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Serge Lang
Real and
Functional
Analysis
Third Edition
6 SpringerSpringer
New York
Berlin
Heidelberg
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Budapest
Hong Kong
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Milan
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Santa Clara
Singapore
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HCINauUCS Ae
Editorial Board
S. Axler F.W. Gehring P.R. HalmosBoos OF RELATED INTEREST BY SERGE LANG
Fundamentals of Diophantine Geometry
‘A systematic account of fundamentals, including the basic theory of heights,
Roth and Siegel's theorems, the Néron-Tate quadratic form, the Mordell-Weill
theorem, Weil and Néron functions, and the canonical form on a curve as it
related to the Jacobian via the theta function.
Introduction to Complex Hyperbolic Spaces
Since its introduction by Kobayashi, the theory of complex hyperbolic spaces
thas progressed considerably. This book gives an account of some of the most
important results, such as Brody's theorem, hyperbolic imbeddings, curvature
properties, and some Nevanlinna theory. It also includes Cartan’s proof for the
Sccond Main Thcorem, which was elegant and short.
Pili
ie Curves: Diophantine Analysis
is systematic account of the basic diophantine theory on elliptic curves starts
with the classical Weierstrass parametrization, complemented by the basic theory
‘of Néron functions, and goes on to the formal group, heights and the Mordell-
Weil theorem, and bounds for integral points. A second part gives an extensive
account of Baker's method in diophantine approximation and diophantine in-
‘equalities which were applied to get the bounds for the integral points in the
first part.
Cyclotomic Fields 1 and I
‘This volume provides an up-to-date introduction to the theory of a concrete and
classically very interesting example of number fields. It is of special interest to
number theorists, algebraic geometers, topologists, and algebraists who work in
Kaheory. This book is a combined edition of Cyclotomic Fields (GYM 59) and
Cyclotomic Fields I! (GTM 69) which are out of print. In addition to some minor
corrections, this edition contains an appendix by Karl Rubin proving the Mazur-Wiles
theorem (the “main conjecture’’) in a self-contained way.
Other Books By LANG PUBLISHED BY
SPRINGER-VERLAG
Introduction to Arakelov Theory ¢ Riemann-Roch Algebra (with William Fulton) *
‘Complex Multiplication * Introduction to Modular Forms * Modular Units (with Daniel
Kubert) * Introduction to Algebraic and Abelian Functions * Cyclotomic Fields I and I
Varieties * Differential Manifolds * Complex Analysis * Real Analysis * Undergraduate
Analysis * Undergraduate Algebra * Linear Algebra * Introduction to Linear Algebra *
Calculus of Several Variables © First Course in Calculus * Basic Mathematics *
Geometry: (with Gene Murrow) * Math! Encounters with High School Students
* The Beauty of Doing Mathematics e THE FILESerge Lang
Real and
Functional Analysis
Third Edition
With 37 Illustrations
& : SpringerSerge Lang
Department of Mathematics
Yale University
New Haven, CT 06520
USA
Editorial Board
S. Axler F.W. Gehring PR. Halmos
Department of Department of Department of
Mathematics Mathematics ‘Mathematics
Michigan State University University of Michigan Santa Clara University
East Lansing, MI 48824 ‘Ann Arbor, MI 48109 Santa Clara, CA 95053
USA USA USA
MSC 1991: Subject Classification: 26-01, 28-01, 46-01
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Lang, Serge, 1927-
Real and functional analysis / Serge Lang. — 3rd ed.
P. em. — (Graduate texts in mathematics ; 142)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-387-94001-4
|, Mathematical analysis. 1. Title. M Series.
QA300.1274 1993
‘51S—de20 92-21208
‘The previous edition was published as Real Analysis. Copyright 1983 by Addizon Wesley.
Printed on acid-free paper.
© 1993 Springer-Verlag New York, Inc.
All rights reserved. This work may not be translated or copied in whole or in part without
the written permission of the publisher (Springer-Verlag New York, Inc, 175 Fifth Avenue,
New York, NY 10010, USA) except for brief excerpts in connection with reviews or schol
arly analysis. Use in connection with any form of information storage and retrieval, elec-
tronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known
or hereafter developed is forbidden.
‘The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, tc, in this publication, even
if the former are not especially identified, is not to be taken as a sign that such names. as
understood by the Trade Marks and Merchandise Marks Act, may accordingly be used
freely by anyone.
