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BACHELOR THESIS

University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien, Electronic Engineering

Turntable for an Automatic Acquisition


System for Measuring the Directional
Characteristic of Musical Instruments

Author: Martin Lahmer


Student ID: 1210254005
Academic Supervisor: FH-Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Christian Kollmitzer
Company Supervisor: Ing. DI (FH) Alexander Mayer
Vienna, June 4, 2014

Declaration
I confirm that this paper is entirely my own work. All sources and quotations have been fully
acknowledged in the appropriate places with adequate footnotes and citations. Quotations
have been properly acknowledged and marked with appropriate punctuation. The works
consulted are listed in the bibliography. This paper has not been submitted to another
examination panel in the same or a similar form, and has not been published.

Vienna, June 4, 2014


Place, Date

Signatur

Abstract
Musical instruments are complex physical systems. This paper deals with the class of brass
wind instruments especially the Tuba. Brass instruments are excited by the vibrating lips
of the musician and radiates the played tone at the end of the tube via the bell into the
acoustic room. How the sound is radiated, is determined by individual characteristics of an
musical instrument. One of these attributes is the directivity, which will be considered in
greater detail in this work. It defines how the sound is radiated as a function of position
and frequency. For this purpose an automatic measuring system was developed which allows
stimulating a brass instrument and measuring the radiated sound pressure in different angles.
So a complete sound pattern can be created. This was realized by a turntable system which
is driven by automatic controlled stepper motors.
By the measurement of two different Tubas the system has been successfully tested.
Thereby, useful diagrams were obtained that represent the angle-dependent sound radiation
of the instruments over a number of frequency bands. This success serves as a basis for
further acquisitions which could be done in one plane at least. The developed system consisting of hard- and software is simply adaptable for almost all kinds of musical instruments
for further purpose.

Keywords: Brass Wind Instruments, Directional Characteristic, Automated Acquisition


System, Step Motor driven Turntable, Arduino, LabVIEW

Kurzfassung
Musikinstrumente sind komplexe physikalische Systeme. Diese Arbeit beschftigt sich mit
der Klasse der Blechblasinstrumente, speziell der Tuba. Diese werden durch die schwingenden
Lippen des Spielers angeregt und am Ende der "Rhre" wird der Ton ber den Schalltrichter
in den akustischen Raum abgegeben. Wie der Schall abgestrahlt wird, wird durch die individuelle Charakteristik des jeweiligen Musikinstruments bestimmt. Eines dieser Attribute
ist deren Richtwirkung, die in dieser Arbeit genauer betrachtet wurde. Sie beschreibt, wie
ein Musikinstrument den Schall in Abhngigkeit von Ort und Frequenz abstrahlt. Dafr
wurde ein automatisches Messsystem entwickelt, das es ermglicht ein Blechblasinstrument
anzuregen und den abgestrahlten Schalldruck fr verschiedene Winkel zu messen. Realisiert
wurde dies durch ein automatisierten Drehtischsystem, das per Schrittmotoren angetrieben
wird.
Durch das Messen von zwei verschiedenen Tuben wurde das System erfolgreich getestet.
Dabei wurden brauchbare Diagramme gewonnen, die die winkelabhngige Schallabstrahlung
der Tuben ber mehrere Frequenzbnder abbilden. Dieser Erfolg dient als Grundlage
um weitere Musikinstrumente zumindest in einer Ebene ausmessen zu knnen. Das
Systemkonzept von Hard- und Software wurde fr weiterfhrende Messzwecke so ausgelegt,
dass es fr nahezu smtliche Musikinstrumente angepasst werden kann.

Schlagwrter: Blechblasinstrumente, Richtcharakteristik,


Drehtisch mit Schrittmotor, Arduino, LabVIEW

Automatisches Messsystem,

Contents
1. Introduction

2. Brass Wind Instruments


2.1. Basic Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. Characterisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. Directional Characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
2
4
5

3. Technical Implementation of the Automated Acquisition System


3.1. Turntable-System with Step-Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.1. Mechanical Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.2. Electrical Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. Step Motor Control - SMC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.1. Stepper Motor Driver Carrier . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.2. Communication over Serial Interface . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.3. Step Losses Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.4. Manual Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2.5. Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. High Air Pressure Artificial Mouth - HAPAM . . . . . . . . .
3.4. Final Measurement Set-Up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5. Supervising Computer Program with LabVIEW . . . . . . . .
3.5.1. Top Layer Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.2. Measuring Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.5.3. Data Processing Layer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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4. Acoustical Measurements and Acquisition of the Directional Sound Pattern


4.1. Input Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.2. Transfer Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.3. The Directional Characteristic of Brass Wind Instruments . . . . . . . . . . .

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5. Conclusion

30

Bibliography

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List of Figures

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List of Tables

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List of Abbreviations

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A. Assembled Step-Motor-Control (SMC)

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B. Schematic of the Turntables Step-Motor-Control (SMC)

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C. LabVIEW-Screenshot of HAPAMv15

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1. Introduction
The quality of musical instruments is designated by their acoustical characterisation. But
what are these characteristics? And what is meant by quality of an instrument?
"In the definition of the quality features you have to be clear that several aspects
have to be considered both from the side of the listener as well as the player, which
are two completely different viewpoints. Features of interest for the listener are
timbre, loudness, pitch, etc. in the far field, however, for the player it is important
how well a sound appeals besides how well the intonation of an instrument is and
how the instrument sounds in the near field.
In addition, it should be noted that in addition to objectively recorded measurement
data, the players subjective impressions but also the individual variation play a
large role in the evaluation of quality."
Winkler, W. and Widholm, G. 1996: 95 [1].
So this paper deals with the determination of such quality criteria of brass wind instruments. Since the author was playing the Tuba, the precise focus is on the low register of
brass instruments especially the Tuba. First of all, how a sound is excited on a Tuba and
how it is spread into room will be explained. The spreading is mainly determined by the
acoustical conditions of the ambient room and by the directional characteristic of the instrument itself. To measure the directional characteristic at least one microphone is necessary to
plot radiation in plane. If a stereoscopic acquisition of the directional pattern is preferred,
a microphone array will be required. This array can be arranged equally around the testing
object[2]. Therefore a high amount of microphones will be needed to allow recordings in as
many directions as preferred besides a high-capacity processing unit will be required. If the
amount should kept low, the object to be tested should be moved around and recorded separately. For this procedure a rotating platform, which turns automatically, is advantageous.
In the course of a project announced and supported by the Institute of Music Acoustics (Institut fr Wiener Klangstil - IWK ) at the University of Music and Performing Arts Vienna,
a turntable system had to be implemented which is able to carry musical instruments up to
several kilograms weight (finally a grand piano should also be turned) and rotates the load
automatically. It is controlled by a supervising system, which also executes the acoustical
measurements, over a serial interface. The acoustic radiation is captured either with one
microphone for one plane or with a arched microphone array, which completes the recording
to a half globe by a 360 degrees turn.
Knowledge of this characteristics will be explained, discussed and experimentally proven in
the following chapters step by step. First, the paper will explain the theoretical background of
brass wind instruments especially the Tuba and its selected characteristics like the directional
sound pattern or the input impedance. The impedance is important for the intonation of an
instrument [1]. The next topic will deal with the technical preparation of the turntable and
the measuring set-up. In the last section the resulting measurements of an elected number
of Tubas will be documented.

2. Brass Wind Instruments


Musical instruments basically exist of three parts: a stimulator, an oscillator and a resonator.
The stimulator of brass instruments are the lips on the brass mouthpiece. They excite an air
column in the instrument. These air column is limited by the brass tube which encases it. As
a result of this standing waves occur. The oscillated standing waves determine the oscillator
which vibrates at a frequency forced by instrument and player. Finally, the resonator has
the task to transform wave energy into sound energy. Since the swinging air column of brass
instruments has not to be transformed to sound vibrations any more the brasss oscillator is
simultaneous the resonator. Contrariwise, for stringed instruments the bow is the stimulator,
the strings are the oscillator besides the resonator consists of whose corpuses [3].

2.1. The Basic Knowledge of Brass Wind Instruments


The oscillating media of brass wind instruments is a standing wave formed by the air column
inside the brass tube. The resulting resonant frequency and its harmonic multiples are defined
by the circular tour time of one standing sound wave which moves from the mouthpiece to
the bell and back again in sound velocity. This is because at resonance the most energy of
the standing wave is reflected from the bell mouth back into the tube and only a short term
is spread as audible sound. The reflected energy comes back to the mouthpiece where it will
be amplified by the synchronously oscillating lips of the musician, and the standing wave
will develop again. This leads to maintaining the acoustic system and helps the musician
holding a note on the preferred resonance frequency. As a result of this the wavelength of
the standing sound wave is defined by the double length of the brass tube ( = 2 lBRASS ).
In Formula 2.1 the relation between sound wave velocity (cs ) (normally it is 343 ms1 in
a dry air at 20 C [4]), the sound wavelength () and the resonant frequency (f ) is given.
However, the surrounding conditions like temperature and stationary air-pressure also have
influence on the speed of sound and simultaneously on the resonant frequency. For instance,
a higher temperature affects a higher resonance and vice versa. An additional tuning slide
which all brass instruments have implemented, should compensate such tuning fluctuations.
cs = f.

