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WCDMA RAN Protocols and Procedures

Agenda
oWCDMA System Architecture
oRadio interface
oIUB ,IUR and Iu interface
oRRC (Radio Resource controller )Protocols
oRLC (Radio link controller) Protocols
oMAC and Physical layer function

WCDMA System Architecture

PCU

Abis

BTS

MSC / VLR

BSC
GSM BSS

GMSC

Gb

IP
Network
SGSN

GGSN

Iu-CS
Iu-Ps

Nodeb

Iub

Iu

RNC

MGW

WCDMA Systems RAN

SGSN
Handle the PS services to and from the UE.
Forwards incoming and outgoing IP packets addressed to/from an UE that is attached within the SGSN SA
Provides functions such as ciphering and authentication, session management and mobility management
GGSN
Interface to the external IP packet network
MGW
Connects the Core Network to the RNC
CS traffic.
Cross connection between the RNC and the SGSN.

WCDMA RAN Interfaces.

Uu

Iub

Iu

RNC

MSC
MGW

IUR
SGSN
RNC

UE

WCDMA RAN
NAS messages

Every interface contains protocols used over it.


Protocol used over the Iub interface
oNode B Application Part Protocol (NBAP).
Protocol used over the Iur interface
oRadio Network Subsystems Application Part (RNSAP).
Protocol used over the Iu interface
oRadio Access network application part(RNAP)
NAS Messages
oSignaling between the UE and CN directly

GGSN

Core Network

WCDMA RAN Interfaces (Contd).


CS Domain
IuCS

Signaling

MSC
MGW

data

PS Domain

IuPS

GGSN

RNC
In band Signaling
Direct tunneling

IuBc

SGSN

Broadcast domain

CBC
Cell Broadcast center

WCDMA RAN
Core Network
The Iu interface to the circuit switched domain, i.e. to the MSC, is referred to as IuCS.
The Iu interface to the packet switched domain, i.e. to the SGSN, is referred to as IuPS.

Protocols in WCDMA RAN


UE needs to contact the network which can be triggered either by:
oSystem information (Location Area Updating or Routing Area Updating)
oTimer expiring (Periodic Registration)
oPaging message received
oUE wants to initiate a call setup (Mobile Originating)

Exchange of signals between two entities.


oWhat nodes are involved ?
o What kind of information needs to be exchanged over the different interfaces?

Why protocol ?
oTo be able to understand the kind of signaling messages that need to be sent and how they are transmitted
over the interfaces

Protocols in WCDMA RAN(Contd)


Location Update
UE performs location updating
oTo keep the network up to date with the subscribers location .
oUE doesnt miss incoming calls
How the UE gets information regarding the Location Area Identity (LAI) of the serving cell ?
oWhen the UE is idle, it listens to the system information on BCCH.

Example :LOCATION UPDATING

1
2

2
3
4
5

RNC

1UE reads from system information that the LAI is not the same as that stored in the USIM. This triggers the
UE to update the location area.

2UE tries to access the network and sends a request message to the RNC, via the RBS
The RNC checks if it is possible to allocate a dedicated channel to the UE.
3 Resources in the RBS and over the Iub interface are reserved by the RNC and are ACK by the RBS
4. Information about the new channel is sent to the UE with a setup message.
5. Synchronization is achieved between the UE and the RBS, and the UE sends a complete message.

Location Update and Routing area update(Contd)


1
2

2
3
4
5

RNC
MSC

13

6
9
12

VLR

8
10
11

HLR

6The UE sends the request to update the location information to the CN.
oThis message also carries the IMSI and LAI.
oIu signaling bearer is set up between the RNC and the CN.
oThere is now a signaling connection between the UE and the CN.
oAs this is the first time the UE accesses this service area the subscriber is unknown in the VLR.
7The VLR sends a request to the subscribers HLR for Authentication Information.
8 The HLR sends this information to the VLR.
9MSC/VLR starts to authenticate the subscriber.
oThis message is transparent over WCDMA RAN.
10After Authentication, the VLR asks the HLR to update its Location information for the IMSI and with the
new VLR address
11 VLR receives an acknowledgement from the HLR.
12The MSC/VLR transmits an acceptance to the UE, UE updates the location information in the USIM.

13 The signaling connection is released. First the UE is told to release the connection then the RBS

LAYERED STRUCTURE OF PROTOCOLS

LAYERED STRUCTURE OF PROTOCOLS


oSignaling message travels down in the protocol stack of the sending node.
oThe layers on the way add their specific information to the original message.
oMessage arrives at a receiving node.
oHandled upwards in the protocol stack, each layer in the receiving node analyzing information added by the peer
protocol.