Production coordinated by rian Howe and managed by Terry Kornak; manufacturing supervised by
Vincent Scelta.
‘Typeset by Asco Trade Typesetting Ltd., North Point, Hong Kong.
Printed and bound by R. R. Donnelley & Sons, Harrisonburg, VA.
Printed in the United States of America.
98765432
ISBN 0-38 /-94001-4 Springer-Veriag New York Beriin Heidetberg
ISBN 3-540-94001-4 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York SPIN 10545036Foreword
This book is meant as a text for a first year graduate course in analysis.
Any standard course in undergraduate analysis will constitute sufficient
preparation for its understanding, for instance, my Undergraduate Anal-
ysis. I assume that the reader is acquainted with notions of uniform con-
vergence and the like.
In this third edition, I have reorganized the book by covering inte-
gration before functional analysis. Such a rearrangement fits the way
courses are taught in all the places I know of. I have added a number of
examples and exercises, as well as some material about integration on the
real line (e.g. on Dirac sequence approximation and on Fouricr analysis),
and some material on functional analysis (e.g. the theory of the Gelfand
transform in Chapter XVI). These upgrade previous exercises to sections
in the text.
In a sense, the subject matter covers the same topics as elementary
calculus, viz. linear algebra, differentiation and integration. This time,
however, these subjects are treated in a manner suitable for the training
of professionals, i.e. people who will use the tools in further investiga-
tions, be it in mathematics, or physics, or what have you.
In the first part, we begin with point set topology, essential for all
analysis, and we cover the most important results.
I am selective here, since this part is regarded as a tool, especially
Chapters I and I. Many results are easy, and are less essential than
those in the text. They have been given in exercises, which are designed
to acquire facility in routine techniques and to give flexibility for those
who want to cover some of them at greater length. The point set topol-
ogy 2 hs of continnity, open and closed
sets, connectedness, compactness, and continuous functions. The chapter
ply de:vi FOREWORD
concerning continuous functions on compact sets properly emphasizes
results which already mix analysis and uniform convergence with the
language of point set topology.
In the second part, Chapters IV and V, we describe briefly the two
basic linear spaces of analysis, namely Banach spaces and Hilbert spaces.
The next part deals extensively with integration.
We begin with the development of the integral. The fashion has been
to emphasize positivity and ordering properties (increasing and decreas-
ing sequences). I find this excessive. The treatment given here attempts
to give a proper balance between L'-convergence and positivity. For
more detailed comments, see the introduction to Part Three and Chapter
VI.
The chapters on applications of integration and distributions provide
concrete examples and choives for leading the course in other directions,
at the taste of the lecturer. The general theory of integration in mea-
sured spaces (with respect to a given positive measure) alternates with
chapters giving specific results of integration on euclidean spaces or the
real line. Neither is slighted at the expense of the other. In this third
edition, I have added some material on functions of bounded variation,
and I have emphasized convolutions and the approximation by Dirac
sequences or families even more than in the previous editions, for in-
stance, in Chapter VIII, §2.
For want of a better place, the calculus (with values in a Banach
space) now occurs as a separate part after dealing with integration, and
before the functional analysis.
The differential calculus is done because at best, most people will only
be acquainted with it only in euclidean space, and incompletely at that.
More importantly, the calculus in Banach spaces has acquired consider-
able importance in the last two decades, because of many applications
like Morse theory, the calculus of variations, and the Nash—Moser im-
plicit mapping theorem, which lies even further in this direction since one
has to deal with more general spaces than Banach spaces, These results
pertain to the geometry of function spaces. CL. the exercises of Chapter
XIV for simpler applications.
The next part deals with functional analysis. The purpose here is
twofold, We place the linear algebra in an infinite dimensional setting
¥ raps, and we show
how one can “linearize” a problem by taking derivatives, again in a
setting where the theory can be applied to function spaces. This part
includes several major spectral theorems of analysis, showing how we can
extend to the infinite dimensional case certain results of finite dimen-
sional linear algebra. The compact and Fredholm operators have appli-
cations to integral operators and partial differential elliptic operators (e.g.
in papers of Atiyah—Singer and Atiyah—Bott),
Chapters XIX and XXEX. on unbounded hermitian operators, combineFOREWORD vii
both the linear algebra and integration theory in the study of such
operators. One may view the treatment of spectral measures as providing
an example of general integration theory on locally compact spaces,
whereby a measure is obtained from a functional on the space of contin-
uous functions with compact support.
