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I

A MANGUE INDIAN RECITING A LOG A.

See page xxv.

brinton's library of

aboriginal american literature,

number

iii.

THE

GUEGUENCE;
A COMEDY BALLET
IN

THE

Nahuatl-Spanish Dialect of Nicaragua.

EDITED BY

DANIEL

G.

BRINTON,

D. G.

A.M., M.D.

BRINTON,

PHILADELPHIA.
1883.

Copyright,

D. G.

BRINTON.
1883.

WE GETTy CENTO?
U8RARV

LIBRARY
OF

Aboriginal American
Literature.
'

No.

III.

EDITED BY

D. G.

BRINTON,

PHILADELPHIA
1883.

M.D.

PREFACE.
The

play which

specimen known to

is

presented in this volume

me

is

the only

of the native American comedy.

It

mixed
dialect, a jargon of low Spanish and corrupt Aztec (Nahuatl)
but, both in its history and spirit, it bears so many
marks of native composition, and is so characteristic of the
sort of humor popular with the tribes from whom it was
is

of comparatively recent origin, and

is

composed

in a

obtained, that

it

fairly merits a place in this series

of publi-

cations.

The text was obtained in


Hermann Berendt. But no
no notes upon

it

sibility for the

Nicaragua, by the late Dr. Carl


translation of

were found among


rendering

rests,

any part of

his papers.

The

it

and

respon-

therefore, with myself.

It

has presented extreme difficulty, owing to the imperfect con-

Nahuatl words
and forms, the antiquated and provincial senses of the Spanish
words, and the obscure local references introduced. I would
rather speak of my work as a loose paraphrase, aimed to give
the general sense and humorous tone of the original, than
dition of the text, the deterioration of the

as a faithful translation.

The text

has been printed precisely as in the manuscript, even

obvious errors in spelling and punctuation having been preserved.

Suggestions with reference to these are

made

in the

notes.

For assistance in translating the Spanish text, I would


acknowledge my indebtedness to Professor Adolfo Pierra, of
Philadelphia, and Dr. F. C. Valentine, of New York, both
of whom have passed considerable periods in Central America.
Philadelphia, November, i88j.

CONTENTS.
PAGK

Introduction.
I.

The Nahuas and Mangues of Nicaragua.

Location of the Nahuas of Nicaragua, v. Derivation of the word


Nicaragua, v. Origin of the Nicaraguan Nahuas, vi. Location
of the Mangues, viii. Why called Chorotecas, viii. Relationship
Culture level of the Nahuas, x.
to the Chapanecs, ix.
Of the
Mangues, x. Disappearance of their languages, xi. Comparison of
the Nahuatl of Nicaragua and of Mexico, xiii.
Comparison of the
Mangue with the Chapanec, xiii. Differences between Nicaraguan
and pure Nahuatl, xiv. Comparison of the Mangue or Chapanec,
of Central America, with the Aymara, of Peru, xv.
Development
of the Nahuatl-Spanish jargon, xvii.
Specimens of it, xvii.

xix
2. The Bailes or Dramatic Dances of Nicaragua.
Oviedo's description, xx. Symbolism of the dance, xxii. Benzoni's
description, xxii.
Gage's remarks, xxii.
Historical character of
Five classes of dances, xxiii. Purpose and
the dances, xxiii.
characters, xxiv.
The Logas, xxv. Las Inditas, xxv. The
Chinegritos, xxvi.
dances, xxvi.
The

j.

The

Negritos, xxvi.

drama of the

Toro-Guaca and other

Ollita, xxvii.

Nicaraguan Musical Instruments and Music.

The Marimba,

its

form and origin,

xxviii.

The Drum,

xxx.

xxviii

The

The Pito or Whistle, xxxiii. SpeciOllita or Musical Jar, xxxi.


mens of Airs, xxxiv. The long Flute, xxxv. The Juco, xxxv. The
The Chilchil or Ayacachtli, xxxvi.
Character of native music, xxxvii. Air of the
and
Cofradias, xxxviii.
Choruses
Melodies

Quijongo or Carimba, xxxvi.

The Cacho,

xxxvii.

Malinche, xxxviii.
from the Giieguence,

xl.

History of the " Baile del Gueguence."


Time and manner of its rehearsal,
text was obtained, xli.

4.

Whence the
Age
xli.

xli

of the play, xiii. Reasons for considering it a native


How different from the Spanish comedy, xliii.
production, xiii.
Native plots of similar character, xliv. Native comedians, xlv.
j\

The Dramatis Persona of the Gueguence.

xlv

Derivation of the name, xlv. Character, xlv.


Malicious humor, xlvi. Costume, xlvi. Don Forcico and Don
Ambrosio, xlvi. Contrast of actions, xlvii. The Governor TastuMinor characters,
Derivation of the name, xlvii.
anes, xlvii.
The lady Suchi Malinche, xlvii. Derivation of the name,
xlvii.
xlvii.
The mules, xlvii. Their costume, xlviii.

The Gueguence,

6.

xlv.

Epitome of the Story of the Gueguence.

THE GUEGUENCE; A COMEDY.


Notes

to the

Gueguence.

xlviii

Vocabulary.

75
83

Index.

93

..

LIST

OF ILLUSTRATIONS.
PAGE

Frontispiece.

A Mangue

Ancient Dance

in

Indian Reciting a Loga.


From an original sketch by Dr. Berendt
Map of the location of the Nahuas of Nicaragua and their
Neighbors.

Nicaragua

A Marimba Player and

his

xii

xxii

From Oviedds Historia.


Instrument
From Von Tempsky's Mitla.

Ancient Aztec Musician

xxix

xxx

From Duran's

Historia.

xxxii
Nicaraguan Indians Playing on the Drum
From an original sketch by Dr. Berendt.
xxxiii
Earthenware Musical Jar from Nicaragua
From a drawing by Dr. Berendt.
xxxiii
Earthenware Whistle from Nicaragua
From a drawing by Dr. Berendt.
xxxiv
Native Flute Melodies
From MS. of Dr. Berendt.
xxxv
Whistles from Nicaraguan Burial Mounds
From Report of Dr. J. F. Bransford.
xxxvi
The Quijongo of Nicaragua
Original Drawing from description.
xxxvii
Atzec Mourner Singing and Playing
From Aztec Codex in the Aubin Collection.
xxxviii
Air of Malinche
From Morelet's Voyage.

Melodies from Gueguence

xl

Original furnished by Dr. E. Flint.

Earthenware Cup from Nicaragua

lxxviii

From

a sketch by Dr. Berendt.

A Nicaraguan Plough

lxxx

From

Squier's

Nicaragua

A Machete

lxxxi

From an

original sketch.

INTRODUCTION.
/.

The Nahuas and Mangues of Nicaragua.

Among

the outlying colonies of that

whose chief

seat

known

was

in

important people

the Valley of Mexico, and

who

are

Mexicans or Nahuas, were several


in Central America.
"One of these," writes Mr. Squier,
"occupied the principal islands in the Lake of Nicaragua,
the narrow isthmus which intervenes between that lake and
the Pacific, and probably a portion of the country to the

variously

as Aztecs,

southward, as far as the gulf of Nicoya.


less

Their country was

than a hundred miles long, by twenty-five broad

yet

here they preserved the same language and institutions, and


practiced the same religious

stock

rites,

with the people of the same

who dwelt more than two thousand

the plateau of Anahuac, from

whom

numerous powerful nations, speaking


having distinct organizations."

miles distant, on

they were separated by


different languages,

and

This Nahuatl tribe gave the name to the Province, Nicaragua, this being, according to some early authorities, the
personal appellation of their chief at the epoch of their dis2
covery, in 1522, and, according to others, their national name.

For no

sufficient reasons,

Mr. Squier applied to them the term

Niquirans, and Dr. Berendt Nicaraos, but


retain, as distinctive for
specifically,

it

seems better to

them, the name Nicaraguans,

" the Nahuas of Nicaragua."

or, more
"Nicaragua" is

E. G. Squier, The States of Central America, p. 317 (London, 1858).

The conquest

of Nicaragua

de las Jndias, Lib.

Dec.

Ill, Lib. IV,

XXIX,

is

described by Oviedo, Historia General

XXI, and

Herrera, Decadas de Indias,


and see Dec. IV, Lib. VIII, cap. X.
cap.

INTRODUCTION.

vi

undoubtedly a Nahuatl word, but,

as the letter r

that language, the precise original form

Francisco Vasquez explained

it

as a

is

not found in

is

uncertain.

compound of

Father

the Nahuatl

nican, "here," and anahuacos, "here dwell those from Anahuac;" or it may be from nican and nahua (plural form of
"
nahuatl), "here dwell those speaking the Nahuatl tongue;
or, as a personal name of a chief, it may be ni calaquiya,
1

"I

entered into, or took possession."

How

it happened that this fragment of the Aztec nation


had become detached from the main body and resident so far
from its central seat, has not been clearly explained. Mr.
Squier and some others have maintained the hypothesis that
the migration of all the Aztec tribes was from south to north,
and that their scattered members in Central America were
bands which had stopped on the road. 2 This opinion, however, is refuted by the evidence of language, and also by
the unanimous traditions of the Aztecs themselves, both in
Nicaragua and in Mexico.
The Nicaraguans had a very positive recollection that their
ancestors came from Mexico, driven forth by scarcity of food,
and that they wandered along the Pacific shore to the locality

"Nicarahua es

Anahuacos."

lo

mismo que Nica anahuac, aqui

Fray Francisco Vasquez, Cronica de

mala, Parte II, Lib. V, cap.

adopted by Dr. Berendt,

name

in ao is not

is

(Guatemala, 1716).

estan los Mexicanos 0

la

Provincia de Guate-

The form Nicarao,

certainly corrupt, as the termination of a proper

found in correct Nahuatl.

Squier's term Niquirans

was

adopted by him from a misreading of Oviedo, and has no authority whatever;

so, also,

his

attempted discrimination between Chorotegans and

Cholotecans, as both these are forms of the same word.


2 " The hypothesis of a migration from Nicaragua and Cuscatlan to
Anahuac is altogether more consonant with probabilities, and with tradi-

tions,

than that which derives the Mexicans from the north."

E. G. Squier.

Notes on Central America, p. 349. It is difficult to understand how Mr.


Squier could make this statement in the face of the words of Herrera and
so

many

other writers.

THE NAHUAS AND MANGUES.

vii

which the Spaniards found them.


They remembered the
names of their ancient home, or, rather, of their ancient
kindred, and gave them as Ticomega and Maguateca, locating
them toward the west (" hacia donde se pone el sol "). It is
1

in

easy to recognize in these words the Aztec terminations signifying gens or tribe, mecatl and

Nor can we be

tecatl,

which

drop

in the plural

wrong in identifying magna with


the Aztec maque, upper, above, and tico with tiachcauh, elder
brother, and in translating these names, the one as "the
upper people," i. e., the dwellers on the lofty interior plateau,
and " our elder brothers," i. e., the senior and ranking clans

the

//.

of their tribe,

far

who remained

in

Anahuac. 3

Besides these traditions, the Nicaraguans showed their close


relationship to the Aztecs

mythology, religious

We

by a

rites,

substantial identity of language,

calendars, manners and customs.

have, fortunately, an unusual mass of information about

them, from an examination

men by the
who took down

of their leading

chaplain Francisco de Bobadilla, in 1528,

much accuracy as we could expect, and


whose narrative has been preserved by the historian Oviedo.
They also had retained a knowledge of the Mexican hiero-

their replies with as

"

LaGente de

su Trage,

esta tierra decia,

Lengua, era

Lib. V, Cap. XII.

casi,

como

que havia descendido de


el

de Mexico."

Mexicana;

" Dicen, que huvo en los tiempos antiguos, en

Espafia una gran Seca, por lo qual se fueron por aquella

poblar a Nicaragua."