User Data

Correction

010

10010

addressing 110010

010

Peer layers

10010

110010

INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE (Uu)

UE

INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, UU


The interface is layered into three protocol layers:
oThe physical layer (L1);
oThe data link layer (L2);
o Network layer (L3)

Network layer (L3)

Layer 3

Data link layer (L2)

Layer 2

Physical layer (L1)

Layer 1

INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu


Layer 3 (Network layer )
oLayer 3 consists of one protocol, called Radio Resource Control (RRC), which belong to the control plane.
o Function of RRC is to establish Signaling Radio Bearers between the UE and the RNC to handle most of the
control signals.
oRRC controls the lower layers
Control Plane

NAS
RRC

Layer 3

Note :
oMessages that are not meant for the RAN but for the CN are called Non Access Stratum (NAS)
oTransferred transparently over the WCDMA RAN.

INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)


Layer 2 (Data link layer)
oLayer 2 is split into different sub layers.
A Radio Link Control (RLC)

BMedium Access Control (MAC)

Control Plane

User Plan (User data)

NAS
Layer 3

RRC
Signaling Radio Bearers

Radio Bearers

RLC
MAC
RLC layer (Radio Link Control)
oRLC layer provides service in both
AControl plane is called Signaling Radio Bearer (SRB)
oSignaling Radio Bearer, SRB
Signaling messages between the UE and the RNC.
oRadio Bearer, RB.
User data transport between the UE and the RNC.

Layer 2

BUser plane it is called a Radio Bearer (RB).

INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)


oRLC make sure the messages have correct length
Long messages convert them to segments
Short messages add padding bits to them
oRLC instance is configured by RRC to operate in one of three modes depending on the service :
Transparent Mode (TM).
User Plan (User data)
Control Plane
Unacknowledged Mode (UM) ,
SRB
RB
Acknowledged Mode (AM),

RLC

oRLC map messages on different logical channels.

Logical Channels

Logical Channels

logical channels

Control Channels

Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH, DL)


Downlink channel for broadcasting system information.

Traffic Channels
Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH, DL & UL)
Pointtopoint channel, dedicated to one UE,
Transferring user Information.

Paging Control Channel (PCCH, DL)


Downlink channel that transfers paging information

Common Traffic Channel (CTCH, DL)

Common Control Channel (CCCH, DL & UL)


Used by the UE needs to access the network.

Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH, DL & UL)


Pointtopoint bidirectional channel
Transmits dedicated control information between UE and network.

Traffic channel for sending traffic to a group of UEs

INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)


MAC layer Medium Access Control
oLogical channels received from the RLC layer are mapped onto the transport channels.
oMultiplex signaling and data to transport channels

RLC

Layer 2

RLC
Logical Channels

Logical Channels

MAC
Transport Channels

Transport channels

Common transport channel(Several users use the same channel)


Broadcast Channel (BCH) (DL)
Continuous transmission of system and cell information

Paging Channel (PCH) (DL)


When the network wants to initiate communication
with the terminal.

Random Access Channel (RACH) (UL)


The RACH is an uplink transport channel used to make requests to set
up a connection

Forward Access Channel (FACH) (DL)


Control signaling during call setup
Packet data transmission in low rates
High Speed Downlink Shared Channel (HSDSCH)(DL)
HSDPA

Dedicated transport channel


(For exclusive use of one user)
Dedicated Channel (DCH) (UL & DL)
Service data, such as speech frames

Logical Channel

BCCH
Broadcast Control Ch.
PCCH
Paging Control Ch.
CCCH
Common Control Ch.
CTCH
Common Traffic Ch.
DCCH
Dedicated Control Ch.
DTCH
Dedicated Traffic Ch.

Transport Channels

Physical Channels
CPICH
Common Pilot Channel (Aids
channel estimation )

BCH
Broadcast Ch.

PCCPCH(*)
Primary Common Control Physical
Ch.

PCH
Paging Ch.

SCCPCH
Secondary Common Control
Physical Ch.

FACH
Forward Access Ch.
DCH
Dedicated Ch.
DCH
Dedicated Ch.

M
U
X

DPDCH (one or more per UE)


Dedicated Physical Data Ch.

DPCCH (one per UE)


Dedicated Physical Control Ch.
Pilot /TPC /TFCI
AICH Acknowledges that RBS has
acquired a UE Random Access attempt
(Acquisition Indicator Channel)

HSDPA
HSDSCH
High Speed DL
Shared Ch.

