first

of the old symbol, for example

the formula

Virgine

"

l
:

natus de Spiritu Sancto ex

Maria,"

in
1

the symbol of Aquileia

Hahn,

42.

THE APOSTLES CREED

28

and Ravenna

the formula

conceptus dc

"

Spiritu Sancto, natus ex Vifgine

symbol of Faustus of Rietz

M."

in ffce

the differen

"

tiation of

"

crucifixus

into

"

passus

"

crucifixus
tion of

the

in

the later symbols

"

and

as well as in
tion of

Augustine
Rietz

and

Carthaginian

aeternam

so

character of the

"

and

symbol

symbols

Nicetas; the addi

that of

"vitam

the addi

in the third article in

catholicam,"

Spanish

for

example,

in

in

Faustus

ot

The fundamental

on.

symbols

not altered

is

by such additions, as they are not of a


speculative or dogmatic nature.
4.

the

The

majority of the additions which

Western symbols exhibit are of such

a character that they

intermediate

steps

may be regarded

between

and longer Roman symbol.


sideration,

however,

is

the

as

shorter

This con

not so important as

THE APOSTLES CREED

29

the fact that the great provincial churches of

the

West

by

the

in the third

and fourth centuries,

which

additions

they

severally

made, stamped the symbols with a definite

Four such types can be

character.

the

namely,

distinguished,

readily

the

Italian,

African, the Gallican, which includes the


Irish,

and the Spanish.

lican type

which

Creed, one of
that

it

is

is

its

As

seen

in

for the

our Apostles

distinguishing features

by such

characterised

additions as are to be found

cal

earlier Oriental

as the case

heaven

"catholic."

Kattenbusch,

between the

S.

histori
in

the

such as

189

ff.,

creator of

"suffered,"

"died,"

and also the predi

hell";

The

"

Gallican type in

194

flf.

makes no

but this view

is

not correct.

its

distinction

two, and recognises only one type

last

Western Europe

be,

earth,"

"descended into

cate

is

Rules of Faith or symbols,

may

and

Gal

in

THE APOSTLES CREED

3o

form

final

or

richest

symbols

not

is

the

but

every respect the

in

so

in

it

gives

its

as

far

contents are concerned,

What

of

longest

it

the

Western

its

historical

certainly

peculiar character

is

is

so.

the

fact that with the richest material contents


it

lacks

all

those

touches

finishing

or

elements of accurate definition which are


in

present

symbols of provincial

other

churches, such as

"

invisibilem

et

impas-

"

sibilem

in

the

first

creaturarum visibilium
torem"

and

"Deum"

"unum,"

in the

et invisibilium condi-

in

second

the
;

baptismum," in

etc."

first

and second

"resurrexit

omnium peccatorum, cum


per

"omnium

article;

vivus,

gloria venturus,

the third

"huius

carnis,

In these important respects the

form of the Gallican type, that

is,

final

of our

Apostles Creed, has completely preserved


the

distinguishing

features

of

the

old

THE APOSTLES CREED


Roman

compact and severe


also preserves

features

all

exhibits

It

symbol.

style,

same

the

and nevertheless

the significant historical

became

that

31

attached

to

the

Symbolum Romanum in the course of its


The Gallican Apostles Creed
career.
also exhibits the
as

Roman

its

same

classical elaboration

predecessor, and like

it

was

regarded as possessing the same ecumenical


authority.

The

5.

less

by the church
cant
its

any church was influenced


at

Rome, the more

become the progressive

creed from the shorter

The symbols
relatively far
6.

duced

If all

variations of

Roman

of the Gallican

removed from

signifi

symbol.

Church are

it.

the Western symbols be re

to an archetype,

and the differences

be disregarded, we arrive without


at the shorter

Roman

creed.

difficulty

THE APOSTLES CREED

32

What

conclusions are

The

we

to

draw from

evidence

justifies

the assertions (i) that the shorter

Roman

these observations ?

symbol was the source of


confessions

longer

of

faith

all

and

Roman symbol was

the Western
that

(2)

the

gradually de

veloped from the other, and as a conse

quence also preserved the same attributes


as

characterised

originally

symbol.
place in

From

the

shorter

But the process did not take

Rome.
the

first

conclusion

we may

reasonably infer that the shorter

Roman

symbol must have originated considerably


earlier than the

middle of the third century.

Otherwise how can we explain the


that

all

the

Western churches

fact

originally

used the same symbol, and that the African

Church,
its

own

for

example, had already developed

special type, before the year 250,

THE APOSTLES CREED

33

upon the foundation afforded by the old

Roman symbol?
Accordingly we must
refer the Roman symbol to a date at
1

least

as

early

as

the

which

200,

year

admits of positive proof from the writings


of Tertullian.

by a comparison between

established

is

shorter

the

Roman symbol and

Western confessions of
side,

this conclusion

Moreover,

faith

all

the

on the one

and the provincial and private symbols

of the East on the other

and, further, by

Roman symbol

a comparison of the shorter

with the different editions of the Rule of


Faith up to the middle of the third century.

The
are

Eastern

distinguished

flexibility,

one and

by freedom

richness of expression.
1

Cyprian, Hahn,

See Hahn,

op.

confessions

baptismal

in

all

and by

form,

As

by great

the Eastern

28, 29.
cit.

pp. 61
3

ff.,

pp.

183

ff.

Caspari,

THE APOSTLES CREED

34

Church never knew anything of any of


the creeds having been composed by the

much

always dealt with them

it

Apostles,

and

freer spirit,

fession

in its

gave expression

same time

to

its

theology and to

heresy

one and the


in

speculative

horror of every kind of

was mostly

It

heresy.

its

baptismal con

at

interest

in

in

the East that

Thus

originated.

Eastern

the

Church often puts dogmatic

in

the place

of historical expressions, omits important


passages, largely extends others by addi

and preliminary matter, and

tional

anti

polates

anti

Gnostic,

inter

Monarchian,

anti-Modalistic, anti-Arian, anti-Semiarian,

anti-Marcellian, anti-Photinian, anti-Pneu-

matomachian, anti-Apollinarian, and other


op. cit.

Hort,

ii.

S.

Two

ff.,

iii.

S.

Dissertations,

46
ii.,

f.

On

Swainson,

op. at. p.

60

the Constantinopolitan

Creed and other Eastern Creeds of the Fourth Century,


1876,

p.

73

and, above

all,

Kattenbusch,

S.

216

ff.

THE APOSTLES CREED


observations.

"

The

Oriental

35

symbols

frequently exhibit in their separate articles

a greater or less freedom of form, whether


in place of

by inserting dogmatic
historical

or

two,

or

expressions

by
in

question

by uniting the
the

expressing

somewhat

simple

fuller

article

in

manner,

or,

by making one or more additions

finally,

not of a distinctly anti-heretical character.


.

tain

F urther, we often find that they con

whole

articles

baptismal confessions.
the

result

some

in

degree,

Eastern

a subjective,

more or

less

in doctrine,

As

some

Western

a general

less

and dog

wear, moreover, a

They
less

exhibit,

in

reflective

parti-coloured

and are more or


verbose."

the

confessions

higher and

matic character.

in

wanting

appearance,

prolix, diffuse

and

Lastly, catechetical instruction

which, as

is

well

known, was

36

THE APOSTLES CREED

an accompaniment of the baptismal con


fession

in

the

Was

East,

much

more

strongly influenced by dogmatico-polemical

theories than

in

the West.

In the

Eastern Church the symbol was accord


ingly in a constant condition of flux and

Not

movement.

until the

adoption of the

Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed was this


state of things altered,

was

it

and not even then

The Nicene

completely altered.

Creed alone did not do

it.

From about

the year 430 onwards this latter symbol

supplanted the others


territory of the

the

home

of

such parts of the

orthodox

beyond the imperial


that time the

in

Church as lay

jurisdiction.

From

Byzantine Church became


severe

conservatism

in

regard to the Creed, as up to the present

day

it

sively,

has clung, persistently and exclu


to the

Nicene Creed.