(2.1)

Resonant frequencies are also called natural tones by musicians. Although the natural
tones have the same distance in Hertz to their harmonic neighbours, they do not fit the
common musical (chromatic) scale. This is due to the fact that human sense of hearing
and as a consequent of that the musical scale is not linear but logarithmic. Therefore a
chromatic scale seems to be consistent in advance. Actually, the interval between the first
and the second resonant frequency is a musical octave, for example, instead it is only a
quint between second and third resonance and so on. The higher the compared frequencies
lies the closer will be the musical distance (e.g. see the measured resonant frequencies of a
Tuba in Figure 4.1). So additional tones have to be produced for lower octaves to fulfil the

CHAPTER 2. BRASS WIND INSTRUMENTS

complete scale. In this case valves with additional tubes are applied on Trumpets or Tubas
for instance. This extends the length of the whole tube and lowers the resonant frequency
adaptively. On Trombones the variation of notes is realized by pulling the Trombones slide
[3].
Figure 2.1 is an image of one tested contrabass Tuba in B[. It highlights the basic elements
and the run of the 5.8 m long conical brass tube. The basic elements of Tubas usually
consists of the bell mouth (or simply called bell) with a diameter of about 40 cm, a coneshaped tube with a total length of about 5.8 m (see the calculation in Equation 2.2) and
a mouthpiece with a semi-spherical cup. Additionally, there are 4 valves which are able
to alter the natural tones variably. The natural tones are determined by the first harmonic
frequency of the instrument. It is also known as fundamental or pedal tone (f1 ). Usually, the
pedal tone is seldom played by the musician because the gap to the next resonance demands
too many intermediate tones and consequently more additional valves. Instead, the second
resonant tone (f2 ) is decisive as standard tuning frequency. It is a B[1 (German: Contra
B[) for the contrabass Tuba. Nominally this note should be at a frequency of 58.26 Hz in
normal conditions and with a reference frequency for standard pitch A4 (German: a1) at 440
Hz [5]. Higher natural tones (F2, B[2, D3, F3, etc. . . ) are harmonic integer multiples of the
fundamental tone. Comparing the resultant standard musical pitch ( f2 ) of Equation 2.2
with the theoretically calculated frequency of 58.26 Hz by [5] shows that the tuning pitch
cannot be defined generally, since the standard tuning frequency varies from instrument to
instrument or rather the surrounding condition have influence on the pitch.

Brass Tube

Bell

Mouthpiece

Valves

Figure 2.1.: Image of a contrabass Tuba in B[ with its elements.

CHAPTER 2. BRASS WIND INSTRUMENTS

cs = f f =

cs
, where = 2 lBRASS ,

343 ms1
= 29.57 s1 ,
2 5.8 m
f2 = 2 f1 = 59.14 s1 .
f1 =

(2.2)

2.2. Characterisation of Brass Wind Instruments


Every single tone which reaches our ear in the course of a musical work, contains a fullness
of information. It is not only described by its fundamental frequency instead the heard tone
comprehends several overtones which all of them are integer multiples of the fundamental
frequency too. This overtones which are also called partial tones or simply partials, are
responsible for the tone colour. The number of overtones and the magnitude of the harmonics
ultimately determine how we perceive a sound. The more harmonics are included, the more
brilliant and brighter a tone sounds. Contrariwise, the less harmonics a sound spectrum
exhibits, the darker and softer it is perceived. This fact deals with every single kind of
musical instrument. However, there are special regions with a couple of overtones where
the magnitudes change very little besides they usually are more intensive as the actual
fundamental tone. This amount of harmonics are called formants and they define the sound
colour of individual instruments [6]. In Table 2.1 the region of formants of different brass
instruments are listed.
Instrument
Horn
Trumpet
Trombone
Tuba

Formants in Hz
350
1200 - 1500
500 - 600
230 - 290

Table 2.1.: Region of formants of several brass wind instruments [6].


Not only the spectral events with the aforementioned overtones and formants describe the
sound of an instrument but also transient events contribute to the instruments characterization. Composing spectral information with the three transient sections of a tone helps to
distinguish between musical instruments. The three sections of a tone are [6]:
1. The starting transient, i.e., that portion of time during which the tone is developed
from complete rest to its final state. During this initial process the overtones develops
steadily. This is primarily responsible for recognising the kind of instrument.
2. The stationary condition, i.e., that portion of time during which the tone is practically
not subjected to change. At this particular time the partial tones keep constant for
instruments which can stabilize the oscillating system like brass wind instruments.
That instruments are supported by the constant feeding of energy by the musicians air
excitation.
3. The decay, i.e., that portion of time during which the tone, after completion of the
excitation, dies out to complete silence. The decay depends on the reverberation and

CHAPTER 2. BRASS WIND INSTRUMENTS

plays a special role for plucked- and percussion instruments, since in the absence of
continuing excitation there is no stationary state.
After all the most significant attributes of brass instruments are their resonant frequencies.
They define the intonation the musician has to deal with. For determination, they can
be caught by measuring either the acoustical input impedance or the acoustical transfer
response. Several scientific papers deals with these topics [1][7][8]. For simplicity, both
methods are contrasted in Chapter 4 of this paper by execution on two Tubas. Finally, the
Directional Characteristic which is the main topic as known, will complete this introduction
of brass wind instruments.

2.3. Directional Characteristic


Since the main topic of the paper is the directional characteristic of musical instruments the
following part will give basics about this thematic. For the sound of an instrument or even of
orchestras sound radiation and the effect of the room is a significant criterion and like other
sound sources musical instruments have a more or less pronounced directional dependence of
sound radiation. It varies significantly depending on the frequency spectrum. The simplest
case is a spheric source radiation when sound is expanded in all directions equally. Usually,
this case will occur if the sound source is a "breathing sphere" or it is small in comparison
to the radiated wavelength. This occurs at low frequencies besides the constant radiation
remains virtually unaffected. In the case of higher frequencies the directional characteristic is
non-linear and is affected by numerous influences like the position of the player, the direction
of the bell, the acoustical consistence of the instrument, etcetera. [6][9].
In Figure 2.2 the omnidirectional sound radiation for individual frequency regions of some
brass wind instruments is given. This measurements were taken by the German acoustician
Jrgen Meyer [6]. The spheric radiation depends much on the form of structure and the
dimension of the individual bells so long as the bell is the transducer. For instance, the bell
of a Tuba is relatively wide in comparison to that of a Trumpet. So a Tuba spreads sound
omnidirectional at lower frequencies (about 30 Hz up to 90 Hz) instead of a Trumpet (about
180 Hz up to 500 Hz).
French horn
Trumpet
Trombone
Tuba
20

50

100

200

500
Frequency

2000

Hz

10000

Figure 2.2.: Spheric sound radiation of brass instruments by Meyer [6].


In 1970, Meyer and Wogram measured and documented the directional characteristic of
Trumpets, Trombones, and Tubas and publicised the results [10]. It turned out that it is
necessary to define those angular regions for which the sound level does not sink by more
than 3 dB or more than 10 dB respectively below the directed maxima. The 3 dB limit
describes the half width. This is the difference where the sound intensity is just half the

CHAPTER 2. BRASS WIND INSTRUMENTS

value related to the maximum. For simplification sound pressure above the 3 dB limit was
supposed as quasi equal. Otherwise a level difference of 10 dB is perceived as approximately
one-half the loudness. Figure 2.3 illustrates the directional characteristic of a Tuba within
the 3 dB limit. As it can be seen, the effective radiation angle will narrow if the frequency
raises.

Figure 2.3.: Main radiation area (0 to -3 dB) of a Tuba by Meyer [10].


Finally, a quantity called the statistical directivity factor is important for room acoustical considerations. It represents a relationship between sound pressures actually present, to
those which would be caused by a sound source of equal total power with omnidirectional
characteristics at the same distance. The statistical directivity factor can be given in dependence on direction: Values larger than 1 indicate directions with, on the average, stronger
radiation; values less than 1 indicate directions of below average radiation. For example,
an ideal dipole reaches a value of approximately 1.7 in the direction of strongest radiation.
On the boundary of the 3 dB region, the statistical directivity factor drops to 0.7; on the
boundary of the 10 dB region, to 0.3 of the maximum value. For sound level considerations
it is advantageous to convert the statistical directivity factor to a dB value. The quantity
is designated as directivity index. It specifies how much the sound level is higher in the
direction considered than it would be for an omni-directionally radiating sound source of
equal power [6].

