Sei sulla pagina 1di 88

Trng hspkt Hng yn

Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Trng i hc s phm k thut hng yn


Khoa in - in T

Thuyt minh n mn hc
in t cng sut
ti:
Thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin tc ng
c in
mt chiu kch t c lp
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trn
Nhn Qu
Sinh vin thc
hin:

Nguyn Th Kim Oanh


Hong Cng Thi

Lp:

K4H
Hng Yn, 2007

Trng hsp k thut hng yn


Khoa in in t

cng ho x hi ch ngha vit nam


c lp- T do- Hnh phc

1
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

n mn hc
Ngnh o to: K thut in.
Kha hc: 2006 - 2008
Gio vin hng dn :

Quang Huy
Trn Nhn Qu
Sinh vin thc hin :
Nguyn Th Kim Oanh
Hong Cng Thi
1/ Tn ti:
Thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin tc ng
c in mt chiu kch t c lp
2/ Ni dung cn hon thnh:
1- Nghin cu cu to v nguyn l hot ng ca mt s
phn t bn dn cng sut.
2-

Nghin cu nguyn l iu chnh tc ng c in

mt chiu.
3- Thit k, tnh ton c mch lc v mch iu khin s
dng cc van bn dn

iu khin tc ng c in mt

chiu kch t c lp c thng s c th cho trc.


4- Mt quyn thuyt minh i km.
3- Thi gian thc hin:
- Ngy giao :
- Ngy hon thnh:
Gio vin hng dn

Quang Huy

2
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Nhn xt nh gi ca gio vin hng dn

Ngy

thng

nm2007

Li ni u
3
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca k thut bn dn cng sut


ln, cc thit b bin i in nng dng cc linh kin bn dn
cng sut c s dng nhiu trong cng nghip v i sng
nhm p ng cc nhu cu ngy cng cao ca x hi. V th mn
hc in T Cng Sut l mt trong nhng mn khoa hc c bit
trong cc trng k thut ngi hc c iu kin hc tp nghin
cu ra nhng ng dng phc v cho thc tin. Tuy nhin nhng ng
dng vn cha c khai thc trit trong h thng iu
khin, o lng v iu chnh
Trong qu trnh hc tp ti trng i Hc S Phm K
Thut Hng Yn c s ch o ca nh trng, ca khoa in - in
T v c bit l thy quang huy hng dn chng em lm
ti Thit k v tnh ton mch iu khin tc
ng c in mt chiu kch t c lp. V trong cun
thuyt minh ny nhm chng em trnh by c nhng vn
c bn m ti yu cu. Tuy nhin vi thi gian v kin thc
cn hn ch nn ni dung cn c nhng thiu st. Chng em rt
mong nhn c nhng kin ng gp ca cc thy, cc c v
ton th cc bn ti ca chng em c hon thin hn.
Nhm chng em xin chn thnh cm n!

4
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Mc lc
Tn mc
Chng 1. Gii thiu v van bn dn
A. Gii thiu c im vt liu bn dn

Trang
7

1. Cht bn dn nguyn cht


2. Cht bn dn tp cht
B. Mt s phn t bn dn cng sut
I. Diode cng sut

9
9

1.1. Cu to
1.2. Nguyn l hot ng
1.3. ng dng
II. Transistor cng sut

11

2.1. Cu to v k hiu
2.2. Nguyn l hot ng
2.3. ng dng ca Transistor cng sut
2.4. Transistor Mos cng sut
III.Tiristor

16

3.1 Cu to ca Tiristor
3.2 Nguyn l hot ng
3.3.ng dng ca Tiristor
Chng 2: Tng quan v ng c in
mt chiu

19

I. Gii thiu mt s loi ng c in mt chiu.


1.ng c in kch thch c lp hoc
song song.
2.ng c in kch thch ni tip.
3. ng c in kch thch hn hp:

22

5
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

II. Cc phng php iu chnh tc ng c.


1. t vn
2. Hai phng php iu chnh tc ng
c mt chiu
2.1. Thay i in p t vo phn ng :

25

2.2. Thay i t thng ng c :


III. Cc ch tiu k thut nh gi cht lng h
thng iu chnh tc :
Phm vi iu chnh tc ( Dy iu chnh ):
2. Sai s tc (sai lch tnh):
3. bng phng hay lin tc trong iu
chnh tc :
Chng 3. Tnh ton v thit k mch iu
khin tc ng

28
34

c in mt chiu

dng in t cng sut


Phn I : Nguyn l hot ng ca mchchnh lu cu
ba pha
Phn II: Thit k mch iu khin
1. Chn phng php pht xung:
2.Thit k mch iu khin
2.1. Khi ng b ho v pht sng rng ca
(khi I) .
2.2. Khi so snh :
2.3. Khi to xung
2.3.1.To xung chm iu khin

44
44
45
46

2.3.2.Khu khuch i v bin p xung


Phn III : Tnh ton cc thng s ca mch ng lc
v mch iu khin
III.1. La chn s thit k.
III.2. Tnh chn Tiristor

6
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

III.3. Tnh ton my bin p chnh lu.


Tnh s b mch t (xc nh kch thc s b bn

56

mch t)
Tnh ton dy qun.
Kt cu dy dn s cp.
Kt cu dy qun th cp.
Tnh kch thc mch t.
Tnh khi lng ca st v ng

63

Tnh cc thng s ca my bin p.


III.4. thit k cun khng lc
1.Xc nh gc m cc tiu v cc i
2. Xc nh cc thnh phn sng hi
3. Xc nh in cm cun khng lc
4. Thit k kt cu cun khng lc.
III.5. Tnh chn cc thit b bo v mch ng lc

67

1.S mch ng lc khi c cc thit b bo


v
2. Bo v qu nhit cho cc van bn dn
3. Bo v qu dng in cho van
4. Bo v qu in p cho van
III.6. Tnh ton cc thng s ca mch iu khin.
1.Tnh bin p xung
2. Tnh tng khuch i cui cng.
3. Chn cng AND
4. Chn t C3 v R9
5.Tnh chn b to xung chm
6. Tnh chn tng so snh.
7. Tnh chn khu ng pha.

7
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

8. To ngun nui
9. Tnh ton my bin p ngun nui v ng
pha.

Chng 1

gii thiu v van bn dn


A. Gii thiu c im vt liu bn dn
1. Cht bn dn nguyn cht
Khi nim: l cht m khi tng nhit th cht bn dn dn
in tt. Cht bn dn nguyn chtgm hai loi: Germani (Ge) v
Silic (Si) thuc nhm IV trong bng h thng tun hon.
Khi c nng lng t vo th cc in t mi lin kt s bt
ra khi mi lin kt to ra ht in t t do chuyn ng hn
lon trong mng tinh th. Khi c ngun in trng vo lm cc ht
in t chuyn ng theo chiu in trng lm xut hin dng
in c chiu ngc vi dng chuyn di lca cc ht in t.
Nng ca cc ht in t ni
Nng cc ht l trng pi
Khi nng cc ht in t cn bng vi cc l trng th xy
ra cn bng in trng, ngha l ni = pi .
2. Cht bn dn tp cht

8
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

- Loi N: pha vo n tinh th cht bn dn (Ge, Si) mt lng


tp cht thuc nhm V trong bng h thng tun hon bng cng
ngh c bit vi nng t 1010 1018 nguyn t/cm3. Dng in
I do hai thnh phn to nn l l trng v cc ht in t (n n>>
pn).
- loi P: tin hnh pha vo n tinh th cht bn dn (Ge, Si)
mt lng tp cht thuc nhm III trong bng h thng tun hon
bng cng ngh c bit vi nng 10 10 1018 nguyn t/cm3.
Cc n tinh th pha vo c ba in t t do lin kt vi (Si) cn
mi lin kt th t ca tp chtb khuyt (l trng) c kh nng nhn
in t v suy ra loi P. Dng in I do hai thnh phn khng tng
nhau to nn l trng gi l a s. Cc ht in t l thiu s
(np<<PP).

B. mt s phn t bn dn cng sut


I. diode cng sut.
1.1. Cu to:
+
+

P
P

N
q

- 0

(
)

Ant

Kato

(
t)

Hnh 1. a- Cu to ca diode
b- K hiu ca diode
Diode cng sut l linh kin bn dn c hai cc, c cu to bi
mt lp bn dn N v mt lp bn dn P ghp li. Silic l mt nguyn
t ha hc thuc nhm IV trong bng h thng tun hon. Silic c 4

9
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

in t thuc lp ngoi cng trong cu trc nguyn t. Nu ta kt hp


thm vo mt nguyn t thuc nhm V m lp ngoi cng c 5 in
t th 4 in t ca Silic tham gia lin kt vi 5 in t ca nguyn
t kia lm xut hin 1 in t t do. Trong cu trc tinh th cc
in t t do lm tng tnh dn in. Do in t c in tch
m nn cht ny c gi l cht bn dn loi N (Negative) c ngha
l m.
Nu thm vo Silic mt nguyn t thuc nhm III th xut hin
mt l trng trong cu trc tinh th. L trng ny c th nhn mt
in t to nn in tch dng v lm tng tnh dn in. Cht
ny gi l cht bn dn loi P (Positive) c ngha l dng. gia hai
lp bn dn l mt ghp PN, ti y xy ra hin tng khuch tn
cc l trng ca bn dn loi P trn sang N v cc in t ca bn
dn loi N chy sang P. Kt qu ti mt tip gip pha P ngho i v
in tch dng v giu ln v in tch m cn bn dn loi N
th ngc li.
Trong vng chuyn tip (- ) hnh thnh mt in tng ni
ti. K hiu l Ei v c chiu t N sang P hay cn gi l barie in
th (khong t 0,6V n 0,7 V i vi vt liu l Silic). in trng
ny ngn cn s s di chuyn ca cc in tch a s v lm d
dng cho s di chuyn ca cc in tch tiu s (in t ca vng
P v l trng ca vng N). S di chuyn ca cc in tch thiu s
hnh thnh nn dng in ngc hay dng in r.
1.2. Nguyn l hot ng

Ei
P

N
U
+
-( a )

Ei
P

N
U
(b)
+

10
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Hnh 2. a- S phn cc thun Diode, b- S phn cc ngc Diode


Khi t Diode cng sut di in p ngun U c cc tnh nh
hnh v, chiu ca in trng ngoi ngc chiu vi in trng ni
Ei. Thng thng U > Ei th c dng in chy trong mch, to nn
in p ri trn Diode khong 0,7 V khi dng in l nh mc. Vi
s phn cc thun h thp barie in th. Ta ni mt ghp PN c
phn cc thun.
Khi i chiu cc tnh im p t vo Diode, in trng
ngoi s tc ng cng chiu vi in trng ni ti Ei. in trng
tng hp cn tr s di chuyn ca cc in tch a s. Cc in t
ca vng N di chuyn thng v cc dng ngun U lm cho in
th vng N vn cao li cng cao hn so vi vng P. V th vng
chuyn tip li cng rng ra, khng c dng in chy qua mt
ghp PN. Ta ni mt ghp PN b phn cc ngc. Nu tip tc tng
U, cc in tch c gia tc gy nn s va chm dy chuyn lm
barie in th b ng thng.
c tnh Volt Ampe ca Diode cng sut c biu din gn
ng bng biu thc sau:
I = IS (exp (eU/kT) 1)

(1.1)

Trong :
IS: Dng in r, khong vi chc mA
E = 1,59.10-19 Coulomb
K = 1,38.10-23 hng s Bolzmann
T = 273 + t0 nhit tuyt i (0K)
t0 : Nhit ca mi trng (0C)
U : in p t trn Diode (V)

1
U

UZ

U
Gio vin
hng
dn:
Quang Huy
2

11

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Hnh3. c tnh Volt Ampe (V - A) ca Diode


c tnh V A ca Diode gm c hai nhnh: 1. Nhnh thun
2. Nhnh ngc
Khi Diode c phn cc thun di in p U th barie in
th Ei gim xung gn bng khng. Tng U, lc u dng I tng t
t cho n khi U ln hn khong 0,1 V th I tng mt cch nhanh
chng, ng c tnh c dng hm m.
Tng t, khi phn cc ngc cho Diode, tng U dng in ngc
cng tng t t. Khi U ln hn khong 0,1 V dng in ngc dng li
gi tr vi chc mA v c k hiu l IS. Dng IS l do s di chuyn
ca cc in tch thiu s to nn. Nu tip tc tng U th cc
in tch thiu s di chuyn cng d dng hn, tc di chuyn
t l thun vi in trng tng hp, ng nng ca chng tng ln.
Khi

U Uz

th s va chm gia cc in tch thiu s di chuyn

vi tc cao s b gy c cc lin kt nguyn t Silic trong vng


chuyn tip v xut hin nhng in t t do mi. Ri nhng in
tch t do mi ny chu s tng tc ca in trng tng hp li tip
tc bn ph cc nguyn t Silic. Kt qu to mt phn ng dy
truyn lm cho dng in ngc tng ln o t v s ph hng Diode.
Do , bo v Diode ngi ta ch cho chng hot ng vi gi
tr in p: U = (0,7

0,8)U2.