PICH
(Paging Indicator Channel )
HS PDSCH (one or more per UE)
High Speed Physical Downlink
shared Ch
HSSCCH (<=4 per UE)
High Speed Shared Control Ch

S/P

CH Code

SC code

Gain

I/Q
Modulator

Channel mapping
Logical Channel

Physical Channel

Transport Channel
Common Control
Channel (CCCH)

Primary Common Control Physical


Channel (PCCPCH)

Broadcast Channel (BCH)


RBS
DCCH /DTCH
Forward Access Channel
(FACH)

Paging Control Channel


(PCCH)

Broadcast Control
Channel (BCCH)

Paging Channel (PCH)

RACH

Secondary Common Control


Physical Channel (SCCPCH)

Physical Random Access Channel


(PRACH)

Dedicated Physical Data Channel


(DPDCH)

UE
DCH

Dedicated Physical Control


Channel (DPCCH)

DSCH
Physical Downlink Shared Channel
(PDSCH)

Physical Common Packet Channel


(PCPCH)

INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)


Different MAC entities depend on the traffic type:
oMACb handles the transport channel for the broadcast channel.
oMACc handles the transport channels for common channels
oMACd handles all dedicated transport channels
oMAChs handles the HSDSCH transport channels
oMACe handles the EUL

INTRODUCTION TO RADIO INTERFACE, Uu (Contd)


Layer 1 (physical layer)
oTransport channels are mapped onto the
physical layer.
oModulation
oCoding
oSpreading
oScrambling
oMapped to combination of:
Carrier frequency
Codes (channelization/scrambling code pair)
Relative phase (UL only)

Control Plane

User Plan (User data)

NAS
Layer 3

RRC
RB

SRB

RLC
Logical Channels

Logical Channels

MAC

Layer 2

Transport Channels

Physical Layer

Layer 1

Exchanges of signaling and user data between the UE and the UTRAN
Node
B

Control Plane

RNC
Control Plane

User Plan (User data)

User Plan (User data)

L3

RRC

RRC

L3

SRB
Radio Bearer
RLC

RLC

Logical Channels

Logical Channels

L2

MAC

MAC

Transport Channels

FP
Transport Channels

FP

Layer
1
PHY

L1

L2

AAL2

AAL2
ATM
ATM
Layer
1

PHY

L1

CNCS
Signaling connection
UTRAN
CNPS
Signaling connection

RAB

Radio Bearer

SC

SRB

Iu Signaling Bearer

Iu Bearer

oSC provides confidential transport of signaling between UE and CN


oRAB provides confidential transport of user data between UE and CN
oThe signaling Radio Bearers, SRB, can carry layer 3 signaling (RRC connection establishment),
oA Radio Bearer responsible for transfer of data between UE and UTRAN.
oRadio bearers are mapped successively on logical channels, transport channels and physical channels

CN

RNC

RRC Channel

Iu Signaling Bearer

Signaling Radio Bearer


Signaling Connection
Traffic Channel

Iu Bearer

Radio Bearer
RAB

RNC

CN

Conversational Voice Call


HSDPA RAB Streaming (TV)
HSDPA RAB interactive (Browsing)
HSDPA RAB Background (Email)
IuPS Signaling (RANAP)
SGSN

SRB
IuCS Signaling (RANAP)
oA user can have several RABs in case several services are required for this user.

MGW

Four Major traffic classes can be identified:

Traffic class

Fundamental
characteristics

Conversational
class
conversational RT

Streaming class
streaming RT

Interactive class
Interactive best
effort

Background
Background best
effort

High Protection
as there is no
Retransmission
Protocol
No Delays in both
ways

High Protection
as there is no
Retransmission
Protocol

Request and
Response
Re transmission
Protocols are used

Delays are
Accepted

Web browsing

Emails

Mini Delay
(Buffers
compensate the
Delays)

Example of the
application

voice

streaming video

Exchanges of signaling between the UE and the CN


oExample for protocols used when delivering message from UE to CN
oMessage from UE to CN (NAS message)

NAS includes Mobility Management (Location area update)


Short Message Services (SMS).

NAS messages

Uu

Nod
eB

IU

RNC

IUB
Peer

NAS

CN
NAS

RRC

RRC

RANAP

RANAP

RLC

RLC
MAC

SCCP
MTP 3b

SCCP
MTP 3b

FP

FP

NNI SAAL

NNI SAAL

AAL2

AAL2

AAL5

AAL5

ATM

ATM

ATM

ATM

Layer
1

Layer
1

Layer 1

Layer 1

MAC

Layer 1

Layer
1

RRC (Radio Resource Controller)

RRC (Radio Resource Controller)

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


RRC provides the following functions:
Broadcast of system information
Initial cell selection and cell reselection.
Paging.
Establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE and RAN.
Transparent message transfer.
Establishment, reconfiguration and release of Radio Bearers.
oCapacity managements .
RRC connection mobility functions.
oHandover evaluation
UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting.
oTake the decisions based on measurements report