Id.

Dec.

Ill, Lib.

specifically quoting the traditions obtained

that the

la

Herrera, Decada III,

Nicaraguans came from Anahuac

Indiana, Lib. Ill, cap.

XL.

at

Mar

IV, cap. VII.

Nueva

Austral a

Torquemada,

from the oldest natives,


no remote epoch.

states

Monarquia

See, also, Gomara, Hist, de las Indias,

cap. 206.
2

Prof.

Buschmann, who obtained these names in a garbled form from


translation of Oviedo, gave them up as insoluble, while

Ternaux-Compans'

recognizing their value as indicating the wanderings of the Nicaraguans.


" Ungliicklicherweise," he says, "sind jene zwei Namen von so ungiin-

stigem Gehalte, das ich nichts aus ihnen hervorlocken kann."

Aztekischen Orisnamen,

p.

768 (Berlin, 1852).

Ueber die

INTRODUCTION.

viii

glyphics,

and wrote,

in

books of paper and parchment, their

laws and ritual, their calendars and the boundaries of their


lands. 1

While this Aztec band thus acknowledged themselves to


be intruders, such appears not to have been the case with
their immediate neighbors to' the northeast and southwest.
These were of one blood and language, and called themselves
m&nkeme, rulers, masters, which the Spaniards corrupted into
Mangues? The invading Aztecs appear to have split this
ancient tribe into two fractions, the one driven toward the
south, about the Gulf of Nicoya, the other northward, on
and near Lake Managua, and beyond it on Fonseca Bay. 3
Probably in memory of this victory, the Nicaraguans applied
to them the opprobrious name Chololteca, "those driven out,"
from the Nahuatl verb choloa, and the suffix tecatl, which was
corrupted by the Spanish to Chorotecas.^
The name does not by any means intimate that the Mangues came from Cholula in Mexico, as some ancient, and some
1

The

and

also

it

was only the

such books, can be corrected from his

own volumes,

careless statement of the historian Herrera, that

Chorotegans

who had

from the explicit words of Oviedo and Gomara.

Compare

Herrera, Dec. Ill, Lib. IV, cap. VII, with Oviedo, Hist, de las Indias,
Lib.

XLII,

cap.

I,

and Gomara,

Hist, de las Indias, cap. 202.

The word mankeme is a derivative from yjma, the head, whence the
Chapanec d'/ama, the ruler or head man, and mand%ama, master, chief, in
which word ma is a possessive prefix, and n a particle, sometimes relative,
2

sometimes euphonic, of exceedingly frequent use in


be compared to the Nahuatl
3

This

latter, or

this tongue.

The "compulsive" form

of the verb choloa, to run away,

cause to run away, to drive out.


lollan) in

though

Mexico

may

a portion of them, inhabiting a hilly country south of

Masaya, were called Dirians, from the Mangue word dirt, a


which has improperly been extended to the whole tribe.
*

It

in.

is

No

name

is chololtia, to

doubt the name of Cholula (Cho-

of the same derivation, but

similar, historical event.

hill,

it

arose from a different,

THE NAHUAS AND MANGUES.

ix

modern, writers have hastily supposed nor is it a proof that


they spoke an Aztec dialect, as Ternaux Compans has
asserted. 2
So far is this from being the case, the Mangue has
no sort of affinity with the Nahuatl, and must stand wholly
J

asunder from

in

it

the classification of American tongues.

and a close one, the


Chapanec or Chiapenec, 3 spoken by the inhabitants of three
small villages in Chiapas, the largest of which has given its
name to the province. These Chapanecs, by their traditions,
still clearly remembered at the time of the Conquest, and
preserved by the historian Remesal, migrated from Nicaragua
to their more northern home.
As they had no connection
has, indeed, a relative to the north,

It

with the Aztecs,

so, also,

Maya

they were wholly without

affinities

and wide over


Central America, although the contrary has been recently
4
stated.
In fact, among the five different languages which
were spoken in the present province of Nicaragua at the time
of the discovery, not one belonged to any branch of the
with the great

Maya
1

stock,

which extended

far

group. 5

Torquemada appears

to

have been the

first

to

make

this

has recently been advocated by Dr. Valentini, The Olmecas


tecas, p.

guess

and

and

it

the Tul-

20 (Worcester, 1883), and was also sanctioned by Dr. Berendt.

In a note to his translation of Oviedo's Nicaragua.

The proper

spelling

is

" Chapanec."

It

is

not an Aztec word, but

from the Mangue tongue, in which Chapa means the ara, or red macaw,
their sacred bird.

which
of

town

derived from that of the lofty peak on

in Chiapas

was

chapa niiu, the ara

situated

fire.

In Mr. Bancroft's Native Races of the Pacific States, Vol. V,

'The

(ubi supra).

This

is,

p. 659.

contrary of this has been very positively stated by Dr. Valentini

for chieftain,

in

The name was

their principal

The

only evidence he brings forward

is

the

word calachuni,

applied by Gil Gonzalez to one of the rulers in Nicaragua.

no doubt, the Maya halach uinic, holy man, but Gonzalez wrote

1522, and this

word was adopted by the Spaniards

Grijalva's expedition to Yucatan, as the accounts show,

ously applied, just as cacique, canoe,

etc.,

in

1518, during

and was promiscu-

from the Haytian

dialect.

INTRODUCTION.

My

present theme does not extend to a discussion of these

me

various tongues, nor take


their locality.

It

further into the ethnology of

has to do solely with these two nations, the

Nicaraguans and the Mangues.


The culture-level of the
former was nearly as high as that found in the Valley of
Mexico.

They had

a settled government, constructed edifices

of stone, sculptured idols, utensils and ornaments out of the

same material, were skilled in ceramics, deft in weaving cotton


cloth and reed or grass mats, able in war, and thoughtful
enough to puzzle their first European visitors with questions
as to the stars and the earth, the beginning and the end of
things. 1
Careful archaeologists in our own day have searched
the territory they inhabited, and many museums contain specimens of what they accomplished in the direction of the arts,
and testify to a respectable degree of intellectual advancement. 2
We know less about the Mangues. They are mentioned as
differing in religious rites from the Nicaraguans, and the
impression is conveyed that they were in a more primitive
condition, but yet with fair claims to be ranked among the
cultivated nations of the

new

Among

world.

them, in

fact,

Dr. Berendt located one of the "centres of ancient American


civilization,"

and considered the

careful analysis of all the native

does not show a single

Maya

!The chief asked Gonzalez

sun and

moon change

in Oviedo's account of

words

if,

at the

end of the world, the earth would

fall ?

How

Ill, Lib.

The leading

why they
When, and how do the

large are the stars,

in their courses?

their brightness

Why

winter cold, since light and warmth are so

Decad.

Nicaragua

affinity.

be overturned, or would the sky

move, and what keeps them

definite solution of their

is

the night dark

much

better?

and the

(Herrera,

IV, cap. V.)


authorities

on the

antiquities of

Squier, Nicaragua, Its People, Scenery

Nicaragua are E. G.

and Monuments,

together with his

numerous other works pertaining to Central America and the reports of


Dr. Earl Flint and Dr. J. F. Bransford, to the Smithsonian Institution.
Dr. Habel and Dr. Berendt also made numerous investigations, but their
;

reports have not appeared in adequate detail.

THE NAHUAS AND MANGUES.

xi

one of the problems of the first order in the


ethnology of America. 1 The Spanish historians relate that
they had hieroglyphic books, like the Mexicans; that they
were rather light in color, careful in dress, setting much store

affiliations as

by

which they sedulously combed, and had an


Their country was thickly
peopled, especially that portion of it between the lakes. The
district of Managua was almost like a continuous town, so
closely were the native houses placed together for nearly ten
miles.
In fact, it was called one city by the earliest explorers,
and Oviedo, who takes pains to criticise these for their
tendency to exaggeration, estimated the population of this
their long hair,

autocratic military government.

limited

district,

thousand

At

souls.

the

at

time of the

Conquest,

at

forty

present, scarcely

any pure-blood remnants of either of

these nations can be found, and both languages are practically

When

extinct.

obtained, with

Mr. Squier visited Nicaragua,


great

difficulty,

in

1850, he

a short vocabulary of the

Nahuatl dialect, spoken on the island of Ometepec, in Lake


Nicaragua; and, in 1874, Dr. Berendt, only at the cost of
efforts, succeeded in securing from a few survivors

repeated

of advanced ages a moderately

full

collection of

Mangue

words and sentences. 3


1

See his essay, Remarks on the Centres of Ancient American CivilizaCentral A/nerica, and their Geographical Distribution, in the

tion in

Bulletin of the American Geog. Soc. No. 3, 18 j6.


2

Historia General de las Indias, Lib.

The

older writers have

Oviedo preserved

left

thirty or forty

analyzed by Buschman

scant

XLII,

cap. V.

information

about these idioms.

Nahuatl words, most of which have been

and Benzoni, in a brief passage, notes the identity


^ Chiamano li Signori Tutruane, il

of the Nicaraguan and Mexican.

and occomaia tanto vuol dire como


mococoua and al ballare mitote." La HisIt is said that a Doctrina was printed in
toria del Mondo Nuovo, p. 103.
but the only work on that tongue I know of is the Apunthe Mangue
pane

and

tascal,

aspetta

un poco

le galline

totoli,

e al infirmita

INTRODUCTION.

xii

MAP OF THE LOCATION OF THE NAHUAS OF NICARAGUA AND THEIR NEIGHBORS.

Lengua Mangue, by Don Juan Eligio de la Rocha (MS.


Masaya, 1842) a fragment of which is in my possession.
Dr. S. Habel, who visited Nicaragua in 1865, in spite of the greatest

tamientos de la

efforts,
it

was

was unable
all

Central

to find a single

forgotten.

person speaking Nahuatl

Archaeological

and South America,

p.

and Ethnological

24 (Washington, 1878).

they told

him

Investigations in

THE NAHUAS AND MANGUES.


To

illustrate the practical identity

of the Nahuatl of Nica-

ragua with that of Anahuac, and the


with that of Chiapas,

I will insert

xili

Mangue of Nicaragua

two short

lists

of

common

words with their equivalents in those four dialects. The first


is from Mr. Squier's works above referred to, the second from
the manuscripts of Dr. Berendt now in my possession.

Comparison of the Nahuatl of Nicaragua and of Mexico.


English.

God,

Man
Woman,

Head,

Foot,

Dog,

Nahuatl

Nahuatl

OF
Nicaragua.

Anahuac.

teot.

OF

tlacat.

ciuat.

tzonteco.

hixt.

ycxitl.

itzcuintli.

mazatl.

tochtli.

tletl.

atl.

toste.

Fire,

tlet.

.at.

calli.

centli.

sochit.

Eagle,

quiahuitl.
xochitl.
ehecatl.

coatl.

quauhtli,

tecpatl.

hecat. .
coat.
.
oate.
.
topecat.
tepee. .

ce.

ome..

ome.

ye.

yei.

Mountain,
One,
.

calli.

Two,

...
.

Snake,

centl.
quiavit.

Wind,

ciuatl.

totzontecon.

Flint,

mazat.

Maize,
Rain,
Flower,

teotl.

tlacatl.

Water,
House,

izcuindi.

Deer,
Rabbit,
.

Three,
Four,

Five,

nau.
macuil.
.

tepee.

ce.

naui.
macuilli.

Comparison of the Mangue with the Chapanec


English.

Man (homo),
Man (vir),
Woman,

Mangub

Mangue

OF
Nicaragua.

of
Chiapas.

Father,

Mother,

najui.

najui.

xiv

INTRODUCTION.
English.

Head,

Eye,

Ear,
Foot,

Mangue

Mangue

of
Nicaragua.

Chiapas.

of

gu t/ima.

mankeme.

tjfima.

taku.