Khi Diode hot ng dng in chy qua Diode lm cho Diode


pht nng, ch yu ti vng chuyn tip. i vi Diode loi Silic, nhit
mt ghp cho php l 2000 C. Vt qu nhit ny Diode c
th b ph hng. Do , lm mt Diode ta s dng qut gi,
cnh tn nhit hay cho nc hoc du bin th chy qua cnh tn
nhit vi tc ln hay nh ty theo dng in.

12
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Cc thng s k thut c bn chn Diode l:


- Dng in nh mc Im (A)
- in p ngc cc i Ungmax (V)
- in p ri trn Diode U (V)
1.3. ng dng
ng dng ch yu ca Diode cng sut l chnh lu dng in
xoay chiu thnh dng in mt chiu cung cp cho ti.
Cc b chnh lu ca Diode c chia thnh hai nhm chnh:
- Chnh lu bn k hay cn gi l chnh lu na sng.
- Chnh lu ton k hay cn gi l chnh lu ton sng.
II. transistor cng sut
2.1. Cu to v k hiu
Transistor l linh kin bn dn gm 3 lp: PNP hay NPN.

C
N

P
N
P

P
N

C
B
E

( b
( a
)
)
Hnh4.
Transistor PNP
a- Cu to, b- k hiu

C
B
E

(a)

(b)

Hnh 1.5: transistor


NPN

a- Cu to, b- k hiu
b- K hiu
b- K hiu
V mt vt l transistor gm ba phn: phn pht, phn nn
v phn thu c dng ng ct dng in mt chiu c cng
tng i ln. Transistor gm ba cc: - Baz (B)
- Collector (C)
- Emitor (E)

13
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Lp bn dn N ca cc C s xc nh in p nh thng ca
tip gip B C v ca C E. Transistor cng sut cn gi l Bipolar
Transistor v dng in trong cu trc bn dn bao gm c hai loi
in tch m v dng.
Trong ch tuyn tnh hay cn gi l ch khuch i
Transistor l phn t khuch i dng in vi dng Colector (dng
ti) bng ln dng Baz (dng iu khin).
IC = . IB

= 10

100 h s khuch i dng in

Transistor cng sut c cu trc v k hiu nh sau:

B
IB

IC
C

UC

UB EE
IE
E

E
B

(
)

(
)

Hnh.6 - Cu trc v k hiu ca Transistor cng sut


2.2. Nguyn l hot ng

E
Emit
er

C
pP

IE
UCC

RE

IE
+
RC

Colec
tor

C
Bas
e
+
-

IC

UEE

Hnh7- S phn cc Transistor

14
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

in th UEE phn cc thun mi ni B E (PN) l nguyn


nhn lm cho vng pht (E) phng in t vo vng P (cc E). Hu
ht cc in t (Electron) sau khi qua vng B ri qua tip mi ni
th hai pha bn phi hng ti vng N (cc thu), khong 1% in t
c gi li vng B. Cc l trng vng nn di chuyn vo vng pht.
Mi ni BE ch phn cc thun nh mt Diode, c in
khng nh v in p ri trn n nh th mi ni BC c phn cc
ngc bi in p UCC. Bn cht mi ni BC ging nh mt Diode phn
cc ngc v in khng mi ni BC rt ln. Dng in o c trong
vng pht gi l dng pht IE. Dng in o c trong mch cc C
gi l dng cc thu IC, n gm hai thnh phn:
- Thnh phn th nht (thnh phn chnh) l t l ca ht
Electron cc pht ti cc thu. T l ny ph thuc duy nht vo cu
trc ca Transistor v l hng s c tnh trc i vi tng Transistor
ring bit. Hng s c nh ngha l . Vy thnh phn chnh
ca dng IC l .IE.Thng thng = 0,9

0,999.

- Thnh phn th hai l dng qua mi ni BC ch phn


cc ngc li khi IE = 0. Dng ny gi l dng ICBO v c gi tr rt nh.
- Vi dng qua cc thu IC = .IE + ICBO
Cc thng s ca Transistor cng sut:
IC: Dng Colector m Transistor chu c.
UCEsat: in p UCE khi Transistor dn bo ha.
UCEO: in p UCE khi mch Baz h, IB = 0.
UCEX: in p UCE khi Baz b kha bi in p m, IB < 0.
Ton: Thi gian cn thit UCE t gi tr in p ngun U
gim xung.
UCEsat

0.

tf: Thi gian cn thit IC t gi tr IC gim xung 0.


tS: Thi gian cn thit UCE t gi tr UCEsat tng n gi tr
in p ngun U.

15
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

P: Cng sut tiu tn nh bn trong Transistor v c tnh bng


cng thc: P = UBE. IB + UCE. IC.
Khi Transistor trong trng thi m: IB = 0, IC = 0 nn P = 0.
Khi Transistor trong trng thi ng: UCE = UCEsat
Trong thc t Transistor cng sut thng c cho lm vic
ch kha: IB = 0, IC = 0, Transistor c coi nh h mch. Nhng vi
dng in gc trng thi c gi tr bo ha, th Transistor tr v
trng thi ng hon ton. Transistor l mt linh kin ph thuc nn
cn phi hp dng in gc v dng in gp. trng thi bo ha
duy tr kh nng iu khin v trnh in tch cc gc
qu ln, dng in gc ban u phi cao chuyn sang trng
thi dn nhanh chng. ch kha dng in gc phi gim cng

I
IC

C
quy lut nh dng in
gp trnh hin tng chc thng th cp.

a
a

( a
)( a
)

b
b

UCE
UCE

IC
IC

IC
IC
UC
UC

( b
)(E b
)
E

Hnh8.- Trng thi dn v trng thi b kha


a- Trng thi ng mch hay ngn mch IB ln, IC do ti gii hn
b- Trng thi h mch IB = 0
Cc tn hao chuyn mch ca Transistor c th ln. Trong lc
chuyn mch, in p trn cc cc v dng in ca Transistor
cng ln. Tch ca dng in v in p cng vi thi gian chuyn
mch to nn tn hao nng lng trong mt ln chuyn mch. Cng
sut tn hao chnh xc do chuyn mch l hm s ca cc thng s
ca mch ph ti v dng bin thin ca dng in gc.
c tnh tnh ca Transistor: UCE = f (IC).
U

CE
cho khi Transistor
ng, in p st bn trong c gi tr

Vng
tuylm vic ch bo ha, tc l I B phi
nh, ngi ta phi cho n
n
tn Vng gn bo
16
ha
h
Gio vinVng
hng dn:
bo I Quang Huy
C
ha

Hnh9. - c tnh tnh ca Transistor:

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

ln IC cho in p st UCE nh nht. ch bo ha, in


p st trong Transistor cng sut bng 0,5 n 1V trong khi
Thyristor l khong 1,5V.

2.3. ng dng ca Transistor cng sut


Transistor cng sut dng ng ct dng in mt chiu
c dng in ln. Tuy nhin trong thc t Transistor cng sut thng
cho lm vic ch kha. IB = 0, IC = 0: Transistor coi nh h
mch.
2.4. Transistor Mos cng sut
Transistor trng FET (Field Efect Transistor) c ch to theo
cng ngh Mos (Metal Oxid Semiconductor), thng s dng nh
nhng chuyn mch in t c cng sut ln. Khc vi Transistor lng
cc c iu khin bng dng in, Transistor Mos c iu
khin bng in p. Transistor Mos gm cc cc chnh: Cc mng
(Drain), ngun (Source), v ca (Gate). Dng in mng ngun c iu khin bng in p ca ngun.
in
tr
hn
Dng g s
in
mng

in p mng
ngun ( a
)

= 9V
=
7,5V
=
6V
=
4,5V
=
3V

Mng
C
a

(b)

Ngu
n

Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

17

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Hnh10 - Transistor Mos cng sut


a- H c tnh ra

b- K hiu thng

thng knh N
Transistor Mos l loi dng c chuyn mch nhanh. Vi in p
100V tn hao dn chng ln hn Transistor lng cc v Thyristor,
nhng tn hao chuyn mch nh hn nhiu. H s nhit in tr
ca Transistor Mos l dng. Dng in v in p cho php ca
Transistor Mos nh hn ca Transistor lng cc v Thyristor.
III.Tiristor
3.1 Cu to ca Tiristor
Thyristor l linh kin gm 4 lp bn dn PNPN lin tip to nn
ant, katt v cc iu khin.

A
P1
N1

P2

N2

J1
J2
J3

G
K

(a)
(b)
Hnh11. a l cu to, b l k hiu
Thyristor gm mt a Silic t n th loi N, trn lp m
loi bn dn P c cc iu khin bng dy nhm, cc lp chuyn
tip c to nn bng k thut bay hi ca Gali.
3.2 Nguyn l hot ng

18
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

t thyristor di mt in p mt chiu , ant ni vo cc dng, catt ni vo cc m ca ngun in p, J 1, J3 phn cc


thun, J2 phn cc ngc. Gn nh ton b in p ngun t trn
mt ghp J2. in trng ni ti Ei ca J2 c chiu t N1 hng v P2.
in trng ngoi tc ng cng chiu vi Ei vng chuyn tip cng l
vng cch in cng m rng ra khng c dng in chy qua
thyristor mc d n b t di in p thun.

I
U
Z

IH
0

Uc

Hnh12. c tnh volt-ampe ca tiristor

+) M thyristor
Cho mt xung in p dng Us tc ng vo cc G (dng so
vi K), Cc in t t N2 sang P2. n y mt s t in t chy
vo cc G v hnh thnh dng iu khin Is chy theo mch G- J3K-G cn phn ln in t chu sc ht ca in trng tng hp ca
mt ghp J2 lao vo vng chuyn tip ny, tng tc, ng nng ln
b gy cc lin kt nguyn t silc to nn cc nguyn t t do mi. S
nguyn t mi c gii phng tham gia bn ph trong vng k tip.
Kt qu l phn ng dy truyn xut hin nhiu in t chy vo
N1 qua P1 v n cc dng ca ngun in ngoi gy nn hin tng dn o t, J2 tr thnh mt ghp dn in, bt u t mt
im xung quanh cc G ri pht trin ra ton b mt ghp.

19
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Thyristor khi + UAK> 1V hoc IG> IGst th thyristor s m. Trong


IGst l dng iu khin c tra s tay tra cu.
+) Kho thyristor c 2 cch :
- Lm gim dng in lm vic I xung di gi tr dng duy
tr IH
- t mt in p ngc ln thyristor, khi UAK < 0, J1 v J3
b phn cc ngc, J2 phn cc thun, in t o chiu hnh
trnh to nn dng in ngc chy t catt v ant, v cc m ca
ngun in ngoi.
+) Xt s bin thin ca dng in i(t) khi thyristor kho

I
i
t0

t1 t2

Hnh13. S bin thin ca dng in i(t) trong qa trnh


thyristor kho.
T t0 n t1 dng in ln, sau J1, J3 tr nn cch in. Do
hin tng khuch tn mt t in t gia hai mt J1 v J3 t dn
cho n ht, ng thi J2 khi phc tnh cht ca mt ghp iu
khin.

3.3.ng dng ca Tiristor


Thyristor c s dng trongcc b ngun c bit trong mch
chnh lu, b bm v b bin tn trc tip hoc cc b bin tn c
khu trung gian mt chiu
- ng dng ca thyristor trong mch iu khin ng c
- Chuyn mch tnh

20
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

- Khng ch pha
- Np cquy

chng 2: tng quan v ng c in mt chiu


I. Gii thiu mt s loi ng c in mt chiu.
1.ng c in kch thch c lp hoc song song.
Phng trnh c tnh c: Biu th quan h gia tc
(n)v mmen (M)

21
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Ru R f
Uu

.M
K ( K ) 2

Vi nhng iu kin U=const, It=const th t thng ca ng


c hu nh khng i. V vy quan

h trn l tuyn tnh v ng c

tnh c ca ng c l ng
thng.
Do R rt nh, nn khi ti thay i t

M khng n nh mc th tc
M
Hnh 1. ng
m
c tnh c ca
dng c in
kch t song song

gim rt t cho nn c tnh c


ca ng c in kch thch song
song rt cng. Vi c im nh
vy, ng c in kch thch song

song c dng trong nhng trng hp tc hu nh khng i khi


ti thay i.

2.ng c in kch thch ni tip.


ng c in kch thch ni tip, dng in kch thch
chnh l dng in phn ng : I t= I=I. Vy trong phm vi kh rng
c th biu th:
=K.I
trong h s t l K ch l hng s trong vng I <0,8Im ;
cn khi I >(0,8 0,9)Im th hi gim xung do hin tng bo ho
mch t.
Nh vy, biu thc c tnh c c dng:
M=CM..I=CM.