I find it appropriate to introduce students to differentiable manifolds
during this first year graduate analysis course, not only because these
objects are of interest to differential geometers or differential topologists,
but because global analysis on manifolds has come into its own, both in
its integral and differential aspects. It is therefore desirable to integrate
manifolds in analysis courses, and I have done this in the last part, which
may also be viewed as providing a good application of integration theory.
A number of examples are given in the text but many interesting
examples are also given in the exercises (for instance, explicit formulas for
approximations whose existence one knows abstractly by the Weierstrass—
Stone theorem; integral operators of various kinds; etc). The exercises
should be viewed as an integral part of the book. Note that Chapters
XIX and XX, giving the spectral measure, can be viewed as providing
an example for many notions which have been discussed previously:
operators in Hilbert space, measures, and convolutions. At the same
time, these results lead directly into the real analysis of the working
mathematician.
‘As usual, I have avoided as far as possible building long chains of
logical interdependence, and have made chapters as logically independent
as possible, so that courses which run rapidly through certain chapters,
omitting some material, can cover later chapters without being logically
inconvenienced.
The present book can be used for a two-semester course, omitting
some material. I hope I have given a suitable overview of the basic tools
of analysis. There might be some reason to include other topics, such as
the basic theorems concerning elliptic operators. I have omitted this
topic and some others, partly because the appendices to my SL,(R)
constitutes a sub-book which contains these topics, and partly because
there is no time to cover them in the basic one year course addressed to
graduate students.
The present book can also be used as a reference for basic analysis,
since it offers the reader the opportunity to select various topics without
reading the entire book. The subject matter is organized so that it makes
the topics available to as wide an audience as possible.
There are many very good books in intermediate analysis, and inter-
esting research papers, which can be read immediately after the present
course. A partial list is given in the Bibliography. In fact, the determina-
tion of the material included in this Real and Functional Analysis has
ndviii FOREWORD
Finally, I thank all those people who have made valuable comments
and corrections, especially Keith Conrad, Martin Mohlenkamp, Takesi
Yamanaka, and Stephen Chiappari, who reviewed the book for Springer-
Verlag.
New Haven 1993/1996 SERGE LANGContents
PART ONE
General Topology
CHAPTER |
Sets .
§1. Some Basic Terminology .
§2. Denumerable Sets.
§3. Zorn’s Lemma ..
CHAPTER It
Topological Spaces
§1. Open and Closed Sets.
§2. Connected Sets .
§3. Compact Spaces
§4. Separation by Continuous Functions
§5. Exercises ..
CHAPTER IIL
Continuous Functions on Compact Sets ..
§1. The Stone—Weierstrass Theorem
§2. Ideals of Continuous Functions
§3. Ascoli’s Theorem
M4. Exercises ....
17
17
27
3
43
st
St
55
37
59x CONTENTS
PART TWO
Banach and Hilbert Spaces
CHAPTER IV
Banach Spaces
§1. Definitions, the Dual Space, and the Hahn-Banach Theorem
§2. Banach Algebras ..
§3. The Linear Extension Theorem
§4. Completion of a Normed Vector Space .
§5. Spaces with Operators ..........5
Appendix: Convex Sets .....
1. The Krein—Milman Theorem
2. Mazur’s Theorem
£6. Exercises
CHAPTER V
Hilbert Space
§1. Hermitian Forms .....-
§2. Functionals and Operators
§3. Exercises
PART THREE
Integration
CHAPTER VI
§1. Measured Spaces, Measurable Maps, and Positive Measures
§2. The Integral of Step Maps
§3. The L!-Completion ...
§4. Properties of the Integral: First Part
§5. Properties of the Integral: Second Part
§6. Approximations ..
§7. Extension of Positive Measures from Algebras to o-Algebras
§8. Product Measures and Integration on a Product Space .
§9. The Lebesgue Integral in R? .
§10. Exercises
CHAPTER vii
Duality and Representation Theorems ..................002..-- :
§1. The Hilbert Space L7(u) ..
§2. Duality Between L'(ji) and L(y)
§3. Complex and Vectorial Measures
§4. Complex or Vectorial Measures and Duality
§5. The L? Spaces, 1

5" to denote the
fact that S’ is a subset of S.