Ruler (or chief),

d/ama oTrnangneme

Dog,
Mouse,
.

Bird,

Snake,
Fire,

Water,
House,

Y"i i

m nil

nangu.

Maize,

Wind,
Hill,

diri, tiri.

One,

tike

Two,

Three,
Four,
Five,
It

dili.

tike.

needs but a cursory glance at these

while there

is

to see that,

lists

scarcely a dialectic difference between the two

Nahuatl columns, and again between the two Mangue columns,


there

is

absolutely no point of contact between

Mangue and

Nahuatl.

The

chief differences between Nicaraguan and pure Nahuatl

were, that the former changed the double consonant


or dropped

founded
tla,

which

it

altogether;

that, in

that the

c,

into

/,

con-

the conjugation, they dropped the prefix

in pure Nahuatl

is

inanimate object of the verb

employed

and

r,

not

to indicate that the

not expressed

is

terminal consonants, as x, were dropped


the sounds of s

//

ch and q were

known

that certain

and apparently that

to the tongue in

its

purity,

were introduced.

The

linguistic relations of the

have never been ascertained.

Mangue

or Chapanec tongue

have compared

it

with the

principal stocks in the northern continent, as well as with the


great Tupi-Guarani stem, which has extensive affiliations in

THE NAHUAS AND MANGUES.

XV

Central America, but without discovering any analogies of


value.

from

does appear, however, to have a certain, though

It

Aymara tongue, spoken

close, relationship to the

far

in the

Peruvian Andes, and especially in the vicinity of Lake Titicaca,


the celebrated site of a remarkable ancient civilization.

following

Aymara

common words

of

list

taken

is

seems to indicate

this.

from the dictionary of that tongue, by

Father Ludovico Bertonio, while the dialects of the


are discriminated

The
The

by N,

Mangue

Nicaraguan, and C, for Cha-

for

panec.

Comparison of the Mangue, or Chapanec, of Central


America, with the Aymara, of Peru.
Mangue or Chapanec.

English.

Father,

pucara.
chacha.

Man,

Child,

Ear,

nasungi (N).
nyuhui (N).
nahte(N)

nyui (N)

Eye,
Bone,
Fire,

Water,

Wind,

lari

Blind,

inasu.

hinchu.
nahui.
cayu.
nina.

vma.
mayu, jahu.
thaa.
lauralua (colored).

tihu (C)

Feathers,,
Maize,
Earth,
Sky,

(C)
nama (C)

ccama.

nekapu (C).
naku paju (C).

saapi (C)

napamu
yaka (C)

haccha.
cata.

(C)
tuhua (C)
koita (N)

nomota

Dumb,
Great,

Bitter,

Dead,

eat,

fieke, clay,

hanac {or alakh) pacha.

atsi

Food,

ota (C)
cimo (C)

cimecmo

(pi),

yapu,

soil.

saapi.
(C).

To

You

naju (C)

Thou,

niiu (C), nyayu (N).


nimbu (C).
.

go,

River,

To

Aymara.

poua (C)
naha (C)

(C).

(C).

amu.

hihua.
kauita (to eat apples, etc).
mama'ta.
aatha.

huma.
humasa.

There are also various grammatical similarities between the


two tongues. Both are highly synthetic; in both the division
of nouns is " vitalistic," that is, into animate and inanimate;

xvi

INTRODUCTION.

the numeral system

is in both the decimal


in both the
pronoun follows the noun ; both possess the inclusive and exclusive plural
and others could be men;

possessive

tioned.
It

known

is

the

that

Aymara

partakes

elements of the Qquichua, and by some

Such

as a dialect of that tongue.

is

the

largely of

merely

classified

appear to

similarities as

between Mangue and Aymara are, however, less with


the words and forms common to these two Peruvian idioms,
exist

Aymara

but rather more with those wherein the

differs

from

the Qquichua.

With

the trenchant differences above indicated, between

the Nahuatl and the Mangue,

how

it is

the

more

attribute this to the superior fighting

invaders

to the fact that

singular to observe

We may

obtained the preponderance.

Nahuatl

the

many

power of the Aztec

of the native

allies

Spanish could speak that tongue and not the Mangue


the early missionaries

came from Mexico ;

was promptly reduced


or to

all

or, that the

to writing, while the

these causes combined. 1

Certain

of the
;

that

Nahuatl

Mangue was not


it

is,

that at an

came into vogue, both in the


Mangue districts of Nicaragua and elsewhere in Central
America, composed of a broken-down Nahuatl and a corrupt
Spanish, which, at first, served as a means of communication
between the conquerors and their subjects, and later became,
The Aztecs
to some degree, the usual tongue of the latter.
early date a

mixed

dialect

of pure blood spoke contemptuously of this jargon as in


macehuallatolli, the

writing
1

The

little

superior position of the Nahuatl

was noted by Benzoni,

He

observes

after the conquest, con-

among the Nicaraguan languages

about 1550.
" Parlano in Nicaragua quatro lenguaggi, pero la meglio e la

Messicana, laquale

and

language of slaves, and Father Carochi,

more than a century

si

h la piu facile

(Venetia, 1565).

in his visit to that country, as early as

stende piu di mille e cinquecento miglia di paese

da imparare."

Istoria del

Nuovo Mondo,

p.

103

THE NAHUAS AND MANGUES.


demned

as a

it

xvii

hodge-podge of Spanish and Aztec,

unintelli-

gible in either tongue. 1

This jargon was carried into the various nations who came

and half-breeds, and hence


words traceable to it in many of their
tongues, and sometimes formulas of a religious, social or
business character. 2 This is strikingly exemplified among the
Mangues, and the fact is one of considerable interest in connection with the literary production which is the main topic
into contact with the Spaniards

we may

find scattered

Even

of this volume.

to a recent day, in

of the Province of Masaya,

among

remote haciendas

the descendants of the

Mangues, the traveler might hear the grace before meals,


and other short formulas of the Church, spoken in this
mixed patois.
The following is a specimen
:

Jesu Criste no tecua.se -f- tunanse Santa Maria -f- el Apostol


Santa Clara nos bendiga esta comida que tienen parte y poder.

Amen.
Here, no tecuase
tunanse

is

Another specimen
Marias

the Nahuatl no tecuyotzin,

for tonantzin,

is

cuasti

te

is

Our Lord, and

Our Lady, or Mother.


:

Marias

ticuisti

guanse Dios

+y

Espiritu

Santo.

The

correct reading of which should probably be

Maria

tocihuatzin,

Maria

toquitznitli,

yhuan

in Dios,

yhuan

in

Espiritu Santo.
1

"

Una mezcla

idioma se

de Castellano y Mexicano, que ni en uno ni en otro


Compendio del Arte de la Lengua Mexicana,

entiende."

pp. 93, 202.


2 Speaking of the natives of Nicaragua and Honduras, Father Francisco
" Muchos de aquellos Indios por la comunicacion que
Vasquez says
tienen con gente ladina de las estancias vecinas alcanzan mucho de la
lengua Castellana." Historia de la Provincia de Guatemala. Parte II,
:

Lib. V, Trat.

I,

Cap.

(Guatemala, 17 16).

INTRODUCTION.

xviii

This Nahuatl-Spanish jargon became the lingua franca of


large districts of Central

America and Mexico.

current tongue of the half-breeds, and to this day

It
is

was the

the patois

who carry on the sparse commerce of the


mountainous regions. Many of its Spanish elements
are ungrammatical, and others are long since obsolete in the
classical tongue.
It is interlarded with words and whole
of the muleteers

interior

phrases borrowed from the Aztec, but with such mutilations


that they are scarcely, or not at

recognizable.

all,

from other native languages have crept


difficulty of its lexicography.

came

looser

and

looser, until,

in,

which adds

Words
to the

As for the construction, it bein some phrases, all inflectional

elements disappear, and there

is a naked juxtaposition of
nominal and verbal roots, the relation of which must be
guessed simply from their sequence.
Probably in none of the Spanish provinces has the Castilian

suffered

more from such admixture than

in Nicaragua.

The

foreign words are there so numerous that the country patois

becomes nearly

unintelligible to

one acquainted only with

Academy. Here is the verse of a song,


for example, in that dialect, which will illustrate how far the
amalgamation with the native tongues has gone. The words
the Spanish of the

Nahuatl or Mangue

in italic are either

" Casahuyano,

mi amor,
Por vos este payaneado.

No seas tilinte, mi bien."


" Se selegue, duefio amado."
"

My
My

between girlhood and womanhood,


is breaking for you.
Do not be severe, my loved one."
" I am yet unripe, my beloved master." 1

This verse

of Guatemala,
in the

love,

heart

is

from a song by Dr. Gollena, a highly appreciated poet

who

Nicaraguan

has written, but


dialect.

I believe

never published, some poems

DRAMATIC DANCES.
Another song,

which the lover expresses the strength of


more force than elegance, has the following

in

his devotion with

verse

xix

"

fuera yo carangano

En

meteria

servirte todo el dia.

Te ama

Which may be

me

tus cojines

Para

este

zangano."

freely rendered

"Were

little

louse, I'd

go

In your puffed and plaited hair;

With you

all

your

toil I'd

share

This lazy fellow loves you so."

The carangano

is

cojines are the little

the

name of

a species of louse,

pads or cushions which

and the

women wear

in

their hair.

In this dialect several satirical and political songs have

been composed, and, indeed, the licentiate Geronimo Perez,


of Masaya, is stated to have printed in it a political pamphlet,
which I regret not to have been able to obtain.
Such is the jargon in which the Giiegilence is written, and
although this medley of tongues can claim no position of
dignity in the hierarchy of languages,

it

has

its

own

peculiar

points of interest, as illustrating the laws of the degradation

which

is

human

but another term for the evolution and progress

speech.

literary effort,

To understand
we must review

representations in that

2.

The

of

and position as a
the development of scenic
part of the New World.
its

origin

The Bailes, or Dramatic Dances of Nicaragua.


historian,

Fernandez de Oviedo, who was

in

Nicaragua

in 1529, gives a long account of the dramatic representations,


or rites, accompanied by songs, dances and masked actors,

which he witnessed among the natives of both Nahuatl and

Mangue

lineage in that province.

They took

place at stated

XX

INTRODUCTION.

seasons,

and

at certain

epochs in the year.

he gives as that by which they were locally

The name which


known is mitote,

He himself calls them


Haytian word from the Arawack aririn, to sing,
and bailes, which is Spanish, from a classical root, and means
which

is

the Aztec mitotl, a dance.

areytos, a

dances.

One which he saw

at Tecoatega, at

that time a Nahuatl

cacao harvest and


honor of the god of that plant. It offered a curious
symbolism, which makes us keenly regret the absence of a
full explanation by some learned native.
In the centre of
the village square a straight pole was set up about forty feet
in height.
On its summit was placed the image of the god,
village,

was celebrated

at the close of the

in

brilliantly colored, in a sitting position.

Around

the pole a stout grass rope was tightly wound,

the top of

its

two

free

ends passing over a wooden platform.

When the ceremony began, about seventy men appeared,


some dressed as women, some with masks and head-dresses of
feathers, and all painted skillfully on the naked flesh to imitate
handsome costumes.
They danced in pairs, and sang in
chorus certain songs, to the sound of the sacred drums.

about half an hour, two boys,


free

who had been

After

attached to the

ends of the rope, threw themselves from the platform

manner that they turned round and


round the pole, unwinding the rope, and thus gradually
descended toward the ground. One boy held in one hand a
bow, in the other, some arrows his companion held in one
into the air, in such a

hand a fan

or

as the natives

plume of

made

feathers, in the other a mirror, such

of polished obsidian.