This state

THE APOSTLES CREED

37

of things, which lasted in the East up to

the middle of the

the

of

Eastern symbols

and

universality,

much may be
considerable number of

That a

Eastern symbols

Yet

this

not

all,

those of Syria and


2

Roman

variations from it:

always used, and

in

See,

Hahn,
-

e.g.,

also

i.

shorter

the
the

following

Tria-revo^ev is

almost

many symbols

it

is

of Gregory Thaumaturgus,

the symbol

Kattenbusch has proved, and as

Hut, as

S.

in

my
ff.),

answer
there

to
is

Caspari,

ii.

S. 44-88.

previously

Cremer s polemic
no universal,

Eastern type of the baptismal symbol.


3

range

114.

maintained
1892,

are based

articles this type

with

but
3

its

affinity

symbol,

but certainly

(2) that in its

and the disposition of


an

Palestine

on the same type;

exhibits

their

in

reduce them to any

to

fundamental type.
said: (i)

it

describe the general character

difficult to
istics

century, renders

fifth

(Leipzig,

independent

THE APOSTLES CREED

38

repeated with each

article.

and second

article eva

to Kvpiov.

3.

added

is

In the

2.

first

In the

first

to Qkov

and

designated as the Creator of


that

Heaven and

of

is,

of the words

position

of the second article


eva (rov) tcvpiov

In

/jLovojevij.

words Xp.
rbv

almost

a-Trep/jiaros

is

added

to

the

In

the

of

the

second

cally

there,

or

the

This

in

the

order

and

Frequently

phrase
the

et?

after

only

something

^/JLWV
"etc

similar,

yevvijOevra

separate

is

/rrX.

clauses

run

together,

the West,

asyndeti-

article

polysyndetically

KOI

rov vlov avrov

and

5.

East

6.

beginning

preserved,

Kvpiov.

Aa/S/8,"

to

first

tcvpiov.

everywhere

added

The

rbv vlov avrov rbv

X^>.

stand

rbv

4.

as follows

follow,

povoyevi}

the

is

things,

Western symbol

the

Itjo:

them comes

is

I^cr.

all

Earth.
in

is

God

article,

are

affirmations

regarding

THE APOSTLES CREED

39

Christ take the form of sentences placed


in

juxtaposition

tences.

The

7.

modified

in

rpirp

here and there

form.

are

ilpepa

almost

is

rcupevra

Oevra

the

is

used.

it

appears

The words

8.

article

"

coming

again,"

the preceding.

added

third
ayiov,

or

the

appears

often added.

in

stands after

12.

is

TO

TO TrpofajriKov or

other predicate ayia.


the later

concerning

Sog^s or

epxapevov.

predicate

dva\rj(f>-

co-ordinated with

the reading

T. a. TT.

is

is

Mera

11.

to 7rd\w

article

similar

has

The

-rfj

dvacrrdvra.

after

placed

ID.

sen

Uovriov

e-rrl

Instead of dva/3dvra, dve\dovra or

9.

is

teal

relative

rov

article

IltAaTou (TTavpajOevra

entirely lacking

of

here,

13.

Where

In

the
TO

7rvev/j.a

something

The

Ka0o\iK>j

eV8oa><?

etc/cX^o-ia

after

the

the former

Western symbols,

it

Baptism

is

"Ecclesiam."

14.

frequently mentioned in the third article.

THE APOSTLES CREED

40

The words

15.

alwiov

farjv

found

are

almost everywhere.
All these characteristics, however, attach

to

of symbols

set

symbol of Nicaea,
on that on which
which Eusebius

or,

dependent on the
as the case

was based

it

(the

laid before the

may

be,

symbol

Council at

Nicaea, usually called the Caesarean); also

on

Lucian

This symbol, therefore,

s.

is

not older than the beginning of the fourth


century.

be open

duced

The

assertion would, of course,

to challenge

if

the symbol pro

by Eusebius were

the

baptismal

confession of the Church of Caesarea. 1

the

connexion

in

which

municates the symbol

community makes
that
1

it

is

it

in

Eusebius

But

com

his letter to his

anything but probable

the symbol or baptismal confes-

As Hort and

Loofs, S. 673, maintain.

that the third article

is

abridged.

Both assume

THE APOSTLES CREED


sion of that place.

It

41

ought, rather, to be

regarded as a symbol which Eusebius had


constructed
situation,

not,

according

to

Antioch

of

formulas

the

may

of

Caesarea

at

instruction

its

heard

confession,

it

such

Any

rebutted

strongly

by

the

Eusebius formula the third


consists of

is

TTHTTfvofjiev

may be

KCU

made

which

certain

but

baptismal

is

very

contention
fact

that

article

is

in

simply

et9 ev irvevp-a ayiov.

inferred from the predicates applied

the series bc^ inning with T&V TOT

evidently
2

faith

divisions

three

questionable.

to Christ

the course

a definite creed

possessed

of

consisting

This

That the

over and above the

whether,

is

at

the

in

be,

in

the

Eusebius here formulated

but

ovo

familiar

schools of Origen and Lucian.

congregation

existing

ab

course,

as the case

or,

the

for

expressly

for the situation.

See his symbol.

$eoi>

Aoyov

THE APOSTLES CREED

42

The assumption

that

Eusebius made any

omission from the church confession

very dangerous one to make.

is

There

a
is

also the fact that a long-winded sentence


1

follows,

the general order to

in

ending

Eusebius regards

baptize.

this as

ing to the confession of faith as

what preceded
V7rdp%eiv

Kal viov

et?

TO

rovrwv

7riCTTvovT<>,

a\r)6u>s

ayiov,

7Tvevfj,a

it

irarepa

as

elvai

Kal

jrarepa

aXr}0w<;

vlbv Kal irvevfjia ayiov d\rjdb)$

Ka0w<;

KijpvyfjLa

eVacrroz/

belong

much

o Kvpios IHJ.WV a7rocrreXX&)i/

eavrov

TOL<>

yua^ra?

6i7re

evres ^adr/reva-aTe Trdvra ra edvrj, ySaTrrtauToi/9

This

is

et?

TO

evidently the reason

as well as Lucian

went on

confession and repeated


felt

why Eusebius

to the baptismal
it

in extcnso

the necessity of presenting

formula as a paraphrase of the


1

Cp. Lucian

KT\.

rov Trarpos

ovofia

symbol.

his

he

new

formula

THE APOSTLES CREED


known

to

the

Caesarean symbol
a

if

the

not one framed for

is

community,

particular

But

community.

43

we know

then

absolutely nothing of any definite, detailed,

ancient

communal symbols

in

East

the

of any date preceding the Nicene Creed.

This negative conclusion

is

four

by

considerations

confirmed by
the

curious

symbol of Gregory Thaumaturgus,


the

one

curious

equally

The argument seems


that,

where such

to

is

and
2

of

Aphraates.

me

unassailable
as these can

"symbols"

be constructed, there

as yet no

symbol, such as the Roman,

in

communal
existence

and Gregory knew the

Eastern Church

from Pontus

(2)

to

and easy way

in

Egypt.

the free

which the symbols were

formed and also accepted


1

By

Hahn,

in

114.

Kattenbusch,

S.

249.

the

East.

THE APOSTLES CREED

44

With

pain and astonishment

we

process going on in the fourth and


the middle of the

fifth

symbols had been

If

century.

in existence,

come down from previous

see-this

down

to

any old

which had

generations,

how

could this state of chaotic confusion and


lack of reverence

acceptance of creeds
plained

By

(3)

the

in

in

the

formation

the

and

East be ex

above-mentioned

typical similarity of structure exhibited in

the Eastern symbols of the fourth century,

where the type of the Lucian-EusebeanNicene creed


emerges.

almost the only one which

is

(4)

By

uncertainty about

the

the third article which

prevailed

in

the

East up to the middle of the fourth century.

Even

as late as the

of the year 341


Sei

irpocrOeivai
K.

it

first

Antiochian formula

runs as follows:

Tricrrevo^ev

a}9 alwviov.

teal

irepi

el

Be

<raptco<;

THE APOSTLES CREED


In connexion with this last point

45

may

observe that the construction of the old

Roman symbol

is

perfectly clear.