Let S, T be sets. A mapping or map f: TS is an association which
to each element xe 1° associates an element of 3, denoted by f(x), and
called the value of f at x, or the image of x under f. If T’ is a subset of
T, we denote by f(T’) the subset of S consisting of all elements f(x) for
xeT". The association of f(x) to x is denoted by the special arrow
xe flx).
We usually reserve the word function for a mapping whose values are in
the real or complex numbers. The characteristic function of a subset S' of
8 is the function y such that y(x)=1 if xe S’ and y(x)=0 if x¢ 5S’. We
often write x5 for this function.
Let X, Y be sets. A map f: X + ¥ is said to be injective if for all x,
x'eX with x #x’ we have f(x) # f(x). We say that f is surjective if
F(X) . if the image of f is all of ¥. We say that f is bijective if it
is both injective and surjective. As usual, one should index a map f by
its set of arrival and set of departure to have absolutely correct notation,
but this is too clumsy, and the context is supposed to make it clear what
these sets are. For instance, let R denote the real numbers, and R’ the4 SETS OL §1]
real numbers 2 0. The map
RoR
given by xt-+x? is not surjective, but the map
Sg: ROR
given by the same formula is surjective.
If f:X + Y is a map and S a subset of X, we denote by
SIs
the restriction of f to S, namely the map f viewed as a map defined only
on S. For instance, if f: RR’ is the map x++x?, then f is not injec-
tive, but /IR’ is iniective. We often let fe = fre be the function equal to
f on § and 0 outside 5.
‘A composite of injective maps is injective, and a composite of surjec-
tive maps is surjective. Hence a composite of bijective maps is bijective.
We denote by Q, Z the sets of rational numbers and integers respec-
tively. We denote by Z* the set of positive integers (integers > 0), and
similarly by R' the set of positive reals. We denote by N the set of
natural numbers (integers > 0), and by C the complex numbers. A map-
ping into R or C will be called a function.
Let S and I be sets. By a family of elements of S, indexed by I, one
means simply a map f:1 +S, However, when we speak of a family, we
write f(i) as fz, and also use the notation {f,},¢1 to denote the family.
Example 1. Let S be the set consisting of the single element 3. Let
T= {1,...,n} be the set of integers from 1 to n. A family of elements of
S, indexed by J, can then be written {aj}i-1,.... with each a,= 3. Note
that a family is different from a subset. The same element of S may
receive distinct indices.
A family of clements of a set $ indexed by positive integers, or non-
negative integers, is also called a sequence.
Example 2, A sequence of real numbers is written frequently in the
form
(ae Xa} or Ohaze
and stands for the map f:Z* +R such that f(i) =x, As before, note
that a sequence can have alll its elements equal to each other, that is
(41
is a sequence of integers, with x, = 1 for each ie Z*0,91 SOME BASIC TERMINOLOGY 5
‘We define a family of sets indexed by a set 7 in the same manner, that
is, a family of sets indexed by J is an assignment
ins,
which to each i€ I associates a set S,. The sets S, may or may not have
elements in common, and it is conceivable that they may all be equal.
As before, we write the family {S,}rer-
We can define the intersection and union of families of sets, just as for
the intersection and union of a finite number of sets. Thus, if {S,}se, is a
family of sets, we define the intersection of this family to be the set
Os
fet
consisting of all elements x which lie in all S, We define the union
5,
Us
to be the set consisting of all x such that x lies in some 5,.
If S, S’ are sets, we define S x S’ to be the set of all pairs (x, y) with
xeS and yeS'’. We can define finite products in a similar way. If S,,
S,,... is a sequence of sets, we define the product
HS
to be the set of all sequences (x1, xz,-..) with x,¢ 5; Similarly, if J is an
indexing set, and {5;},<1 a family of sets, we define the product
ns
fel
to be the set of all families {x;}1er with x;€ 5.
Let X, Y, Z be sets. We have the formula
(XUY) x Z=(X x DY x Z).
To prove this, let (w, z)¢(X UY) x Z with weXUY and zeZ. Then
weX orweY. Say weX. Then (w,z)eX x Z. Thus
(XUY)x Zo (X x Zu(¥ x Z).
ly, Xv Z 1Y) x Z and en is Y x Z Hence
their union is contained in (XU Y) x Z, thereby proving our assertion.6 SETS Ls)
We say that two sets X, Y are tif their intersection is empty.