As they descended,

which, says the narrator, required about as long a time as

one might repeat the Creed five or six times, the dancers
ceased their song, and only the players on the instruments,
some ten or a dozen in number, continued their noise. But,
just as the boys, by the increasing length of the unwound
cord, touched the soil, all present set up a great shout, and

DRAMATIC DANCES.

xxi

The cut which I have inserted is taken


from Oviedo's history, and represents the performance.

the festival ceased. 1

ANCIENT DANCE IN NICARAGUA.


1

Oviedo, Historic, General de las Indias, Lib. XLII, cap. XI.

cisely this baile, or

common

in

one altogether like

Mexico

in his

it, is

Pre-

Duran as
" Tambien

described by Diego

day (about 1580).

He

writes:

rededor de un volador alto vistiendose corao pajaros y


otras veces como monas volaban de lo alto de el dejandose venir por unas
cuerdas que en la punta de este palo estan arolladas, desliandose poco a

usaban bailar

al

poco por un bastidor que tiene arriba," etc. Historia de


Nueva Espana. Tomo II, p. 232 (Mexico, 1880).

las Indias de

INTRODUCTION.

xxii

To one

familiar with Nahuatl symbolism, the meaning of


ceremony is, in a general way, obvious. The seated
divinity on the summit of the pole represents the god of
fertility throned in the heavens.
The two boys are the mesthis

sengers he sends to earth

the arrows

to the

refer

light-

nings which he hurls below

breezes and the birds

mirror, the waters and rains.

the

the feather fan typifies

the

After the mortals have prayed in chants, for a certain season,


the god sends his messengers;
arrival,

whether

it

shall

reach the earth, a shout of joy

and been gathered

ripened

men

wait in suspense their

be for good or for


is

in,

ill

hap

and

as they

raised, for the food

has

and the harvest-home

is

ended.
In the same century the traveler Giralamo Benzoni,
visited

who

Nicaragua about 1540, was much impressed with the

At

native dances.

certain ones, as

many

as three

or four

thousand Indians assembled, some dancing, others playing on

a large

who formed the chorus, carried on the


The dancers displayed great agility, and practiced
variety of figures.
They were ornamented with

feathers

and plumes, and

drums, while others,


singing.

their

arms and

legs.

strings of shells

were attached to

The Mangues of Chiapas, or the Chapanecs, near relatives,


we have seen, of the Mangues of Nicaragua, were famous
in the days of Thomas Gage, the English priest, who traveled
as

through Mexico and Nicaragua about 1630, 2


in

games and the elaborate scenery of


1

Historia del

wood

Nuovo Mondo,

fol.

cut exhibiting the dances, but

for their dexterity

their dramatic repre-

103 (Venetia, 1565).


it is

not instructive.

Benzoni gives a

Another traveler,

Francois Coreal, claimed to have visited Nicaragua about 1680, and also
describes the native dances, but in words so similar to Benzoni that

evident plagiarism.
Occidentals,
2

Tome

Thomas Gage,

London, 1699).

Relation des Voyages de Fran{ois Coreal


I, p.

it is

aux

an

/tides

88 (Amsterdam, 1722).

A New

Survey of the West Indies,

p.

234 (4th Ed.

DRAMATIC DANCES.

"As

sentations.

common

xxiii
he

for acting of Plays,"

says,

"this

is

part of their solemn Pastimes."

This passion for scenic performances was by no means


It extended throughout almost the

peculiar to these tribes.

whole of the Red Race, and there are many relics of it which
have survived. The older authors refer to it frequently, and
the early missionaries, finding that they could not extinguish

sought to turn

it,

it

to

good account by

substituting for the

native plays, which were idolatrous or licentious, moral and


instructive pieces.

They encouraged

and half-breeds

natives

more intelligent
and they were acted

the

to prepare such,

in connection with church festivals.

But

it

to suppose that these attempts

would be an error
completely in

succeeded

quenched

entirely the

ceremonies.

abolishing

tribal

the

historical

older

forms,

or

character of these

Even within our own generation

the contrary

of this has been recognized by close observers.

Thus the

cura of Jutiapa, a town in Guatemala, Don Jose Antonio


"In most of the Indian towns the
Urrutia, wrote, in 1856
:

custom

is

general of preserving a knowledge of great

still

by means of

events in their history


bailes (dances),

which

are,

representations, called

in fact, dances in

the

public

on the days or evenings of great solemnities. It is


most interesting for one who understands something of the
language to participate in these bailes, as he can thereby
obtain some knowledge of the most remote traditions and

squares,

1
events in the history of the Indians."
Confining our attention to the limits of Nicaragua,

that the different bailes represented there within the

persons
1

still

living

Letter to the

that the songs

may be arranged

London Athaneum,

sung at certain

bailes

General de

historia e

las Indias, Lib.

1856, p. 1537.

were of an

memoria de

XLII,

find

in five different classes:

to recall the important incidents in personal

quedan en lugar de

we

memory of

cap. XI.

Oviedo also

states

historical character, intended

and

tribal history,

las cosas

pasadas."

" que les


Historia

xxiv

INTRODUCTION.

1.

Simple dances.

2.
3.

Dances with songs.


Dances with prose recitation.

4.

Scenic recitations with music, by a single actor.

These

are called Logas.

Complete dramas, with music,

5.

ballets,

dialogue, and

costumes.

Most of these have a

common
make

religious purpose.

Thus,

it

is

still

custom, in case of sickness or impending danger, to

vow

that, in

before the image of

case of escape, the person will dance

some

on a certain day, at a certain


Such dances are sometimes
accompanied with songs or chants of praise, or are performed
The performer is usually masked or in costume.
in silence.
It would be erroneous to suppose that there is much gaiety
At least, it is not apparent to foreign eyes.
in their dances.
The music is monotonous and almost lugubrious, the singing
is all in the minor key, and the motions are dull, mechanical
A European traveler has, indeed, characand ungraceful.
terized these spectacles rather as an exhibition of profound
melancholy, than outbursts of merriment, and has instanced
place, usually at

them

as a

Some

saint

1
a festival.

proof of the psychical inferiority of the race

of them, even to this day, as continued by the lower

half-caste population, are accused of an indecency

"

Hay
le

which may

santos a quienes se hace el voto, en caso de enfermedad u de

desgracia de

cuando

2
!

ir

a bailar ante su imagen, en

tal

pueblo, el dia de su

fiesta,

sacan procesionalmente." Pablo Levy, Notas Geograficas

Econonricas sobre la Republica de Nicaragua, p. 281 (Paris, 1873).

Welligt

blijkt de geesteloosheid dezer menschen nit niets zoo zeer


hunne dansen, een vermaak, hetwelk trouwens vrij zeldzaam onder
hen is. Bij het eentoonige geluid van een paar fluiten, en het kloppen op
een hoi blok hout, draaijen mannen en vrouwen afzonderlijk, langzaam
.2

als uit

en bedaard, in

alle rigtingen

dan vreugde aan den dag


p.

407 (Dordrecht, 1832).

herom, en schijnen veeleer diepe treurigheid

te

leggen."

J.

Haefkens, Centraal America,

DRAMATIC DANCES.

XXV

be a reminiscence of ancient Indian religious rites; 1 for we


the native Nicaraguans celebrated a festival strictly

know that

similar to that in ancient Babylon, so condemned by the


prophet, during which every woman, of whatever class, had
the right to yield her person to whom she would, without

incurring blame or exciting jealousy.

The Logas seem


theatre

is

is

Mangues.

to be peculiar to the

extemporized, music

small

provided, and the actor

comes forward, arrayed in some odd garb, and recites a sort


of poem, with gestures and dancing movements.
The text
of one of these was obtained at Namotiva by Dr. Berendt,
and is in my possession. It is entitled, Logo, del Nirio Dios,
and contains about two hundred lines. The language is a
corrupt Spanish, with a

The exordium

number of Mangue words

interspersed.

reads
" Atienda, Senores,

Pongan atencion
Del Mangue

tiyo

Pegro

La conversacion."

The theme

is

an address to the patron saints and the infant


is that of a burlesque, rather than a serious

Jesus, but the tone

composition.

The costume of

the orator,

and

his surround-

ings, the little theatre, the holy infant, etc., are represented
in the frontispiece to this

Frequently a number
one,

still

work, from a sketch taken from

of persons join in the dance.

occasionally seen, called

Indian Girls.

The period

of

its

Las

Inditas,

celebration

is

life.

Such

is

the Little

on the day of

Such dances are the " bailes usados en el populacho, y que estan muy
de brillar por su desencia," referred to by Don Pablo Levy, JVbtas,
etc., sobre Nicaragua, p. 294.
1

lejos

2 The word Loga is, I have no doubt, a corruption of the Spanish loa.
The has in Spain were at first rhymed prologues to the plays, but later

took a more dramatic form and " differed

lowed them."
ii,

little

from the farces that

fol-

See George Ticknor, History of Spanish Literature, vol.

pp. 527-529 (5th edition).

xxvi

INTRODUCTION.
The women

Jerome.

St.

are

masked, and wear a loose

mantle, a skirt with lace edging, a sash of rose color, and a


hat with feathers.
They carry bouquets and have a silk
handkerchief fastened around the waist, the ends meeting
over the hips. The men are in grotesque costumes, with ugly

They dance in couples, but without touching each


The music is the marimba and the guitar. The songs
turn on some matter of local interest.

masks.
other.

usually

Another

favorite

dance

raders

who

take part in

the Baile de

is

This name

brated by the Mangues.

is

They wear

it.

Chinegritos, cele-

applied to the masquea cap of black straw,

and painted. Each


and in turn lifts a
companion from the ground and strikes him with the whip.
One, who keeps himself apart from the rest, is called the rucia,
or yeguita, the mare.
He is in a framework of cane adorned
with women's skirts and colored handkerchiefs, supposed to
represent some animal.
There is no fixed day for the dance,

and the body

is

naked

to the waist,

carries a stick or the dried yard of a bull,

but

usually carried out in fulfillment of a vow.

it is

of this

called

baile,

mounted

actors,

Chinegritos a caballo,

in

brilliant

is

A variety

performed by

costumes, with gaily capari-

accompanied by music, and draw


front of a house, where they sing a song with a monoto-

They

soned horses.

up in
nous chorus,

are

le-le-le-le-le-le-le-li-u.

The Baile

de Negritos

is

celebrated on the festivals of St.

The

on horseback,
adorned with bright-colored
sashes and garlands of flowers.
They all wear the mosote, or
black straw hat, from which this and the preceding dance
derive their names. 1 The songs which they sing are called

James and

St.

themselves

and

Anna.

their

participants are

steeds

Ensaladas, salads or medleys, and usually contain personal


allusions.

The Baile
1

"Mosote.

usada en

de Toro-Guaca, the Dance of the Graveyard

Un

el baile

casco 6 gorra de cabuya tenida negra, con cola a trensa,

de

los Chinegritos."

Berendt, MSS.

DRAMATIC DANCES.
Bull, 1 as

it

may be

rendered,

the Virgin, of St.

with a vow.

presented on the festival of

Jerome, and other days, in accordance


fourteen dancers and seventeen

requires

It

is

xxvii

The "bull"

masqueraders.

is represented by a framework
of reeds, surmounted by a pair of horns and gaily decorated.

Other such exhibitions are called the Baile de diablitos,


Baile de la Yeguita, Baile de San Roman, Baile de San Martin,

Baile del Toro

Venado, Baile del Mantudo (in which

a desperado, with numerous

chichiltes,

small bells, appears),

some representations of Bible scenes, as the combat


between David and Goliath, etc.
Although most of these are accompanied by songs, and
some by dialogues, they do not seem to reach to the height
besides

of a plot, or to the depicting of character or emotion.

Beside

them, however, and no doubt to take the place of original


compositions of a similar kind, were complete dramatic
creations.

Many
by

of these were religious or historical plays, arranged

and

the clergy,

offer

of a secular character,

little

of interest.

and appear

to

But some were

refer to

historical

events.