It

based on the baptismal formula with


three

The

divisions.

defined by the words,


the second
"Only

is

division

first
"God

is

its
is

Almighty";

characterised by the phrases

Begotten

and

Son"

"Our

Lord,"

as well as by the historical account which


it

gives

gift,

the third

is

conceived of as a

and hence three further blessings are

associated with

it,

which together express

the content of the salvation

which

faith

brings.

Of

of

from the fourth century which

faith

come

the thirty Eastern confessions

into question

more than two-thirds

contain either no third article at

only a bare confession

Holy Ghost.
derived

from

all

or else

of belief in

the

Putting aside the symbols


the

Nicene-Constantino-

THE APOSTLES CREED

46

and also the obviously abridged

politan,

symbols mentioned by Hahn,


that the only

find

third

article

71, 72,-

symbol containing the


or

a complete form,

in

we

the

more than complete form which mentions


Baptism, is that in the seventh book of
the Apostolic Constitutions^ in the symbol

handed by Arius

to the

of Cyril of Jerusalem,

Emperor,
in

in that

the symbol of

Salamis (which developed into the Constantinopolitan),

of Epiphanius.

and

in the

These

dently go back to one

most

is
it

visible

in

longer symbol

five

symbols evi

common

root,

Cyril s form, although

certainly does not easily lend

reconstruction.

which
1

it

To which

belong.
3

Hahn,

But

exhibits

in

with

68.

As

itself to

the close affinity


the

old

those mentioned by Hahn,


2

which

against Kattenbusch,

Roman
68, 69, 70,

i.

S. 330.

THE APOSTLES CREED


this

symbol
of

the

all

very symbol takes precedence

The

rest.

close that Cyril s

daughter or the

That

relationship

of the

sister of the

question,

is

so

symbol can only be the

Roman

can have been the mother

it

47

as

one.

is

out

Roman symbol

the

undoubtedly reveals an older and simpler


Hitherto there has been no reason

form.
for

regarding

it

as even a sister, for the

date of this set of Palestine-Syrian symbols


is

not earlier than the beginning of the

fourth

whilst

century,

the old

place

Now,

earlier.

a century

as regards the

more than

symbols which

only a rudimentary third


at

all,

it

is

even

in

attributes

possess

article or

clear from the

christological

certainly

Roman symbol

Eastern

twenty

we can

way

in

none
which

are accumulated,

the oldest of them, that

dealing with symbols of late origin.

we

are

Still,

THE APOSTLES CREED

48

the

however,

formula

tcpdrajp,

and the structure of the

logical

section,

Moreover

common

Roman

with the

they

almost

all

and second.

first

certain grammatical

common

symbol.
in

possess,

to

them

as the eva in

Finally,

and

all.

there

is

literary character

Hence

the simplest

solution of the problem presented


relation

with the former group, additions

to the first article, as well

the

christo-

exhibit

unmistakably

certain affinity

Travro-

-rrar^p

0eo<?

by the

between the Eastern confessions

of faith of the fourth century and the old

Roman

symbol,

is

to say that, whilst there

was no established baptismal confession


of faith in the East in the third
century,
there

was,

however,

"

christological

rule,"

an

and

old,

also

flexible

old,

cere

monial or polemical formulas of belief

One God

the Creator, and in

in

His Only

THE APOSTLES CREED


Son

Christ.

confession

from

Apart
of

Gregory

the

49

singular

Thaumaturgus,

venturesome character of which

the

apparent

the

in

very

extravagances

of

we may

say

the legend connected with


that

it,

was towards the end of the

it

is

third

century, probably in the school of Lucian,


at

events

all

Palestine,
in

began

in

seems,
to

that the

the

know and

in

point

Syria-

formation of symbols

East,

where men

theological

At the period
of

some

at

value

circles

the

first,

it

had come

Roman

symbol.

of the struggles with Paul

Samosata other features of the Roman

Church
direct

also

and

came
full

to be appreciated.

acceptance of the

symbol was, however, hindered by

The

Roman
(i) the

circumstance that the christological section


of the

Roman symbol came

with a christological

into conflict

type already estab-

THE APOSTLES CREED

50
lished

(2)

by the desire

to

fuller

give

"

expression to the
the creed.

"

higher christology

was not

It

in

time of

until the

the Arian controversy that fixed symbols

was apparently,

that

type

The

East began to be formed.

the

in

most frequent up

to

at

least,

the

381,

was

the year

that with the short third article (in


as

or,

the

case

be,

might

or also, in

"Holy Ghost";

with additions such as


the Prophets

;
")

the third article,

with the old


front

and

in

the
that

in

"

the

"the,"

"

One,"

some

instances,

Who

spake by

whilst the type which, in


is

in essential

agreement

Roman symbol came


Jerusalem -Salami s
contained

in

to the

symbol,

seventh

the

book of the Apostolic Constitutions? and


1

Lucian,

Eusebius, Arius,

117, the

Nicene, the

whole of the Antiochian and Sirmian symbols,


2

How

old this symbol

may

be

is

etc.

a question.

THE APOSTLES CREED


then

the

through

the

gained

gradually

Nicene

51

supremacy

Constantinopolitan

Creed.

The

conclusion

this

may be asked whether

question

not

is

upset

by an ex

amination of the Rules of Faith, and the

fragments of those rules and formula-like

we

sentences with which


to

belonging

the

are familiar as

Eastern

of

half

Church from the middle of the

is

the

Zahn,

to

and

Loofs,

formerly
that

entertained

opinion

I,

too,

many

shared

it.

This

Caspar!,

others,

The

and

idea

we must take an Eastern symbol

is

or,

be more precise, a symbol from Asia

Minor, and relate the old


to

by

to

first

middle of the third century.

the

the

it

as daughter or sister.

tion rests principally

what we

find

in

if

Roman symbol
The assump

not exclusively on

Clement of Alexandria,

THE APOSTLES CREED

52

Irenaeus,

opponents of
follows:

briefly

as

who

writings of Justin,

"The

Ephesus about the year

in

show us

The

Ignatius.

view argue

this

was baptized
130,

and

Justin

that he

assumes the exist

ence of a symbol which on the one hand

much resembles
other

the

tinguished

marks

ing
of

the

etc.)

in the

from
also

ar.

I.

airodavovra

may

Eastern

Some

7rd\iv

also

formulas of Irenaeus,

in

eva,

certain

also

the

symbols

majority
(

Irjo-ovs

not

IT. IT.

/Ltera

to

0^775,

be found

who employs

TTOIIJTTJV

ovpavov Kal

peculiarities

be shown

dis

distinguish

aravpwdel^ eVt

further, they are

and

which

in

appear

Others as well as
7779,

These

it.

Eastern

not X.

CTTI IT. IT

Roman, and on

most characteristically

is

later

Xpt<rro9

the old

to

of style
exist

in

symbols of the fourth century.

of these can be traced back as far

THE APOSTLES CREED

53

as Ignatius, nay, even to the Epistles of


St.

in

Paul, or,

ment

to the

fact,

in general.

it

Finally,

what Clement says that

New

Testa

follows from

in his

time there

existed a formal and fixed baptismal con


fession in Alexandria.

In the East, then,

there

existed

in

second

fixed

symbol,

or,

related

the

to

pendent of

the

rather,

Roman
The

it.

century

many

symbols,

symbol, but inde


history of

Eastern

symbols may therefore be traced well into


the

second

symbol

was
at

latent

though

accordingly,
century,

existent.

still

best

is

and

leaves

it

the years

Such

is

this

this

in

history,

the

third

The Roman

contemporaneous with

the Asiatic or Syrian


later;

and

century,

more probably

it

is

Asiatic or Syrian symbol

free to the critic to assign

120-130,

100-120, or

the argument.

it

to

70-100."

THE APOSTLES CREED

54

Against

urged

four considerations

it

The

symbol or

with

tally

it

no guarantee that they themselves


from

derive

one

Christ

was

was

Virgin

"born

of the
as

Mary,"

under Pontius

Pilate,

"

any

TravTOKpdrwp

called

Begotten Son, our Lord


claimed as

Before

symbol.