2
K

22
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

C M .U

Ce. K .M

n mn hc
Ru
C e .K

nu b qua R th:

U2
hay: M= 2
M
n

Nh vy khi mch t cha bo ho, c tnh c ca ng c


in mt chiu kch thch ni tip c dng l ng hypebol bc
hai.
Ta thy, ng c mt chiu kch

thch ni tip, tc quay n gim

rt nhanh khi M tng. V khi mt ti


(M=0, I=0) th n c tr s rt ln.
V vy thng ch cho php ng

M*

Hnh 2 ng c
tnh c cam ng
c mt chiu kch t
ni tip

c lm vic vi ti ti thiu P 2=(0,2


0,25)Pm. T dng c tnh c ta
cng c nhn xt l c tnh c
ca ng c kch thch ni tip rt
mm ng c ni tip rt u vit

trong nhng ni cn m my nng n v cn tc thay i


trong mt vng rng.
3. ng c in kch thch hn hp:
Loi ny c ch to gm hai cun dy ni tip v song song.
Tc dng ca dy qun kch thch song song v ni tip b nhau
hoc ngc nhau. Trn thc t ngi ta ch s dng loi kch thch
hn hp b v ng c ngc khng m bo c iu kin lm
vic n nh. ng c kch thch hn hp b c c tnh c
mang tnh cht trung gian gia hai loi kch thich song song v ni
tip. Khi ti tng th t thng tng, do c tnh c ca ng
c kch thch hn hp b mm hn so vi c tnh c ca ng
c kch thch song song. Tuy nhin mc tng ca t thng
khng mnh nh ng c kch thch ni tip cho nn c tnh c
ca ng c in kch thch hn hp b cng hn so vi c tnh
c ca ng c kch thch ni tip.

23
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Vic iu chnh tc ng c in mt chiu kch thch


ni tip c iu chnh nh trng hp ng c kch thch song
song; d rng v nguyn tc c th p dng nhng phng php
iu chnh tc dng cho ng c kch thch ni tip.
T nhng tnh cht ca tng loi ng c nh trnh by
trn, so snh vi c tnh ti v nhng yu cu ca truyn ng
trong lnh vc giao thng ta thy rng loi ng c kch thch ni
tip v kch thch hn hp kiu b l p ng c nhng yu cu
v truyn ng. Ta c th nu u im ca hai loi ng c ny so
vi ng c kch thch c lp hoc song song ng trn quan
im xt s ph hp vi c tnh ti:
+ c tnh c mm v cng thay i theo ph ti. iu
ny rt thch hp trong giao thng c yu cu tc thay i theo
ti.
+ C kh nng qu ti ln v mmen v kh nng khi ng
tt hn. Nh vy cho php lm vic mi trng ko ti nng n.
+ V t thng ca ng c ch ph thuc vo dng phn ng
I nn kh nng chu ti ca ng c khng chu nh hng ca st
p li in nn rt thch hp cho nhng truyn ng dng trong
ngnh giao thng c ng dy cung cp in i km theo ti.
Thc t trong lnh vc ny ng c kch thch ni tip c
s dng. Tuy nhin ngi ta cng dng c ng c kch thch hn hp
v n cho php thc hin hm ti sinh nng lng m vn m bo
tt cc yu cu truyn ng.
II. Cc phng php iu chnh tc ng c.
1. t vn :
iu chnh tc ng c l dng cc bin php nhn to
thay i cc thng s ngun nh in p hay cc thng s mch
nh in tr ph, thay i t thng. T to ra cc c tnh c

24
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

mi c nhng tc lm vic mi ph hp vi yu cu. C hai phng php iu chnh tc ng c:


- Bin i cc thng s ca b phn c kh: tc l bin i
t s truyn chuyn tip t trc ng c n c cu my sn
sut.
- Bin i tc gc ca ng c in: Phng php ny
lm gim tnh phc tp ca c cu v ci thin c c tnh iu
chnh. V vy, ta kho st s iu chnh tc theo phng php
th hai.
Ngoi ra cn phn bit iu chnh tc vi s t ng
thay i tc khi ph ti thay i ca ng c in.
V phng din iu chnh tc , ng c in mt chiu
c nhiu u vit hn so vi cc loi ng c khc. Khng nhng n
c kh nng iu chnh tc d dng m cu trc mch ng
lc, mch iu khin n gin hn, ng thi li t cht lng
iu chnh cao trong dy iu chnh tc rng.
Thc t tn ti hai phng php iu chnh tc ng c
mt chiu:
iu chnh in p cp cho ng c, tc l thay i U.
iu chnh in p cp cho mch kch t, tc l thay i t
thng .
Phng php iu chnh tc bng cch thay i c th
thay i c lin tc v gi c hiu sut ca ng c l khng
i v s iu chnh da trn vic tc dng ln mch kch thch
c cng sut nh so vi cng sut ng c. Nhng do bnh thng
ng c lm vic ch nh mc, ng vi kch thch ti a
(=m=max), nn ch c th iu chnh theo hng gim t thng,
tc l iu chnh tc trong vng trn tc v gii hn iu
chnh tc b hn ch bi cc iu kin c kh v o chiu

25
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

quay nn phng php ny khng thch hp trong trng hp ng c


ko ti giao thng.
Phng php iu chnh in p phn ng ng c ch cho
php iu chnh tc quay di tc nh mc v khng th
nng cao in p ln trn Um ca ng c. hng php ny cho
php iu chnh trit v c nhng u im sau:
+ Hiu sut iu chnh cao.
+ Khng c tn hao trong my in khi iu chnh.
+Vic thay i in p phn ng, c th l gim U
mmen ngn mch Mnm gim, dng ngn mch Inm gim; iu ny
rt c ngha trong lc khi ng ng c.
+ st tc tuyt i trn ton di iu chnh ng vi mt
mmen l nh nhau.
+ iu chnh trn trong ton b gii iu chnh.
Tuy vy, phng php ny i hi cng sut iu chnh cao,
v i hi phi c ngun in p iu chnh c.
T nhng phn tch trn ta thy vic chn phng php iu
chnh in p phn ng l thch hp cho ng c ko ti giao
thng. Mc d, di iu chnh ch cho php thp hn tc
nh mc nh ta c th m rng di iu chnh nh kt hp vi c
cu c kh nh cp trn.
C th ta s i vo tm hiu hai phng php iu chnh tc
ng c mt chiu nh sau.

2. Hai phng php iu chnh tc ng c mt


chiu
2.1. Thay i in p t vo phn ng :
a. S khi :

26
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

380
V
U

n mn hc

LK

CKT

Hnh 3. S nguyn l
iu chnh tc
CMCKTL bng thay
i in p phn ng

B : b bin i in p
UK : in p iu khin
: ng c in mt chiu kch t c lp
b. Phng trnh c tnh c :
n

Ru R f
U

M
K E dm K E K M dm 2

c. H c tnh c :

n0
ncb
n1
n2
n3

TN ( Um )

U
1

MC

Um > U1 > U2 >


U3
ncb > n1 > n2 > n3

Hnh 4. H c tnh U
c khi thay i in p t vo
phnd.ng
ng
Nhn
xtc.
:

Phng php iu chnh tc bng cch thay i in p


t vo phn ng ng c s gi nguyn cng ca ng c
tnh c nn c dng nhiu trong my ct kim loi v cho nhng tc
nh hn ncb. Phng php ny ch thch hp cho nhng my c
MC khng i trong sut qu trnh iu chnh.
- u im: y l phng php iu chnh trit , v cp
c ngha l c th iu chnh tc trong bt k vng ti no k
c khi khng ti l tng.

27
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

- Nhc im: Ch t c nhng tc thp hn tc c


bn.
Cn phi c b ngun c in p thay i
c nn vn u t c bn v chi ph vn hnh cao.
2.2. Thay i t thng ng c :
a. S khi :

380
V
U

LK

CKT

Hnh 5. S
nguyn l iu
chnh tc
CMCKTL bng thay
i t thng mch
kch t.

b. Phng trnh c tnh c :


n

R Rf
U dm
u
M
KE KE KM 2

c. H c tnh c :

n
n

Mn

nn
c
2
b

m
0

m > 1
2

> 2
M
MC M2
M1

d. Nhn xt :

Hnh 6. H c tnh c khi thay

Khi gim t thng th s c tc cao hn tc nh


mc.

i t thng.

Ncb < n1 <

Phng php iu chnh tc bng cch thay i t thng


c th iu chnh tc v cp v cho
n2 nhng tc ln hn ncb.

28
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Phng php ny c dng iu chnh tc cho cc my


c cng sut khng i trong sut qu trnh iu chnh nh : my
mi vn nng hoc l my bo ging.
Do qu trnh iu chnh tc c thc hin trn mch
kch t nn tn tht nng lng t, mang tnh kinh t. Thit b n
gin.
III.

Cc ch tiu k thut nh gi cht lng h thng

iu chnh tc :
Khi iu chnh tc ca h thng truyn ng in ta
cn ch v cn c vo cc ch tiu sau y nh gi cht lng ca h thng truyn ng in:
1. Phm vi iu chnh tc ( Dy iu chnh ):
Phm vi iu chnh tc D l t s gia tc ln nht
nmax v tc b nht nmin m ngi ta c th iu chnh c ti gi
tr ph ti l nh mc:
D = nmax/nmin.
Trong :
- nmax : c gii hn bi bn c hc.
- nmin : c gii hn bi phm vi cho php ca ng c, thng thng ngi ta chn nmin lm n v.
Phm vi iu chnh cng ln th cng tt v ph thuc vo
yu cu ca tng h thng, kh nng tng phng php iu chnh.
2. Sai s tc (sai lch tnh):
L i lng c trng cho chnh xc tc t n .
S%=(n - n)/n
Trong : n l tc t (rad/s).
n l tc thc t ca ng c (rad/s).
Khi n = n th h thng t c chnh xc cao.
S cng nh th chnh xc cng cao.

29
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

3. bng phng hay lin tc trong iu chnh tc


:
Trong phm vi iu chnh tc , c nhiu cp tc .
lin tc khi iu chnh tc c nh gi bng t s gia hai
cp tc k nhau:
= ni+1/ni
Trong :
- ni : Tc iu chnh cp th i.
- ni + 1: Tc iu chnh cp th ( i + 1 ).
Vi ni v ni + 1 u ly ti mt gi tr moment no .
tin cng gn 1 cng tt, phng php iu chnh tc
cng lin tc. Lc ny hai cp tc bng nhau, khng c nhy
cp hay cn gi l iu chnh tc v cp.
1 : H thng iu chnh c cp. Lc ny h thng c
th lm vic mt s gi tr ca tc trong sut di iu chnh.

30
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

chng 3
tnh ton v thit k mch iu khin tc ng c
in mt chiu kch t c lp dng in t cng sut
iu khin tc ng c in, ta chn chnh lu cu
ba pha, v y l s c cht lng in p ra tt nht trong cc
s chnh lu thng gp.S chnh lu cu ba pha iu khin
i xng c dng nhiu trong cc trng hp ti c yu cu v vic
hon tr nng lng v li.
Phn I :

Nguyn l hot ng ca mch


chnh lu cu ba pha

1. Nguyn l hot ng
a. S nguyn l

Hnh1. S nguyn l

31
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

b. Nguyn l lm vic.
- Gi s mch ang lm vic ch xc lp, in p pha
th cp ln lt l
ua =

U2sin t; ub =

U2sin( t-

2.
4.
); uc = 2 U2sin( t),
3
3

khi cc van dn th st p trn cc van bng khng vn.


- Gi s trc thi im t =

, th cp van T5 v T6 ang

dn in.
- n thi im t =

+ , pht xung iu khin kch m

van T1, lc ny van T1 c t in p thun, v c xung iu


khin kch m nn dn in. Trong khong t =

+ n 3.

th ua > uc > ub , nh vy trong khong thi gian ny cp van T 1 v


T6 s dn in.
- n thi im 3.

th ub = uc, v ub c xu hng dng hn

uc, nh vy van T2 dn dn c phn cc thun, tuy nhin van T2 vn


cha dn in do cha c xung kch m, cn van T1 vn tip tc dn
in do s t cm ca cun cm ti to ra. . Nh vy trong khong
thi gian t =

3.

n 3.

+ th cp van T1 v T6 vn dn

in.
- n thi im t = 3.

+ , pht xung iu khin kch

m van T2. Van T2 lc ny s dn in. Nh vy trong khong t =


3.

+ n 5.

th cp van T1 v T2 s dn in.

- n thi im t = 5.

th ua = ub, v ub c xu hng dng

hn ua, nh vy van T3 dn dn c phn cc thun , tuy nhin van


T3 cha dn in , do cha c xung iu khin kch m. Cn van T2
vn tip tc dn in, do s t cm ca cun cm ti to ra.

32
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

- n thi im t = 5.

+ , pht xung iu khin kch

m van T3, lc ny van T3 s dn in. Trong khong t = 5.


n 7.

c ub > ua > uc, nh vy cp van T2 v T3 s dn in.

- n thi im t = 7.

th ua = uc v uc c xu hng dng

hn ua, cn ua c xu hng m hn uc, nh vy van T4 dn dn c


t in p thun, tuy nhin van T4 vn cha dn in. Nh vy
trong khong t = 7.

n 7.

th cp van T2 v T3 vn dn in.
- n thi im t = 7.