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


Example for RRC Messages..
oURA Update
oRRC Connection Request
oURA Update Confirm
oRRC Connection Setup
oCell Update
oRRC Connection Reject
oCell Update Confirm
oRRC Connection Setup Complete
oActive Set Update
oRRC Connection Release
oActive Set Update Complete
oRRC Connection Release Complete
oActive Set Update Failure
oPaging Type 1 (CS Idle)
oCell Change Order From WCDMA RAN
oPaging Type 2 (CS connected)
oCell Change Order From WCDMA RAN Failure
oRadio Bearer Setup
oRadio Bearer Setup Complete
oRadio Bearer Setup Failure
oRadio Bearer Reconfiguration
oRadio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete
oRadio Bearer Reconfiguration Complete Failure
oRadio Bearer Release
oRadio Bearer Release Complete
oRadio Bearer Release Failure
oPhysical Channel Reconfiguration
oPhysical Channel Reconfiguration Complete
oPhysical Channel Reconfiguration Complete Failure

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


RRC FUNCTIONS AND PROCEDURES
1 BROADCAST OF SYSTEM INFORMATION
The System Information messages are sent on BCCH logical channel
BCCH on BCH or FACH

DL idle

BCCH (Logical)

BCH(Transport)

DL FACH

BCCH (Logical)

FACH(Transport)

WCDMA RAN

PCCPCH(*)
Primary Common Control Physical Ch.
SCCPCH
Secondary Common Control
Physical Ch..

The UE reads system information on the BCCH when following occur:


The UE is powered up
The UE changes cell in Idle mode or in state CELL_FACH
The UE is informed of a change of System Information.
The UE moves from dedicated mode to common mode

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION
After the UE has read the system information, it shall use the cell selection and Reselection parameters
and choose the most suitable cell to camp on.

Cell selection procedure


oThe cell consider as accepted if
Squal > 0 and Srxlev > 0
oSqual = Qqualmeas qQualMin (For WCDMA)
Qqualmeas is CPICH Ec/No
qQualMin is minimum required Ec/No
oSrxlev = Qrxlevmeas qRxlevMin (for all cells)
Qrxlevmeas is CPICH RSCP
qRxlevMin is minimum required RSCP
Cell selection occurs when
UE is switched on
UE goes from common channel(cellFACH) to idle mode
UE goes from connected mode (cellDCH) to idle
UE goes to idle mode after an emergency call on any PLMN
UE in idle mode has had a number of failed RRC connection request

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure
3G F1

3G F2

GSM

3G F1
When it occurs
When cell on which it is camping is no longer suitable
When there is any neighbor with better quality than the selected one
When the UE in the limited service state on an acceptable cell
When the UE is in cell _FACH state

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
1 Intra frequency measurements starts when
Squal <= Sintrasearch
SintraSearch : Controls when intrafrequency measurements are performed
Qqualmeas qQualMin <= Sintrasearch
Qqualmeas <= Sintrasearch + qQualMin

2. Inter frequency measurements starts when


Squal <= SinterSearch
Sintersearch : Controls when intrafrequency measurements are performed
Qqualmeas qQualMin <= SinterSearch
Qqualmeas <= SinterSearch + qQualMin

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
3. GSM measurements starts when
Squal <= sRatSearch
Qqualmeas <= sRatSearch + qQualMin
OR Srxlev <= SHcsRat
Qqualmeas <= sHcsRat + qrxlevmin
sRatSearch : Controls quality (Ec/No)Threshold at which GSM measurements are performed
SHcsRat : Controls Signal Strength Threshold at which GSM measurements are performed

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)

Qqualmeas

14
SRAT Search=4dB

Qqualmin
18
GSM measurement
Qqualmeas <= Sintrasearch + qQualMin

Time

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
QRxlevmeas

112
sHcsRat =3dB

Qrxlevmin
115

GSM measurement
Qqualmeas <= sHcsRat + qrxlevmin

Time

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
oWhen the UE triggers a cell reselections procedure it starts ranking for the cell satisfy Scriteria
o(Squal > 0 and Srxlev > 0)
oRanking is done for the serving cell and the neighbor cell
oR(serving)= Qmeas(s)+qHyst(s)
oR(neighbor)= Qmeas(n)qOffset(s,n)
oQmeas: is the quality value of the received signal
oCPICH Ec/No
oCPICH RSCP
oqHyst(s): hystersis value sent to mobile in system information used to delay the reselection
oqHyst1 if the ranking based on CPICH RSCP
oqHyst2 if the ranking based on CPICH Ec/No
oqOffset(s,n): is the offset between the serving and the neighbor cell also used to shift the cell boarder
oqOffset1sn : if the ranking based on RSCP.
oqOffset2sn : if the ranking based on Ec/No
oqualMeasQuantity
oParameter that determine if we will do the ranking based on RSCP or Ec/No
o The UE reslect the better cell if it stay better for time interval more than Treselection

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)

Qmeas
R(S)

R(n) >R(S)

qHyst2=4

Qmeas(n)

R(n)

qOffset2SN=o

Qmeas(S)