God

existed

symbol

the

sentences seem

fact that single

to be echoes of the

Jesus

be

(1)

offers

may

the

"

Only

he was pro

Holy Ghost of
having

suffered

and as coming

to

judge the quick and the dead.


(2)

Formula

-like

sentences,

if

not

obviously a part of the baptismal formula,

need not necessarily have originated

in a

baptismal confession, even though they be


identical

confession.

with

the

The

sentences

oldest tradition

fixed or, as the case

may

be, a

of

that

gave a

more

fixed

THE APOSTLES CREED


"

shape to

The

Faith,"

55

not only in the

and

form of a baptismal confession

for

the purposes of baptism, but also in (a)


liturgical sentences, (b)

cism,

precepts

(c]

formulas of exor

and

faith

concerning

morals, and (d] historical summaries, and


that, too,

with a view to the most diverse

objects (instruction, apologetics, polemics,


religious worship).

may

take the prayers

statements

in

Cor.

xv.

words of John
JMOVOV

d\rj0ivoi>

were

in the

as

much

Mand.
<rnv

0e6<{

do with

in

ff.,

we

Didachd ;

(6)

the

others

and Didacht

Mark

xvii. 3

6eov

illustrating (a)

and

Justin

Hermas, Mand.
i

As

teal

xvi.

(c)

1-6

(d)

The

ff.

iva yivaMrtcaMri

ere

TOV

ov uTrecrTeiAa?

I.

Xp.

middle of the second century

a formula of faith as
-rrpwrov

KT\.,

the

TTUVTCOV

Hermas,

Tricrreva ov,

on

el?

yet they have nothing to

baptismal

formula.

Such

THE APOSTLES CREED

56

passages as Ephes.

iv.

9 furnished themes

for homiletical discourses

formulas were

also set up which led from the confession

the

of

One God

commandments

the

chief

practical

of these

some

fine

to

powerful examples are found

and Didackc
of

Christ

on

the

is

Aland.

in

and
\

ff.

Finally, the preaching

ff.

not

unfrequently

foundation

of

attached,

numerous Pauline

passages, to a confession of belief in the

One God,
Holy

without

Spirit, of the

any mention of the

Church, or of Christian

blessings.
(3)

In

particular,

the

preaching

Christ, apart from the detailed form


it

of

which

received in the Gospels, 1 also underwent

2
various longer or shorter epitomisations,

Luke

See the above-mentioned fragments

Mark

i.

xvi. 9.

4.
I

Cor. xv.

and

THE APOSTLES CREED

57

which took a fixed form without being

These

placed in a Trinitarian framework.

epitomisations proceeded on various plans


the

(a)

mere

chronicle, (b)

with proofs attached,


filled

prophecy,

Kara rrvevpa,

(tf)

second coming,
/3a9.

the chronicle

the plan of

(c]

the plan Kara

(d)

the plan of the

ful

o-dpica

first

the plan /cara/Sa?

(_/")

and
ava-

All these plans, in part united with

one another, issued

affirmations of a

in

character relatively fixed, even

if

capable

of being modified.
(4)

Out of the great number of pre

dicates attached to
Spirit,

God,

some which were

very soon came to the

and the

Christ,

general use

in

front,

apart from

the detailed Trinitarian confession.


chiefly used in

rravroKpdrwp,

connexion with

rrartjp,

with additions

BeffTrorr}^

with Christ,

God

Those
are,

el?,

and Creator,
u/o<?

rov 0eov, 6

THE APOSTLES CREED

58

tcvpios, crwTijp, Si&dcrtcaXos, /jLovoyevr/s, et?,

with the Holy Ghost


the

ayios,

same way, out c

\6yos

In

Trpo^nKo^.

the great

number of

blessings which the Christian faith affords,

some

named with

are

such as

dfaa-is

especial frequency,

aiiapn&v (with or without

mention of baptism),

0)77

(at&wo<?),

or without

T%

o-ap/co?),

crt?

(with

d<f)8apo-La,

Rule of

clamation
fj,d07]fjia,

"),

71/600-49,

Everything thus variously

etc.

produced was regarded as


"the

avdara-

"

the

Faith,"
<(

Faith,"

"Kerugma"

"Truth,"

TrapdSoais,

"Rule

(or

of

Trapa&oOeis \oyos,

Pro

Truth,"

Si&a%rj,

etc.

A
in

consideration of the facts contained

the foregoing, the truth of which

scholar will question, must

make

no

us very

cautious in arguing from formula-like con


fessional sentences to a formulated baptis

mal confession

in

three parts.

Caution of

THE APOSTLES CREED


this

kind seems to be everywhere wanting

the present time,

at

ample,

Zahn

in

been

No

in

as

ex

on the Apostles

way

in

which

it

distin

branch of learn

this

one has a right

of any creed

for

seen,

by the most

particular proposition,

plan,

is

the

in

received

guished students
ing.

as

treatise

Creed (1893) and


has

59

claim

to

which forms no part

framed on the Trinitarian

part

fession, unless

baptismal con

of a

fixed

he

in a position to offer

is

very strong evidence for his contention.

What
mony"

is

the net result of the

of Ignatius, Justin,

Clement of Alexandria
(i)

We

find

that

seems,

in

Ignatius has freely

"

kerugma

essentials,

Irenaeus, and

"

reproduced a

"testi

of Christ which

to

definite historical character

be

of

fairly

and which con

tained, inter alia, the Virgin Birth, Pontius

THE APOSTLES CREED

60

Pilate

and the

There

(nreOavev.

of any evidence, however, that


of any

based on

creed

the

no trace

is
it

was part

Trinitarian

plan.
(2)

As

to

Justin

knew of a definite
and used

we

find

christological

he

"kerugma,"

again and again

it

that

(a)

was

this

closely related to the second article of the

Roman

although

symbol,

pendent of

it,

and

it

inde

quite

even exhibits many of

the characteristic peculiarities of the later

Eastern symbols
"

"

kerugma

him

that with

this

forms no part of any baptismal

symbol, that

second

(b)

to

is

article

(c)

say,

that

is

formal

not a

him

with

the

baptismal formula was not developed into


a symbol

at

all,

except

that

the

Persons were described as follows

a-ravpwdels eVt

HOVTLOV Tlt\drov, TO

three

THE APOSTLES CREED


ayiov o Sia
TOV

any

ra>v

\IJGOVV

trpo^rirwv TrpoeKi jpv^e ra Kara


or,

TTtti/ra,

such

it

is

tological

simply, TO

description,

baptismal formula
that

61

TrpcxfrrjTiKov

itself, is

the

in

however,

improbable; (d)

extremely likely that the chris"kerugma"

above indicated was

formally stated as fulfilled prophecy, that

is

to say, stood as part of a plan as follows


"The

Holy Ghost prophesied

we can go no

farther

this

in

than the assumption that Justin


that after the

"kerugma";

TWV o\wv KOI


"kerugma"

prophecy

8eo-7roT7/9,

etc.";

knew

mention of

and Jesus

or,

as the case

was added.

But

in

may

may

but

of a

Trariip

Christ, a
fulfilled

be, in the

the prophetic

spirit,

the contention that this

was a baptismal confession,

the case

direction

of Christ, in the form of

form of a belief

p.d6r^fjLa

be, claimed to

or,

as

be a developed

baptismal formula, and that

it

existed in

THE APOSTLES CREED

62

a crystallised form at

all, is

unsupported by

any evidence.
(3)

shown

As regards
the

in

S.

iv.

fur
149

we

have
in

und Kirche,

Theologie

ff.,

Zahn

article against

first

the Zeitschrift

Bd.

Irenaeus, (a) as

must

be

very

cautious in drawing conclusions from his


"

testimonies on behalf of the baptismal


"

confession

a very small portion of the

material which

collected from

in

the treatise on the old

is

sufficient

which

he

Irenaeus
T?}<?

i.

a\r)6eia<;

nicates in

employed
9,
;

i.