One was The


Mangue tongue
unfortunately,

Canahuate.

Ollita or

Masaya

at

lost.

The

It

was acted

in the

as late as 1822, but the text

Ollita

is

the

name of

is,

the whistling

on which, and on the drum, a lugubrious musical accompaniment was played. The name Canahuate is said to have
been that of a dialect of the Mangue. The plot turned on a
proposed marriage between an old man, richly dressed in
Spanish garb, and a native princess. The chorus and assist-

jar,

ants carried bows, arrows and quivers, which would


to point to

an early date

as

that

of the supposed

seem
trans-

action.
1

" Guaca.

Cueva

Montecillo

de sepultura de

madriguera de animales.

dar frutas y verduras."

Berendt,

Hoyo
MSS.

los

inhabitantes

antiguos.

subteraneo para madurar 6 guar-

INTRODUCTION.

xxviii

Nicaragnan Musical Instruments and Music.

j.

The musical

instruments of the natives of Nicaragua, menflutes of reeds, and excoletes, or


by no means exhausted the list,

tioned by Oviedo, are drums,


trumpets.

and

This, however,

been retained to

several others of similar powers have

the present day, and have been referred to

travelers as local

Thus, Mr. Squier writes as follows, in describing

curiosities.

a festival in

by

Leon de Nicaragua

the strange instruments.

One

"It

is

impossible to describe

consisted of a large calabash,

over which was stretched the skin of some animal

this,

when

pressed in, recoiled with a dull, sullen noise, like the suppressed

bellow of a wild beast, and the wail of some of the long reeds

man in the agonies of a violent death." 1


The memoranda that I have obtained from various sources
enable me to supply this omission of the distinguished traveler,
was

like that of a

and

to

make

out the following

list,

which probably

is

not

exhaustive.

The most

elaborate

is

the

Some

Marimba.

writers say that

both the name and instrument are of African derivation,


having been introduced by the negroes.
the Indians have

known

the

Others assert that

marimba time out of mind, and

undoubtedly invented it. Certain


singular skill in its management.

it

is,

that they develop

A good description and illustration of it are given by von


Tempsky, from whose work I extract them. 2
" They [the Indians of Central America] are still very fond
'

of dancing, and are very good musicians, performing on a


peculiar instrument, a native invention of antique date, the

Marimba.

long, horizontal stick supports a

number of

jicaras (or long, cylindrical calabashes), arranged


1

Nicaragua,

Its People,

Scenery

and Monuments,

Vol.

I, p.

near one
340.

Narrative of Incidents on a Journey in Mexico, Guatemala and San


Salvador, pp. 384-6 (London, 1858). The Smithsonian Institution con2

tains a

good specimen of the Marimba.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

xxix

another, according to size, from two feet in depth to four or

Over the mouth of each of them

three inches.

piece of bladder, and over

an inch, are

flat

it,

at the distance

is

drawn a thin

of a quarter of

wood, arranged like


These oblong pieces of wood are

pieces of a very hard

the claviature of a piano.

supported on a frame of light wood, joined to the long stick


that supports the

row of

jicaras underneath.

sustain the little piano, partly

connects
it

it

with the player,

who

Two

light legs

on the ground, and a hoop


sits

within the hoop, pressing

on a bench.

A MARIMBA PLAYER AND HIS INSTRUMENT.

"Two

long drumsticks, with balls of India rubber at their


heads, are in the hands of the player, who strikes double notes
at every touch of the wooden claviature, with the resounding
jicaras underneath.

The sound

of this instrument

is

charm-

ing, clear, limpid in its tones, like the intonation of a harp

The Indians produce the justest and sweetest


double notes, and blend a rattling tune together in very

string of wire.

XXX

INTRODUCTION.

harmonious chords.

Their talent for playing

by

ear

astonishing

is

this

in a day, they will pick

instrument

up the most

air, and play it with a good deal of expression,


accompanied with a chant of their own composition."

difficult

Instead

of calabashes,

earthen jars of various sizes are

occasionally used to suspend beneath the key pieces; or, what

some

in

of cedar

districts

is

equally

wood (Cedre/a

common,

odorata).

they are vertical tubes

As described by the

traveler Morelet, these tubes are twenty-two in

number,

all

of

equal diameter, varying in length from ten to forty centimeters?


1

and forming three complete octaves without semitones. In


many of the bailes this is the favorite means of music, and it
is

often associated with the guitar.

That it was not unknown to the ancient Aztecs seems


shown from the following drawing from an original Mexican
painting in Duran's Historia, vA\zxt the player does not appear
to be striking a

drum, but the keys of the marimba, or an

instrument of that nature.

ANCIENT AZTEC MUSICIAN.

The Drum

and remains, a favorite instrument in Central America.


It is usually formed of a hollow piece of wood,
which is struck with sticks. In Nicaragua, however, some of
the natives use a short piece of bamboo, over the ends of
which a skin is stretched. This is held in the left hand and
was,

struck with the tips of the fingers or the knuckles of the right

hand, keeping time to the chant or song of the performer,


1

Arthur Morelet, Voyage dans

(Paris, 1857).

V Amerique Centrale, Tome II, pp.

42, 43

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

xxxi

xxxii

INTRODUCTION.

while he throws himself into striking and extraordinary attitudes.


The illustration on the preceding page, from a sketch
by Dr. Berendt, shows their manner of performing on this

instrument.

These two

varieties

ancient Mexicans.

of drums were also

They

known

the

to

one which was struck


with the hand the huehuetle, "ancient object," and that
called the

played by sticks, teponaztli.

The
in

Ollita, or Little Jar,

which

an instrument

still

remembered

Mangue

dialect,

name, proves that

to

Its

was
sound

described as grave and suitable to serious emotions.

The

have referred, bearing

familiarly
is

is

Nicaragua, and the drama, in the

known

at

Managua

this

early in this century.

it

which was used in this drama was preserved


long after the last performance of the play (about 1822), in
the chest of the cofradia of San Jose, in Managua
but like

identical ollita

so

many

other valuable

relics, it

disappeared in the disturb-

ances of the republic.

From the name, and from what was told of its powers, it
was evidently not merely a whistle, but a sort of earthenware
flute.
Such were known in Peru, and precisely in Nicaragua,
on the island of Ometepec, inhabited at the Conquest by the
Nahuas, such a musical jar was discovered of late years, and
was examined and its musical capacity described by Dr.
Berendt in the following words
" Held with the two hands, the lower side turned upward,
and the four holes managed with two fingers on each side,
blowing in the mouth piece yields six different notes. Any
two holes covered give the tonica, one only covered the
secunda, all open the tertia, and by hard blowing a forced
quarta
while all closed produces the dominant (quint) in
:

Three holes closed yield notes not


concordance with the others, varying between an imperfect
But
sext and a diminished septima of the lower octave.
the underlying octave.
in

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

XXxiii

those mentioned as in accordance permit the playing of

many

varied tunes."

The shape of
was prepared

this jar

for

is

shown

an interesting

in the

article

following cut, which


on Indian Music by

Mr. Edwin A. Barber, in the American Naturalist.

EARTHENWARE MUSICAL JAR FROM NICARAGUA.

(See
It was capable of rendering various simple tunes.
page xxxiv.)
The Pita, or Whistle, was a simpler instrument than the
It, also, was frequently made of baked clay, and in
OUita.
odd shapes. The one shown in the following cut was found

on the Island del Zapatero,

in

Lake Nicaragua, which was

EARTHENWARE WHISTLE FROM NICARAGUA.

INTRODUCTION.

XXXIV

NATIVE FLUTE MELODIES.

?-\*s

A*

-*-

^g0-'-0-

5 5

i=S

i-

-1

p-

r-^-M

y-H

-i

-y--Ez

&

-1?

-f

>- f

yE^p-d

y-

j:

00-

y-

etc.

-0-0-0-0

-*

--i<

33-8

Eg

it:fczy-d^r:

ife

0 0 0 00-

-V t

*--

00 *

0
-f-

-l

K
tj

s=s=
^

>

0 0-* 9 *_

-f-T-gs/

-1

XXXV

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

Two apertures lead into


When they are closed with the

also a possession of the Nahuas.

the cavity of the instrument.


fingers, a higher note

is

produced than when they are open.

In the investigations prosecuted in Nicaragua by Dr.

many

Bransford, he discovered
burial

mounds.

J.

F.

of these whistles in ancient

Indeed, in the district of Nicoya, inhabited

Conquest by the Mangues, he states that


" every body appeared to have been interred with a small
earthen vessel and a whistle."
The latter are usually of odd
shapes, representing some animal.
The following cuts are taken from his report

at the period of the

WHISTLES FROM NICARAGUAN BURIAL MOUNDS.

The long

Flute, either of cane, or of earthenware,

common

in

use

by the

The Nahuas

Mexico and Florida.


to

have made so much use of

The Juco

is

employed

Baile de Diabliios.

It

is

over the aperture of which

by a cord,

to

which

serves as a clapper
1

is

was found

early explorers in Central America,

it

of Nicaragua do not seem

Mexico.

as their relatives in

in the noisier dances,

such as the

a drinking gourd {iiambira), or jar,


is

stretched a skin.

This

is

crossed

attached a small piece of wood, which

when

the instrument

is

shaken.

Archceological Researches in Nicaragua, p. 75 (Washington, 1881).

xxxvi

INTRODUCTION.

The Quijongo is a
bow with a

stringed instrument,

a wooden

stretched cord over the

hollow reed, about

five feet

thick,

is

made by fastening
mouth of a jar.

long and an inch and a half

bent by a wire attached to the ends.

This wire

is

then tied to the reed at one-third the distance from one end,

and

same point, on the convex surface of the reed, a


jar, is fastened, with its mouth down-

at the

gourd, or thin earthen

ward.

The

notes are produced by striking the two sections

of wire with a light stick, and at the same time the opening
of the jar

more or

is

by changing the

by the palm of the


number of notes, which

closed

less

thus producing a limited

left

hand,

are varied

intervals.

THE QUIJONGO OF NICARAGUA.

Among

the Nahuatl tribes of the Balsam coast, this

called the Carimba.

It

is

appears to have been an aboriginal

invention, although some writers have asserted that the Aztecs


had no knowledge of any stringed instrument. Something
like a harp,

however,

is

represented in the following cut, from

the Aztec funerary ritual, where a priest or hired mourner

is

shown, chanting the praise of the departed, and accompanying his words with music, on what appears to be a rude
stringed instrument.

The

Chilchil

is

together and shaken.


the term for

it

in

(See page xxxvii.)

a small bell, a

This

is

number of which

are strung

an ancient Aztec instrument,

Nahuatl being Ayacachtli.

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.
The Cacho

is

xxxvii

a sort of trumpet, constructed of a horn.

upon it can be heard a long distance, and it has thus


become a measure of length, a legua de cacho being the distance at which one can hear the horn when lustily blown. It

blast

is

said to be rather longer than a Spanish league.

AZTEC MOURNER SINGING AND PLAYING.

As

which was obtained from


an opinion from
who have been in a position to

the value of the music

to

these instruments,

capable judges.

it is

difficult to arrive at

Nearly

all

study the subject have lacked acquaintance with the scientific

and developmental history of music as an art.


has usually been stated, and accepted without
inquiry, that the aborigines of America were exceedingly deficient in musical ability, and that their best efforts rarely went
beyond creating discordant noise. Late investigations by
competent critics have disproved this opinion, and show that
principles

Hence

it

the melodies of the natives are in accordance with a recog-

nized scale, though not that to which

we

are accustomed.

For a parallel we must go back to the ancient Phrygian and


Lydian measures, where we shall find a development of the
art in

a similar direction to that

among

the natives of this

xxxviii

INTRODUCTION.

continent. 1

As

is

the Indian uses

avoids

many

remarked by Mr. A.

all

S.