3. Technical Implementation of the


Automated Acquisition System
To implement the automated measuring system some technical devices have to be realized.
On the one hand there must be the acoustical measuring system in terms of probe microphones and a special exciter for the brass instrument. On the other hand there should be
a device which is able to rotate the device-under-test without human supervision. This is
enforced by the fact that measurements are made in a quasi anechoic chamber where no
one can enter during the process. As carrier a motor-driven turntable is a possibility. In
this case a massive turntable was equipped with step-motors. Lastly, the storage and the
processing of measured data and the control of the turntable and its step-motors have to
be combined externally outside the chamber by a computing system. Here a Personal Computer (PC ) with LabVIEW from National Instruments was used [11]. LabVIEW stands for
"Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench" and is a software ideal for any
measurement or control system. With it, the PC is capable of communicating with the StepMotor-Control (SMC ), executing the acoustical measurements and processing the acquired
information with this feature.

3.1. Turntable-System with Step-Motors


For this project a existing turntable was chosen for modification. It consists of a huge
bearing ring of a semi-trailer coupling with a diameter of about 65 cm which was attached
on a heavy metal-frame. The actual table board can be placed on the bearing ring by four
screws, however, other installations can be mounted on the bearing ring too. For instance, a
stable construction with a Tuba to be measured is shown in Figure 3.1. This build-up was
made of a flexible assembly kit with mounting rails. It was the final mechanical set-up for
the acoustical acquirement of Tubas.

3.1.1. Mechanical Design


For automatic motion it is necessary to install at least one motor onto the turntable construction. To ensure conformity between required effort and engine performance the tensile
force was measured at the outer edge of the bearing ring with a spring balance. It turned
out that the mean force was at about 200 Newton, however, the top force was measured at
about 400 Newton at some points of the wheel. This can be explained that the semi-trailers
coupling ring is not ideal and possesses higher friction losses at several points. Multiplied
with the radius of the ring (33 cm) the resulting maximum load torque amounts 132 Newtonmeter (Nm). Therefore, the selected motor must meet this criterion, so that the platform
can rotate smoothly. A few stepper motors with a nominal holding torque of 44 Ncm (equal
to 0.44 Nm) were available at the institute. It should be mentioned that the holding torque
nearly corresponds to the driving torque at lower stepper frequencies. Since comparing these

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

Figure 3.1.: Turntable system with a stable construction for fixing a Tuba.

327 mm

torques results in a high discrepancy, a convenient power transmission had to be found. For
this use a nearly 1:300 gear reduction was calculated by dividing load torque by the motor
torque. A geared belt drive was chosen to achieve the required power transmission.
Figure 3.2 hypothetically shows an example of a gear belt drive which connects the bearing
ring on the turntable-construction with a toothed belt wheel placed on the axis of the stepper. With 12 teeth and a belt pitch of 5 mm the belt wheel has a perimeter of 60 mm. This
leads to a radius of 9.549 mm. It was possible to attach a timing band with 411 teeth and
a length of 2055 mm onto the edge of the semi-trailers bearing ring. So a provisional "belt
pulley" was created with a radius of about 327.063 mm since the complete diameter of the
turning ring is 654 mm.

toot
h

ed b
elt

9.5 mm

bearing
ring
motor belt disc

Figure 3.2.: Example of a gear belt drive with a reduction of about 1:35.
As a result of this, the Gear Ratio (GR) which is also known as mechanical advantage, can
be calculated where the input belt wheel has radius ri and the output belt wheel has radius
ro , or rather the number of output teeth (No ) is divided by number of input cogs (Ni ):

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

ro
No
i
=
=
,
o
ri
Ni
327.063 mm
GR =
= 34.251,
9.549 mm
411
GR =
= 34.25.
12
GR =

(3.1)

As it can be seen in Equation 3.1 the resulting mechanical advantage (GR = 1 : 34.25) is
too less to drive the turntables bearing. Furthermore, the gear will not be able to stabilize
the system if the motor is turned off. For that reason, another gearing mechanism had to
be combined with the pre-designed system. In this case, a worm gear for further reduction
was selected. The self-locking feature and the property of achieving a high gear transmission
ratio are few advantages of worm gears. For this use, a worm with a module of 1.0 was
purchased. A module of 1.0 signifies dimension of a cog. The more force is applied on the
cogs the higher should be their module. Since the worm is a special form of a helical gear the
angle of the helical toothing is defined by the winds around the wheel axle. The cog/tooth is
referred to in this case as a gear or a start. One start indicates that one rotation of the worm
screw will rotate the worm wheel by one cog. A higher gear/start stands for a faster turn
and vice versa. To complete the worm gear an adapted worm wheel had to be combined.
Here, one with 20 teeth and a hub diameter of 23 mm was used. Comparing the amount of
teeth of the worm wheel (Nwheel ) with the starts of the worm (Nworm ) will lead to the gear
transmission ratio:
Nwheel
,
Nworm
20
GR =
= 10.
2
GR =

(3.2)

Equation 3.2 depicts that the mechanical advantage of the planned worm gear accomplishes
a ratio of 1:10. So the worm gear and the belt drive were united and finally, the collective
gear ratio reached a reduction of 1:350. Of course, this was only a ideal result because friction
losses of the advanced gearing mechanism derogated the transmission.

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

drivingstepmotor

wheel

bearing ring

bearing ring

worm

fixture
stepmotor
worm wheel

Figure 3.3.: Principle of the designed gearing mechanism. Left: ground plan, right: sheer
plan.
The principal composition of the gear unit is charted in Figure 3.3. This graph shows how
the torque is transmitted from the step motor to the terminal turntable ring in ground plan
on the left side. First, the force is transported over the motor shaft to the worm. After this,
it is converted 1:10 to the connected worm wheel thereafter, over an axis the power is finally
transferred to the turntables gearing ring by the driving wheel. This last transmission had
a ratio of 1:35. Thereby the direct transmission ratio of 1:350 can be calculated by simply
multiplying. In order to complete, the sheer plan of the gear mechanism is on the right side
of Figure 3.3. It also shows the transmission of power from the step motor with its worm
gear, via worm wheel and the connected axis, to the closing driving wheel connected with
the bearing ring. Lastly, there is an image of the worm and belt combined gear in Figure 3.4.

Figure 3.4.: Picture of the final used gearing mechanism.

10

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

As aforementioned, the bearing ring of the semi-trailers coupling ring is not ideal and so
the outer edge of it is not circular because of the simple reason that such rings do not have
to be ideal for their actually defined use. That was a reason to deal with. To compensate
these unevenness of the ring the motor was not fixed stable onto the mounted driving belt
instead, it was pulled against the edge by a spring. However, this fixture raised a problem so
that the engine would block if the spring was too tight. But when the spring was too loose,
the drive wheel would lift off the guide belt and loss of degrees would be a negative effect.
So it was decided that an additional motor should reinforce the existing engine. The total
torque was doubled and the stepping losses were compensated by the mutual engagement of
both engines.
The translated torque of both engines (2 0.44 N m = 0.88 N m) on the driving belt
of the ring is now 308 N m (0.88 N m 350) which conforms the required expenditure of
energy (about 132 N m) more than enough. It has to be taken into account that the angular
velocity of the turntable system is slowed by the reduction of a factor of 350 (cf. Formula
of gear ratio with i as motor velocity and o as output velocity in Equation 3.1). That
leads to increasing the rotational speed of both motors simultaneously to balance the velocity
decrease. As mentioned above, increasing the stepper frequency leads to lowering the step
motor torque. In addition, unbalanced load could destabilise the system and induce disparate
force actions on the bearing. That would require a higher torque of the gear and accordingly
of the step motors. After all, it is of use to have a overpowered system which can deal with
possible force problems.

3.1.2. Electrical Parameters


This part concerns with the electrical parameters of the step motors, mounted on the mechanical part as described before. Since the gear mechanism has been already calculated
and so the required motor torque is known, two convenient step motors can be selected. For
this set-up two step motors from RS-Components [12] were taken. Table 3.1 shows several
attributes of the motors.
Specification
Model
Step Angle
Rated Voltage
Current / Phase
Resistance / Phase
Holding Torque
Number Of Leads

Value
535-0401
0.9
2.8 V
1.68 A
1.65
0.44 Nm
4 (corresponds to a bipolar
stepper motor with 2 coils)

Table 3.1.: Specifications of the selected step motors [12].

11

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

Since the step angle is 0.9 degrees, the engine needs 400 steps for a full turn. With that
specification and the known gear reduction, the number of steps for one full rotation of the
turntable can be calculated. The following breakdown will analyse how often the engine has
to turn for one revolution:

1 worm rotation = 400 motor steps

(3.3)

1 worm wheel rotation = 1 belt pulley turn = 10 worm rotations = 4000 motor steps
1 turntable rotation = 34.25 belt pulley turns = 137000 motor steps
Moreover, other specifications of Table 3.1 are needed for mechanical, like holding torque,
or electronic design like phase current, rated voltage, etc. The electronic regulation of the
engines is handled by the step motor controller which will be described in the next section.