Roman symbol

determine the

to

"symbol"

according

(b)

Irenaeus

to

4 baptism bestows the KCLVVV


this

canon he himself

10,

he here produces

watchwords of

The form

i.

it,

commu

in

which

supplemented by the

his theology,

and given

in

other places with fragmentary variations,


1

Pair. App. Opp. edit.

2,

T.

i.

2,

pp. 123

ff.

THE APOSTLES CREED


shows that he

is

out of a large

number of

formulas

compiling

it

63

independently

fixed confessional

of the Church.

Among

may be distinguished
1. The
expanded formula

these

2.

The

formula

efc

of Hernias.

#eo<?

TravroKpdrwp

united with Johannine expressions or, as


the case

may

K. T. yfjv K. r.

Or eA
3.

be, with TreironiKw

6a\ti<T<ras

Kal Trdvra

T.

r.

ovpavov

ev avrois,

/jLOvoyevris ^lTjcrovs Xpto-ro?.

A christological

formula of confession

an historical form), showing a close

(in

to the old

relation
still

one

closer

4.

1 he

Roman
5.

Roman

to Justin

#eo?

Trarrjp

s.

TravroKpurcop

of the

symbol.

formula of confession

the confession of belief in

and

symbol, but a

One

the

which

to

One God

Christ Jesus joined a confession


1

frland.

i,

THE APOSTLES CREED

64

of belief in the

Holy

porated with

this

of Christ

fulfilled

as

were enabled

and incor

confession the history

in Justin s case, so

As we

prophecy.

make

to

Spirit,

a similar conjecture

probable that not

is

it

only in Irenaeus time but also in Justin


a

formula

confessional

existed

East containing something


ing

et?

f)

eva

real Secnrorrjv

craptcwOevra VTrep

7rpo<j)r)ra)v

KOI

IJ/JLWV

et?

(or vjrep

Trvev/jia

K/cr)pv%os

T9

icr\.

which

made

Irenaeus

logical

the

TT;<?

rov

TTtcrrt? teal

dXvjQeias,

rfjs

ayiov,

under Pontius

Bia
rrjv

the foundation

rwv
etc

of

the historico-christo-

about the
Pilate,

ro

this formula,

formula of confession

sentences

7;//,erepa9

ot/co^o/it a?,

From

irapdevov yevvrjcriv

his tcavwv

0eov^

et<?

Xpicrrov rov vlov rov deov, rov

Irjcrovv

crwTT/pta?)

the

like the follow

eva 0eov Travro/cpdropa (or

Trarepa rwv oXwv


ei?

in

containing

birth,

burial,

suffering

resurrection,

THE APOSTLES CREED


and coming again
case

the

as

or,

in

glory (in

may

be,

for this formula in Justin

is

as

may

be, in

the

as

far

covered

participle)

Parallels are also

as the case

verb

finite

is

probably, to be distin

perhaps, or even

guished.

65

to

be found

and Ignatius

This

Cor. xv.

material

or,

hitherto

dis

allow us to go on this subject.

will

That Irenaeus assumed the existence of


a

symbol,

or,

other words, that

in

formulas (plans) indicated above were


existence

in

cannot

only

their crystallised

be

demonstrated

entirely improbable.

of

argument

form,

must

different conclusion

but

the
in

not
is

Irenaeus whole line

have

in

had there existed

in

issued

a fixed form, recognised in his community,

what
that

is

necessary for his demonstration,

"

Multa,"

formulas

and

that

is

short

to say,

many

familiar

statements of

faith,

THE APOSTLES CREED

66

no

existed, but

no

in

certainly

assumes the

to

as Apostolic
that

is

is

Tertullian

and that he

Roman symbol

to

Tertullian s references

symbol are incomparably

But that he had

to say,

There

that

similar way,

proceeds

be already known.

is

symbol.

the objection

in

nothing

that

Multum,"

was

there

that

"

to serve

up

clearer.

to his readers

the quid pro quo,

tradition

to say, formulas constructed

ad

hoc,

followed from the fact that the text of the

Roman symbol was

insufficient

for

the

theological and anti-Gnostic objects which

he had

in

view.

We

may, however, ask

whether the Irenaeus of Asia Minor and

Gaul had ever heard of the

Roman

In view of the distinct formula


,

and the way

See the evidence adduced

treatise,

and Kattcnbusch,

i.

pp.

in

in

symbol.

tfeo? irarrjp

which he uses

my

1416*".

above-mentioned

THE APOSTLES CREED


Roman community

the

argument

67

as evidence in his

for tradition,

am

disposed to

assume that he had.


Lastly,

as

andria, there

Clement of Alex

regards
is

still

unsettled controversy

as to whether he does

not in one place

assume the existence of a


that city.
to

me

still

Even

if

ran.

symbol

be so

this

extremely doubtful

which can discover how

art

it

seems

there
this

in

is

no

symbol

may have been something entirely

It

different

we

from what

Therefore we

may

leave

That there existed


in

fixed

it

in

call

symbol.

out of account.

Asia Minor, or

Syria, or, in short, in the East before

the beginning of the third century, symbols

used as baptismal confessions which were

based upon the baptismal formula, gave the


second

article in the

form of an

historical

account, and summarised in the third the

THE APOSTLES CREED

68

blessings which faith receives, cannot be

To

shown.
East

at

all,

prove the existence

in

the

in the earliest period, of

any

fixed crystallised confession,

of

Eastern

primitive

related

the old

to

independent of

it,

is

and therefore

symbol

Roman

closely

but

one,

still

Not only

impossible.

can the existence of any such primitive


not

symbol

be proved,

but

it

is

quite

improbable, as the history of the Eastern

Church shows
silence,

and

in

the third century

in the fourth

by what

by

it

its

says.

Nevertheless the result of our investiga


tions

not

is

contrary,

On

merely negative.

we can agree

that

those

the

who

defend the existence of a primitive typical


Eastern symbol

There did

right.

East
be,

(in

up

are,

to a certain point,

actually

Asia Minor

or,

exist

in

as the case

the

may

Asia Minor and Syria), as early as

THE APOSTLES CREED

69

the beginning of the second century, inter


alia a christological /xa^/xa,

which

most

is

intimately related to the second article of

Roman

the

the formulas
its

and

into the

way

fourth

creed,

century.

and which, as regards

details peculiar to

Heaven and

made

Eastern symbols of the

There

formulas referring to
of

it,

existed,

One God,

further,

the Creator

Earth, and to His Incar

nate Son, which also

made

their way,

and

exerted an influence on the whole process


of forming symbols, including
fications

of the

The

West.

many modi

Roman symbols

in

the

exclusively theological tenor

of the Eastern symbols in the second article

may be
Einally,

traced to the primitive aapKwQkvra.

there

existed

formula which

asserted of the holy prophetic Spirit the


facts

which

Christ.

it

proclaimed

in

regard

to

Apart from these leading formulas

THE APOSTLES CREED

70

the words

and

"descensus"

"

"

catholica

But nevertheless the

point to the East.

great feat of having formed the symbol,

and of therewith laying the foundation


of

all

ecclesiastical

symbols, remains the

Rome.

glory of the community at

When

did

this

happen

Roman symbol

traced the old

We

have

to the time

of Tertullian.

It

means when he

writes de praescr. haer. 36

autem

"Si

nobis

est

docuerit,

quoque

cum

Romam,

auctoritas

praesto

Africanis

Unum

didicerit,

ecclesiis

quoque

deum

quid

dominum

creatorem universitatis, et Christum

Jesum

ex

Virgine

Maria

del

filium

creatoris et carnis resurrectionem


ita

habes

videamus quid

contesserarit.
novit,

symbol that he

this

Italiae adjaces,

unde
.

is

et

adversus hanc institutionem neminem

recipit."