+ , pht xung iu khin kch

m van T4, lc ny van T4 c phn cc thun v c xung iu


khin kch m nn dn in. Trong khong t = 7.

+ n 9.

th ub > uc > ua, nh vy trong khong thi gian ny cp van T 3

v T4 s dn in.
- n thi im t = 9.

th ub = uc v uc c xu hng dng

hn ub, cn ub c xu hng m hn uc, nh vy van T5 dn dn c


t in p thun, tuy nhin van T 5 vn cha dn in, cn van T 4
s tip tc dn in do s t cm ca cun cm ti to ra. Nh vy
trong khong t = 9.

n 9.

+ th cp van T3 v T4 vn

dn in

33
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

- n thi im t = 9.

+ , pht xung iu khin kch

m van T5 , lc ny van T5 s dn in. Trong khong t = 9.


n 11.

, th uc > ub > ua, nh vy cp van T5 v T4 s dn in.

- n thi im t =11.

th ua = ub tuy nhin ua c xu h-

ng dng dn, cn ub c xu hng m dn, nh vy van T1 dn c


phn cc thun, tuy nhin van T1 vn cha dn in, do cha c xung
iu khin. Cn van T4
khong t = 11.

vn tip tc dn in. Nh vy trong

n 11.

+ th cp van

T5 v T4 vn dn in.
- n thi im t =11.

+ , pht xung iu khin kch

m van T1 , lc ny van T 1 s dn in. Trong khong t =11.


n 13.

, th uc > ua > ub, nh vy cp van T1 v T5 s dn in.

- n thi im t = 13.

th ua = uc, v ua c xu hng d-

ng hn uc, nh vy van T6 dn c phn cc thun, tuy nhin van


T6 vn cha dn in do cha c xung iu khin, cn van T1 vn
tip tc dn in, nh vy trong khong t =13.

n 13.

+ ,

th cp van T1 v T5 tip tc dn in.


- n thi im t =13.

+ , pht xung iu khin kch

m van T6 , lc ny van T6 s dn in. Trong khong t =13.

n 15. , th ua > uc > ub, nh vy cp van T1 v T6 s dn


6
in

34
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

- Cc chu k sau nguyn l hot ng tng t.


c. Gin dng in, in p.

Hnh2. Gin dng in, in p.


d. Mt s biu thc tnh ton.
- in p trung bnh trn ti.

35
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Uti= 6.

1
2.

3.

6 U2sin( t+

) =

3. 6 .U 2

[cos(

) - cos(2 )].
3
3

- Dng trung bnh qua van .


Itb =

1
2.

3.

Iti = Iti/3.

in p thun, in p ngc trn van.


uT(thun) = uT(ngc) =

U2.

Mt vn t ra l khi ni ng c mt chiu kch t c


lp vo cc b bin i bn dn th trong cc iu kin nht
nh ca tc v mmen v ca gc iu khin s xy ra hin tng dng in phn ng b gin an. Khi ny cc c tnh tnh
v ng ca ng c s khc bit so vi ch dng in lin tc.
* Hin tng dng in gin on:
i vi ti mt chiu, dng in gin on lm xu i rt
nhiu ch lm vic bnh thng cng nh ch qu ca ti.
Khi ng c in mt chiu lm vic ch gin on, c
tnh c c c tnh rt xu.

36
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

=0

I(M)
= /2

= 5/6
max
H c tnh c h chnh lu - ng c
Hin tng gin on dng in chnh lu xy ra do nng lng
in t tch ly trong mch khi dng in tng khng duy tr
tnh cht lin tc ca dng in khi n gim lc ny gc dn ca
van tr nn nh hn 2/m (vi m: s ln p mch ca s chnh
lu) dng in qua van tr v khng trc khi van k tip bt u
dn trong khong dn ca van th S chnh lu bng S
ngun.
hn ch dng in gin on gy ra trong chuyn mch,
th in cm ca mch phi ln, do ta mc ni tip mt
cun khng vo phn ng ca ng c.

37
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

ng c mt chiu c gin on dng in di nht khi


ng c lm vic tc cui di iu khin (khi m in p
ca b chnh lu l thp nht hay ti gc m van bn dn ln nht
max ).

Phn II Thit k mch iu khin


Nh ta bit cho cc van ca 2 BB m ti thi im
mong mun ta cn phi c mch in pht ra cc xung iu khin
a n m cc tiristo ti cc thi im yu cu nh: bin , tn s,
cng sut v thi gian tn ti m chc chn cc van vi mi ti
m s gp phi khi lm vic lm c iu ta phi i
thit k mch pht xung iu khin.
1. Chn phng php pht xung:
Vi mch ng lc nh chn phn trc p ng c

yu cu iu khin cc tiristo ca b bin i ngi ta c 3 phng


Vng
binkhin nh sau:
php pht xung
iu
lin tc

- Phng ca
php
I iu khin theo pha ngang: phng php ny c
u im l c mch pht xung iu khin n gin nhng c 1 s
nhc im l Vng
phmI gin
vi iu khin gc m khng rng. Rt nhy vi
on

s thay i ca in p ngun v kh tng hp tn hiu iu


khin.
- Phng php iu khin theo it 2 cc gc: Mch pht xung
phng php ny n gin nhng n c nhc im l ch ph hp vi
h thng cng sut nh, o chiu kh khn. Cho nn trong thc t
ngi ta t dng .
- Phng php iu khin theo nguyn tc pha ng : phng
php ny tuy c mch pht xung phc tp nhng p ng c cc yu

38
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

cu ch tiu cht lng

+ rng xung m bo yu cu lm

vic
+ Tng hp tn hiu d dng.
+ Gc m ca tiristoc th thay i c trong khong
rng.
+ dc sn trc ca xung m bo c h s khuch i
ph hp,
lm vic tin cy chnh xc vi nhy cao.
+ C th iu khin c h c cng sut ln.
p ng c cc yu cu cng ngh cng nh cc ch tiu
v cht lng lm vic cho nn chng em chn phng php iu
khin theo pha ng pht xung iu khin.

2.Thit k mch iu khin


a.S khi ca mch pht xung iu khin:
Vi h thng pht xung theo nguyn tc pha ng. Ta
thy xung iu khin u ra ca h thng ny t nn mi tiristo
trong s xut hin lp li c tnh chu k. Thng bng chu k
ngun cung cp v gc iu khin ca cc van trong s mi
ch lm vic nht nh l ging nhau.
S :

I
UL ~

BH FSRC

Urc

II

III

SS

TX

UkT

Uk
Hnh3. S khi ca mch pht xung iu khin
H thng pht xung ny gm cc khi chc nng sau:

39
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

+ Khi I

: l khi ng b ho v pht sng rng ca.

+ Khi II

: l khi so snh.

+ Khi III : l khi to xung


+ UL~ : l in p li xoay chiu cung cp cho s
chnh lu.
+ Urc : l in p rng ca.
+ Uk

: l in p iu khin mch pht xung iu

khin, l in p mt
chiu (Uk quyt nh gc iu khin ).
+ UkT : l in p iu khin tiristo, l chui cc xung
iu khin ly t u ra h thng iu khin v c truyn n
cc iu khin G v K ca thyristor.
b.Xy dng mch iu khin chnh lu cu ba pha

Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

iu khin i xng

khin i xng
Hnh4. S mch iu khin mt knh ca chnh lu cu ba pha

iu

40

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

41
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Hnh5. Gin cc ng cong mch iu khin


Hot ng ca mch iu khin hnh v c th gii thch
theo gin cc ng cong trn hnh 5 nh sau:
in p vo ti im A (UA) c dng hnh sin, trng pha vi
in p anod ca tiristor T, qua khuch i thut ton (KTT) A 1 cho
chui xung ch nht i xng UB. Phn dng ca in p ch nht
UB qua diod D1 ti A2 tch phn thnh in p ta Urc. Phn m
in p UB lm m tranzitor Tr 1, kt qu l A2 b ngn mch (vi Urc

42
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

=0) trong vng UB m. Trn u ra ca A2 c chui in p rng ca


Urc gin on.
in p Urc c so snh vi in p iu khin Uk ti u vo
ca A3. Tng i s Urc + Uk s quyt nh du in p u ra
ca KTT A3. Trong khong 0
m. Trong khong t1

t1 vi Uk Urc in p UD c in p

t2 in p Uk v Urc i ngc li, lm cho UD

lt ln dng. Cc khong thi gian tip theo gii thch in p U D tng t.


Mch a hi to chm xung A 6 cho chui xung tn s cao, vi
in p UE nh trn hnh (gin ). Dao ng a hi cn c tn s
hng chc kHz y ch m t nh tnh.
Hai tn hiu UD v UE cng c a ti khi AND hai cng vo.
Khi ng thi c c hai tn hiu dng UD, UE (trong cc khong t1
t2 , t 4

t5) s c xung ra UF. Cc xung ra UF lm m cc tranzitor, kt

qu l nhn c chui xung nhn Xk trn bin p xung, a ti


m tiristor T.
in p Ud s xut hin trn ti t thi im c xung iu
khin u tin (ti cc thi im t1, t4 trong chui xung iu khin
ca mi chu k in p ngun cp), cho ti cui na chu k in p
dng anod.
Sau khi c ci nhn tng quan v mch iu khin, tip
theo ta s i phn tch nguyn l hot ng c th ca tng khi.
2.1. Khi ng b ho v pht sng rng ca (khi I) .
a. Khi ng b ho :
- thc hin chc nng ng b ho ta c th s dng
mch phn p bng in tr hay kt hp gia in tr,

in

dung, in cm .
Tuy nhin phng php ny c nhc im l khng cch ly c
in p cao gia mch iu khin v mch ng lc, do vy phng php ny t c dng .

43
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

- Phng php ph bin hin nay l s dng my bin p


ng b trong cc cun s cp ni vi li, cn cun th cp l
in p ng b . Gc lch pha gia cun s cp v th cp c
tnh ton sao cho gc pha ca in p ng b U b ph hp vi thi
im m t nhin ca tiristor .
b. Khi pht sng rng ca :
to in p rng ca, ngi ta s dng tnh cht phng,
np ca t in. Ta s dng mch pht sng rng ca nh sau:

Hnh6. Khi pht sng rng ca


- Nguyn l hot ng :
+ in p ra ca my bin p ng b ti im A (U A) c dng
hnh sin trng pha vi in p ant ca tiristor T, qua b khuch
i IC1 cho ra chui xung hnh ch nht i xng (UB) .
+ T t 0 in p UB bt u chuyn sang na chu k dng dn n D1 m nn mch pht gc Tr1 b t in p ngc,
Tr1 kho, t C1 c np in bi dng khng i. in p trn t
tng dn theo quy lut tuyn tnh .
+ n t in p UB bt u chuyn sang m, D kho,
Tr1 m nn t C1 phng in nhanh qua Tr1 n in p bng 0
v gi nguyn gi tr bng khng cho n t 2 . Ti t 2 in
p ng b bng khng v bt u chuyn sang dng, D li m
bt u mt chu k tip theo.

44
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

+ Vi gi thit KTT l l tng th h s khuch i l v cng


ln, vy nu KTT ang ch khuch i tuyn tnh th in
p gia 2 u vo c xem l bng 0 . Ta c Urc = - Uc1 + Uv1 = - Uc1
tc l in p rng ca u ra ca s bng in p trn t C1 .

Hnh7. th dng tn hiu ca khi pht sng rng ca

45
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

2.2. Khi so snh :


- Vic so snh in p rng ca v in p iu khin c
th thc hin bng tranzitor hay vi mch in t. Vic ghp ni cc
tn hiu c th l ni tip hay song song min l m bo tn
hiu rng ca v tn hiu iu khin c tc dng ngc chiu nhau .
+ Phng php so snh ni tip c u im l chnh xc nhng
khi tn hiu rng ca c dng xoay chiu th vic so snh gp nhiu
kh khn. Ngoi ra vic so snh bng tranzitor tuy n gin nhng
khng chnh xc v tranzitor khng th m c khi ( Urc Udk

0 ).

+ Vic dng vi mch khuch i thut ton cho php xc nh


gc m chnh xc hn do cc vi mch c h s khuch i rt ln
v bo ho rt nhanh
Do c th thc hin chc nng so snh ta dng vi mch
khuch i thut ton mc song song nh sau:

Hnh8. Khi so snh


+ in p rng ca ly t u ra ca mch pht sng rng ca .
+ in p iu khin ly l in p mt chiu ly trn bin
tr R6.
2.3. Khi to xung
2.3.1.To xung chm iu khin
gim cng sut cho tng khuch i, tng s lng xung
kch m (nhm m bo tiristor m mt cch chc chn khi
tiristor cht lng xu) v m xung iu khin ca chnh lu cu ba

46
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

pha i khin i xng, ngi ta hay pht xung chm cho cc tiristor.
Nguyn tc pht xung chm l trc khi vo tng khuch i, ta a
chn thm mt cng V (AND) vi tn hiu vo nhn t b so snh v
t b pht xung chm.