3.2. Step Motor Control - SMC


The Step Motor Control (SMC ) - Unit is responsible for the automatic process of regulating
the step motor drive. The unit has following tasks to do:
Controlling the two stepper motors by stimulating convenient signals.
Communicating with the supervising processor unit over a serial interface.
Monitoring, whether step losses and accordingly degree losses would occur.
Providing a manual control of the turntable with buttons and a seven-segment display.
Managing the power for all integrated components.
As micro-controller a Arduino Mini - Board(rev5) [13] was applied for controlling all tasks
the SMC have to do. It is a small micro-controller board assembled with an ATmega328 [14],
intended for use on breadboards. Since the whole acquisition concept is a research project,
in addition, that such board is relatively cost-efficient, the Arduino Mini seems to be the
most adequate solution for this cause. Subsequently, further important properties of the
micro-controller board which are of value for the projects purpose, should be mentioned in
Table 3.2.
The features in Table 3.2 conform to the requirements of the five predetermined tasks.
Another advantage of the Arduino concept is that there are several predefined function libraries which simplifies implementing the SMC-software. The individual use of the Arduinos
functions will be explained subsequently. Since there are five tasks to describe, they will be
separated in equivalent sections. A picture of the assembled SMC board is shown in Appendix A and the schematic is in Appendix B.

12

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

Feature
Micro-controller
Crystal Oscillator
Operating Voltage
Digital I/O Pins
Analogue Input Pins
DC Current per I/O Pin
Flash Memory
Programming
Program Memory/
Static Random Access Memory(SRAM)
Additional Features

ATmega328
16 MHz
5V
14 (of which 6 provide
Pulse Width Modulation(PWM) output)
8
40 mA
32 KB (of which 2 KB used by bootloader)
Per Serial Programming over
USB-to-Serial adapter or RS232
2 KB
Two available Timers,
one Serial Interface,
several Bus-Systems like
Serial Programming Interface(SPI),
etc. . .

Table 3.2.: Characteristics of the Arduino Mini Board [13].

3.2.1. Stepper Motor Driver Carrier


Stimulating the two step motors was realised by choosing applicable driver elements. For
the SMC two A4988 Stepper Motor Driver Carrier from Pololu Robotics and Electronics [15]
were selected. The driver board features adjustable current limiting, over-current and overtemperature protection, and five different micro-step resolutions (down to 1/16-step). Since
a high gear reduction is applied, there is no use of micro-stepping and only the full-step mode
should be executed. It operates from 8 35 V and can deliver up to approximately 1 Ampere
per phase without a heat sink or forced air flow, or 2 Ampere per coil with sufficient additional
cooling. Compared to the required current per phase of one step motor in Section 3.1.2 it is
distinct that the motor driver should be able to supply the engine decently but only with a
heat sink. For controlling both drivers three signals are needed at least.
Figure 3.5 illustrates the connection of these signals which lead to the stepper driver.
They are responsible for activating the driver (ENABLE), determining the rotating direction
(DIR), and specifying the stepper clock (STEP). Additionally, the inputs MS1, MS2, MS3,
RESET, and SLEEP are not actively driven, nevertheless, they should be connected with
logic voltages. Since the driver should work in full-step mode the three MSx inputs have to
be held at Ground(GND) level. Instead of that the inputs RESET and SLEEP (which has
a similar function as ENABLE) have to be driven at the HIGH level voltage (VDD) because
they are LOW-level-sensitive.
Finally, the power supply is shown in Figure 3.5 too. There are two ways of supplying
the driver. First, the logic unit has to be connected to GND and a logic level which is equal
to the incoming logic HIGH level (VDD is nominal 3 - 5.5 V). Second, the power converter
needs more power so the input voltage can reach from 8 V up to 35 V. The reason for this
is that the converter operates as a fixed current regulator where the current limit is adapted

13

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

motor power supply


(8-35 V)

A4988

VDD
microcontroller
GND

VMOT
GND
2B
2A
1A
1B
VDD
GND

ENABLE
MS1
MS2
MS3
RESET
SLEEP
STEP
DIR

logic power supply


(3-5.5 V)

Figure 3.5.: Wiring diagram for connecting a micro-controller to an A4988 stepper motor
driver carrier [15].
by a reference potentiometer. So the motor voltage only determines how fast the current will
raise in a coil until the current limit is reached. Therefore the rated voltage of the stepper
motor (see Section 3.1.2) takes no effect on this application because the given voltage rating
is just that voltage at which each coil draws the rated current.
How the stepper motor driver was supplied will be described in the Power Management
Section 3.2.5.

3.2.2. Communication over Serial Interface


The SMC applies the Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) standard RS-232 as serial interface.
It is a simple and often used standard because only one signal line per transmitting direction
is needed. Additionally, the RS-232 cable is equipped with a screen against electromagnetic
interference. Although it is replaced more and more by Universal Serial Bus (USB), it has
proved that RS-232 is more practical and cheaper for this cause. Also the total length of the
USB cable is limited by maximal 5 m. As the turntable system and the control computer
can be located in distances of up to 12 m, simple RS-232 comunication can be done with
less effort. Another reason is that the ATmega328 has no USB terminal but still includes a
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (UART ) interface [14] which is compatible to
the RS-232 standard. Converting USB to UART would require a Future-Technology-DevicesInternational (FTDI ) - chip which is relative pricey due to its complexity, and must have
a complex peripheral circuit additionally. RS-232 needs only a simple MAX232 chip which
transforms the 0 to 5 V logic level to a 7 V output voltage and vice versa. Another reason is
that the Arduino Mini Board including a convenient boot-loader can be programmed over the
serial interface [13]. Because USB-to-Serial adapters are cheaply purchasable, the problem
of the absence of serial ports on contemporary PCs can be easily solved.
As main function the serial communication has to exchange several instructions from and
to the supervising computer. Since the turntable with its control stands in an anechoic room

14

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

where the door is completely locked during the measuring process, the monitoring PC is
located outside this room. This allows laboratory personnel checking and controlling the
progress. For this communication serial lines with adapted ports already exists between inand outside of the anechoic room because a digital radio link could produce unwanted signals.
To universalise, the communication was defined in a protocol. Table 3.3 shows the communication protocol with all instructions, messages, and errors the SMC has to deal with.
Transmitting
Command
Rxxx
Lxxx
ON
OFF
INIT
CALI
OK
RST
CNT
CONT

Description
moves the turntable about xxx degrees to the right
(higher than 360 will return a value-error).
moves the turntable about xxx degrees to the left
(higher than 360 will return a value-error).
turns both step motors on (default: on).
turns both step motors off.
initialise the SMC again.
allows to re-calibrate the turntable manually.
confirms executed settings (used for continuing after calibration).
resets the degree count.
returns the current degree count.
continues the SMC program after an occurred failure with error message.
Receiving
Message
ACKxxx
Cxxx
END
RDY
OFF
WAIT

Description
is Acknowledge of last sent command.
passes the current degree count.
signals that the end position have been reached.
signals that the SMC is ready for new commands.
signals that the motors are still turned off.
signals that the SMC is busy.

Message
ECOM
EVAL
ESTEP
EEMER

Failures
Description
ERROR! Unusual command.
ERROR! Value of degrees is <0 or >360.
ERROR! Steps have been lost.
ERROR! Case of emergency has occured.

Table 3.3.: Communication protocol between SMC and the supervising computer.

15

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

3.2.3. Step Losses Detection


Although engine and gear were developed so that the turntable should also carry heavier
loads, nevertheless step losses could occur. This could happen when the table is blocked by
something. For instance, the load could be placed to unbalanced, or a solid obstacle like a
fixed microphone stand would block continued rotation. In this case, the step motors will
stop turning immediately because they need a momentum after acceleration otherwise the
magnetic field will circuit around the rotor. Under load, the slipping field will not be able
for setting the rotor back into motion. This happens because the frequency of the stepper
motor relative to the rotor inertia is too high and would require an acceleration again. Since
this is a fatal failure, it must be avoided by a automatic watchdog unit. Such a monitoring
system is simply realised by checking whether one motor revolution is equal to its needed
steps. Every completed turn, a magnet mounted on one rotor raises an electric impulse in a
Hall sensor. This impulse triggers a binary signal in a Schmitt trigger and consequently, it
raises an external interrupt in the micro-controller. The interrupt routine handles the flag
by checking count of steps. If the count (c0 ) is lower than the previous count (c1 )
steps for one rotation (st) (the steps are decremented!), the running program sequence
will be suspended and an error will be raised (see Table 3.3), or else, the program will be
continued immediately.
Since the gear mechanism (especially the worm gear) has a backlash, it should be tolerated
in the step losses detection. So a tolerance factor (tol) should be added to the condition above.
Thereby an equation of condition can be set up:
c0 < c1 st + tol

suspending running program.

(3.4)

One rotation of the turntable has 137,000 motor steps as known from Equation 3.3. Consequently, one degree is natural a 360th of it, namely 380.5 steps. Since one revolution has
400 steps, the tolerance could take a value of a full turn for example, which would detect
step losses approximately greater than one degree. This helps to identify where the failure
has occurred at a accuracy of nearly one degree.