Gatschet,

"Although

the seven notes of our musical scales, he

of our melodial sequences

the majority of his

tunes follow the dur or sharp scales, and the two-eighths or

two-fourths measure."

In Central America, the native race has a keen musical


sense.

Von Tempsky found

that they

great ease, the compositions of Bellini

learned by ear, with

and in Vera Paz


and among the Lacandons, Morelet heard upon the Chiritnoya, an aboriginal wind instrument, an air which he
characterizes as " very remarkable " and "extremely touching."

theme

What

brings

this

air

into

relation

to

my

present

was known as la Malinche,


but Morelet could not learn from what connection. 3 Quite
possibly it was from the character of that name in the play of
the singular fact that

is

it

Giieguence.

MALINCHE.
Adagio.

00

0-.

t
)

Tfp-p

1-

m
gr

In the public bailes in ancient times, as we are informed by


both Oviedo and Benzoni, the musicians were separated from
the singers and other performers, forming an actual orchestra,

and

this

is

also intimated in the Giiegiience.

position of a class

by themselves,

it

may

Having thus the


be presumed

fairly

that they cultivated with assiduity their peculiar art.

In later days, the cofradias, the brotherhoods and


1

The most

Baker,
1882).

on the

sister-

music is that by Theodore


Amerikanischen Wilden (Leipzig,

satisfactory discussion of native

Ueber die Musik der

A Tord

Mr. Edwin A. Barber has

also contributed

some valuable

subject.

The American Naturalist, February, 1883.

Voyage dans i Ameriqne Centrale, Tom.


'

II, p. 44.

articles

MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS.

xxxix

hoods organized in connection with the churches, made


part of their business to learn

it

singing and music, so as to

take part in the celebration of church festivals.

It

was through

these cofradias that the art of playing on the ancient instru-

By

ments was preserved.


at the separation

the loss of influence of the church

of the colonies from the mother country,

the cofradias were mostly dissolved. 1

The music which accompanies


has been written down, and
I

is

have obtained a portion of

the ballets in the Guegiience

many

familiar to

it,

in Nicaragua.

through the obliging

efforts

of Dr. Earl Flint, of Rivas, an earnest cultivator in the field

The

of archceological research.

score appears, however,

on

examination by competent persons, to be probably of Spanish


origin, and it would not be worth while to give more than a

specimen of

(See p. xl.)

it.

is

So little is understood about the system of the cofradias, and the point
one of so much importance in the study of the organization of Spanish

ecclesiasticism in America, that

it is

worth while

created by the priest of a parish, in such


bears the

name

number

to explain

as he sees

of a saint or religious occurrence.

male members, a major domo, a steward

They

have a monthly mass, act as

Of female members there should be

whom

should have two

Their duties are

in their duty.

it

with flowers

when

necessary, and aid the male

Each cofradia should have

financial resources, independently,

and the major domo

a book accounting

in the

choristers, etc., at

the patroness {patrona

and there should be other members.

sweep the church, deck

members

are

attend the priest, serve in the church, aid

or capilana), and the alguazila mayor, each of

to

They

and each

Each should have, of


and four or more

in the offices of religion,

special attendants,

fit,

(prios/e),

appointees (d/pu/ados).

fixed periods.

it.

for the funds.

have

in

my

strong box and

its
is

expected

to

keep

possession such a volume,

Chapanec language, the Libro de Cuentas de

la Cofradia del Jiosa-

rio, 1796.

From
modern

ten to

fifty

cofradias were formerly attached to one church, but the

" Es verdad,"
exclaims the worthy presbyter Navarro, " que los Sres. Curas, mis antecuras complain that they can no longer be kept up.

cessors, y yo, hemos procurado organizarlas de nuevo, pero cs moralmente impossible." Memoria de la Parroqttia de Villa Nueva, p. 18.

(Guatemala, 1868).

HISTORY OF THE GUEGUENCE.

xli

"
4. History of the Baile del Guegiience."

Among

the scenic representations which have been pre-

served by the descendants of the Mangues, in the ancient

province of Masaya, the only one of length which has been

committed

to writing

is

the Baile del Gueguence, o

Macho-

Several copies of this exist in manuscript, and from a

Raton.

comparison of two of them the


obtained, in 1874, the text which

Dr.

late
is

H. Berendt

C.

printed in this volume.

But he did not obtain, nor did he attempt himself, any translation of

any portion of

He

it.

states, positively, that the

Nahuatl parts are not understood by the natives themselves


at the present day.

unknown.

It is

antiquity and authorship are alike

Its

certain that

it

was acted before the beginning

of the present century, but with this single fact

its

external

history ceases.

Within the memory of those now

living, this Baile has

vow proThe period

occasionally been acted in fulfillment of a religious

nounced

in

some emergency of

selected for

its

performance

Jerome, September 30th.

is,

The

life

or

affairs.

usually, at the festival of St.

preparations for

it

are elabo-

and expensive. In former times the rehearsals took


place daily, sometimes for as much as six or eight months
rate

before the public performance.

own costumes, which

The

actors provided their

required a considerable outlay.

were, however, always plenty of applicants, as

it

There

was not only

considered an honor to take part, but also, the patron or

who had pledged himself to give the


drama, was expected to furnish refreshments, in the way of

patroness of the festival,

As the appetites were


and the libations liberal, it was almost ruinous
for one of moderate means to undertake it.
For that reason,
as Dr. Earl Flint writes me, it has now been dropped, and
food and drink, at each rehearsal.

usually keen,

will

probably not again be brought out, at

How

far

beyond the

least, in full.

close of the last century

we should

INTRODUCTION.

xlii

place the composition of the Giiegiience

a difficult question.

is

Dr. Berendt, basing his opinion on what he could learn

by

local tradition, on the archaisms of the Spanish construction,

and on other internal evidence, referred


to the
tion.

first

in general

it

It is

we may

probable that

assign the early portion of

the eighteenth century as the latest date for

and there

some evidence, which I shall


the text, that a more remote period

to

Of

is

course,

terms

periods {los primeros siglos) of the Spanish occupa-

it

composition,

its

refer to in the notes

not improbable.

is

does not contradict this that a few modern

expressions have crept into the text.

Nothing

else

could be

expected.

No

hint as to the author

however, reasons which


that

it is

caste.

is

anywhere found.

There

are,

consider weighty ones, to believe

the production either of a native Indian or a half-

Several of

will give these

them

are of a negative character,

and

first.

All the dramas, so far as

know, which were introduced by

the Spanish priests as substitutes for the native bailes, are


either religious or instructive in aim.

As

the

Germans

say,

Such are the Baile de St. Martin,


which gives scenes from the life of the saint, and in which a
wheel, called the horquilla, covered with feathers and flowers,
is drawn along
the Baile de los Cinco Pares de Francia, which
sets forth the conquest of the infidel Moors by the Christians,
both of which plays have been popular in Nicaragua; among
the Kekchis, of Coban, the Baile de Morosy Cristianos, similar
the Zaki-Koxol, o Baile de Cortes, in
to the last mentioned
Kiche, a copy of which I have, and the like.
But in the
Giiegiience there is absolutely no moral purpose nor religious
tone; so much, indeed, of the reverse, that we cannot conceive
of its introduction by a priest.
On the other hand, had it been composed by a secular
they are strongly tendencids.

Spanish writer,

we should hardly

fail

to find

it,

way, modeled after the stock Spanish comedy.

in a general
It

differs,

HISTORY OF THE GUEGUENCE.

xliii

however, in several striking and fundamental features, from


the Spanish models, and these differences are precisely those
which would flow from the native habits of thought. I would
note,

that while females are introduced, they are strictly

first,

word that
is no sepa-

mutce persona, even the heroine not speaking a

there are no monologues nor soliloquies; that there

ration into scenes, the action being continuous throughout

and
same phrases,
and by one speaker of what a previous one has said a marked
that there

neither prologue, epilogue nor chorus

is

especially that the wearisome repetition of the

characteristic of the

native scenic orations 1

which we can scarcely believe any Spaniard


vated to write at all, would exhibit.
Furthermore, the " business " of the play

are

traits

all

sufficiently culti-

is

strictly within

and emotion. The admiration of the coarse cunning and impudent knavery of Guegiience
is precisely what we see in the modern camp-fire tales of
Michabo among the Algonkins, of Tezcatlipoca among the
Aztecs, and of a score of other heroes.
It is of a piece
with the delight which our own ancestors derived from the
trickeries of Reynard the Fox.
The devices for exciting laughter are scarcely more than
three in number one the assumed deafness of the Giiegiience,
the range of the native thought

the second, a consequence of this, that he misunderstands, or


to, the words of the other actors, thus giving rise to
amusing quid-pro-quos, and third, the introduction of obscene

pretends

references.

resources of

consider

it

Of course, I am aware that these


many European low comedians;

but

also

a fact of very considerable importance in deciding

the probable authorship of the play, that


cially the

are the stock

first

all

of these, espe-

two, are prominently mentioned by old authors,

See, for example, the Rabinal-Achi, ou

le

Drame-Ballet du Tun,

in

Kiche, published by the Abb6 Brasseur de Bourbourg, and the translation


of the song of the Uluas of Nicaragua given by Pablo Levy.
la Republica de

Nicaragua,

p.

307 (Paris, 1873).

Notas sobre

INTRODUCTION.

xliv

as leading devices of the native Nahuatl comedies.


Thus,
Benzoni and Coreal tell us that in the bailes in Nicaragua,
which they witnessed, some of the actors pretended to be

deaf,

and others

mistakes. 1

And

by

to be blind, so as to excite laughter

Father Diego Duran

tells

us

their

of a native

Mexican comedy, upon which this of Giiegiience may, perhaps,


have been founded, full of songs and coarse jests, 2 in which
the clown pretends to understand at cross purposes what his

master orders, transforming his words into others like them.

As

to the general leaning to indecent gestures

frequently

commented on by

the missionaries,

and jokes,
and given

it is

as a

reason for discountenancing these exhibitions.

The absence

of

all

reference to the emotions of love, and

women,
They are in

the naive coarseness indicated in the passages about

point rather to a native than a European hand.

remarkable contrast

The

neglect of

the

to

common

Spanish school

of

comedy. 3

rules of Spanish construction

seems

to arise from the ignorance of

one imperfectly acquainted


with the language, rather than of deliberate purpose. It must
also be remembered that this piece was one acted altogether
by the native Indians, and not by the Spanish population.
1

"

y en a qui font les sourds, d'autres les aveugles. lis rient, ils
Voyages de Francois
font en un mot toute sorte de singeries."
Coreal aux Indes Occidentales depuis 1666 jusqu en ibqj. Tom. I, p. 88
(Amsterdam, 1722). Borrowed, probably, from Benzoni, who says the same.
II

crient, et

que

" Habia un baile y canto de truhanes en


fingia entender al reves lo

palabras."

Espafia,

P.

Tomo

F.

que su amo

Diego Duran, Historia de

II, p.

cual introducian un bobo


mandaba, trastocandole las

el

le

las

Indias de la

Nueva

231 (Mexico, 1880).

3 As Mr. George Ticknor very pointedly says, in speaking of the Spanish


" Above all, it was necessary that it should be Spanish and
drama
therefore, though its subject be Greek or Roman, Oriental or mythological,
the characters represented were always Castilian, and Castilian after the
:

fashion of the
gallantry,

seventeenth

and the

ture, vol II, p.

century,

governed

Castilian point of honor."

539 (5th edition).

by Castilian notions of

History of Spanish Litera-

DRAMATIS PERSONS.
Nor

are

xlv

we without examples of persons of native lineage


fellows.
About 1625, Bar-

preparing comedies for their

tholome de Alva, a descendant of the native kings of Tezcuco,


wrote three comedies, in Nahuatl, drawing his plots from

Lope de Vega.