This symbol we unhesitatingly

THE APOSTLES CREED

71

back to about the middle of the

trace

second

Had

century.

established in
fierce

Rome

(about

have taken a

different

go back

to

been

symbol

the time of the

and

Gnosticism

with

struggle

Marcionism

hand,

at

it

145-190),

form

too

far

would

on the other

beyond

middle of the second century

the

unwise.

is

There are a great many things

in

the

Shepherd Q{ Hennas, both as a whole and


in its several parts,

to explain

if

familiar to

that

about

century
Sea

The

the

the

Justin

middle

distinction

had

difficult

Roman symbol had been

the writer.

the

Mapia?

which would be

not

of

shows us

the

between

yet

been

second
e /e

and

effected.

omission of Jesus baptism by John,

and also of the Johannine expression


(jiovoyevfc,

the

omission

of

the

mo<?

chiliastic

hopes, and the sharp distinction between

THE APOSTLES CREED

72

and

avza-ravra, dvaftdvra

to

KaOifaevov, are facts

be seriously weighed.

In addition, the

expression 0eo? Trar^p iravroKpdrwp has HO

behind

history

and

it,

it

gradually

placed an older expression

This

Kpdrwp.

in

which

the

old

fur

refuted

now

Zahn

Trio-reva)

originally

older

its

This

To Hermas

TravTotcpdrwp

also

makes

way

in

opposi

and very wide-spread

form of the confession

Trarrjp

began

Oeov TTCIVTO-

its first

must have made

Creator.

eW

runs, but the text of

article

an

und Kirche?

always

old

it

to

in

hypothesis that

et9

ran as

tion

Travro-

Roman symbol

The

tcpdropa.

Tkeologie

Roman symbol

with the words

Oeos

have already shown

the Zeitschrift

el<?

dis

is
it

of
the

as

God

as

the

formula

tfeo?

yet

probable

unknown.
that

the

symbol originated about the middle of


1

Bd.

iv. S.

30

fT.

THE APOSTLES CREED


second

the

The

of

too,

text,

known

shortly

before.

Eastern

christo-

was

presumably

Roman

the author of the old

to

symbol,

the

which

nddi]n.a,

logical

or

century

if

is,

contains Jesus

it

73

Baptism

by John and does not mention the Ascen


than the

sion, older

Roman

symbol, just

as the iraOuvra, uTroOavovra, as well as ird\iv

and

can be put a long way back.

ev Bogy,

Finally,

if

we examine

clause by clause,

established
(1)

the

Roman symbol

the following facts are

The symbol

itself

is

witness for the formula 0eos


Kpdrwp,

which

gradually

the
Trarijp

oldest
TTCLVTO-

superseded

an

older form.
(2) vios 6 fAovo^vijs

(3)

The

is

Johannine.

oldest and frequently recurring

formula for the Virgin birth always runs


etc

Mapias

r/}s-

Trapflevov.

The

THE APOSTLES CREED

74

addition

of

eV

TrvevpaTO?

the

in

d<yiov

"

"

sentences

kerugmatic

is

relatively late,

and presumably comes from the Gospels.


(4)

The ra^eWa

there

is

manner

in like

late.

(5)

The

addition of

rf)

Both come

avaa-ravra.

rpirrj

from

J^epa to

the

First

Epistle to the Corinthians.


(6)

The

avaftdvra
is

special

between

prominence given
dvaa-Tavra

also relatively late,

completeness which

by

the

(7)

is

felt

regard

existing account.

and KaQr)^vov

and shows a desire

for

high

best explained
for

the

The enumeration

be

understood

Pauline Epistles, but


to

only

of the blessings

of salvation, as given in the third

cannot

to

it

apart

article,

from

the

lends a precision

what was taken from those Epistles by


1

Acts

i.

THE APOSTLES CREED


the

prominence given

particular

Resurrection
body.

as

The

fact

Resurrection
that

symbol older and shorter

were

sentences

the

in

to

the

of

the

Roman
"

"

kerugmatic

somewhat

further

veloped under the influence of the

Testament

writings,

that of John,

75

de

New

and particularly under

the Synoptists,

Paul,

and

probably the Acts of the Apostles, makes


it

unwise to trace the composition of the

symbol backwards beyond the middle of


the second century.

To sum up the symbol originated in


Rome about the middle of the second
:

century.

It

was based upon the baptismal

formula and on confessional formulas of a

summarising character (such


identify

from

the

New

as

we can

Testament

and

from Ignatius, Justin, and Irenaeus), which

THE APOSTLES CREED

76

had been generally handed down, including


Eastern formulas (Asia Minor, Syria), as
also

under the influence of the

largely

New

Testament

these

Among

writings.

confessional formulas the most important

was a

christological yuatfr^a of fairly fixed

form, yet capable of being added to and


modified.

are

Its

main

outlines,

Roman symbol was


made

its

from

the

onwards,

way

of

without

have been,

itself

altered.

the
It

Western provinces

the

second

raising

any

That

is

century
claim

in the strictest sense,

by the Apostles.
went

never

into the

end

presume,

Rome

In

recognisable.

why

to

composed
under

it

different modifications in those pro

vinces.

(In

Rome

it

was not

some

until

time between 250 and 350 onwards that


it

was

strict

designated as

Apostolic

sense of the term.)

in

Amongst

the

these

THE APOSTLES CREED


those

modifications,

became

historically

most important which

the

77

from

derive

the primitive confessional formulas of the

East

as the case

or,

of

"creator

namely,

"suffered,"

"eternal

"died,"

be, the fidOi^a,

may

heaven and

"descended into

besides the

life,"

earth,"

hell,"

"catholica"-

these are just the modifications traceable


in

the

our

Gallic

origin

and,

which

in

and otherwise of

sanctorum."

rightly be

cularly

close

borne

relations

issue

addition,

obscure

is

little

most perplexing of

munio

may

Creed

Apostles

"conceptus,"

which

symbols

In
in

all,

circumstance

the

this

its

"com-

connexion

mind the

existing

of

the

importance,

Southern Gaul and the East.


historical

in

in

very

parti

between
But an
special

importance seems also to have played a


part.

Hitherto

have said nothing about

THE APOSTLES CREED

78
the

Symbol of

Nicetas.

Morin 2 has made

very probable that Nicetas means the

it

Nicetas of Remesiana in Dacia, the friend


of Paulinus of Nola.

The symbol which

he adduces can unhappily be no longer


reconstructed

planatio ; but so
is

What

symbol.

however,

word

much

related

closely

is

Ex-

certain, that

is

the

to

his

old

much more

it

Roman

interesting,

the fact that throughout (partly

is

word) he

by

from

detail

in

explains

it

by the

catechising activity of Cyril of Jerusalem,

and

sentence

crede te

connexion

this

in

08

Whether

Caspar!, Anecdota, S. 341


ff.

the

Ergo in hac una ecclesia


communionem consecuturum esse
the

belong to Nicetas symbol

in

"

sanctorum."

brings

Hahn,

Rev.

His date

very questionKattenbusch,

25.

bt nSdict.
is

fif.

is

catchwords

Tom.

xi.

Febr.

the beginning of the

fifth

century.

i.

pp.

THE APOSTLES CREED


able (to

me

improbable)

so far as their origin

there

presence

reference to

certain

could

but in any case,

concerned, their

is

be

by

explained

As

Cyril s words.

relationship

79

there

between

is

Nicetas

symbol and the Gallican

(we

may

ask

was

not

even

in

whether

his

fluenced

by Cyril

symbol
s),

and as connexions

between Gaul and Pannonia are not lack


ing,

the

possibility

than this

will

not say

more

itself

presents
at

present

of

conceiving the Gallican symbol, with the


clause "communio

sanctorum,"

say, our Apostles Creed, as

about the

year

that

is

to

having arisen

500 under the

indirect

influence of Cyril s catechising (carried on

throughout

and

the

Aquileia).

Remesiana
Loofs

in

and

Pannonia
2
1

have

Loofs, S. 677.

Thcologische Literaturzeitung, 1894, Kol. 582.

THE APOSTLES CREED

8o

indicated this possibility independently of

At

each other.
ecclesiastical

additions

not

If

be

to

of

piece

adheres to a

which

distinguish

Creed from the old Roman

our Apostles
symbol.