3.2.4. Manual Control


Furthermore the SMC should provide a manual control due to the fact that calibrating the
system from outside the anechoic room is counterproductive. Therefore several push buttons and a seven-segment display with four segments were added. In calibration mode the
buttons help moving the turntable. There are two buttons for the direction of rotation
(BLEFT/BRIGHT ) and one for confirming the conclusion of the setting (BOK ). Additionally, the reset pin of the micro-controller was connected to an external button for eventual
restarts. Finally, a stop button (BSTOP) for emergency cases was implemented. The push
buttons are realised as active LOW buttons.
The display shows the actual direction of motion (L/R at first segment) and the position
related to the origin in degrees. When an error occurs, it will display continuous lettering with
("ERROR AT xxx "). During initialisation where the turntable rotates towards its origin,
the seven-segments will write ("INIT"). In the end, the display will shut down simultaneous
with the stepper motors if it is desired, before it will show ("OFF") for a second. Vice versa,
the display will show ("ON") and turn on instead. Controlling the seven-segment display
have been realised by the MAX7221CNG from Maxim [16] which is an Integrated Circuit

16

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

(IC ) for driving seven-segment displays up to 8 digits. Its registers can be manipulated by
a serial bus like SPI which the operating micro-controller provides.

3.2.5. Power Management


The load supply voltage which is used for generating the motor output current, has a range
from at least 8 V up to 35 V. The second voltage level is at 5 V because all used ICs
are Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS). Only the micro-controller has an
integrated voltage regulator which is able converting an input voltage range of 7 to 9 V down
to a level of 5 V. However, the power does not suffice for all 5V-Logic-ICs which summarised
are the seven-segment driver, the logic part of the stepper motor driver, MAX232, and the
Schmitt triggers for the Hall sensors.
So the idea was to implement an extra fixed voltage regulator which is able to sustain
an input voltage of up to 35 V (since the stepper motor driver can be supplied with 35
V), and delivers enough power for all devices. For this reason, a LM7805 was chosen. It
is a 3-Terminal Positive Voltage Regulator with a stable output of 5 V, and provides 1 A
output current [17]. With an absolute maximum rated input voltage of 35 V, it should not
pose a problem if the device was driven at recommended 25 V. This would also conveniently
fit the input range of the stepper motor drivers power part. Figure 3.6 shows the power
management constellation with all involved devices.
25 V / max. 35 V

LM7805

2x

Stepper Motor Driver


5V

7 seg. driver

Others like
Pullup Resistor

MAX232

Schmitt Trigger

Load Supply Voltage


Logic Supply Voltage

Figure 3.6.: Power Management Principle.


Conducting the 25 V supply input of SMC to a laboratory power supply was implemented
over a Cannon X Lockable and Rubber insulated connection (commonly known as XLR
connector). Conventionally, it is most commonly associated with balanced audio interconnection. Since the anechoic chamber has several ports connecting in- and outside, a couple
of XLR connectors for audio application like connecting microphones or loudspeaker, have
been implemented too. One of these was used for supplying the SMC. A crafted XLR cable
was connected with a laboratory power supply with high voltage on Plus lead and ground
level on GND lead. The inverted Minus lead and the screen shield was not connected. The
power input connector on the SMC is already a compatible XLR linkage.

17

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

3.3. High Air Pressure Artificial Mouth - HAPAM


For oscillating the air column in the tube of brass wind instruments a convenient stimulation
system is required. Therefore, a loudspeaker had to be adapted for this use. Since Tubas
with an immense volume of air should be measured, a low frequency speaker with a rated
output power of 50 Watt from RS-Components was chosen. It has an impedance of 8 Ohm
and a diameter of 5.25 Inch. This large-dimensioned speaker was covered in a box made of
plywood. A circle of the size of the membrane was cut out of the front plate besides a holed
plastic cone was placed over the hole in order to focus the sound energy. The mouthpiece
of the brass instrument could be mounted with clips, and between both parts a rubber
ring was placed for tightening. Additionally, a probe microphone which serves as reference,
was integrated in the plastic cone as near as possible to the mouthpiece plane. It is a 1/8
Inch pressure microphone (type: 40DP) from G.R.A.S. which has a linear frequency range
(1 dB) from 10 Hz up to 30 kHz [18]. Finally, to make this box sound-proof it was filled
behind the membrane with foam plastics. Figure 3.7 shows the completed HAPAM box in
blue.

Figure 3.7.: High Air Pressure Artificial Mouth mounted on a Tuba.

18

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

3.4. Final Measurement Set-Up

Port

Terminal

Finally, all listed devices above were composed to the final acquisition and measurement
set-up. This included the turntable construction with two stepper motors and gear, the StepMotor-Control device, the HAPAM excitation tool with an included reference microphone, an
additional probe microphone for measuring the directed sound pressure, several laboratory
devices like power supply and mic pre-amplifier, and lastly the musical instrument under
test. Figure 3.8 pictures the final measurement set-up with all involved components.

Door

Pr
ob

eM
ic

HAPAM

SMC

Step Motor

Anechoic Chamber
Figure 3.8.: Finale Test Set-up.
R

A ROGA RG-50 ICP


1/4 Inch probe microphone [19] is placed in front of the musical
instrument to be rotated and measured. It has a linear frequency response (1 dB) from
30 Hz up to 4 kHz. Since lower frequencies should be measured too, it should be refereed
to the fact that the microphone has an accuracy of 1.5 dB down to 4 Hz. It is connected
with the suitable PCB Series 440 sensor signal conditioner [20] with gain of 1x, 10x, 100x.
The G.R.A.S. microphone which interacts as reference in the excitation device HAPAM, is
connected with a BSWA Tech Co. MC702 pre-amplifier. Both pre-amplifiers were connected
with a port which is linked with a 19 Inch rack terminal tower outside the chamber. This port
provides several terminal points like Bayonet Neill Concelman (BNC )-, cinch-, phone jacks,
RS-232-, and XLR-connectors. Consequently, the input signal for HAPAMs loudspeaker
is provided over the port too. That signal is amplified by Orion Profi Mosfet Amplifier
from Zoffmusic. Next, a converted XLR connector supplies the SMC with power besides the
communication is realised over a RS-232 link. Finally, all described functions routed by the
rack tower are connected with the Data Acquisition Input/Output (DAQ I/O) interface card
from vendor National Instruments which is compatible to LabVIEW.

19

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

3.5. Supervising Computer Program with LabVIEW


Controlling the rotation of the step motor controller and conducting the measurements were
applied by a program based on designing software LabVIEW [11]. The cycle of the acquisition
can be divided in several parts. First of all, a top layer sequence can be defined. This level
describes functions from the initialisation to the conclusion of the measured data abstractly.
It can be said that the top layer also provides information about the process of the SMCs
micro-controller program by the reason that both program cycles work synchronously. The
second layer describes one acoustical measurement at a given position of degrees. It is
encapsulated in the top layer between approaching of the desired positions of the turntable.
It will be applied while the end position has not been achieved. The third and last one is
the data processing layer which computes all acquired information. It is also part of the top
layer but it only will be executed as the final procedure.

3.5.1. Top Layer Architecture


The main program starts with a initialization process where the turntable is driven to the
origin point. It will rotate counter-clockwise until a Hall sensor triggers an impulse. Additionally, settings (duration of a measurement, frequency range, number of angles, etc. . . )
for LabVIEW can be done. After that process has finished, in addition, the turntable can
be calibrated precisely. This could happen either by operating the push buttons on SMC
or by sending drive commands over the serial interface. Then the actual acquisition of the
sound pattern begins. At zero degree the first measuring starts. It is a acoustical transfer
response measurement where the output sound pressure of the instrument is set in relation
to the input sound pressure caught inside the mouthpieces cup. After then the turntable
will rotate to its next position and a further measuring will begin. This will be repeated as
long as the preselected end position will be reached. At that end the analysis of data will
start and the result will be plotted. The flow-chart of this sequence is plotted in Figure 3.9.
Start

Initialisation

Origin reached,
Settings completed

Drive turntable
with command
Rxxx degrees

Wait until RDY


is received

Calibration

Send Calib OK

Measuring

First
Measurement

Is end positionYes
reached?

Postprocess
the gathered
data

No

End

Figure 3.9.: Top layer flow-chart of the turntable program.