We say that a union Xu ¥ is disjoint if X and Y are disjoint. Note that
if X, Y are disjoint, then (X x Z) and (Y x Z) are disjoint.
We can take products with arbitrary families. For instance, if {Xi}ier
is a family of sets, then
(yx)xz- Yours
If the family {X;},,1 is disjoint (that is X,9 X, is empty if i#/ for i,
je), then the sets X, x Z are also disjoint.
We have similar formulas for intersections. For instance,
(XN Y) x Z=(X x Z)A(Y x Z).
We leave the proof to the reader.
Let X be a set and Y a subset. The complement of Y in X, denoted
by GY, or X — Y, is the set of all elements xX such that x¢ ¥. If ¥,
Z are subsets of X, then we have the following formulas:
CAV UZ) = GY OG eZ,
GV AZ) = GY OG.
These are essentially reformulations of definitions. For instance, suppose
xeX and x¢(¥UZ), Then x¢¥ and x¢Z. Hence xe ¥AGqZ.
Conversely, if xe@Y AZ, then x lies neither in Y nor in Z, and
hence x €6(Y UZ). This proves the first formula. We leave the second
to the reader. Exercise: Formulate these formulas for the complement of
the union of a family of sets, and the complement of the intersection of a
family of sets.
Let A, B be sets and f: A+B a mapping. If Y is a subset of B, we
define f-*(¥) to be the set of all x € A such that f(x)e ¥. It may be that
1 -*(Y) is empty, of course. We call f-!(¥) the inverse image of Y (under
‘f). If f is injective, and Y consists of one element y, then f~*({y}) is
either empty or has precisely one element.
The following statements are easily proved:
If f: A+B is a map, and Y, Z are subsets of B, then
IV UZ)=fNvf"(Z),
INV OD =I "(YN 0S(),
More generally, if {¥%};¢1 is a family of subsets of B, thenOL §2] DENUMERABLE SETS 7
and simiiariy for the intersection. Furthermore, if we denote by ¥ —
the set of all elements ye Y and y ¢ Z, then
LV =2Z)= IN - I".
IGx2) = Ef (2)-
In particular,
Thus the operation f~! commutes with all set theoretic operations.
|, §2. DENUMERABLE SETS
Let n be a positive integer. Let J, be the set consisting of all integers k,
1**, a contradiction, proving
that c= and that [a, b] is compact.
One can generalize to arbitrary compact sets some standard theorems
on closed intervals, eg.:
Proposition 3.10. Let A be a compact set, and f: A-+R a continuous
function on A. Then f has a maximum (a point ce A such that
SO Z Sle) for all xe A).
Proof. The image f(A) is compact, so closed and bounded. The least
upper bound of f(A) lies in f(A), thus proving our assertion.
If A is a subset of a normed vector space, and if f:A>F is a
continuous map into some normed vector space F, then we say that f is
uniformly continuous on A if given ¢ there exists 6 such that whenever
x, yeA and |x—y| <6, then [f(x) — f(y) 0 he
such that if |y—x| **

1) such that and call q the dual exponent of p. We have the basic inequalities for real a, b > 0: «) arpa 24? Po (9) (: + y S yor +b”), There are several easy proofs for this. Either take the log of both sides and use the convexity of the log, or proceed as follows. If t = 1, then tt prs 4 S> q as one sees by differentiating both sides, evaluating at ¢ = 1, and seeing that the derivative on the right is bigger than the derivative on the left. Suppose now that a/b 21; the inequality (*) drops out at once. The other is proved similarly. We let £°(u) be the set of maps f on X which are p-measurable, and such that [f|? lies in #7. Theorem 5.1. Let 1

,- Then the map gr+A, is norm-
preserving isomorphism of L*(u) onto the dual space of L?(u).
Proof. We consider first as usual the case when p(X) is finite. Our
map g++ A, is certainly an injective linear map, and we have
[41 < loll,
by Holder's inequality. Let us prove that it is surjective. Let A be a
functional on L°(y). Then 2 can be viewed as a -continuous, j-bounded
functional on L(y) because if g is a bounded measurable map, then g is
in 2?(y) and if C = |AJ, then
uN
[AQIS Clg, = e(f, la? x) ” $ Catan)”.
