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This TLAA applies to concrete structures of CANDU/PHWR design. The time dependent
phenomena of creep and shrinkage of concrete induce additional strains in the concrete
structural elements. These secondary strains are generally accounted in design in terms of
reduced strength and modulus of concrete available for resisting the primary loads. The
creep strain and shrinkage strain of concrete depend on several aspects and site-specific
data. The common factors affecting both the creep strain and shrinkage strain are the age
of concrete, type of cement used, compressive strength of concrete, relative humidity,
ambient temperature and the ratio of structural element cross-section to the element
surface area exposed to atmosphere.
Creep is the increase in strain under sustained stress. To take the effect of creep in design,
the value of modulus of elasticity of concrete is modified using a creep coefficient.
Besides the common factors stated above, the creep coefficient also depends on mean
compressive stress due to sustained loading, age of concrete at loading and short term
modulus of elasticity of concrete. Effect of shrinkage is defined in terms of shrinkage
strain value which also involves additional factor of age of concrete at the beginning of
the shrinkage i.e. concrete curing period.
TLAA for concrete strength reduction due to creep and shrinkage is required to ensure the
acceptable level of margin in concrete strength to resist all induced stresses during the
LTO. The time dependent parameters for evaluation of the reduction in concrete strength
are the induced strains due to creep and shrinkage respectively. The analysis parameters
are the corresponding stress values.
For evaluation of concrete strength reduction due to creep and shrinkage, the TLAA is
found acceptable under (i), (ii), or (iii) based on the following:
Acceptance by (i):
In this case, the total induced stresses due to shrinkage and creep calculated for the LTO
is less than or equal to the total stress values considered due to shrinkage and creep in the
original design analysis, then the original analysis is still valid and acceptable for the
LTO period according to (i).
Acceptance by (ii):
As with case (i), the projected total induced stresses due to design load combinations
including the effect of shrinkage and creep for the LTO period meets the regulatory limit
or criterion of acceptable margin between the induced stresses and the available concrete
strength to resist the induced stresses, then the TLAA is acceptable for the LTO period
according to (ii).
Acceptance by (iii):

In this case AMP 306 Structure Monitoring is used to monitor the strain value and
update the available residual strength to ensure that the corrective actions are taken prior
to the strength reduction exceeding the regulatory limit or criterion. Corrective actions
may include retrofitting/strengthening, design modifications, revision of operating
procedures, and more rigorous analysis to demonstrate that the design code limit will not
be exceeded during the LTO period.