3.5.2. Measuring Layer


The heart of the acquisition system is the acoustical measurement of the musical instrument.
It will be applied when the turntable is brought into a desired position. For example, if the

20

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

difference between the individual angles is 10 degrees and a full turn should be executed,
the gathering of acoustic information will be applied 36 times. For this use, the musical
instrument to be measured is oscillated by a logarithmic sine sweep which was outputted
over the Data Acquisition Output (DAQout) interface prepared by LabVIEW. That sweep is
defined by the pre-settings which consist of frequency range, measuring duration, sampling
rate and sampling buffer size (which defines how long a signal at a given frequency will
be analysed). Usually, the sampling rate in this LabVIEW program was at 50000 samples
per second and the buffer had a size of 5000 samples. This means that ten analysis per
second could be managed. One analysis considers one frequency step. In connection with
the duration which was 180 seconds by default, there were examined 1800 frequency steps per
one complete measurement. These steps were logarithmically interpolated over the selected
frequency range. Consequently, the output sine sweep was generated thereby, because the
magnitude were held on a constant level.
Then the actual measuring happened. The DAQ input device gathered two microphone
signals where one was firmly placed in the anechoic room which should acquire the relative
sound radiation at different angles. Another one was put into the HAPAMs cavity as near
as possible to the mouth piece plain as reference. Since the measuring is a transfer response
analysis, both input signals were compared in LabVIEW. First, the signals were put into an
input buffer where a Discrete Fourier Transformation (DFT ) analysed them. After that single tone information per channel with maximum magnitude were extracted. This simplified
further calculation because only one magnitude per channel was considered. Calculating the
transfer response was realised by dividing output by input where the corresponding frequency
was determined by the strongest signal. The result was recorded as a special Versatile Instrument Analysis System (VIAS) file which is commonly used on the institute. Additionally,
the phase, the real and imaginary part were calculated for the file. The frequency response
was also plotted on a display window of the LabVIEW panel which is shown in Appendix
C. For post-processing both input signals were put in storage as WAVE file. The current
direction in degrees was integrated in the names of both files. For simplicity the schematic
Figure 3.10 should explain this topic pictorially.

Settings
WAVE
file

Calculating
frequency steps

Generating
output

Catching
input

DFT

VIAS
file

Extracting
Single Tone
Information

Output

T (f ) = Input

Audio Input
Probe
Mic

HAPAM
Reference Output

Figure 3.10.: Block diagram of the measurement cycle.

21

LabVIEW
Graph Panel

CHAPTER 3. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF THE AUTOMATED ACQUISITION SYSTEM

3.5.3. Data Processing Layer


After all directions of radiation have been acquired, this information should be transformed
into a graphical interpretation. For this an additional LabVIEW subroutine was implemented. The latest version was able to either reading out VIAS files or analysing the transfer
response of convenient WAVE files including input and output channel. When all amplitude
responses over the entirely available frequency range for all radiation direction were collected,
the obtained curves were normalized by the zero degree directed characteristic. This is the
direction with the maximum sound pressure level because it is located directly in front of the
instruments bell. The normalisation was achieved by multiplying the individual curves with
the inverse of the zero-degree curve. The result for the zero-degree curve itself was a straight
line at 0 decibel. All other curves were relatives to the zero-degree direction consequently.
But the existing information was still too complex to create a clearly arranged diagram. So
all amplitude/frequency characteristics were separated in several frequency divisions which
could be defined manually. The arithmetic mean was formed over the individual sub-divisions
to give a pointed value for it. Composing the same frequency divisions over all directions
in a circle completes one curve. For that reason, there are so many circles as frequency
classification in the composed polar diagram. The scale of that polar diagram began at the
outer boundary and went toward the centre by attenuation steps of 3 dB. An amplification
in relation to the frontal directed sound radiation for Trumpets, Trombones, and Tubas will
not occur commonly [10]. The advantage of that form of diagram is that a sound attenuation
graph in all directions can be drawn where Meyers differentiated -3 dB and -10 dB areas
could be red out too. For documentation a directional characteristic graph can be exported
as a Scripted Vector Graphic (SVG).
Examples of directional sound patterns are shown after measuring of two Tubas in Chapter 4.

22

4. Acoustical Measurements and Acquisition


of the Directional Sound Pattern
This chapter documents the different measurements which were applied in the course of the
bachelor project. As test subjects two Tubas of different fundamental tone were considered
for comparison. The attributes of these instruments shall be listed in Table 4.1:
Contrabass Tuba in B[
Model
Cerveny, Czechoslovakia, BB[-Tuba CBB 681
Pedal tone
B0 (29.13 Hz)
Tuning pitch
B1 (58.26 Hz)
Bell mouth diameter
400 mm
Bore diameter
20.2 mm
Weight
9000 g
Unwound length of the brass tube
about 5.8 m
Valves
4

Model
Pedal tone
Tuning pitch
Bell mouth diameter
Bore diameter
Unwound length of the brass tube
Valves

Bass Tuba in F
Gebr. Alexander Mainz, Germany, F-Tuba Modell 157
F1 (43.65 Hz)
F2 (87.31 Hz)
380 mm
18.5 mm
about 4 m
6

Table 4.1.: Characteristics of two analysed Tubas.


Comparing both instruments shows that their pedal frequencies are different. This should
not affect the directional characteristic since Meyer said that the frequency dependence of the
sound pattern is independent of the pitch played [9]. Only the input impedance of the Tubas
is different. In the matter of omnidirectional sound radiation there should not be disparity
because the source of sound (the bell) is quasi equal for both objects (narrow difference of 2
cm).
In course of this chapter three types of measurements will be described. There will be the
input impedance and transfer response analysis of both instruments. The acquired directional
sound pattern will be shown finally.

23

CHAPTER 4. ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND ACQUISITION OF THE DIRECTIONAL


SOUND PATTERN

4.1. Input Impedance


MOhm
35

Bb0
30

25

Bb2
D3 F3

20

F2

Bb3
Ab3

Bb1

15

D4
C4
10

E4

F4
G4
Ab4
A4Bb4

Hz
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

Figure 4.1.: Input Impedance of the Contrabass Tuba in B[.


Figure 4.1 shows the input impedance of the Cerveny B[-Tuba. The measurement were
taken by IWKs tool named Brass Instrument Analysing System (BIAS) [1]. The nonlogarithmic frequency axis ranges from 0 Hz up to 1 kHz. The vertical axis is the magnitude
of the impedance in Mega Ohms (MOhm). The dark-blue curves peaks are the resonances
of the air column in the Tuba and equals the natural tones (without a valve is pressed). For
comparison the advanced orange curve represents the resultant resonances when the scale is
decreased by a tempered whole tone. This is implemented by pushing the first valve. The
name of notes of the natural tones are printed into the graph. In order to simplify, the names
for the orange curve are not displayed. For the sake of completeness their names are Ab0 Ab1 - Eb2 - Ab2 - C3 - Eb3 - F]3 - Ab3 - B[3 - C4 - D4 - Eb4 - E4 - F]4 - G4 - Ab4 - A4 - B[4.
According to the impedance measurement it should be mentioned that the distance between
two peaks is always the same, because all harmonics are integer multiples of the fundamental
tone. Only the musical interval between two tones will be smaller from one octave to the
next. The scale in the third octave (indicated by the number 3) is almost completed with
the natural tones and the additional first valve. Furthermore, no valves are required for the
fourth octave because the intervals are only a whole-tone step, or only a half-tone at higher
frequencies. It also can be seen, that the tones which would be played with or without the
first valve pressed, overlap at some points. However, Tuba players perform in the 4th octave
and upwards very rarely because it would need a professional musician passing such difficult

24

CHAPTER 4. ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND ACQUISITION OF THE DIRECTIONAL


SOUND PATTERN

passages. How well a sound appeals is evident by the size of the magnitude peaks. The
higher a peak of a resonance is the better a tone will approach [3].
Since there were two Tubas to be measured, their input impedances were compared and
are plotted in Figure 4.2. The contrabass Tuba in B[ is represented by the dark-blue curve,
the bass Tuba in F is displayed as orange function. It can be seen that the fundamental tone
of the F-Tuba is about 20 Hz higher than that one of the B[-Tuba. However, there are some
natural tones which harmonise on both instruments. That special notes are at several kinds
of F most. Only at the F1 the instruments are out of sync. There a peak from the F-Tuba
is opposed to a tale of the other one. This means that a F1 could never be forced on the
B[-Tuba without additional help instead it will sounds well and easily on the Tuba in F.
MOhm
40

F1

35

30

F2
F3

25

20

C4
15

F4
10

Hz
0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

Figure 4.2.: Comparison of the input impedance of a B[- and F-Tuba.

25

1000

CHAPTER 4. ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND ACQUISITION OF THE DIRECTIONAL


SOUND PATTERN

4.2. Transfer Response


The Transfer Response relates output sound pressure to input sound pressure. Since the
transfer response is similar to the acoustical admittance of a musical system, it also can be
associated with the input impedance [8]. Further measurements of the directional sound
radiation were based on the acquisition of single transfer responses, therefore, it should be
explained succinctly.
Bb1 -48 [Cent]

22,809
20

-20

10

-21,747

20

30

56,67270
50

100

200

300

500

700

1000

2000

3000

5000

Figure 4.3.: Relation between input impedance and transfer response.