TreSelection

Cell ReSelection to Neig

Time

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


2 INITIAL CELL SELECTION AND CELL RESELECTION (Contd)
Cell reselection procedure(Contd)
UMTS to GSM cell Reselection
Qmeas
R(S)

Scriteria
Srxlev > 0
Srxlev > Qrxlevmeas qRxlevMin

qHyst1=4

Qmeas(n) (GSM)
qoffset1SN
R(N)

qrxlevmin
+SHcsSearch
Cell ReSelection to Neig (GSM)
Qrxlevmin

TreSelection
R(N)>R(S)
Qmeas(S)< qrxlevmin+SHcsSearch
GSM measurements

Qmeas(S)

Time

3G States Introduction

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd

CELL DCH
DL/UL

Cell FACH
DL /UL
Cell PCH
DL only

Idle

oUE has dedicated channel


o(DCCH) for control signaling
o (DTCH) is used for user data Transmission
oDCCH and DTCH are mapped onto dedicated transport channels (DCH).
oThe UE performs measurements and sends reports to the RNC

oUE has no dedicated channel allocated


oUE uses the common channels, RACH and FACH, for signaling messages and
small amounts of data (Transport Channels)
oUE needs to send Cell Update messages to RNC every time it selects a new cell.
oUE can only be reached via the Paging Indicator Channel (PICH).
oBattery consumption of the UE very low because:
PICH includes (DRX) functionality.
UE does not have to monitor the FACH any more.
If the network initiates any activity
Page the UE.
When the UE receives the paging it changes to the CELL_FACH state
performs a Cell Update.
IF UE initiates any activity
it triggers a switch to the CELL_FACH state
oA UE on FACH is switched down to Cell_PCH if it shows no activity for a long
period of time (system resources are freed)
oWhen extended inactivity on both the uplink and the downlink, a Cell_PCH state
will be switched down to IDLE

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


3 PAGING
This procedure is used to transmit paging information to selected UE in
oIdle mode
oCELL_PCH or URA_PCH state.
oCell FACH and Cell DCH

oPICH is used to indicate to the UE when it should read the SCCPCH (Physical channels)
Idle /PCH
CELL_DCH
CELL_FACH

DL Idle
DL DCH
FACH

PCCH (Logical)
Paging Control Ch.

DCCH(Logical)

Paging type 1 PCCH/PCH

WCDMA RAN

Paging type 2 DCCH

WCDMA RAN

PCH (Transport)
Paging Ch.

FACH (Transport)

SCCPCH (Physical)
Secondary Common Control
Physical Ch.

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


4ESTABLISHMENT, MAINTENANCE AND RELEASE OF RRC CONNECTION
RRC Connection Establishment
RNC
RRC Connection Request CCCH/RACH

RRC Connection Setup CCCH/FACH


WCDMA RAN
Connected
Mode

RRC Connection Setup Complete DCCH/DCH

UL

CCCH (Logical Channel)


Common Control Ch.

RACH (Transport Channel)


Forward Access Ch.

PRACH
(Physical Ch.)

DL

CCCH (Logical Channel)


Common Control Ch.

FACH (Transport Channel)


Forward Access Ch.

SCCPCH
Secondary Common Control (Physical Ch.)

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


4ESTABLISHMENT, MAINTENANCE AND RELEASE OF RRC CONNECTION (Contd)
Establishment Cause for RRC connection
oOriginating Conversational Call
oOriginating Streaming Call
oOriginating Interactive Call
oOriginating Background Call
oTerminating Conversational Call
oTerminating Streaming Call
oTerminating Interactive Call
oTerminating Background Call
oEmergency Call
oInterRAT Cell ReSelection
oInterRAT Cell Change Order
oRegistration
oDetach
oCall ReEstablishment

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


Release the RRC connection cause
When contact with the UE is considered lost
When RAN has received a request from the CN to release the signaling connection.
RAN detects a need to release the connection.

RNC
CELL_DCH

DCCH:RRC Connection Release


DCCH:RRC Connection Release Complete

CCCH/FACH: RRC Connection Release


CELL_FACH
CCCH/RACH: RRC Connection Release Complete

PICH

URA_PCH

PCCH (RRC Connection Release)


CCCH/RACH: RRC Connection Release Complete

URA_PCH no uplink
channel in URA

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


SIGNALING CONNECTION
oSignaling Connection is a connection between one Core Network (CN) and one UE
oThe Signaling Connection consists
one RRC Connection over RAN
one or two signaling connection over Iu interface
oEstablishment of the first Signaling Connection is initiated by the UE as soon as the RRC Connection is
successfully established.
Note that only one RRC Connection is used.