"ecumenicity"

of the

part

events

all

"communio

traced

to

sanctorum"

Cyril,

but

is

be

to

regarded, rather, as a product of chance,

must

it

sense
of

be

(i.e.,

the

Saints),

namely,

holy

suggested

the latter

judice Us

"

that

equivalent

Augustine

to

meaning

of

with the martyrs

Zahn

men.
another

has

derivation,

communio sanctorum
rrjv

community
Faustus

with

or,

fellowship

specially

recently

in

the Church as the

as a

Rietz,

and

understood

tcoivwiav

rwv

"sacramenta."

"

is

dyitov,

Sub

est."

That the Roman Church


1

op. dt. pp. 82

ff.

after the be-

THE APOSTLES CREED

81

ginning of the sixth century gradually

be separated from and

itself

symbol which

of the

guarded so

it

faithfully, is

menon which has not

finally

let

robbed

had previously

a striking pheno
yet had

its

causes

Meanwhile, however,

clearly explained.

has

made some very important

contributions

towards a solution of the

Caspari

The most

problem.

was not

in

the

first

critical

fact

that

it

instance the longer

(Gallican) daughter edition (our Apostles

Creed) which displaced the mother symbol


but the Nicene-Constantinopolitan, which

from the beginning of the sixth century


first

in

took the place of the shorter

Rome

syniboli,

while

tion the old

The

Traditio

the

in

Op. at.

Roman

ii.

S.

Rcdditio

the baptismal interroga

in

still

remained

displacement of the old


1

and

one

14

f.,

iii.

S.

in

use.

Roman symbol
201

f.,

230

f.

82

THE APOSTLES CREED

by the Constantinopolitan becomes very


soon

as

intelligible,

the

conditions

the

end of the

of

the

fifth

we

consider

time.

From

as

century, under

the

dominion of Odoacer and the Ostrogoths,

Roman

Arianism had impinged upon the

Church, and had become a danger to


of counteracting

By way
Church

will

have resolved

ancient practice, so as in

formula to express
ism.

When

returned

its

to give

its

up

its

very baptismal

disavowal of Arian

to

shorter

symbol,

was,

the

old

already retreated into the

background, and the new

Apostles

Roman

the

three centuries later the church

Roman one had


which

it

it.

in

fact,

Creed,

Roman

the

symbol,

Gallican,

the

possessed

the

recom

mendation of having a series of elabor


ations which

were wanting

one, and which

now seemed

in

the earlier

indispensable.

THE APOSTLES CREED


But we may probably also assume
information
the

we

83
direct

have, of course, none

Roman Church would have

that

difficulties

about accepting the Frankish symbol as


a baptismal one, had

it

not been recognised

as an old acquaintance.

It

very probable that there was


historical

tradition

moreover,

is,

still

Rome

in

present

enough
to

allow of the Frankish confession remind

ing people of one that was old and once

highly honoured.

The

differences

were

overlooked or else not regarded as con


siderable.

Thus

the legend

encircled the old symbol

glory

power

with a halo of

awoke again around

and again and


in

for a

the Church.

it

exploded.

the

new

one,

long time became a

Not

of the Renaissance and the

was

which had

until the

age

Reformation

IV
Creed

IN interpreting the Apostles

torically the foregoing observations

us

with

of

it

the

rule

were

which

those

that

supply

portions

already

Roman

plained

from the theology of the

simply,

as

Testament.

and

confession are to be ex

post-Apostolic

some

claim,

from

must not be regarded

"Amplius

not

ages,

the

the symbol

elaborated baptismal formula,


it

later

New

This explanation must take

note of the fact that

fore

of

part

the old

Apostolic

his

aliquid respondentes,

evangelic determinavit

"

(Tertul.

De

is

an

and there

in its

ancient

quam dominus

coron. mil. 3).

in

THE APOSTLES CREED


form

as

in

Christian

way an expression

any

intra-church

85

but

polemics,

rather

framed

confession,

of

as

with

the

object of giving instruction in Christian


as

ity,

Heathenism.

Judaism and

from

distinguished

In the course of history,

the theological explanation of the symbol


naturally keeps

the

general

and

theology.

tween

is

ness,

But

the

rules

of

of

faith

serving for Christian

be

and a
instruc

always clear to Western conscious

and

is

characteristically reflected in

the phrases which

we

Creed but not

the old

Upon

in

As

find in the

regards

Apostles

Roman

one,

we

the use of the symbol as the foundation of

catechetical instruction,
S. 73-I39-

dogmatics

distinction

the Explanationes Symboli.

main, with

the

in

development

theological

confession
tion

pace,

cp.

Zezschwitz, Katechetik,

ii.

i.

See also the work on the Disciplina Arcani.

THE APOSTLES CREED

86

must ascertain when, where, and under


what conditions they
most of them
are

first

may be

it

said that

symbol, that they do not alter

they

the

of

elaboration

natural

Of

appeared.

old

char

its

common

acter, that they contain only the

Church, even of the Church of

faith of the

the second century, and that at the end of


the second century they were also
to the churches of the

known

West, even though

they had not yet found a stable place

any of the provincial symbols.


of the additions

garded

these are the phrases

inferna

in

"

Catholicam

is in

Zezschwitz, op.
Ibid.

stitution

1 1

8 f

of the

second

the

communionem

"sanctorum
"

made cannot be

"

ad

Two

cit.

Caspar!,

so re

article,

and

"

in

the third.

The

f.

iii.

"

predicate

only

"descendit

a different case. 2

in

S.

49

Catholic

"

f.

for

On

the sub

"

Christian,"

THE APOSTLES CREED


first

earliest in the

by Rufinus.

The second
At

all

in that

a clear tradition supporting

back

Marcion
"

feros

time

formed

the

first

is

there

is

which goes
In

century.

"descensus

part

am

teaching.

it,

second

the

into

far

the

has been dis

events, the

a better position

in

at

symbol of Aquileia as given

cussed above.
so far

West

the

in

phrase appears

87

of

therefore

the

ad

in-

church

disposed

to

believe that what led to the acceptance of


this part of the

creed was less any antior

definite

Apollinarian

interest,

theory as

the condition of the

the

in

to

to give as

which already appears


see Zezschwit/.,

125

p.

in

complete an account

the prc-Reformation symbols,

127.

Cp. the fourth Sirmian formula


I

f.

souls

kingdom of the dead, than the

endeavour

any

aspari,

iii.

S.

206

f.

in

Huhn,

93:

/.ezbdiwiu, S. 117 f, 119

f.,

THE APOSTLES CREED

88

as possible of the history of Christ s pas

and

sion

his

make

preters

"descendit"

point

of view

both

additions

of

inter
to

equivalent

Even

criticism,

comparative

on account of

will,

meaning,

failures.

oldest

Nevertheless, even from the

"sepultus."

dubious

The

glory.

be

in

allowed

modern

their

be

to

times

they

are explained quite differently by different


parties in the Church.
1

On

the principal Articles of Faith in the Middle

Ages and
p.

129

in

the Reformation churches, see Zezschwitz,

On

f.

Lessing down

the various attempts from Calixtus and


to

Grundvig and

the authority of the Apostles


position side

by

ment, whether

in

s~

The

p.

77

f.,

Creed and

raise

side with, nay, above, the

it

New

to

Testa

a syncretistic, eirenic, antibiblical, or

conservative-catholic
ibid.

enhance

his followers to

and

in

interest,

cp.

Kattenbusch,

the
op.

literature
cit.

\.

pp.

cited
I

ff.

latter gives a detailed survey of the entire literature

of the subject.

rrinted

l>y

R.

&

R. CLARK, LIMITED, Edinburgh.

v//r 8iv,

i
/<>///,

price

js. 6d. net.

Sources of the Apostolic

Canons
With a Treatise on the Origin of the Readership and
other Lower Orders.
KY

ADOLF HARNACK.

PROFESSOR

LEONARD

TRANSLATED HY

A.

WHEATLEV.

With an Introductory Essay on the Organisation of the Early Church

and the Evolution of the Reader.


BY THE
REV.
AUTHOR OK

JOHN OWEN,

"EVENINGS

WITH THE

SKEPTICS."