Figure 4.3 shows the input impedance (orange) and the transfer response curve (green) of
the contrabass Tuba in B[ (its tuning pitch B[1 is highlighted with a cursor). In this case the
graphs vertical axis is dimensionless and represents only proportions in decibel, however, it
does not matter because the graph should only depict the affinity of both curves. Besides
the frequency axis is logarithmic that time so higher frequency ranges can be seen. After
analysing this figure it should be possible to recognise that one curve could be the reciprocal
of the other ones. That does not fit entirely due to that fact that both characteristics were
measured with different methods. Finally, it can be seen that the transfer response rises at
higher frequencies otherwise the impedance falls there. This indicates that the most inserted
energy will be radiated at the output and nothing will be kept inside the tube for establishing
an oscillating system. For that reason it is difficult for a Tuba player to perform a tone above
400 Hz moreover it is impossible to play above 600 Hz.

26

CHAPTER 4. ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND ACQUISITION OF THE DIRECTIONAL


SOUND PATTERN

4.3. The Directional Characteristic of Brass Wind Instruments


At last, the paper has come to its final measurement. After the implementation of the
aforementioned turntable acquisition system, it was possible to acquire the directional sound
pattern ultimately. For that analysis both Tubas were considered. Figure 4.4 illustrates the
directional radiation of the contrabass Tuba in B[ and that one of the F-Tuba is shown in
Figure 4.5.
2000-3900 Hz
1000-2000 Hz
500-1000 Hz
240-500 Hz
120-240 Hz
20-120 Hz

-18dB
-15dB
-12dB
-9dB
-6dB
-3dB
0dB
Figure 4.4.: Directional Characteristic of the Contrabass Tuba in B[.
As it can be seen, both Tubas radiate omnidirectional between 20 and 120 Hz. This is the
region where the pedal tone and its first harmonics are located. In the chromatic scale that
area corresponds the first and the second octave (or also known as contra and great octave).
The both spheres are little truncated opposite the bell mouth but their magnitudes lie barely

27

CHAPTER 4. ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND ACQUISITION OF THE DIRECTIONAL


SOUND PATTERN

2000-3900 Hz
1000-2000 Hz
500-1000 Hz
240-500 Hz
120-240 Hz
20-120 Hz

-18dB
-15dB
-12dB
-9dB
-6dB
-3dB
0dB
Figure 4.5.: Directional Characteristic of the Bass Tuba in F.

28

CHAPTER 4. ACOUSTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND ACQUISITION OF THE DIRECTIONAL


SOUND PATTERN

below the -3 dB level. According to Meyer [10] such curve of the circle can be accepted as
a complete simple sound source at this frequency range. The second range between 120 and
250 Hz complies with the third octave which is also called small octave. This range differs
to the previous less but it suffices that the curves lies underneath the -3 dB level more and
more. So the instruments cannot be designated as spheric radiator any more. It should be
mentioned that the difference between the two curves is greater for the B[-Tuba instead of
that one in F. This can be deduced by the fact that the bell in connection with the diapason
of the F-Tuba are smaller compared to the B[-Tuba.
The next circle describes the last playable region (the fourth octave or one-line octave) of
Tubas. It includes the formant frequencies additionally which characterise the sound colour
of the Tubas. As it can be seen, this region from 250 up to 500 Hz keeps only above the -3
dB limit at a range of about 130 degrees for the Tuba in B[ and about 140 degrees for the
F-Tuba. Additionally radiating maxima and minima occurs at several points in both curves.
The magnitude decreases underneath the Tubas by about 9 dB. This is why floor reflection
will not influence the sound. Instead of that ceiling reflection should be considered because
the most radiated sound is directed against the ceiling vertically. This also applies to higher
frequency components whose radiation is increasingly narrowed to the axis of the bell. For
example, the 500 1000 Hz band is emitted only for a width of main radiation lower than
90 degrees for both Tubas. Besides the main radiation field for the 1000 2000 Hz range is
about 45 degrees for both Tubas too, but between 2000 and 3900 Hz it is only 30 degrees for
the Tuba in F where the B[-Tuba still achieves 40 degrees.
Appointing to Meyer, the -10 dB limit should be also analysed. So it should be mentioned
that this limit is exceeded at frequencies above 500 Hz. Hence, these spectral components
sound laterally and below the instrument at least half as loud as before the bell [10].
The reason why higher frequency components should be also considered is that they arise
as overtones when a Tuba is played very loud (ital. fortissimo). This makes the sound colour
of the spread tone brighter and more brilliant. If this components are cut off, the instrument
sounds dark and it is not possible achieving differently effective dynamic levels. This happens
when the narrowed directivity at higher frequencies is neglected. For instance, such problem
appears especially with Tubas at open air events since there is no ceiling which could reflect
that overtones in the direction of the audience. But even poorly structured ceilings in concert
halls can absorb these high-frequency components and thereby the Tuba sounds dull [3][10].

29

5. Conclusion
The acquisition of the directional characteristic of the measured Tubas was successful. The
developed set-up fulfilled all requirements. Only during the implementation of the automated
turntable, more attention had to be paid for the mechanical development because the input
torque of the step motors was too less. This was resolved by designing a convenient gear
system. The electronic device SMC worked without fatal errors by reason that the microcontrollers program code was always debugged while the testing phase. The ultimate version
also handled with predictable errors like step losses, wrong actuation by human error, etc. . . ,
and communicated warnings over the serial interface immediately.
The acquired results were meaningful and were confirmed by former publications of J.
Meyer [10]. Since the directivity measurements were taken by only one microphone, the
resulting diagrams were two-dimensional. But even these diagrams showed impressively
how the sound radiates. Besides the directional characteristic could be imagined threedimensionally by the reason that the radiation were accepted as symmetric around the bell
axis. However, to achieve a truly spatial pattern it would be necessary to design a arch
equipped with several microphone. Due to the fact that the automated acquisition system
was extensible, it would be possible creating 3D-plottings in the near future. It was also
designed to be universal since the measuring signals were independent of the test object. On
that account other musical instruments could be proven of their directional characteristic
by simply adapting a different excitation mechanism and a different mounting construct
respectively.

30

Bibliography
[1] W. Winkler and G. Widholm, BIAS - Blas Instrumenten Analyse System, in 15 Jahre
Institut fr Wiener Klangstil (1980-1995), E. Melkus, Ed. Wien: Institut fr Wiener
Klangstil, 1996, pp. 95106.
[2] G. K. Behler and M. Pollow, Variable Richtcharakteristik mit DodekaederLautsprechern, Fortschritte der Akustik, pp. 6768, 2008.
[3] G. Widholm, Musikalische Akustik 1. Wien: Institut fr Wiener Klangstil - Universitt
fr Musik und Darstellenede Kunst, 2013.
[4] D. C. Giancoli, Physik.

Pearson Deutschland GmbH, 2010.

[5] C. Reuter, Tonhhen in Frequenzen umrechnen, [Visited on 07.05.2014]. [Online].


Available: http://homepage.univie.ac.at/christoph.reuter/reuter/pitch1.php
[6] J. Meyer and U. Hansen, Acoustics and the Performance of Music: Manual for Acousticians, Audio Engineers, Musicians, Architects and Musical Instrument Makers, 5th ed.
Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, 2009.
[7] P. Anglmayer, Messung der akustischen Eingangsimpedanz von Blechblasinstrumenten, Masters thesis, Insitut fr Allgemeine Physik, TU Wien & IWK - Universitt
fr Musik und Darstellende Kunst Wien, Wien, 2001, betreuer: Univ. Ass. Dr. Wilfried
Kausel PDF ff JA.
[8] S. Elliott, J. Bowsher, and P. Watkinson, Input and transfer response of brass wind
instruments, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America (JASA), vol. 72, no. 6, pp.
17471760, 1982.
[9] J. Meyer, Musikalische Akustik, in Handbuch der Audiotechnik.
Berlin Heidelberg, 2008, pp. 123180.