MSC
RANAP

PS
S
C

Iu Transport
Layer

S
C

CS

CN 1
One RRC Connection

RRC
RLC

L1
UE

RANAP

RLC

Iu Transport
Layer

MAC
L1

SGSN
RANAP
S
C

MAC

RRC

Iu Transport
Layer

RAN
CN 2

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


Signaling Connection Release
oA signaling connection normally exists in conjunction with a RAB
oHowever, in some cases a signaling connection is established to perform control plane actions that do not
involve any user plane action, such as location area updating.
oSignaling connection release procedure is used to notify the UE that one of its signaling connections has
been released.
oThis procedure does not initiate the release of the RRC connection.
UE location

area updating
R
A
B
S
C

Signaling Connection Release


RRC
RLC
MAC
L1
UE

One RRC
Connection

RNC

MSC
RANAP

RRC

RANAP

RLC

Iu Transport
Layer

MAC

Iu Transport
Layer
CN 1

L1
RAN

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


TRANSPARENT MESSAGE TRANSFER
oThe UE sends Initial Direct Transfer
oThis message carries the initial NAS message from the UE to the CN (Reason for the access)

S
C

Initial Direct Transfer (DCCH)

RRC
RLC

One RRC
Connection

RNC
RRC

RANAP

RLC

Iu Transport
Layer

MAC

MAC

L1

L1

UE

MSC
RANAP
Iu Transport
Layer
CN 1

RAN

Transfer of NAS messages at Mobile Originated Call Setup


RAN

CN

RRC: RRC Connection Request


RRC: RRC Connection Setup
RRC Connection Setup complete

Initial Direct Transfer NAS: (Service Request)


RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer NAS: (Authentication Request)

Authentication Response

RRC: Security Mode Command


RRC: Security Mode Complete
RRC: Uplink Direct Transfer NAS: (Setup)

(i want to make a call)


Check Iu resources
RAB Assignment Request

Check RNC resources and QOS


RRC: Downlink Direct Transfer NAS: (Call Proceeding)
RRC: Radio Bearer Setup
RRC: Radio bearer Setup complete

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


RADIO BEARER MANAGEMENT
RRC performs
oRadio Bearer establishment,
oRadio Bearer reconfiguration
oRadio Bearer release.

RB Manage

RAB Assignment Request

RRC

RRC

RANAP

RANAP

RLC

RLC

MAC

MAC

Iu Transport
Layer

Iu Transport
Layer

L1

L1

UE
RAN

CN

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


RAB Assignment Request

CN

RNC

RAB Assignment Request

CN

RNC

RAB Assignment Request

CN

RNC
Admission Control,

Radio Bearer Setup


Set QoS requirements
Radio Bearer Setup

RB Setup Complete

Radio Bearer Reconfiguration

RB Reconfiguration
RB Reconfiguration Complete

Radio Bearer Release


Radio Bearer Release

Radio Bearer Release Complete

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


CELL UPDATE
oWhile in connected mode (DCH) the UE is always in SOFT handover
oWhen finish the call (common channels)
oI have to send cell update
oTo tell the network where I am
Cell Update
RNC
Cell Update CCCH on RACH

Cell Update Confirm DCCH on FACH

UL

DL

CCCH (Logical)

DCCH(Logical)

RACH(Transport)

FACH(Transport)

PRACH (Physical Ch.)


Physical Random Access Ch.

SCCPCH (Physical)
Secondary Common Control Physical

RRC (Radio Resource Controller) Contd


The purpose of the cell update is to update the current location of the UE when it is in
CELL_FACH /Cell PCH state.
In FACH/ CELL PCH
Cell update can be initiated with the following cause values:
oPeriodic Cell update (expiry of timer) T305
oCell Selection/ Reselection

Radio Link Supervision (Periodic Cell update (expiry of timer) T305)


What is the radio link supervision ?
Is the algorithm supervises the radio connection between the UE and the UTRAN
Reason
oCheck if the UTRAN still control the UE or not.
oIncrease the efficiency of resources usage.
FACH
oCell Update Message will be sent when:
When the UE change its serving cell
When t305 expires

Cell Update Message

Overall Connection Release

T305 expires
T305

CCHWAITCUT Start

UE Enters Cell
FACH

CCHWAITCUT Expire

CCHWAITCUT

Cell Update Confirmation


CCHWAITCUT Reset

RLC Protocols

RLC Protocols
Uu

User data
RLC Layer 2

User data
RLC Layer 2

RLC PCI

RLC PDU

RLC SDU

RLC PCI

MAC Layer 2

RLC SDU

Payload

RLC PCI

Payload

MAC Layer 2

MAC SDU

Layer 1

MAC SDU

Layer 1

SDU service data unit is what I get from higher layers


RLC PCI Protocol control information is added to get PDU protocol data unit (headers)

RLC Protocols(Contd)
RLC Functions
1Segmentation and reassembly
oI dont know the user data size so I make segmentation into block size to feet the PDU
oReassembly I have to do the opposite on the other side
Uu
User data