PRESS OPINIONS.
"

Harnack

Dr. Adolf

is

at the present time

undoubtedly the leading

Germany on matters connected

authority in
Times.
history.
lilieral

Those who are

interested in early

Church

with early Christian

history

know how

to prize

anything from the pen of Professor Harnack.


They will not be dis
appointed with the present paper, in which, with his accustomed learning
ami acute criticism, he annotates and comments upon the fragments of
primitive Church-law which partly form the basis of the Apostolic Canons."
/iri /ish

Weekly.

llainack
/

able."

IBOK

si

all

"The

book

"

A.

is

its

results

most instruc

Independent.

in

Dr. llaniack

book

to the careful

the constitution of the eaily

Church."

considera

i\t>r,/.

one \\hich no student of Church history can afford to

Christian

\-

most elaborate, and

\ohnne would In- of the happiest augury


and worthy conception of the organisation of the
Dr. MAKC US Dmis in the HwkiiniH.

recommend

interested

igin ne.

book great and memor

i-iiculation of this

\\ e Strongly

tion of

is

organisation."

"-untie

Church."

primitive
"

Church

wide

"The

this

Times.

\\lmle discussion

"The

tive for early

l"i

worthy enough to make

is

i/vwY,>,rr

orld.

BLACK, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON.


3

///

demy

STY?, cloth,

The Quest

price

js. 6d.

of

Faith

BEING NOTES ON THE CURRENT PHILOSOPHY

OF RELIGION.

THOMAS BAILEY SAUNDERS.

BY

SOME PRESS OPINIONS.


Of

recent works dealing with theological subjects, the most interesting


is Mr. Thomas Bailey Saunders
collected essays, to which he gives the
title of
The Quest of Faith.
Critic.
"

The work is, indeed, so good that one hopes it may prove only the
Athencaum.
prelude to more ambitious and more constructive ventures."
The author of this volume is best known to us as the translator of a
number of Schopenhauer s works, but here he comes before us as an
"

original thinker, dealing with certain sides of that great subject


some form or another interests all readers." Observer.

which

in

This book of original thought w ill doubtless attract many readers.


The work should prove a useful aid and stimulus to thought."
Scotsman.
.

Every page

is

worth reading.

Mr. Saunders modestly

calls his

are really reviews of the first rank, literary appre


and to
ciations of some of the most important writings of recent times
say that they are worthy of the books with which they deal is no light
Outlook.
praise.
notes.

essays

They

"

Every one of the eight chapters of which this volume is comprised


worth consideration.
They reveal the hand of a practised writer
better still, they disclose the thoughts of a sincere and capable thinker."
is

Kock.
"

The

best

...

book of

its

kind which we remember to have read

for

many

of thought on every page, and ought to be of the


greatest service to those who wish to make a fresh start for themselves
from the points of view reached by some of the latest workers in the fields
of speculative thought."
Daily Teltgraph.
series of thoughtful essays on various religious and non-religious
"A
the (lav.
thinkers
Perhaps the most interesting
positions occupied by
The examination of Mr.
of them is that entitled
Teleology.
and Dr. Eraser s
Halfour s
Foundations of Belie)
Philosophy of

years.

It

is

full

i>f

Theism

A.

are also especially

&

C.

interesting."

Spectator.

BLACK, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON.


4

BY PROFESSOR
Crown

8?

ADOLF HARNACK

Cloth.

0.

Price

is.

6d. net each.

Christianity and History


TRANSLATED, WITH THE AUTHOR

BY

SANCTION,

THOMAS BAILEY SAUNDERS


WITH AN INTRODUCTORY

NOTE.

Second Edition.
It is highly interesting and full of thought.
The short introductory
note with which Mr. Saunders prefaces it is valuable for its information
"

and

Athencvum.
weighty in its every word, and should be read
and re-read by those desiring to have in a nutshell the central positions of
modern Christianity." Christian WorlJ.
"A
singularly able exposition and defence of Christianity, as seen in
the newer light, by one of the most learned and acute evangelical critics
of Germany.
The essay is a masterly one." Glasgow Herald.
"...
hope the lecture will be widely read." Primitive
Methodist Quarterly Keview,
excellent in

its

tone."

lecture itself

"The

is

We

Thoughts on the Present


Position

of

Protestantism

TRANSLATED BY

THOMAS BAILEY SAUNDERS


moment when the
makes so many readers think seriously
the present position of Protestantism.
As one of the first of living
scholars in
iermany, Professor Harnack is well worthy of thoughtful
-ration, and his brochure should in its English dress find a multi"This

lxx>klet

Ritualistic Crisis,

should attract wide attention at a


as

it

is

called,

<>f

onsid<

tin!

of

n-ulers."

Observer,

singularly able, thoughtful, and suggestive survey of the


pie-.ent state of the conflict hetueen ( .itlmlu ism and the doctrine of the
evangelical Churches, a conflict \\liiih agitates not only this country, but
ii-rinany as \\\ \\."Sfi>/sli!H.
"

It

is

<

"A

spirited

and le.uned attack on Catholicism, which

at the-

moment should gain attention, moie especially as coming from


critic.
A MTV remarkable little address." Outlook.

\.

C.

present

(icrman

BLACK, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON.


i

THE LATEST BIBLE DICTIONARY.


VOL. I. AtoD.TTT"
VOL. II.- E to K. /

VOL.

III.

In the Press.

To be completed in Four Volumes, Super-Royal 8vo., 10 by 7 inches. Cloth,


Price 20s. net each Half leather, Price 25s. net each Full leather, Price
30s. net each.
For the convenience of Subscribers who wish to bind the work in One I oliimc
;

when

complete,

an

edition is also issued on thin paper, in

paper boards

with leather backs.

Encyclopaedia Biblica
A DICTIONARY OF THE

BIBLE.

EDITED BY

THE

REV. T. K.

CHEYNE,

D.D.

M.A.,

OUIEL PROFESSOR OF THE INTERPRETATION OF HOLY SCRIPTURE AT OXFORD,


AND FORMERLY FELLOW OF I1ALL1OL COLLEGE CANON OF ROCHESTER
;

AND

SUTHERLAND BLACK,

J.

ASSISTANT EDITOR OF THE

M.A.,

LL.D.

ENCYCLOPEDIA BRITANNICA*

SCOPE OF THE WORK.


The primary aim has been

to supply a much felt want by applying to


every detail within the scope of a Bible Dictionary the most exact scientific
methods now in use, so as to provide, in dictionary form, completely yet
concisely, the results of a thorough-going critical study of the Old and
New Testaments.
Whilst the Encyclopedia Biblica is meant for the student, other readers
have constantly been kept in view.
The details that are so valuable for
one reader are of much less, if any, use to another.
Such matters have,
therefore, been given as a rule in smaller type, and any one who wishes to
do so can usually learn the general meaning of an article by reading

simply the large type parts.


The work has, on the whole, proceeded simultaneously throughout the
alphabet, so that all the articles, from the largest to the very smallest,
might be collated with each other in as far as they are mutually dependent
or illustrative,
the results of this collation being given in very
ences to the numerical section of the cognate article.

full refer

PRESS OPINIONS.
or
"Certainly no book could convey a truer idea of the results of modern critic
could afford a better discipline in its methods than this Encyclopaedia.
Here one
has under his eye in a most convenient form the utmost that a critical scholarship
has accomplished for the understanding of the Biblu. There is brought together a
mass of information, critically sifted, skilfully arranged, and stated with admirable
condensation and lucidity, such as no individual student could po~sil.lv ai c|iiire for
himself, and which in many instances has been unearthed from tin- most recondite
and well-nigh inaccessible sources."
PROFESSOR MAKCIS
I).
The
i>m

l>ui>^.

!>.,

/>t>i>J(-ian.

have no hesitation in saying it is one of the most valuable additions to biblical


literature of our time, and all who desire to closely study and keep up with textual
criticism and biblical arch. L-ology of our day should add the A c-_jr/<yVt/Va IH/ lica to
their library." The C/uiirh l- ainily Xc ^
\\ c

sf>af>cr.

A detailed
A.

&

Prospectus of the

C.

Work

will be

forwarded on application to

BLACK, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON.

DATE DUE