If we replace X by A for any measurable A, and g by gy, we get
the same estimate with u(X) replaced by u(A). We can therefore apply
Corollary 4.4 of the Radon-Nikodym theorem (vectorial case). There
exists a map f ¢ £'(y) such that dv = f dy as a functional on L(y). We
shall prove that in fact, f lies in #%(y). Let ¥, be the set of x such that
[/G)| Sn. We first get a bound for the integral of |f|? over ¥,. Let
Lgl
be
t Gn De OG
usual, dividing by [fl is to be understood as 1/1/09] if fons ‘4 0-and 0 if212 DUALITY AND REPRESENTATION THEOREMS CVU, §5]
f(x) =0. Then g, is bounded, |g|” = |f|%, and
0) f om Pra f Ls dp
x "
uP
=AGn) S ClGallp S (f er x)
%
From this we conclude that
a
(f wolf a) 2c
x
By the monotone convergence theorem, it follows that [f|* I
whence |f| lies in Y* and Iifl, $|Al-
The functionals 4 and f du have the same effect on step maps, which
are dense in ¥*. Therefore they are equal on #%(y). This proves our
theorem when ji(X) is finite.
As for the g-finite case, we consider a decomposition X = () Xy (dis-
joint union of sets of finite measure). For each X, we can find a function
‘fe that lies in £%(y) and is 0 outside X,, and such that f, du represents 4
over X,. Let he P(x) be arbitrary and let h, be the same map as h on
X, and 0 outside X,. Then the series
Pa
is L?-convergent to h, say by the dominated convergence theorem, and
therefore by the continuity of 2 we have
ah= ¥ Ah).
mi
For each k we have th = Chk fu. ‘If we let f=) f,, it follows that
1= f du on £%(y). This concludes the proof of the L*-duality theorem.
The proof follows the classical pattern (see R fRu tor
Loomis [Lo]), granted the L? and (L', L®)-duality theorem. For the
general case when E is a Banach space, and one wants L*(y, E’) to be
dual to L"(u, E) for 1 $ p < co, cf. Dinculeanu [Din], §13, Corollary 1 of
Theorem &, where this is proved under some countability assumption.
The next theorem gives an example of an integral operator in the[VII, §6] THE LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS 213
Theorem 5.6. Let iS pS co and C>0. Let K be a measurable Junc-
tion on X x X such that
f IK(x, Mdiy) $C for all xe X
x
jf IK@& idee) SC forall yex.
x
Let fe L(y). Then the function Sxf defined by
Sxf() = [ K(x, Wy) duty)
ig defined for almost all x, and is in LPs). Furthermore,
ISxfllp S CI,
Proof. We leave the proof as an exercise. The L?-case is especially
interesting. Cf. Exercises 9-13 of Chapter XVII.
Vil, §6. THE LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS
I cannot resist giving an application of integration theory to a proba-
bilistic setting which shows integration theory at work. This consists of
the “law of large numbers” in a suitable formulation. I follow the expo-
sition of [La-T]. This section can be read immediately after §1, as an
application of the definitions and convergence theorems in §1 concerning
2
We assume that the reader has done the exercise of extending the
notion of product measures to denumerable products. Specifically, we
use the following theorem.
Let (Xq, My, fn) be a sequence of measured spaces such that p4(X,) = 1
for almost all n (meaning for all but a finite number of 1). Let -# be
the o-ulyebra in ihe product space
x=T1%
generated by all sets
A=] An
M,, and A,=X, for almost all n. Then there exists a
”214 DUALITY AND REPRESENTATION THEOREMS CVU, §6]
unique measure jon (X, M) such that for all such sets A we have
u(A) = T] 4,(4,)-
We call 1p = (®t, the product measure.
In the sequel we assume that in fact u,(X,) = 1 for all n, We view X
as our probability space.
Theorem 6.1. Suppose given a measurable subset S, of X, for each n.
Assume that the limit exists,
Tim p4,(S,) = Le
such that x, € S, exists and is equal to L. This mean:
. #{nSN,x,€5,} _
im ——— =
The above theorem has a simple intuitive content, but some applica-
tions require a stronger version, as follows.
Theorem 6.2. Suppose given a measurable subset S, of X, for each n.
Let {b,} be a sequence of positive real numbers tending monotonically to
infinity. Assume that
1
L peels.) < ov.
Then for almost all sequences x we have
x
#{NSN, x,€S,} = Y pa(Sn) + 0(0y),
a
where o(by)/by +0 as N > 00.