It is quite as likely that another Alva rose


from the Nahuas of Nicaragua, and prepared for their amuse-

ment the production

now

present.

For these various reasons

class

it

among

aboriginal pro-

ductions.

5.

The

whom

The Dramatis Personcs of The Gueguence.


and the personage from
name, is
This is a Nahuatl word, from the root
" old man " to this is added what gram-

central figure of the drama,

derives

it

its

The Gueguence.
hue, old

marians

huehue
call

is

the " reverencial" termination

reverence or affection, and


n,
It

we

tzin,

denoting

have, intercalating the euphonic

huehuentzin, which, in' the vocative, becomes huehuentzi.


means, therefore, " the honored elder," or " the dear old

man," and may be used, as it is in the play, either as a proper


name or as a common noun. In his description of the Nahuas
of Nicaragua, Oviedo gives the word huehue, and tells us that
it

was applied

to certain old

men

were elected by the natives as

of influential position,

rulers of the villages,

they in turn selected the war-chief, whose duty


to the defence of the

community.

The name

it

who

and that

was to look

was, therefore,

one familiar to the Nicaraguans, though the character would


seem to be drawn as a burlesque or satire.
He is, in fact, anything but a respectable person. His
indifference to truth, his cynical impudence, his licentious

jokes about and before his sons, and the unscrupulous tricks of

which he boasts, are calculated to detract from the element


of the comic in his portraiture, for those who have been
accustomed to the higher productions of humor. But it would
be an error to allow

this

sentiment to affect

much our estimate

INTRODUCTION.

xlvi

As Lessing very well

of the influence of the play.


the true value of

comedy

and the absurd, wherever

is

observes,

to train us to see the ridiculous

it

in

is,

flagitious as well

merely inconsiderate actions, as thus the observer

is

as in

prompted

to morality as well as forethought. 1

As

have

said, his character

is

marked type of the pecu-

form of humor which the native mind preferred, and of

liar

the class of actions in which

especially found

it

amusement,

assumed to deceive and


get the better of one's neighbor.
This is strikingly shown
by the number of words in the Nicaraguan patois which
express such actions.
Thus, chamarrear is to take advantage
trisca is a conversation in which some
of some one by a joke
one is made ridiculous fefere is an idle tale with which a
hearer is cajoled dar un caritazo is to deceive a person by a
This is the humor in the Giiegiience. The old
trick, etc.

which

to wit, in that jocularity

is

man

nearly always has a selfish aim to gain by his jokes and

his stories

they are intended to further his

own

interests,

and, at the close of the play, he, on the whole, comes out
victorious

by these questionable measures.

drama was formerly represented, the Giiegiience wore


Chains
the most magnificent apparel of any of the actors.
of gold, strings of silver coins, and ornaments of steel draped

As

the

his person.

Indeed,

all

the participants vied with each other

Their garments were fantastically

in extravagant costumes.

adorned with feathers and

flowers,

and

set off

with sashes and

handkerchiefs of brilliant colors.

The two sons of Giiegiience, Don Forcico and DonAmbrosio,


drawn in as strong contrast as possible. The former fol-

are
1

Speaking of the comedy, he says:

liegt in

liche zu

dem Lachen

selbst, in

bemerken

es unter

" Ihr wahrer

allgemeiner Nutzen

Uebung unserer Fahigkeit das Lacheralien Bemantelungen der Leidenschaft und


der

der Mode, es in alien Vermischungen mit noch schlimmern oder mit

guten Eigenschaften, sogar in den Runzeln des feierlichen Ernstes, leicht

und geschwind zu bemerken."

Hamburgische Dramaturgic, 29 Stuck.

DRAMATIS PERSONS.

xlvii

lows the paternal example faithfully, and sustains his parent

and
words which
pass between them, however, must not be taken in dead
earnest they, too, are only half serious, and do not lead to
any separation of interests.
The Governor Tastuanes appears on the scene in Spanish
costume, with a staff and sabre.
His name, however, seems
to be from the Nahuatl, probably a corruption of tlatoani,
in all his tricks

and

lies

the latter as invariably opposes

The

exposes the old man's dishonesty.

bitter

chief, lord.

draw

The
is

He

is

more than a

little

lay figure, designed to

forth the ruses of Giiegiience.

and Registrar appear

Alguacil, the Secretary

supposed to be

The

with their

full official dress,

mutce persona of the

Of

drama

are the

staffs

what

in

of

office.

women and

the

named, the
lady Suchi-Malinche, daughter of the Governor.
She enters
clothed in a sort of tunic, fastened to her person with gay
machos, or mules.

the former, only one

is

and costly jewels adorn her

silken sashes; chains of gold

garments, and a wreath of flowers crowns her hair.

may be

latter

a reference to her name.

of the Nahuatl xochitl, flower


bered, was the

name of

Malinche,

first

campaign

tzin,

signifying affection.

and Central America, and


3

Tlatoani means,
it

chiefs

is

in

Mexico, and

Some have supposed that it was a


Spanish Christian name Marina, but, as
has conclusively shown, it is the name of

Senor Icazbalceta
one of the days of the Aztec month,

but

may be rememwho served

his mistress.

corruption of the

nation

it

The

a corruption

is

the famous Indian girl

Cortes as interpreter in his

became

Suchi

literally,

still is

malhialli, with the termi-

It

was the custom in Mexico

in

many parts, for

the natives

" the speaker," from tlaloa, to speak, to ask,

translated by the Spanish lexicographers " gran senor."

were probably so

called,

from their right of speech

The

in the assemblies.

Benzoni gives something like this as the title of the Nicaraguan chiefs.
" Chiamano li Signori Tutruane," which I suspect is a misprint for Tattruant.

Istoria del Mondo A uovo,


T

p.

103 (Venetia, 1565).

INTRODUCTION.

xlviii
to

name

their children after the

by

thereto

led

certain

Nicaragua, malinche

day on which they were born,

ancient

also the

is

notions. 1

astrological

name

In

of a tree, a species of

Poinciana, which bears a handsome red flower.

The Machos,

or mules, are twelve or

give the second

the piece,

title to

more

in

El Macho

number. They

raton, an appro-

which I am at a loss to give.


means "The Male Mouse." As used at present,

priate translation of
it

An

a masker, or masquerading dress.


lived in Nicaragua, tells

"

out:

call

me

Literally
it

acquaintance,

signifies

who

has

that he has heard the children

See, there goes the

Macho-ralon" which would

prove to be an Indian in a fantastic costume.

In the play,

they wear heads of skins, imitating those of mules, surmounted


with horns of goats, and a petaca, or wicker basket frame

draped with sashes,

Among

In their hands they carry

etc.

the ancient Nahuas,

and probably

were various curious superstitions relating to mice.

gnawed

If they

a hole in the dress of a wife, her husband took

sign that she had been unfaithful to him;

was attacked by mice,


house would be

falsely

it

as a

it

and she entertained

the same suspicion were his garments attacked.

6.

bells.

to this day, there

When

food

indicated that the people of the

accused of something. 2

Epitome of the Story of The Giieguence.

p. 6.

The Governor and the Alguacil meet and enter


The Governor directs that the

into conversation.

1 Icazbalceta's discussion of the name may be found in his notes to the


Did logos de Francisco Cervantes Salazar, p. 181 (Mexico, 1875). Malinalli
According to Duran, the word
is the twelfth day of the Mexican month.
means underbrush [matorral), and the prognostic was, that those born on

that

day should have an annual attack of sickness,

which

dries up, or loses

Tomo

II, p.

leaves yearly.

like this underbrush,

Historia de la

Nueva Espana,

261 (Mexico, 1880).

See the rare work of Fray Joan Baptista (often spelled Bautista).

Advertencias para

en

its

el

los Confessores

Convento de Sanctiago

de

los

Naturales, vols. 107, 108 (Mexico,

Tlatilulco, aiio 1600).

THE STORY.

xlix

songs and dances which are for the diversion of the

p. 8.

10.

Royal Council should' cease, and bewails its poverty.


also directs that no one shall be allowed to enter
his province (or presence?) without a permit from
the patrol. The Alguacil complains that their poverty
is so great that they have no fit clothing, and lays the
The Governor refers to
blame on Giiegiience.
Giiegiience in severe terms, and orders that he be
brought before him, by any means.
Giieguence, who with his two sons is within earshot, hears the Governor's orders, and pretends to

He

think that

The
p. 12.

it

refers to a calf or a colt.

Alguacil announces himself as a servant of

the Governor.
that

The

it

is

Giieguence professes to understand

Alguacil corrects

that he

is

word

who

a female servant

to fly to the

him

desires to see him.

in this,

Governor.

and

and informs him


Giieguence takes

chaffs about an old

14.

the

16.

man flying. The Alguacil suggests to him that he


had better learn how to salute the Governor properly on entering his presence, and offers to teach

in its literal sense,

him

the customary salutation for a consideration.

This proposal Giieguence accepts, but chooses to

misunderstand the considerations suggested by the


18.

Alguacil,

and

pp. 20-2 2. and gibes. At

24.

replies in a series of quid-pro-quos


last,

he produces some money, which,

however, he will not pay over until the Alguacil


gives the promised instruction.

The

Alguacil recites

the formal salutations, which Giiegiience pretends to


26.

misunderstand, and repeats, instead, some phrases


of similar sound, which are discourteous to the Gov-

28.

ernor. For this the Alguacil threatens to whip him,


and on Giiegiience continuing in his taunts, gives
him two blows, and recommences his lesson.
At this juncture the Governor appears, answers

INTRODUCTION.

and asks him why he has entered


At first Giiegiience
answers by relating how he had traveled without a
permit in other provinces.
Finding this does not
meet the case, he seeks to turn the inquiry by a
dubious story how a girl once gave him a permit
for something besides traveling.
The Governor,
not choosing to be put off with this, Giiegiience
proposes they shall be friends, and that the Governor shall have some of the immense riches
and beautiful clothing which Giiegiience possesses.
The Governor expresses some doubt as to this wealth,
and proposes to examine, apart, Giiegiience' s oldest
Giiegiience's salute,

the province without a permit.

p. 30.

p. 32.

son,
p. 34.

Don

Forcico.

He does so

and Don Forcico corroborates, in the


most emphatic terms, the statements of his father
" the day and the night are too short to name all
;

his possessions."

36.

The Governor
the truth,

Giiegiience's

38.

latter tells

remains, however, uncertain about

and requests a
younger
were

poor, old, thieving

overhears him,
;

Don Ambrosio.

The

a very different story, asserting that

his father's boasts

family

similar private talk with

son,

lies,

and

ragamuffin.

rails at

him

and Don Forcico

very clear terms, that

as

that he

is,

all

in fact, a

Giiegiience,

who

a disgrace to the

assures the Governor, in

Don Ambrosio

has none

of

Giiegiience's blood in his veins.

p. 40.

To

settle

the question, Giiegiience proposes to

show the Governor the contents of his tent-shop,


and has the two boys bring it forward and raise the
He then offers the Governor several impossides.
sible things, as a star, which is seen through the
tent, and an old syringe, which he suggests might
be profitably applied to the Royal Council. As

THE STORY.

li

the Governor replies roughly, Geugvience

p. 42.

skill

of

ernor

Don

many

Forcico in

interested

is

repeats the boasts,


as to

Don

to inquire of

The

this.

latter

and on the Governor inquiring

whether he knows some diverting dances, with

and

his father

p. 48.

The Gov-

vocations.

and proposes

Forcico himself as to the truth of

46.

once

at

changes the subject to a laudation of the remarkable

he dances a

his brother,

The Governor wishes

ballet.

which
and this is followed by two
which the Governor and Alguacil also

the three perform, also


others, in

to see another ballet,

take part.

50.