User data
RLC

RLC

RLC PDU
RLC PDU
RLC PDU

RLC PCI
RLC PCI
RLC PCI

Payload
Payload
Payload

RLC PDU
RLC PDU
RLC PDU

RLC PCI
RLC PCI
RLC PCI

Payload
Payload
Payload

MAC SDU

MAC SDU

data 1

2Concatenation
If the contents of an RLC SDU do not fill RLC PDU
So I can concatenate in the PDU and use the headers
PCI to know the blocks

RLC
RLC PCI

RLC PDU

SDU 2

RLC SDU

SDU 1

RLC Protocols(Contd)

data 1

RLC Functions

RLC

3Padding
Data to be transmitted does not fill RLC SDU of given size,
The remainder of the data field is filled with padding bits.

RLC PCI

RLC PDU

RLC SDU

Dummy bits

SDU 1

4Transfer of user data


RLC supports data transfer in the below modes
oAcknowledged Mode
oUnacknowledged Mode
oTransparent Mode
Acknowledged Mode (AM)
Some data go through and get changed
if Error happened Retransmission is requested (interactive PS data)
User data

RLC

RLC PDU
RLC PDU
RLC PDU

RLC PCI
RLC PCI
RLC PCI

Payload
Payload
Payload

Buffer
Buffer
Buffer

I have to put the data in buffer and Release it once I get ACK If get NACK I retransmit the data in the buffer

RLC Protocols(Contd)
RLC Functions
Unacknowledged Mode (UM)
Some data to through and get changed but no retransmissions happened (Streaming )
User data

RLC

RLC PDU
RLC PDU

RLC PCI
RLC PCI

Payload
Payload

Transparent Mode (TM).


Some data go through and no change happened on it
oSignaling
oNo change happened to it
oAs I designed it by 3GPP to feet the lower layers
CCCH
Amr Voice

RLC Protocols(Contd)
RLC Functions
5Insequence delivery of upper layer PDUs
RLC

RLC PDU
RLC PDU
RLC PDU

User data

1
2
3
MAC SDU

RLC

RLC PDU
RLC PDU
RLC PDU

1
2
3

MAC SDU

6Duplicate detection
Ensures that PDU is delivered only once to the upper layer.

7Error correction
This function provides error correction by retransmission in the acknowledged data transfer
mode.
Operate in ACK
mode

8Flow control
Keep the data in buffer until the resources are ready (Control the rate of transmission)

MAC(Medium Access control Protocol) Protocols

MAC(Medium Access control Protocol) Protocols


Take data from RLC layer and put them on the Right transport channel
RLC
Logical Channels

Layer 2

MAC
Transport Channels

MAC Architecture UE Side

PCCH

BCCH

CCCH

DCCH

DTCH

MAC D
MAC e

MAC hs

EDCH

HS DSCH

MAC C

PCH

FACH

RACH

DCH

Physical Layer

Physical Layer Overview


Mapped to combination of
oCarrier frequency
oCode
oRelative phase (UL only)

Transport channels

Channel Coding

Multiplexing

Mapping to physical channels

Spreading
Modulation

Air interface

GENERAL PROTOCOL MODEL FOR WCDMA


RAN INTERFACES (IUB, IUR, IU)

GENERAL PROTOCOL MODEL FOR WCDMA RAN INTERFACES (IUB, IUR, IU)
VERTICAL PLANES
HORIZONTAL LAYERS
Radio Network Layer(RNL)
RAN related issues

Transport Network
Layer(TNL)
Transport technology

Control Plane
Application
Protocol

User Plane
Data Stream

TN User Plane

TN User Plane

Signaling
Bearer

Data Bearer

Control Plane
oApplication Protocol
Iu interface Radio Access Network Application Part (RANAP)
Iur Interface Radio Network Subsystems Application Part (RNSAP)
Iub interface Node B Application Part (NBAP)
oSignaling Bearer for transporting the Application Protocol messages
User Plane
oUser data, such as the coded voice in a voice call or the packets in an Internet connection are
transported via the User Plane.
oThe User Plane includes the Data Stream(s) and the Data Bearer(s) for the Data Stream(s).