Us
s
Ucx

Tng K

Xk

&
Hnh9. S phi hp to xung hm

Umax

Umin

Hnh10. S to chm xung


Nguyn l hot ng ca mch da trn s phng np ca
t.Tn s chm xung ph thuc vo tr s R8- C2 quyt nh.
2.3.2.Khu khuch i v bin p xung
- khuch i xung ta c th dng tiristor hay tranzitor . Cc
mch dng tiristor thng c dng trong cc trng hp c i hi cng
sut xung u ra ln v thi gian tn ti xung di trng hp ny t
dng.
- Trong thc t ngi ta dng tranzitor gim s phc tp ca
tng khuch i, trong nhiu trng hp ngi ta dng hai tranzitor
mc ni tip theo kiu Dalington . Hai tranzitor mc ni tip tng
ng vi mt tranzitor c h s khuch i dng l:
= 1*2

Vi 1, 2 l h s khuch i ca Tr2, Tr3.

47
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Trong thc t xung iu khin ch cn c rng b (c


khong (10 200) s), m thi gian m thng cc tranzitor cng
sut di (ti a ti mt na chu k - 0.01s), lm cho cng sut to
nhit d ca Tr qu ln v kch thc dy qun s cp bin p d ln.
gim nh cng sut to nhit Tr v kch thc dy s cp BAX
chng ta c th thm t ni tng nh hnh (11). Theo s ny, Tr
ch m cho dng in chy qua trong khong thi gian np t, nn
dng hiu dng ca chng b hn nhiu ln.
S mch nh sau:

Hnh11. Khu khuch i v bin p xung


- Nguyn l hot ng :
+ Khi cha c xung vo th 2 tranzitor cha lm vic, cha c
dng chy qua cun s cp ca BAX nn khng c in p (U k) trn
u ra ca cun th cp BAX . Gi s ti mt thi im no trn
u ra ca mch pht xung chm c tn hiu iu khin dn n
Tr2, Tr3 u m, gi thit tranzitor m bo ho nn trn cun s cp
c t in p bng +Ucc=12V nn xut hin dng in chy qua
cun s cp ca BAX, dng in ny s cm ng sang cun th cp
ca BAX, u ra xut hin mt xung in p c cc tnh dng
pha du(*) v xung truyn n cc G ca tiristor .
* Bin p xung

48
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

truyn xung iu khin n cc cc iu khin ca cc


tiristor, tt nht l dng bin p xung (BAX) va c th cch ly gia
mch ng lc vi mch iu khin va c th ng thi a nhiu
xung n m cc tiristor.
Chc nng bin p xung:
- Lm ph hp in p xung sau khuch iv in p xung
cn a vo cc iu khin tranristor
- m bo cch ly gia mch iu khin v mch ng lc
- To dng xung theo yu cu
- C th c t 1 n 3 cun u ra t mt xung vo s
c mt vi xung iu khin thyristor.
c im :
in p t vo s cp BA l in p dng xung nn ch
lm vic v tnh ton BA xung khc vi bin p thng thng. Tn
s lm vic c 10 2 10 5 Hz, cc cun dy c s vng t nn in tr
thun nh v vy vt liu ch to li BAX thng l ferit hoc
pecmali vi h s ln.
Sau khi la chn v thit k mch, tip theo s l bc tnh
ton c th cc linh kin trong tng khi ng vi mt ng c mt
chiu kch t c lp c cc thng s cho trc.

49
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Phn iii. tnh ton cc thng s ca mch ng lc v


mch iu khin
Thit k b ngun chnh lu mt chiu cp in cho ng c
in mt chiu kch t dc lp.
Thng s ng c: Um = 400V ; nm = 980 vng/ pht ; P =
27 kw ; = 0,85
S i cc p = 2.
III.1. La chn s thit k.
Sau khi phn tch v nh gi v chnh lu, t cc u nhc
im ca cc s chnh lu, vi ti l ng c in mt chiu
c cng sut va phi nh trn, th s cu chnh lu 3 pha iu
khin i xng l hp l hn c, bi l cng sut ny trnh mt
i xng bin p (khng th thit k theo s mt pha v s
tia 3 pha v s lm mt i xng in p ngun). Nn s
thit k chn l s cu 3 pha c iu khin i xng, nh hnh
v:

Hnh 12. S nguyn l mch ng lc.

50
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Cc thng s c bn ca ng c cn li c tnh:
P

Im = .Udm = 79,41 A.
U2a ; U2b ; U2c Sc in ng th cp my bin p
ngun.
E- Sc in ng ca ng c.
R, L in tr v in cm trong mch.
R = 2.Rba + R + Rk + Rdn
L = 2.Lba + L + Lk .
Rba, Lba l in tr v in khng ca my bin p
quy i v th cp:
W1
Rba = R2 + R1. 1
W2

W1
= L2 + L1. 1
W2

Lba

Rk, Lk - l in tr v in khng cun lc.


R in tr mch phn ng ng c c tnh gn
ng nh sau:
R = 0,5.(1- ).

U dm
I dm

400

= 0,5.(1 0,85). 79,41 =

0,38 .
L l in cm mch phn ng ng c c tnh
theo cng thc Umanxki_Lindvit:
L= .

U dm .60
400.60
= 0,25. 2 .980.79,41 = 0,0061 H =
2 . p.ndm .I dm

6,1 mH
Trong = 0,25 l h s ly cho ng c c cun b.
III.2. Tnh chn Tiristor.
Tnh chn da vo cc yu t c bn dng ti, iu kin to
nhit, in p lm vic, cc thng s c bn ca van c tnh nh
sau:

51
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

+) in p ngc ln nht m tiristor phi chu:


Unmax = Knv .U2 = Knv .
Trong : Knv=

Ud
. .400 418,879 V
Ku 3

Ku =

3. 6

in p ngc ca tiristor cn chn:


Unv = Kdtu.Un max = 1,8. 418,879 = 753,98

754 V

Trong : KdtU H s d tr in p, chn KdtU = 1,8.


+) Dng lm vic ca van c tnh theo dng hiu dng:
Ilv = Ihd = Khd.Id =

Id
3

79,41
3

45,847 A

Chn iu kin lm vic ca van l c cnh tn nhit v y


din tch tn nhit; Khng c qut i lu khng kh, vi iu
kin dng nh mc ca van cn chn:
Im = Ki.Ilv = 3,2.45,847 = 147 A
(Ki l h s d tr dng in, chn Ki = 3,2)
T cc thng s Unv, Idmv ta chon 6 tiristor loi SCI50C80 do M
sn xut c cc thng s sau:
in p ngc cc i ca van: Un = 800 V
Dng in nh mc ca van: Im = 150 A
nh xung dng in: Ipik = 2800 A
Dng in ca xung iu khin Ik = 0,1 A
in p ca xung iu khin: Uk = 3 V
Dng in r: Ir = 15 mA
St p ln nht ca tiristor trng thi dn l:
Tc bin thin in p:

U 1,6

dU
200 V/ s
dt

Tc bin thin dng in:

dI
180 A/ s
dt

Thi gian chuyn mch: tcm = 80 s


Nhit lm vic cc i cho php: Tmax = 125

III.3. Tnh ton my bin p chnh lu.

52
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Chn my bin p 3 pha 3 tr s u dy / Y lm mt


bng khng kh t nhin .
Tnh cc thng s c bn:
1. Tnh cng sut biu kin ca my bin p:
p

S = KS.Pd = KS.

1,05.

27000
0,85

VA

2. in p s cp my bin p:
U1 =380 V
3. in p pha th cp ca my bin p:
Phng trnh cn bng in p khi c ti:
Udo. Cos min = Ud + 2. U V U dn U ba

(1.80)

Trong : min 10 0 l gc d tr khi c s suy gim in


li.
UV = 1,6V l st p trn tiristor
Udn = 0 V l st p trn dy ni
Uba = Ur + Ux l st p trn in tr v

in khng my bin p
Chn s b:
Uba = 6%. Ud = 6%.400 = 24 V

T phng trnh cn bng in p khi c ti ta c:


U do

U d 2.U V U dn 2.U ba 400 2.1,6 0 24

433,79 V
cos min
cos10 0

in p pha th cp my bin p:
U2f =

Ud
433,79

= 185,45 V
Ku
2,34

4. Dng in hiu dng th cp ca my bin p.


I2 =

2
3

.Id =

2
3

.79,41 = 64,84 A

5. Dng in hiu dng s cp my bin p


I1 = Kba.I2 =

U2
185,45
.I 2
.64,84 34,64 A
U1
380

53
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Tnh s b mch t (xc nh kch thc s b bn mch t)


6. Tit din s b tr
QFe = KQ.

S ba
m. f

Trong :
KQ: H s ph thuc phng thc lm mt, ly KQ = 6
m: S tr ca my bin p
f: Tn s xoay chiu, f = 50 Hz
Thay s ta c:
QFe = 6.

33353
3.50

= 89,469 cm2

7. ng knh tr
d=

4.QFe

4.89,469
10,67 cm

Chun ho ng knh rt theo tiu chun d = 11 cm


330 cc l thp c dy 0,5 mm

8. Chn loi thp:

Chon mt t cm ca tr Bt = 1 T
9. Chn t s: m =

h
2,3 ,
d

suy ra h = 2,3, d = 2,3.11 = 25,3

cm
Ta chn chiu cao tr l 25 cm
tnh ton dy qun.
10. S vng dy mi pha s cp my bin p
W1 =

U1
380

191,3 vng
4,44. f .Q Fe .Bt
4,44.50.89,469.10 4.1,0

Ly trn W1 = 191 vng


11. S vng dy mi pha th cp my bin p
W2 =

U1
185,45
. W1 =
.191 93,2 vng
U2
380

Ly trn W2 = 93 vng
12. Chn s b mt dng in trong my bin p

54
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Vi dy dn bng ng, my bin p kh, chn J 1 = J2 =


2,75 A/mm2
13. Tit din s cp my bin p
S1 =

I1
31,64

11,5 mm2
J1
2,75

Chn dy dn tit din hnh ch nht, cch in cp B


Chun ho tit din theo tiu chun: S1 = 12,3 mm2
Kch thc dy dn c k cch in
S1c = a1.b1 = 1,81.6,9 mm2
14. Tnh li mt dng in trong cun s cp
I 1 31,64

2,57 A/mm2
S1
12,3

J1 =
15. Tit din th cp

ca my bin p

S2 =

I2
64,84

23,58 mm2
J2
2,75

Chn dy dn tit din hnh ch nht, cch in cp


B.
Chun ho tit din theo tiu chun: S2 = 23,6 mm2
Kch thc dy dn c k cch in: S2c = a2.b2 =
3,28.7,4 mm2
16. Tnh li mt dng in trong cun th cp
J2 =

I2
2,74 A/mm2
S2

Kt cu dy dn s cp.
Thc hin dy qun kiu ng tm b tr theo chiu
dc trc.
17. Tnh s b s vng dy trn mt lp ca cun s cp
W11 =

h 2.h g
b1

.k c .0,95 30 vng

Trong :
kc = 0,95 l h s p cht
h - l chiu cao tr

55
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

hg l khong cch t gng n cun dy s cp


Chn s b khong cch cch in gng
18. tnh s b s lp dy cun s cp
W1 191

6,3 lp
W11
30

n11 =

19. Chn s lp n11 = 7 lp. Nh vy c 191 vng chia thnh 7 lp,


chn 6 lp u vo c 28 vng, lp th 7 c 191 6.28 = 23 vng
20. Chiu cao thc t ca cun s cp
h1 =

W11 .b 28.0,69

20,34 cm
kc
0,95

21. Chn ng qun dy lm bng vt liu cch in c b


dy: S01 = 0,1 cm
22. Khong cch t tr ti cun dy s cp chn cd 01 = 1,0 cm
23. ng knh trong ca ng cch in.
Dt = dFe + 2.cd01 2.S01 = 11 + 2.1 2.0,1 = 12,8
cm
24. ng knh trong ca cun s cp
Dt1 = Dt + 2.S01 = 12,8 + 2.0,1 = 13 cm
25. Chn b dy gia hai lp dy cun s cp: cd 11 = 0,1
mm
26. B dy cun s cp
Bd1 = (a1 + cd11).n11 = (1.81 + 0,1)7 = 1,337 cm
27. ng knh ngoi ca cun s cp
Dn1 = Dt1 + 2.Bd1 = 13 + 2.1,337 = 15,467 cm
28. ng knh trung bnh ca cun s cp
Dtb1 =

Dt1 Dn1 13 15,674

14,337 cm
2
2

29. Chiu di dy qun s cp


l1 = W1. .Dtb = .191.14,337 = 86,02 cm
30. Chn b dy cch in gia cun s cp

56
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Kt cu dy qun th cp.
31. Chn s b chiu cao cun th cp
h1 = h2 = 20,34 cm
32. Tnh s b s vng dy trn mt lp
h2
20,34
.k c
.0,95 26 vng
b2
0,74