Springer-Verlag

[10] J. Meyer and K. Wogram, Die Richtcharakteristiken von Trompete, Posaune und
Tuba, Das Musikinstrument, vol. 19, pp. 17180, 1970.
[11] LabVIEW System Design Software, National Instruments Corporation, 2014.
[Online]. Available: http://www.ni.com/labview/
[12] RS Schrittmotor 0.9deg 2,8V 44Ncm 42mm, RS Components Handelsges.m.b.H.,
Gmnd, AUT, 2014, [Visited on 7.3.2014]. [Online]. Available: http://at.rs-online.com/
web/p/products/5350401/
[13] Arduino Mini, Arduino.cc, Italy, 2014, [Visited on 4.3.2014]. [Online]. Available:
http://arduino.cc/en/Main/ArduinoBoardMini

31

Bibliography

[14] Atmel 8-bit AVR Microcontroller with 32KBytes In-System Programmable Flash
- ATmega328P, Atmel Corporation, San Jose, USA, 2012. [Online]. Available:
http://www.atmel.com/Images/doc7810.pdf
[15] A4988 Stepper Motor Driver Carrier, Pololu Corporation, Las Vegas, USA, 2014,
[Visited on 4.3.2014]. [Online]. Available: http://www.pololu.com/product/1182
[16] MAXIM Serially Interfaced, 8-Digit LED Display Drivers - MAX7219/MAX7221,
Maxim Integrated Products Corporation, San Jose, USA, 2003.
[17] 3-Terminal 1 A Positive Voltage Regulator - LM78XX/LM78XXA, Fairchild Semiconductor Corporation, 2006.
[18] G.R.A.S. 40DP 1/8" Ext. Polarized Pressure Microphone, G.R.A.S. Sound & Vibration, Holte, Denmark, 2014.
[19] ROGA RG-50, ROGA-Instruments, Waldalgesheim, Germany, 2014. [Online].
Available: http://www.roga-instruments.com/sensors/measure-mic-rg-50/specification.
html
R SENSOR SIGNAL CONDITIONER, PCB
[20] Model 442B104, 4 CHANNEL ICP
Piezotronics Inc., Depew, USA, 2006. [Online]. Available: http://www.pcb.com/
contentstore/docs/PCB_Corporate/Electronics/products/Manuals/442C04.pdf

32

List of Figures
2.1. Image of a contrabass Tuba in B[ with its elements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. Spheric sound radiation of brass instruments by Meyer. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. Main radiation area of a Tuba . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.

3
5
6

Turntable system with a stable construction for fixing a Tuba. . . . . . . . . .


Example of a gear belt drive with a reduction of about 1:35. . . . . . . . . . .
Principle of the designed gearing mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Picture of the final used gearing mechanism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wiring diagram for connecting a micro-controller to an A4988 stepper motor
driver carrier. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.6. Power Management Principle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.7. High Air Pressure Artificial Mouth mounted on a Tuba. . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.8. Finale Test Set-up. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.9. Top layer flow-chart of the turntable program. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.10. Block diagram of the measurement cycle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

8
8
10
10

4.1.
4.2.
4.3.
4.4.
4.5.

24
25
26
27
28

Input Impedance of the Contrabass Tuba in B[. . . . . . .


Comparison of the input impedance of a B[- and F-Tuba.
Relation between input impedance and transfer response.
Directional Characteristic of the Contrabass Tuba in B[. .
Directional Characteristic of the Bass Tuba in F. . . . . .

33

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

14
17
18
19
20
21

List of Tables
2.1. Region of formants of several brass wind instruments [6]. . . . . . . . . . . . .

3.1. Specifications of the selected step motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.2. Characteristics of the Arduino Mini Board. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.3. Communication protocol between SMC and the supervising computer. . . . .

11
13
15

4.1. Characteristics of two analysed Tubas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23

34

List of Abbreviations
BIAS
BNC
CMOS
DAQ I/O
DFT
EIA
FTDI
GR
HAPAM
IC
IWK
LabVIEW
PC
PWM
SMC
SPI
SVG
UART
USB
VIAS

Brass Instrument Analysing System


Bayonet Neill Concelman
Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor
Data Acquisition Input/Output
Discrete Fourier Transformation
Electronic Industries Alliance
Future-Technology-Devices-International
Gear Ratio
High Air Pressure Artificial Mouth
Integrated Circuit
Institut fr Wiener Klangstil
Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Engineering Workbench
Personal Computer
Pulse Width Modulation
Step-Motor-Control
Serial Programming Interface
Scripted Vector Graphic
Universal Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter
Universal Serial Bus
Versatile Instrument Analysis System

35

A. Assembled Step-Motor-Control (SMC)

RS-232
Power Supply
7 Segment Driver

Push Button
s

36

put
Hall Sensors In

Schmitt
Trigger

Driver
Stepper Motor

with Heatsink

MAX232

Arduino Mini rev5

MSb
MSc
MSd

GND_b

GND_c

MSb
MSc
MSd

MSb
MSc
MSd

GND
GNDMOT
b
cf

cJk9

VDD

b8

bf
bJ
bY
bv
b8
b9
c$
cb

b9
f
9

Cc b$$n
b$$ Cb

JPb$

GND

VDD

c
b

c
b

JP9
HALd
d

c
b

JP8
HALc
d

c
b

HALb d

b$$n

bA
cA
bB
cB

CLK

DIG$
DIGb
LOAD DIGc
DIGd
DIN
DIGf
DOUT DIGJ
DIGY
ISET DIGv
SEGA
SEGB
SEGC
SEGD
SEGE
VCC SEGF
GND SEGG
GND SEGDP

c
bb
Y
v
d
b$
J
8
bf
bY
c$
cd
cb
bJ
bv
cc

b$k
Rc$

df
dd
d
c
b
dY
dJ

ICfc
CDvfACbfEEf

MOTd

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

LEDbGab
COM

DP

dc

CCJYLbbCGKWA
c9
c8
8
Y
J
d$
v

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

LEDbGac
COM

DP

db

CCJYLbbCGKWA
cJ
cf
bc
bb
b$
cv
cY

MAXvcb9CNG

b JPbd
c
d
f

MOTc_bA
MOTc_cA
MOTc_bB
MOTc_cB

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

LEDbGad
COM

cd

DP

bd

CCJYLbbCGKWA

GND

GND

C8

VDD
VMOT

b$k

Rbc

bk

Ab
Ac
Bb
Bc

ICb

Rb

A$
Ab
Ac
Ad
Af
AJ
AY
Av

3cfV

VDD

Cv

b$$n

STEP
DIR

bc

fkv

fkv
Rb8

fkv
Rbv

STEP
DIR

bd

ICfb
CDvfACbfEEf

RbY

bk
RJ

GND

GND

37

EN
RST
SLEEP

GND

GNDc

GND_d

GND_f
GNDf

Cb
ARDUINO_MINI_RJMINI

GNDd

GND

EN
RST
SLP

GND
GNDMOT

JV_b

ARDUINO
MINI
vJ

CJ

c
d
f
J
Y
v
8
9
b$
bb
bc
bd
IOv

b$$n

Rv
bk
RY

MOTc

MOTb_cB
MOTb_cA
MOTb_bA
MOTb_bB

ICd
Af988_STEPPER_MOTOR_DRIVER_CARRIER
GND

GND
GNDMOT

MSb
MSc
MSd

MOTb_bA
MOTb_cA
MOTb_bB
MOTb_cB

b JPbc
c
d
f

MOTc_cB
MOTc_cA
MOTc_bA
MOTc_bB

VDD
VMOT

STEP
DIR

bA
cA
bB
cB

Ab
Ac
Bb
Bc

GND
GNDMOT

STEP
DIR

VDD
C

RESET_b
RESET_c

3cfV

VDD
VMOT

VDD
VMOT

b$k

Rbb

b$k
BUTJ

EN
RST
SLEEP

JV

9V
9V

JV_c

TX_c
RX_c

DIOc
DIOd
DIOf
DIOJ
DIOY
DIOv
DIO8
DIO9
DIOb$
DIObb
DIObc
DIObd
DIOv_c

RESET

ICY

VDD

VDD

BUTf
JPbb

b$k

RbJ

VDD
Rbf
c

b$k

BUTd
JPv

TXc
RXc

JV_d

TX_b
RX_b

b$k

Cb3

Cbb

RESET

VDD

Rbd

JVd

GND

bJ

CbL

TX
RX

Rb
Rc

Cc3

Cb$

EN
RST
SLP

GND
JVc

bY

VCC

c
f
Y

SerialProgramming
GND

R8

V3

c
b

bk

b$k

GND

GND

CcL

BUTc
JPY

GND

b
d
J

JPd

VL

Rb$
b

JPf
b

GND

JPc

ICc
Af988_STEPPER_MOTOR_DRIVER_CARRIER
GND

Rc

GND

VDD
Y

9
bc
b$
bb

GND

RcIN RcOUT
RbIN RbOUT
TcOUT
TcIN
TbOUT
TbIN

GND

VDD

bf

8
bd
v
bf

bk

GND

Cbc
b

GND

MAXcdc

Rf

bk
Rd

ICYP

CbJ

GND
b

b$$n

GND

CbdC

Xb

Dd VDD
Dc
bNfbf8DOdJLv
bNfbf8DOdJLv
DJ VDD
Df
bNfbf8DOdJLv
bNfbf8DOdJLv

Gc RScdc
9
J
8
f
v
d
Y
c
b
Gb

VDD

VDD

GND

b$$ Cd

VDD

ICJ
v8$J

Cf b$$n

b$k

b$$ CY

JPb

OUT
GND

BUTb
JPJ

IN

C9 dd$n

R9

PWR3cfV c

3cfV

VDD

VDD

B. Schematic of the Turntables


Step-Motor-Control (SMC)

ICfd
CDvfACbfEEf

c$
b9
bv
bJ
bf
cb
bY

a
b
c
d
e
f
g

LEDbGaf
COM

cc

DP

b8

CCJYLbbCGKWA

C. LabVIEW-Screenshot of HAPAMv15

38