GENERAL PROTOCOL MODEL FOR WCDMA RAN INTERFACES (IUB, IUR, IU)
User Plane

Control Plane
Application
Protocol

Data Stream

Transport Network
Control Plane
Signaling
Bearer

ALCAP

Data Bearer

Signaling Bearer

Transport Network Control Plane


ALCAP protocol (Access Link Control Application Protocol)
oALCAP has its own Signaling Bearer(s) needed for the ALCAP protocol(s).
oALCAP used to set up and release the Data bearers
(In the control plan)First there is a signaling transaction by the Application Protocol
This signaling transaction triggers the set up of the Data Bearer by the ALCAP protocol

GENERAL PROTOCOL MODEL FOR WCDMA RAN INTERFACES (IUB,


IUR, IU) (contd)
VERTICAL PLANES
User Plane

Control Plane

RNL

Application
Protocol

Transport Network
Control Plane

HORIZONTAL LAYERS
Signaling
Bearer

TNL

Data Stream

ALCAP

Signaling
Bearer

Physical Layer

Data Bearer

IUB INTERFACE PROTOCOLS


RNC

IuB Protocols

Node
B

IUB INTERFACE PROTOCOLS


oIub interfaces the RBS to the RNC

Control Plane

Node B Application Part (NBAP)


oEstablishment of a signaling connection over Iub.
oIt is divided into two essential components
NBAPC
NBAPD
oNBAPC
Signaling that is not related to a specific UE.
oNBAPD
Used for signaling relating to a specific UE context.
User plane Iub Frame Protocols (FP)
oThese are DCHFP, RACHFP, FACHFP, HSDSCH FP and PCHFP transport channel

PCH FP

HS_DSCH
FP

NBAPD

RACH FP

NBAPC

DCH FP

NBAP

RNL

User Plane

IUB INTERFACE PROTOCOLS(Contd)


TNL defines procedures for establishing physical connections between the RBS and the
RNC.
Control Plane

Transport Network
Control Plane
ALCAP

UNISAAL

TNL

AAL2
UNISAAL

ATM

oUNISAAL user to network signaling ATM Adaption Layer


oALCAP Access Link control Application Part
oAAL2 ATM adaption layer Type 2

PCH FP

NBAPD

RACH FP

NBAPC

RACH FP

NBAP

DCH FP

RNL

User Plane

IUR INTERFACE PROTOCOLS


RNC

IUR Protocols

RNC

IUR INTERFACE PROTOCOLS


oIUR interface connects two RNCs.
Radio Network Layer (RNL)
Control Plane

User Plane

RNL
RNSAP

DCH FP

oThe RNSAP protocol


oThe RNSAP protocol is the signaling protocol defined for the Iur interface.
oIt consists of four distinct functions:
Basic InterRNC mobility support (to allow signaling between RNCs)
Dedicated channel traffic support (to allow dedicated channels for user data between RNCs, e.g.
for soft handover)
Common channel traffic support (to allow common channel communication between RNCs).
Not supported by Ericsson.
Global resource management support (allows transfer of Node B timing info and cell
measurements between RNCs)

oThe User Plane for the RNL across the Iur can be based either:
common channel (not supported by Ericsson)
dedicated channel.

IUR INTERFACE PROTOCOLS (Contd)


Control Plane

User Plane

RNL
RNSAP

TNL

TN User Plane
SCCP

DCH FP

Transport Network
Control Plane

TN User Plane

ALCAP

MTP3b
AAL2
NNISAAL

NNISAAL

SCCP (Signaling Connection Control Protocol )


Provides the functionality to transport signaling messages
MTP3b (Message Transfer Part layer 3)
provides message routing (for pointtopoint link)
To adapt the SS7 signaling not that the SS7 signaling is not used in IUB
NNISAAL
Adapts the upper layer protocol to the requirements of the Lower ATM

IUR INTERFACE PROTOCOLS (Contd)


Control Plane

User Plane

RNL
RNSAP

DCH FP

TN User Plane

TN User Plane

TNL

Transport Network
Control Plane
SCCP

ALCAP

MTP3b
AAL2
NNISAAL

NNISAAL

ATM

IU INTERFACE PROTOCOLS
RNC

Iu Protocols

CN

IU INTERFACE PROTOCOLS (Contd)


oThe Iu interface connects the RNC to CN
IuCS interfaces the RNC to the MSCserver
IuPS interfaces the RNC to the SGSN
Radio Network Layer (RNL)
Control Plane

RNL
RANAP

Control plane protocol (RANAP)


Provides the signaling service between UTRAN and CN
RAB management
Transport of NAS signaling messages
User Plane protocols
data

User Plane
Data

IuCS Interface Protocols.

Control Plane

User Plane

RANAP

TN User Plane

IuPS Interface Protocols.


IuPS interface has instead of AAL2 plane:
GTPU (GPRS Tunneling ProtocolUser)
(UDP) User Datagram Protocol
Internet Protocol (IP)

GTPU:
GTPU is user data bearer towards
the PS domain.
UDP
Transport of IP applications

SCCP

Data
Transport Network
Control Plane
ALCAP

TN User Plane
AAL2

MTP3b
NNISAAL

NNISAAL

ATM

Control Plane

User Plane

RANAP

TN User Plane
SCCP

Data

Transport Network
Control Plane

TN User Plane
GTPU

MTP3b

UDP

NNISAAL

IP
AAL5

ATM

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