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Stress Strain Uniaxial to Matrix

Typically, stress analysts find it easier to utilize linear algebra as opposed to individual equations to find
the stresses. This handout details the process involved in translating uniaxial test data into a material
properties matrix which relates the stress to the strain.

From uniaxial testing in the 1 direction we have

1
= 1
1
Or to relate the strain to the stress
1 =

1
1

Where E is Youngs modulus.

As well, we have a Poissons ratio effect which relates the contraction in the unloaded direction to the
applied stress.
12 =

2
1

Or rearranged:
2 = 12 1
Or, substituting in the relationship between the stress and strain
2 = 12

1
1

1 =

1
,
1

2 = 1

12
1

But what if we have loading in the 2 direction? We will have

1 = 2

21
,
2

2 =

2
2

Now, if we have loading in both the 1 and the 2 direction, we can use the principle of superposition to
1 =

1
21
2
,
1
2

2 =

2
12
1
2
1

Additionally, for isotropic materials, we can drop the subscripts on and because the material
properties are the same in every direction so we have:

Handout: Stress Strain Uniaxial to Matrix, p. 1 2014

1 =

2 ,

2 =

Finally, if we have an applied shear stress, for an isotropic material the relationship is simple:
12 =

12

Now we have three distinct expressions for the three strains, however this is not as computationally
efficient as organizing these relationships in matrix form. As a result, the stresses and strains are
organized into column vectors, with the stresses multiplied by a Compliance matrix as shown below:
1

[ 2 ] =

12
[ 0

[
2]
0
12
1
]

The original three expressions can then be recovered by following the matrix algebra laws; in this case
multiply each row of the matrix by the column vector of the stresses.

How we get from thermal (and moisture) expansion to matrix form

Via testing procedures, we measure the coefficients of expansion. This is as simple as heating up a
specimen and measuring the change in size/shape or measuring the change in moisture content and
change in size/shape.
Because there is no Poissons ratio effect for coeffecients of expansion, we simply have, due to thermal
expansion
=
=
=
However, we want to write this in vector/matrix form so it is consistent with the mechanical
stress/strain relationship.

[ ] = [ ]

Or, factoring out the scalar

[ ] = [ ]

Following this exact same procedure with the expansion due to moisture, we will have

Handout: Stress Strain Uniaxial to Matrix, p. 2 2014

[ ] = [ ] m

Then, using the principle of superposition, we can simply add the strain due to thermal expansion, the
strain due to moisture expansion and the strain due to mechanical loading, resulting in the general
expression;
1

[ ] =

[ 0

0 [ 2 ] + [ ] + [ ] m

12

1
]