The first theorem is obtained from the second by putting b, =n. We
shall now prove the theorem.
The first lemma, due to Kolmogoroff and formulated by him in proba-
bilistic terms, will be a refinement of the fundamental lemma of integra-
tion theory, which asserts that given an L' (or L?) Cauchy sequence,
there exists a subsequence that converges absolutely almost everywhere.
Here we give up on absuluie convergenve, but have conditions which
make the full sequence converge pointwise almost everywhere.[Vn §6] THE LAW OF LARGE NUMBERS 215
emma 6.3. For each n iet it, be a function on X,, aiso viewed as a
function on X by projection on the n-th factor. Assume that
Ho) = Sino)
be the partial sum. Assume that ¥|\h,||3 converges. Then the limit
lim H,(x)
exists for almost all x € X.
Proof. We first note that the functions h, are mutually orthogonal
on X. The heart of the proof lies in the next statement.
Kolmogoroff’s Inequality. Given 6, let
Zz frex, max H}(x) =
isks
Then
entZ) s&h.
Proof. Let
¥ = {xe X such that H?(x) 2 ¢ and H?(x)

* 0 such that
J Slxyxre™ d(x) = 0
®
for all n 20, then f(x) =0 for p-almost all x. Note: Actually, (b) implies (a).
[Hint for (a): Show that the integral in Exercise 12 is analytic in t for t at a
distance S c/q from the real line, and 0 near the origin. You can also use
the exercises at the end of Chapter III.)
Examples. Taken dy(x) = e~*" dx, We get the completeness of the Her-
mite polynomials. For the Laguerre polynomials, one takes dy(x) = h(x) dx,
where h(x) =0 if x <0 and h(x) =e™* if x20. And similarly for the other
classical polynomials, which are obtained by applying the orthogonalization
process to {x"}.
14, Let X be compact and let j be a regular measure on X. Let A be a
of X having the following property. For every continuous function f on X
we have
1
mon
) tim =F fad = fr du
Let N(A,n) be the number of indices i 0, and such that
lim vf er duis) = C
ro Jo
for some positive constants r and C. If f is a continuous function on [0, 1],
then
10
lim £ Slee dylx) = wo fc Slee dt.
[Hint: By Weierstrass’ approximation, it suffices to prove the theorem
when f is a polynomial, and hence when f(x) = x'. This is done by direct
computation.}
For an application of Karamata’s theorem, see [BGV, p. 95].
16. Let 1 be a finite positive regular Borel measure on R. Assume that
for all neZ.
J el d(x) =
R
Prove that 1 = 0.CHAPTER X
Riemann-Stieltjes Integral
and Measure
This chapter gives an example of a measure which arises from a func-
tional, defined essentially by generalizations of Riemann sums. We get
here into special aspects of the real line, as distinguished from the general
theory of integration on general spaces.
X, §1. FUNCTIONS OF BOUNDED VARIATION
AND THE STIELTJES INTEGRAL
Let us start with a finite interval [a,b] on the real line. To each
partition
P= [a= Xo, X15 -109%q = 5)
we associate its size,
o(P) = size P = max (xp1 — x).
.
E
S: [a,b] > E
be a mapping of the interval into a Banach space. Let P be a pattition
of [a, 6] as above. We define the variation Vp(f) to be
, Wess) — Fo)[X81] FUNCTIONS OF BOUNDED VARIATION 279
We define the variation
VN) = sup VoD,
where the sup (least upper bound if it exists, otherwise oo) is taken over
all partitions. If V(/) is finite, then f is called of bounded variation, and
fis bounded.
Examples. If f is real valued, increasing, and bounded on [a, b}, then
J is obviously of bounded variation, in fact bounded by f(b) — fia).
If f is differentiable on [a,b] and f" is bounded, then f is of bounded
variation (mean value theorem). This is so in particular if f is of class
a.
The mappings of bounded variation form a vector space. In fact, if f
and y atc of buunded variation, then for ae C,
VS+NSVP)+Vig) and Vas) =lalV(f).
In other words, denoting by BV({a, b]) the space of mappings of bounded
variation, we see that the variation V is a seminorm on BV([a, b]).
Let f, g have values in Banach spaces E, F respectively, and suppose
given a product (bilinear map) E x F+G into a Banach space, denoted
(4, v)->uv, and satisfying |w| *