W12 =

33. Tnh s b s lp dy qun th cp


W

93

2
n12 = W 26 3,6 lp
12

34. Chn s lp dy qun th cp n 12 = 4 lp. Chn 6 lp u


c 24 vng, lp th 4 c 93 4.24 = 21 vng.
35. Chiu cao thc t ca cun th cp
h2 =

W12
24
.b
.0,74 18,69 cm
kc
0,95

36. ng knh trong ca cun th cp


Dt2 = Dn1 + 2.cd12 = 15,674 + 2.1 = 17.674 cm
37. Chn b dy cch in gia cc lp dy cun th cp:
cd2 = 0,1 mm
38. B dy cun s cp
Bd2 = (a2 + cd2)n12 = (0,328 + 0,01)4 = 1,352 cm
39. ng knh ngoi ca cun th cp
Dn2 = Dt2 + 2Bd2 =17,674 + 2.1,352 = 20,378 cm
40. ng knh trung bnh ca cun th cp
Dtb2 =

Dt 2 Dn 2 17,674 20,378

19,026 cm
2
2

41. Chiu di dy qun th cp


l2 = .W2.Dtb2 = .93.19,026 = 55,5597 m

42. ng knh trung bnh cc cun dy


D12 =

Dt1 Dn 2 13 20,378

16,689 cm
2
2

57
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t
D
r12 = 12 8,344 cm
2

n mn hc

43. Chn khong cch gia hai cun th cp: cd22 = 2 cm


tnh kch thc mch t.
44. Vi ng knh tr d = 11cm, ta c s bc l 6 trong na
tit din tr
6

a 01

5
4
3
2

hg

W 1

W 2

B d1

a 12
B d2

Hnh 14. S kch thc mch t


45. Ton b tit din bc thang ca tr
Qbt = 2.(1,6.10,5 + 1,1.9,5 + 0,7.8,5 + 0,6.7,5 +
0,4.6,5 + 0,7.4) = 86,2 cm2
46. Tit din hiu qu ca tr
QT = khq.Qbt = 0,95.86,2 = 81,89 cm2
47. Tng chiu dy cc bc thang ca tr
dt = 2.(1,6 + 1,1 + 0,7 + 0,6 + 0,4 + 0,7) = 10,2 cm
48. S l thp dng trong cc bc
16

Bc 1:

n1 = 0,5 .2 64 l

Bc 2:

n2 = 0,5 .2 44 l

Bc 3:

n3 = 0,5 .2 28 l

Bc 4:

n4 = 0,5 .2 24 l

Bc 5:

n5 = 0,5 .2 16 l

11
7

58
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc
7

n6 = 0,5 .2 28 l

Bc 6:

n gin trong vic ch to gng t, ta chn gng c


tit din hnh ch nht c cc kch thc sau:
Chiu dy ca gng bng chiu dy ca tr: b = d t =
10,2 cm
Chiu cao ca gng bng chiu rng tp l thp th nht
ca tr: a = 10,5 cm
Tit din gng Qbg = a.b = 107,1 cm2
49. Tit din hiu qu ca gng:
Qg = khq.Qbg = 0,95.107,1 = 101,7 cm 2
50. S l thp dng trong mt gng
hg =

b
102

204
0,5
0,5

51. Tnh chnh xc mt t cm trong tr


BT =

U1
380

1,094 T
4,44. f .W1 .QT
4,44.50.191.81,89.10 4

52. Mt t cm trong gng


Q

81,89

T
Bg = BT. Q 101,7 .1,094 0,88 T
g

53. Chiu rng ca s


c = 2.(cd01 + Bd1 + cd12 + Bd2) + cd22
= 2.(1 + 1,337 + 1 +1,352) + 2 = 11,378 cm
54. Tnh khong cch gia hai tm tr
c = c + d = 11,378 + 11 = 22,378 cm
55. Chiu rng mch t
C = 2c + 3d = 2.11,378 + 3.11 = 55,756 cm
56. Chiu cao mch t
H = h + 2dFe = 25 + 2.10,5 = 46 cm
Tnh khi lng ca st v ng.
57. Th tch ca tr
VT = 3QT.h = 3.81,89.25 =6141,75 cm3

59
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

58. Th tch ca gng


Vg = 2Qg.L = 2.107,1.55,756 = 11942,94 cm 3
59. Khi lng ca tr
MT = VT.mFe = 6,142.7,85 = 48,21 kg
60. Khi lng ca gng
Mg = Vg.mFe = 11,94294.7,85 = 93,752 kg
61. Khi lng ca st
MFe = MT + Mg = 48,21 + 93,752 = 141,962 kg
62. Th tch ng
Vcu = 3.(S1.L1 + S2.L2)
= 3.(12,3.10-4.86,02.10 + 23,6.10-4.55,5597.10) = 7,1077
dm3
63. Khi lng ca ng
Mcu = Vcu.mcu = 7,1077.8,9 = 63,26 kg

4 .0 5 4 9
2 .5 2 1 6
2 .3 4 1 5
13
11

46

32,5

20,4

0 ,5

1 1 ,3 8
2 7 ,8 8

5 5 ,7 6

Hnh 15. S kt cu my bin p


Tnh cc thng s ca my bin p.

60
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

64. in tr ca cun s cp my bin p 75o C


R1 = .

l1
86,02
0,02133.
0,149
S1
12,3

Trong 75 = 0,02133
65. in tr cun th cp my bin p 75oC
R2 = .

l2
55,5597
0,02133.
0,0502
S2
23,6

66. in tr ca my bin p quy i v th cp


RBA

W
= R2 + R1. 2
W1

93
0,0502 1,49.

191

0,085

67. St p trn in tr my bin p


U r R BA .I d 0,085.79,41 6,75

68. in khng my bin p quy i v th cp

r
hqd

2
2
XBA = 8. .W .


. a12 Bd 1 Bd 2 .10 7

3

1,337 1,352
2
2 8,837
7
.314.10 0,176
= 8. .93 . 20,34 . 0,01
3

69. in cm my bin p quy i v th cp


LBA =

X BA 0,176

0,00056 H

314

= 0,56 mH

70. St p trn in khng my bin p


U x

3
3
X BA .I d .0,176.79,41 13,35 V

71. St p trn my bin p


2
2
U BA U r U x 6,75 2 13,35 2 14,95 V

72. in p trn ng c khi c gc m min 10 o


U = Ud0.Cos min - 2. U V U BA
= 433,79.Cos10o 2.1,6 19,46 = 405 V
73. Tng tr ngn mch quy i v th cp
ZBA =

2
2
R BA X BA 0,085 2 0,176 2 0,195

74. Tn hao ngn mch trong my bin p


Pn = 3.RBA.I2 = 3.0,085.64,842 = 1072,1 W

61
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

P % =

Pn
1072,1
100
100 3,12 %
S
33353

75. Tn hao c ti c k n 15% tn hao ph


P0 = 1,3.nf.(MT.BT2 + Mg.Bg2)
= 1,3.1,15.(48,21.1,0942 + 93,752.0,882)
= 194,8 W
P %

P0
.100 0,58 %
S

76. in p ngn mch tc dng


Unr =

R BA .I 2
64,84.0,085
.100
.100 2,97%
U2
185,45

77. in p ngn mch phn khng


Unx =

X BA .I 2
68,84.0,176
.100
.100 6,15%
U2
185,45

78. in p ngn mch phn trm


Un = U nr 2 U nx 2 2,97 2 6,15 2 6,83 V
79. Dng in ngn mch xc lp
I2nm=

U2
185,45

991,7 A
Z BA
0,187

80. Dng in ngn mch tc thi cc i


Imax =

.U nr

2 .I m . 1 e U nx

.0 , 0297

2 .991,1. 1 e 0, 0584

1686,5

Imax < Ipik = 2800 A


Ipik: nh xung max ca Tiristor
81. Kim tra my bin p thit k c in khng hn
ch tc bin thin ca dng chuyn mch.
Gi s chuyn t mch T1 sang T3 ta c phng trnh:
2.LBA.

dic
U 23 U 2 a 6 .U 2 .Sin( )
dt

dic
6 .U 2
6 .185,45
max

428545,2 A/s
dt
2.LBA
2.0,53.10 3

dic
di
max 0,43( A / s ) c cp 100 A / s
dt
dt

62
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Vy my bin p thit k s dng tt


82. Hiu sut thit b chnh lu

U d .I d 400.79,41

95%
S
33353

III.4. thit k cun khng lc


1.Xc nh gc m cc tiu v cc i
Chn gc m cc tiu min 10 0 . Vi gc m min l d tr
c th b c s gim in p li.
Khi gc m nh nht min th in p trn ti l ln
nht.
Udmax = Udo.Cos min = Udm v tng ng tc ng c
ln nht nmax= nm.
Khi gc m ln nht max th in p trn ti l nh
nht.
Ud

min

= Udo.Cos max v tng ng tc ng c s nh

nht nmin.
Ta c:
max = arcos

U d min
U d min
ar cos
U do
2,34.U 2

Trong Ud min c xc nh nh sau:


T

D=

n max
U
I udm .Ru
ddm
suy ra
n min U d min I udm .Ru

Ud min =

1
.U ddm ( D 1).I udm .Ru
D

Ud min =

1
. 2,34.U 2 .Cos min ( D 1).I udm .( Ru R BA Rdt )
D

Ud min =

1
3

. 2,34.U 2 .Cos min (20 1).I udm .( Ru R BA . X BA )


20

Thay s:

63
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Ud

min

1
3

. 2,34.185,45.Cos min (20 1).79,412.(0,378 0,085 .0,176)


20

G49
= 64,8 V

max = arcos

U d min
648
ar cos
80,9 0
U do
2,34.185,45

2. Xc nh cc thnh phn sng hi


thun tin cho vic khai trin chui Furier ta chuyn
gc to sang im 1 (thi im m tiristor), khi in p
tc thi trn ti khi tiristor T1 v T4 dn.

Ud = Uab =

6 .U 2 .Cos (

)
6

Vi .t

in p tc thi trn ti Ud khng Sin v tun hon vi chu


k

2
2

p
6
3

Trong P = 6 l xung p mch trong mt chu k


in p li.
Khai trin chui Furier ca in p li Ud:
Ud

a0
a
( a n . cos 6.k bn . sin 6.k ) 0 U nm .Sin(6k k )
2
2
k 1

Trong :
a
2
6
. U d .Cos 6kd .
0

an =

=
6 .U 2 .Cos (
3 6

.U 2 .

).Cos 6k .d
6

( 2 )

3 6
( 2)
.2.Sin .Cos
.U 2 .
.Cos
2
6

( 6k ) 1
(6k 2 ) 1

bn
2
6
. U d .Cos 6kd .
0

=
6 .U 2 .Cos (

).Cos 6k .d
6

64
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

=
3 6

.U 2 .

12
3
3 6
12
.2.Sin
.Sin
.U 2 .
.Cos
2
6

(6k ) 1
(6 k 2 ) 1

Ta c:

a0
3 6

.U 2 .Cos
2

Vy ta c bin ca in p:
Ukn =

a n bn

Ukn = 2.
Ukn =
Ud

3 6
1
.U 2 .
. Cos 2 6k 2 .Sin 2
2

6k 1

3 6

.U do .

6k 1 .
2

3 6 .Cos U

km

1 6k 2 .tg 2
.Sin 6 1

3. Xc nh in cm cun khng lc
T phn tch trn ta thy rng khi gc m cng tng, bin
thnh phn sng hi bc cao cng ln, c ngha l p mch
ca in p cng, dng in cng tng ln. S p mch ny lm
xu ch chuyn mch ca vnh gp, ng thi gy ra tn hao
ph di dng nhit trong ng c. hn ch s p mch ny ta
phi mc ni tip vi ng c mt cun khng lc ln I m <
0,1I m.
Ngoi tc dng hn ch thnh phn sng hi bc cao,
cun khng lc cn c tc dng hn ch vng dng in gin on.
in khng lc c tnh khi gc m max
Ta c:
U + U~ = E + RU .Id + RU .i~ + L

di~
dt

Cn bng hai v:
U~= R.i~+ L

di
di
; V R.i~ << L
dt
dt

nn U~ = L

di
dt

Trong cc thnh phn xoay chiu bc cao, th thnh


phn sng bc k = 1 c mc ln nht gn ng ta c:

65
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

U~= U1m.Sin(6 ) nn
U 1m
1
U ~ dt
.Cos (6 1 ) I m .Cos (6 1 )

L
.2. . f .L

I=
Vy Im =

U 1m
0,1 I m
6.2. . f .L

Suy ra
L

U 1m
6.2. . f .0,1.I dm

l s xung p mch trong mt chu k in

p.
Trong
U1m = 2.

U d 0 .Cos max
. 1 6 2.tg 2 max
62 1

U1m = 2.

2,34.1,845.Cos80,8 0
. 1 36.tg 2 80,9 0 146,95
36 1

Thay s:
L=

147,78
0,00986
6.2.50. .0,1.79,41

in cm mch phn ng c:
Lc = L + 2.LBA = 6,1 + 2.0,53 = 7,16 mmH
in cm cun khng lc:
Lk = L Lc = 9,86 7,16 = 2,7 mH
4. Thit k kt cu cun khng lc.
- Cc thng s ban u:
- in cm yu cu ca cun khng lc

Lk = 2,7 mH

- Dng in nh mc chy qua cun khng

Im = 79,41 A

- Bin dng in xoay chiu bc 1

I1m = 10%Im

= 7,94 A
1. Do dng in cun khng ln v in tr b do ta c
th coi tng tr ca cun khng sp x dng in ca cun khng.
Zk = Xk = 2. .m. f .Lk 2. .6.50.2,7.10 3 5,09
2. in p xoay chiu ri trn cun khng lc.

66
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t
U k Z .

n mn hc
I 1dm
2

5,09

7,94
2

28,58

3. Cng sut ca cun khng lc.


Sk = U k .

I 1dm
2

28,58.

7,94
2

160,46

VA

4. Tit din cc t chnh ca cun khng lc.


Q = kQ.

Sk
160,46
5.
3,656 cm2
m. f
6.50

- kQ l h s ph thuc phng thc lm mt, khi lm mt


bng khng kh t nhin kQ = 5.
Chun ho tit din tr theo kch thc c sn:
Chn Q = 4,25 cm2

a /2

Hnh 16. Kt cu mch t cun khng


5. Vi tit din tr Q = 4,25 cm2
Chn loi thp 330 A, tm thp dy 0,35 mm
a = 20 mm ; b = 25 mm
6. Chn mt t cm trong tr: BT = 0,8 T
7. Khi c thnh phn dng in xoay chiu chy qua cun
cm th trong cun cm s xut hin mt sc in ng Ek.
Ek = 4,44.W.f.BT.Q
Gn ng ta c th vit: Ek =
U

U 28,58

28,58

W = 4,44. f '.B .Q 4,44.6.50.0,8.4,25.10 4 63,1 vng


T

67
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Ly W = 63 vng
8. Ta c dng in chy qua cun khng: i = I d + i1m.Cos(6 1
)

Dng in hiu dng chy qua cun khng

9.

Chn

Ik =

Id

mt

I 1m

79,61 A

qua

cun

79,41

dng

7,94

in

khng:

S1

Ik
79,61

28,95 mm2
J
2,75

- Chn dy dn tit din hnh ch nht, cch in cp


B, chn Sk = 29,9 mm2
- Vi kch thc dy: ak.bk = 3,8.8 mm2
- Tnh li mt dng: j =

10. Chn t s lp y: K1 =

11. Din tch ca s: Qcs =

Ik
79,61

2,66 A/mm2
Sk
29,9

W .S k
0,7
Qcs

W .S k
63,29,9

26,91 cm2
K 1d
0,7

12. Tnh kch thc mch t: Qcs = c.h


Chn m

h
3
a

Suy ra h = 3.a = 3.20 = 60 mm


c=

Qcs
26,91

4,5 cm = 45 mm
h
6

13. Chiu cao mch t: H = h + a = 60 + 20 = 80 cm

68
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

14. Chiu di mch t:

n mn hc

C = 2.c + 2.a = 2.45 + 2.20 = 130

cm
15. Chn khong cch t gng ti cun dy:

hg = 2

mm
h 2.hg

7 vng

16. Tnh s vng trn mt lp:

W1 =

17. Tnh s lp dy qun:

n1 = W 7 9 lp
1

bk
W

63

18. Chn khong cch cch in gia dy qun vi tr:

a01

= 3 mm
Cch in gia cc lp:
19. B dy cun dy:

cd1 = 0,1 mm

Bd = (ak + cd1).n1 = (3,8 + 0,1).9 =

35,1 mm
20. Tng b dy cun dy:

Bd = Bd + a01 = 35,1 + 3 =

38,1 mm
21. Chiu di ca vng dy trong cng:
l1 = 2(a + b) + 2. .a 01 = 2.(20 + 25) + 2. .3 =
108,8 mm
22. Chiu di ca vng dy ngoi cng:
l2 = 2.(a + b) + 2 .(a01 + Bd) = 2.(20 +25) + 2. .(3
+ 35,1) = 329,4 mm
23. Chiu di trung bnh ca mt vng dy:
ltb =

l1 l 2 108,8 329,4

219,1 mm
2
2

69
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

24. in tr dy qun 75o


W

R = 75 .l tb . S
0

Vi

63

= 0,02133.219,1.10-3. 29,9

0,0098

750 0,02133 ( .mm2/m) in tr sut ca ng

75oC
Ta thy in tr rt b nn gi thit ban u b qua l
ng.
25. Th tch st
VFe = 2.a.b.h + 2.a/2.b.l = a.b.(2h + 1) = 0,125 dm 3
26. Khi lng st
MFe = VFe.mFe = 0,944 kg
Trong mFe l khi lng ring ca st mFe = 7,85 kg/dm3
27. Khi lng ng
Mcu = Vcu.mcu = Sk.ltb.w. mcu = 3,7 kg
Trong : mcu = 8,9 kg/dm3
III.5. Tnh chn cc thit b bo v mch ng lc
1.S mch ng lc khi c cc thit b bo v
- S mch ng lc vi y bo v m t hnh 17
2. Bo v qu nhit cho cc van bn dn
Khi van bn dn lm vic, c dng in chy qua, trn
van c st p U , do c tn hao cng sut P . Tn hao ny
sinh nhit, t nng van bn dn. Mt khc, van bn dn ch c
php lm vicdi nhit cho php (Tcp), nu qu nhit cho

70
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

php cc van bn dn s b ph hng . van bn dn lm vic an


ton, khng b chc thng v nhit, phi chn v thit k h thng
to nhit hp l.
Tnh ton cnh tn nhit:
Thng s cn c:
+) Tn tht cng sut trn mt Tiristor: P = U .Ilv = 73,4 W
P

+) Din tch b mt to nhit: STN = K .


m
Trong :
P - tn hao cng sut W

- chnh nhit so vi mi trng


Chn nhit mi trng Tmt = 400C.
Nhit lm vic cho php ca Tiristor Tcp = 1250C.
Chn nhit trn cnh tn nhit Tlv = 800C.
Tlv Tmt 40 0 C

71
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc
B

C
AP
CD

1cc

1cc 1cc
C

R
R

C
C

T2

2cc
R

2cc
C

2cc

T1
C

2cc

T4

2cc

T6

2cc

T3
C

T5

3cc

Hnh 17. Mch ng lc c cc thit b bo v


Km h s to nhit bng i lu v bc x. Chn Km = 8
W/m2 0C
Vy STN = 0,2294 m2
Chn loi cnh tn nhit c 12 cnh, kch thc mi cnh
a x b =10 x 10 (cm x cm)
Tng din tch to nhit ca cnh S TN = 12.2.10.10 =
2400 cm2
3. Bo v qu dng in cho van

72
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Aptomat dng ng ct mch ng lc, t ng ct


mch khi qu ti v ngn mch tiristor, ngn mch u ra b bin
i, ngn mch th cp my bin p ngn mch ch nghch
lu.
- Chn 1 aptomat c:
Dng in lm vic chy qua aptomat
Ilv =

S ba
3.380

50,53 A

Dng in aptomat cn chn


Im = 1,1Ilv = 1,1.50,53 = 55,58 A
Um = 380 V
C 3 tip im chnh, c th ng ct bng tay hoc bng
nam chm in. chnh nh dng ngn mch Inm = 2,5Ilv = 126 A
Dng qu ti Iqt = 1,5Ilv = 75 A
T thng s trn chn aptomat SA63B do hng FuJi ch to, c
thng s Um = 380 V,

Im = 60 A

- Chn cu dao c dng nh mc Iqt = 1,1Ilv = 50,53 A


Cu dao dng to khe h an ton khi sa cha h thng
truyn ng v dng ng, ct b ngun chnh lu khi khong
cch t ngun cp ti b chnh lu ng k.
+) Dng dy chy tc ng nhanh bo v ngn mch cc
tiristor, ngn mch u ra ca b chnh lu.
Nhm 1 cc: Dng in nh mc dy chy nhm 1 cc
I1cc = 1,1I2 = 1,1.64,83 = 73,31 A

73
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Nhm 2 cc: Dng in nh mc dy chy nhm 2 cc


I2cc = 1,1Ihd = 1,1.45,847 = 50,43 A
Nhm 3 cc: Dng in nh mc dy chy nhm 3 cc
I3cc = 1,1.Id = 1,1.79,41 = 87,35 A
Vy chn cu chy nhm: 1 cc loi 80 A
2 cc loi 50 A
3 cc loi 100 A
4. Bo v qu in p cho van
Bo v qu in p do qu trnh ng ct tiristor c thc
hin bng cch mc R C song song vi Tiristor. Khi c s chuyn
mch, cc in tch tch t trong cc lp bn dn phng ra ngoi to
ra dng in ngc trong khong thi gian ngn,

s bin thin

nhanh chng ca dng in ngc gy ra sc in ng cm ng


rt ln trong cc in cm lm cho qu in p gia Anod v Catod
ca Tiristor. Khi c mch R C mc song song vi Tiristor to ra mch
vng phng in tch trong qu trnh chuyn mch nn Tiristor
khng b qu in p.
Theo kinh nghim R1 5 30 ;

C1 0,25 4 F

Chn: R1 = 5,1 ; C1 = 0,25 F

74
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Bo v xung in p t li in ta mc mch R C nh hnh


19 nh c mch lc ny m nh xung nm li hon ton trn in
tr ng dy.
Tr s R C c chn: R2 = 12,5 ; C2 = 4 F

III.6. Tnh ton cc thng s ca mch iu khin.


S mt knh iu khin cu 3 pha c thit k theo s
hnh 4
Vic tnh ton mch iu khin thng c tin hnh t tng
khuych i ngc tr ln.
Mch iu khin c tnh xut pht t yu cu v xung m
tiristor. Cc thng s c bn tnh mch iu khin.
+ in p iu khin Tiristor:

Uk = 3 V

+ Dng in iu khin Tiristor:

Ik = 0,1 A

+ Thi gian m Tiristor:

tm = 80 s

+ rng xung iu khin tx = 2.tm = 160 s - Tng ng


khong 30 in
+ Tn s xung iu khin: fx = 3 kHz

75
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

+ mt i xng cho php: = 40


+ in p ngun nui mch iu khin: U = 12 V
+ Mc st bin xung: sx = 0,15
1.Tnh bin p xung
+ Chn vt liu lm li l st Ferit HM. Li c dng hnh
xuyn, lm vic trn
mt phn ca c tnh t ho c: B = 0,3 T, H = 30 A/m
[1], khng c khe h khng kh.
+ T s bin p xung: thng m = 2 3, chn m = 3
+ in p cun th cp my bin p: U2 = Uk = 3 V
+ in p s cp bin p xung: U1 = m.U2 = 3.3 = 9 V
+ Dng in th cp bin p xung: I2 = Ik = 0,1 A
+ Dng in s cp bin p xung: I1 =

I 2 0,1

0,033 A
m
3

- Th tch ca li thp cn c:
V = Q.L =
Trong :

0 . tb .t x .s x .U 1 .I 1
B 2

0 = 1,25.10-6 (H/m) l t thm ca khng kh

B = 0,3T
tb : t thm trung bnh tng i ca li st(

tb

B
.H = 8.103)
0

tx : rng xung iu khin


sx: mc st bin xung
U1: in p s cp bin p xung
I1: dng in s cp bin p xung
Thay V = 0,834.10-6 m3
- Chn mch t OA 20/25 6,5 c th tch V = Q.l =
0,162.7,1 = 1,15 cm3. Vi th tch ta c kch thc mch t nh
sau:

76
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

a = 2,5 mm ; b = 6,5 mm ; Q = 0,162 cm 2 = 16,2 mm2 ;


Qcs = 3,14 cm2
d = 20 mm ; D = 25 mm. Chiu di trung bnh mch t:
l = 7,1 cm.
- S vng s cp bin p xung: Theo nh lut cp ng in
t:
U1 = w1.Q.dB/dt = w.Q. B/tx
w = U1.tx/ B.Q = 227 vng
+ S vng dy th cp: W2 = w1/m = 227/3 = 75 vng
+ Tit din dy s cp: S1 = I1/J1 = 33.3.10-3/6 = 0,0056 mm2
Chn mt dng in j1 = 6 A/mm2
4 S1
0,084 mm

+ ng knh dy qun s cp: d1 =

Chn d1 = 0,1 mm; S1 = 0,00785 mm2

Hnh 20. Hnh chiu li BAX


+ Tit din dy qun th cp: S2 = I2/J2 = 0,1/4 = 0,025 mm2
Chn mt dng in J2 = 4 A/mm2
+ ng knh dy qun th cp: d2 =

4S 2
0,178 mm

Chn dy c ng knh d2 = 0,18 mm ; S2 = 0,02545


mm2
+ Kim tra h s lp y:

77
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


n mn hc
Khoa in - in t
S1 . W1 S 2 . W2 0,00785.227 0,02545.75

0,0117
Kl =
Qcs
314

Nh vy ca s din tch cn thit.


2. Tnh tng khuch i cui cng.
Chn Transistor cng sut Tr 3, Tr2 loi 2SC9111 lm vic ch
xung c cc thng s: Transistor loi npn, vt liu bn dn l S i.
in p gia Collector v Baz khi h mch Emitor: UCBO = 40 V
in p gia Emitor v Baz khi h mch Collector: UEBO = 4 V
Dng in ln nht Collector c th chu c :

Icmax = 500

mA
Cng sut tiu tn Collector : PC = 1,7 W
Nhit ln nht mt tip gip : T1 = 1750 C
H s khuch i : = 50
`

Dng lm vic ca Collector : IC = I1 = 33,3 mA


Dng lm vic ca Baz : IB = IC/ =33,3/50 = 0,66 mA
Ta thy rng vi loi tiristor chn c cng sut iu khin

kh b Uk = 3V, Ik = 0,1 A nn dng collector - Baz ca transistor


kh b, trong trng hp ny ta c th khng cn transistor m vn
c cng sut iu khin tiristor
Chn ngun cp cho bin p xung: E = +12 V ta phi mc
thm in tr R10 ni tip vi cc Collector ca Tr3.
R10 = (E U)/I1 = 90
*Tt c cc diod trong mch iu khin u dng loi 1N4009
c tham s:
+ Dng in nh mc
+ in p ngc ln nht

Im = 10 A
UN = 25 V

+ in p cho diod m thng

Um = 1 V

3. Chn cng AND


Ton b mch in phi dng 6 cng AND nn ta chn 2 IC
4081 h CMOS. Mi IC 4081 c 4 cng AND (Hnh 21), cc thng s:
Ngun nui IC : Vcc = (3 8) V, ta chn Vcc = 12 V.

78
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

800 C
in p ng vi mc logic 1: 2 4,5 V.
Nhit lm vic : - 400 C
Dng in nh hn 1 mA.
Cng sut tiu th P = 2,5 mW/1 cng.

+Vc 14 13 12 11
c

10 9

&

&

&
1

&
3

Hnh 21. S chn IC 4081

4. Chn t C3 v R9
in tr R9 dng hn ch dng in a vo Baz ca
Tranzior Tr2, chn R9 tho mn iu kin:
U

12

R9 I 2.10 3 6 k ; chon R9 = 6,8 k .


b3
Trong : U = 12 V; Ic3 = IAND =2 mA <

I c3
10 mA

Chn C3.R9 = tx =167 F . Chn C3 = 0,022 F


5.Tnh chn b to xung chm
Mi knh iu khin phi dng 4 khuch i thut ton, do
ta chn 6 IC loi TL084 do hng TaxasInstruments ch to, mi IC ny
c 4 khuch i thut ton (s chn hnh 22). Thng s ca
TL084:
in p ngun nui

Vcc = 18 V chn Vcc = 12 V

Hiu in th gia hai u vo

30 V

850 C

Nhit lm vic

T = - 25

Cng sut tiu th

P = 680 mW = 0,68 W

79
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Tng tr u vo

Rin = 106 M

Dng in u ra

Ira = 30 pA

Tc bin thin in p cho php

du
13 vng/ s
dt

14

13

12 11 10

TL08
4
1

Hnh 22. S chn


TL084
5

Mch to xung chm c tn s f x = 1/2tx = 3 kHz hay chu k ca xung


chm
T = 1/f = 334( s) ; tac: T = 2.R8.C2.ln( 2.

R8
1)
R7

Chn R6 = R7 =33 k th T = 2,2.R8.C2 = 334 s


Vy R8.C2 = 151,8 s
Chn t C2 = 0,1 F c in p U = 16 V; R8 = 1,518
thun tin cho vic iu chnh khi lp mch th ta chn
R8 l bin tr 2 k
6. Tnh chn tng so snh.
Khuch i thut ton chn loi TL084.
Trong nu chn ngun nui Vcc = 12 V th in p vo
A3 l UV

12V.

Dng in vo c hn ch Ilv < 1 mA.


Chn R4 = R5 > UV/IV = 12/1.10-3 = 12 k
Do ta chn R4 = R5 = 15 k khi dng vo A3: Ivmax =
12/15.10-3 = 0,8 mA
7. Tnh chn khu ng pha.
in p t c hnh thnh do s np ca t C 1, mt khc
bo m in p t c trong mt na chu k in p li l tuyn
tnh th hng s thi gian t np c

80
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Tr = R3.C1 = 0,005 s.
Chn t C1 = 0,1 F th in tr R3 = Tr/C1 = 0,005/0,1.10-6
Vy R3 = 50.103 = 50 k .
thun tin cho vic iu chnh khi lp rp mch R3, thng
chn l bin tr ln hn 50 k chn Tranzitor Tr1 loi A564 c cc
thng s:
Tranzitor loi pnp lm bng Si
in p gia Colector v Baz khi h mch Emitor: U CBO =
25 V
in p gia Emitor v Baz khi h mch Colector: U EBO =
7V
Dng in ln nht Collector c th chu c :

Icmax =

100 mA
Nhit ln nht mt tip gip : Tcp = 1500 C
H s khuch i : = 250
Dng cc i ca Baz : IB = IC/ =100/250 = 0,4 mA

in tr R2 hn ch dng in i vo Baz Tranzitor


Tr1 c chn nh sau:
Chn R2 tho mn iu kin: R2 UNmax/IB

12/0,4.10-3 =

30 k
Chn R2 =30 k
Chn in p xoay chiu ng pha UA = 9 V
in tr R1 hn ch dng in i vo khuch i
thut ton A1, thng chn R1 sao cho dng vo khuch i thut
ton IV < 1 mA. Do :
R1 > UA/IV = 9/1.10-3 = 9 k . Chn R1 = 10 k
8. To ngun nui
Thit k my bin p cho c vic to in p ng pha v to
ngun nui, chn kiu my bin p 3 pha 3 tr, trn mi tr c 5
cun dy (nh hnh 23), mt cun s cp v 4 cun th cp.

81
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Hnh 23. S nguyn l to ngun nui mch iu khin


Cun th cp th nht.
Cn to ra ngun in p 12 V (c n p) cp cho nui
IC, cc b iu chnh dng in, tc v in p t tc .
Ngun ny c cp bi 3 cun dy th cp a1, b1, c1.
Hai chnh lu tia 3 pha to in p ngun nui i xng
cho IC. in p th cp cc cun dy a1, b1, c1 l:
U21 =

20
14,18
2

Chn U21 = 14 V
n nh in p ra ca ngun nui ta dng 2 vi mch n
p 7812 v 7912, cc thng s chung ca vi mch ny:
in p u vo: UV = 7

35 V

in p u ra: IC 7812 c Ura = 12 V.


IC 7912 c Ura = - 12 V
Dng in u ra: Ira = 0

1 A.

T in C1, C2 dng lc thnh phn sng hi bc cao.


Chn C1 = C2 = C3 = C4 = 470 F ; U = 35 V

82
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Cun th cp my bin p th hai: a2, b2, c2 to ngun nui


cho bin p xung, cp xung iu khin cho cc Tiristor (+ 12 V). Do
mc st xung cho php tng i ln nn ngun nui khng cn
n p,. Mi khi pht xung iu khin cng sut xung ng k, nn
cn ch to cun dy ny ring r vi cun dy cp ngun IC,
trnh gy st p ngun nui IC.
Cun dy th cp th 3,4(a3, b3, c3, a4, b4, c4) l cc cun
dy ng pha. Cc cun dy ny cn ly trung thc in p
hnh Sin ca li, tt nht nn qun bin p ring. Tuy nhin, theo
kinh nghim c th qun chung vi bin p ngun nui cng c th
c.
9. Tnh ton my bin p ngun nui v ng pha.
1. in p ly ra cun dy th cp ngun nui IC: U 21 = 14 V.
2. Cng sut tiu th 6 IC TL084 s dng lm khuch i
thut ton ta chn hai IC TL084 to 6 knh iu khin v 2
cng AND.
PIC = 8.PIC = 8.0,68 = 5,12 W
3. Cng sut BAX cp cho cc iu khin Tiristor
PX = 6.UNX.Ik = 6.3.0,1 = 1,8 W
4. in p pha th cp cun dy ngun nui bin p xung a 2,
b2, c2.
U22 =

12
2. 3

4,91

V ; chn 5 V

5. in p ly ra th cp cun dy ng pha (a3, b3, c3, a4,


b4, c4) U3,4 = 5 V
6. Dng in chy qua cun dy ng pha chn 10 mA
7. Cng sut cc cun dy ng pha
Pdf = 6.Udf.Idf = 6.5.0,01 = 0,3 W
8. Cng sut s dng cho vic to ngun nui.
PN = Pdf + PIC + PX = 0,3 +5,12 + 1,8 = 7,22 W

83
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

9. Cng sut ca my bin p c k n 5% tn tht trong


my:
S = 1,05.PN = 1,05.7,22 = 7,58 VA
10. Dng in s cp my bin p.
I1 = S/3.U1 = 7,58/3.220

0,0114 A

11. Tit din tr ca my bin p c tnh theo cng thc:


Qt = kQ

S
1,34
m. f

cm2

Trong : kQ = 6 l h s ph thuc phng thc lm


mt.
m = 3 l s tr my bin p
f = 50 tn s in p li .
V kch thc ny qu nh nn ta chn chun ho tit din
tr theo bng
Qt = 1,63 cm2.
Kch thc ca mch t l thp dy = 0,5 mm
S lng l thp: 68 l,

a = 12 mm, b = 16 mm, h = 30

mm, h s p cht
Kc = 0,85

Hnh 24. Kch thc mch t bin p


12. Chn mt t cm B = 1 T trong tr ta c s vng dy
s cp:

84
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc
U1
6080 vng
4,44. f .B.QT

W1 =

13. Chn mt dng in J1 = J2 = 2,75 A/mm2


Tit din dy cun s cp:
S1 =

I 1 0,0114

0,0041 mm2
J
2,75

Dng knh dy qun s cp:


d1 =

4.S1
=0,072 mm

Chn d1 = 0,1 mm m bo bn c. ng knh


c k cch in:
d1cd = 0,12 mm.
14. S vng dy qun th cp W21:
W21 = W1.

U2
14
6080.
396 vng
U1
220

15. S vng dy th cp W22:


W22 = W1.

U 22
8,51
6080.
235 vng
U1
220

16. S vng dy qun th cp W23:


W23 = W1.

U 23
5
6080.
138 vng
U1
220

17. ng knh dy qun cc cun th cp v kch thc nh


khng ng k chn 0,26 mm:
Cc thng s cn li ca bin p ngun nui c tnh nh
gii thiu trn.
18. Tnh chn diod cho b chnh lu ngun nui:
+ Dng in hiu dng qua diod:
IDHD =

I IC
3

5,12W
0,123 A
3 2,12V
.

+ in p ngc ln nht m diod phi chu: UN


6 .U 21 2,45.14 34,3

max

85
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

+ Chn diod c dng nh mc:


Im Ki.IDHD = 10.0,123 = 1,23 A
Chn diod c in p ngc ln nht:
Un = ku.UN max = 2.34,3 = 68,6 V
Chn diod loi KII208A c cc thng s:
+ Dng in nh mc: Im = 1,5 A
+ in p ngc cc i ca diod: UN = 100 V.

Li kt
Nh vy, sau thi gian nhn v thc hin n mn hc vi
ti: cho n nay chng em hon thnh. Cng vi s n lc c
gng ca mi thnh vin, s gip nhit tnh ca bn b trong lp,
v c bit vi s hng dn tn tm ca thy gio_Thc s
Quang Huy, chng em thc hin tng i nhng yu cu c
bn m ti cng nh ca gio vin hng dn t ra.
Tuy vy, do kin thc cn hn hp, mc d nhn c rt
nhiu s gip ca thy v cc bn ng nghip nn ti ca
chng em cn nhiu sai st, chng em mong nhn c s ng
gp, ch bo ca thy c cng cc bn, ti ca chng em
hon thin hn.
Hng Yn_ngy

thng

nm 2007
Nhm sinh vin thc hin

86
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

Ti liu tham kho

1. in t cng sut Nguyn Bnh.


2. in t cng sut _l thuyt_thit k_ng dng_L
Vn Doanh, Nguyn Th Cng, Trn Vn Thnh_NXB Khoa hc
v k thut
3. Truyn ng in Bi Quc khnh, Nguyn Vn Lin i hc bch khoa H Ni.
4. iu chnh t ng truyn ng in - Bi Quc
Khnh, Nguyn Vn Lin - i hc bch khoa H Ni
87
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy

Trng hspkt Hng yn


Khoa in - in t

n mn hc

5. C s iu chnh t ng truyn ng in
Trn Th, V Quang Lp - i hc Thi Nguyn.
6. Tnh ton thit k thit b in t cng sut Trn
Vn Thnh - HBK H Ni.
7. Gio trnh in t cng sut Cho h trung hc
chuyn nghip

88
Gio vin hng dn: Quang Huy