Following these the Governor asks

for the

led in by

Don

masque-

They

rade of the macho-raton, or the mules.

are

Forcico, and march around the stage.

Giiegiience avails himself of this auspicious

moment

hand of the Lady Suche-Malinche,


the Governor's daughter.
The Governor sends the
to ask for the

p. 52.

Alguacil for the Chief Secretary,

who

returns with

The

Suche-Malinche and other young women.


retary describes what an elegant costume

is

Sec-

expected

of the son-in-law of the Governor, and the latter

54.

suggests that Giiegiience has cast his eyes too high.

The

old

but for

56.

p. 58.

/. 60.

man
Don

explains that

it

was not

for himself,

Forcico, that the request was made,

and pretends to feel quite badly about the marriage.


He, nevertheless, brings up the young women, one
by one, who are rejected by Don Forcico, with very
uncomplimentary remarks, until Suche Malinche
comes forward, who pleases him, and with whom he
is married.
The Governor then suggests that Giiegiience treat the Council with some Spanish wine.
This the old

man

does not find

it

convenient to

understand, and when he can no longer escape, and


p. 62.

and

is

at

loss

where

to

obtain the

liquor,

is

INTRODUCTION.

lii

relieved

by Don Forcico, who has secured

it

in a

questionable manner.
64.

The

mules, that

is,

the masqueraders

examines

who

repre-

Gueguence
one and then another, they give him

sent them, are then brought up,


first

and

as

66.

opportunity for a series of extremely broad jokes

68.

and vulgar

allusions.

Finally, the loads are placed

boys mount them and move

having offered
tary, the

turn

tell

on the mules, the


while Gueguence,

wine to the Governor, the Secre-

Registrar and the Alguacil,

him

his sons that

cost

his

off,

to

be

off,

they will

them nothing.

who each

in

leaves the stage shouting to


all

have a rouse that will

THE GUEGUENCE.
A COMEDY BALLET
IN

THE

NAHUATL-SPANISH DIALECT OF NICARAGUA.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE


6

MACHO-RATON.

PERSONAS.
EL GOBERNADOR TASTUANES.
EL ALGUACIL MAYOR.
EL GUEGUENCE.

DON FORCICO.
DON AMBROSIO.
DONA SUCHI-MALINCHE.
EL ESCRIBANO REAL.
EL REGIDOR DE CANA.

THE
Ballet of the GUeguence
OR,

THE MACHO-RATON.
DRAMATIS PERSONS.
THE
THE
THE
DON
DON
THE
THE
THE

GOVERNOR TASTUANES.
CHIEF ALGUACIL.
GUEGUENCE.
FORCICO, HIS ELDER SON.

AMBROSIO, HIS YOUNGER SON


LADY SUCHI-MALINCHE.
ROYAL SECRETARY.
REGISTRAR.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.


Se da principio bailando, y habla

el

A Ignacil.
Matateco Dio mispiales, Senor Gobernador Tastuanes.
Gobernador.

Matateco Dio miscuales

Mayor ya

tiguala

quilis nopilse

Capitan Alguacil

neme ?
Alguacil.

Mascamayagua
Dan

Sor.

Gob

Tastuanes.

vuelta bailando y habla el

Alguacil.

Matateco Dio mispiales, Senor Gobernador Tastuanes.


Gobernador.

Matateco Dio miscuales

Mayor

no

pilces

quilis

no pike Capitan Alguacil

simocague campamento Senores prin-

cipals, sones, mudanzas, velancicos necana


linar

mo

mesa de

En primer

Cabildo Real.
oro,

y paltechua

lugar tecetales seno

seno carpeta de bordado, seno

tintero

de oro, seno pluma de oro, seno salvadera de oro, y no

mas hemo papel bianco y paltechua

sentar

mo

Cabildo

Real.

Dan

vuelta bailando y habla el

Alguacil.

Matateco Dio mispiales, Senor Gobernador Tastuanes.


Gobernador.

Matateco Dio miscuales quilis no pilces Capitan Alguacil

Mayor.
6

THE COMEDY-BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.


(The Alguacil and Governor

Alg.

Gov.

God

pray

to protect you,

God

pray

enter, dancing.)

Governor Tastuanes.

to prosper you,

my

son, Captain

Chief Alguacil; are you well?

Alg.

At your

service,

(They dance around the

Alg.

Gov.

men

my

Governor Tastuanes.

to prosper you,

my

son, Captain

son, suspend in the quarters of the

the music, dances, songs, ballets, and such

pleasant matters of
is

to protect you,

God

pray

Chief Alguacil
leading

God

pray

Governor Tastuanes.

stage.)

amusement

a great shame that

to the

Royal Court.

we have no golden

table,

It

no em-

broidered table-cloth, no golden inkstand, no pen of gold,

no golden sand-box, not even white paper, and such


suitable things, for a session of the
(They dance around the

Alg.

Gov.

pray

God

pray

like

Royal Court.

stage.)

to protect you,

God

Governor Tastuanes.

to prosper you,

Chief Alguacil.
7

my

son, Captain

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

Alguacil.

Ya

mo

lichua linar

mesa de

tecetales seno

tintero de oro, seno

En

Cabildo Real.
oro, seno carpeta

pluma de

primer lugar

de bordado, seno

oro, seno salvadera

no mas hemo papel bianco y paltechua sentar

mo

de oro,
Cabildo

Real.

Gobernador.

No

Cap" Alg

pilces

or

simocagiie campamento Sres.

principales sones, mudanzas, velancicos necana

chua seno
provincia

palte-

ronda quinquimagua licencia galagua no

la

real.

Alguacil.

Mascamayagua
mispiales

Srs.

Gob or

Sor.

necana y paltechua seno

Matateco Dio

Tastuanes.

sones, mudanzas, velancicos

principales
la

ronda del Sefior Gobernador

Tastuanes.
Aqui

se toca la ronda,

dan vuelta bailando y habla

el

Alguacil.
Sor.

nemo

Gob

or

niqui

Tastuanes, ya

samo

nemo

niqui nistipampa,

ronda, son rastros

la

ya

y pedazos de

cinchones rompidos de corage, sombrero de Castor rompido de corage, no

hemo

capotin

giience, Sor.

mas hemo mantera de

revoso, no

mas

Colorado a sones panegua sesule Giie-

Gob or Tastuanes.
Gobernador.

No

pilces

Cap" Alg

afrentador, ticino

mo

or

asamatimaguas consentidor,

Cabildo Real.
Alguacil.

Acaso no me de consentidor

ticino

mo

Cabildo Real.

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Something

Alg.

to

amuse the Royal Court.

shame that we have no golden

great

table-cloth,

table,

It is

no embroidered

no golden inkstand, no pen of gold, no golden

sand-box, not even white paper, and such like suitable


things, for a session of the

My

Gov.

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, suspend in the

quarters of the leading


ballets,

men

the music, dances, songs,

and such matters, unless the patrol gives a permit

to enter

Alg.

God

Royal Court.

my

royal province [for that purpose].

Yours

to

command, Governor Tastuanes.

to protect you.

The

leading

men

pray

[shall give

no]

music, dances, songs, ballets, and such things, without


[the permission of] the patrol of
(The

patrol

Alg.

Governor Tastuanes,

the patrol
their hats

is

Governor Tastuanes.

sounded and they dance.)

is

am

here, as

not; their girdles are in rags

smashed

in

from their

frays,

is

and

proper, but
tatters,

and

and we have not a

single saddle cloth or red cloak better, perhaps, than that

good-for-nothing Giiegiience, Governor Tastuanes.

Gov.

My

son, Captain Chief Alguacil,

that pimp, that

impudent

you must bring

fellow, that charlatan, before the

Royal Court.
Alg.

with

me

Perhaps that pimp and charlatan won't come


to the

Royal Court.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

10

Gobernador.

No

pilces

Cap" Alg

or

simocagiie campamento Sres.

principales sones, mudanzas, velancicos

techua sesule Gueguence, 6 de


de

la cola,

necana y pal-

6 de

las piernas,

6 de onde Dios te ayudare, Cap" Alg'

las narices,

6
or
.

Alguacil.

Mascamayagua,

Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes, sones, mudan-

necana.

zas, velancicos

Gueguence.

Ha

muchachos,

quichuas rebiatar de

giiil

ternero, (6)

la cola,

6 de

guil

potro para

las piernas,

6 de las

narices ?

D. Ambrosio.

Asi

lo mereces,

Gueguence embustero.
Gueguence.

Me

Don

hablas,

Forcico

D. Forcico.

No,

tatita,

seran los oidos que le chillan.

Gueguence.

Me

Quien

hablas,

Don Ambrosio

D. Ambrosio.
te

ha de hablar, Gueguence embustero

Gueguence.

Como

no,

de trabajos.

mala

casta, saca fiestas sin vigilias

Ora quien

va, quien quiere saber

nombre ?
Alguacil.

Un

criado del Sor.

en los dias

Gob or

Tastuanes.

de mi

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.
Gov.

My

11

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, suspend in the

quarters of the leading

men

the music, dances, songs,

and such things, [and bring] that good-for-nothing


Gueguence, either by the tail, or the legs, or the nose, or
by whatever God will help you [to bring him], Captain
ballets,

Chief Alguacil.

Alg.

At your

Governor Tastuanes, the music,

service,

dances, songs, ballets [will be suspended].

Ho, boys

Gueguence.
is

to

is

be tied behind by the

Don

a calf or

it

tail,

a colt that

or the legs, or the nose

you deserve, Gueguence,

That's what

Ambrosio.

is it

you old humbug.


Gile.

Don

Do you

speak to me,

No,

Forcico.

little

Don

Forcico

papa, perhaps

it's

your ears

that are buzzing.

Gile.

Do you

speak to me,

Don Ambrosio ?

Don Am. Who would speak


humbug ?

to you,

Gueguence, you

old

Gile.

Why

working days

not,

you bad breed, you lazy

Who

is

it

now who wants

to

name?
Alg

A servant of the

Governor Tastuanes.

loafer

on

know my

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

12

Gueguence.

Como que

criada, guil chocolatera, 6 giiil lavandera,

componedera de

Gob or Tastuanes ?

ropa del Sor.

la

Alguacil.

Chocolatera 6 lavandera no

criado

del

Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes.

Gueguence.

Pues que criada, guil cocinera 6


plato del Sor.

giiil

componedora

del

componedora

del

or

Gob Tastuanes ?
Alguacil.

Asuyungua me negua, no me

Mayor

plato, Capitan Alguacil

cele

del Sor.

Gob

or

Tastuanes.

Gueguence.

Ha!
amigo

Cap" Alg

Cap" Alg

M
M

or

del Sor.

or

campamento insigna vara

Gob

Sor.

del

Gob or Tastuanes:
or

Tastuanes, asa

Alguacil.

Asa neganeme, Gueguence.


Gueguence.
Asetato, amigo Cap" Alg

or
.

Alguacil.

Asetato, Gueguence.

Gueguence.

Amigo Cap" Alg

or
,

y que

dice el Sor.

Goberna-

dor Tastuanes ?
Alguacil.

Que vayas

corriendo

y volando, Gueguence.
Gueguence.

Corriendo y volando

un pobre

viejo, lleno

Como

quiere que corra

y vuela

de dolores y continuas calamidades?

13

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.
Gue.

What

sort of a servant-girl

is it,

the chocolate

maker, the washwoman, or the clothes patcher of the

Governor Tastuanes
Alg.

washwoman

Neither waiter-girl nor

a servant

of the Governor Tastuanes.

Gue.

Then which

servant-girl,

of the Governor Tastuanes

cook or grub-fixer

Alg.
Let me disclose myself I have nothing to do
with the grub-fixer; I am the Captain Chief Alguacil of
the Governor Tastuanes.
;

Gue.
Ha Captain Chief Alguacil of the Governor
Tastuanes O friend Captain Chief Alguacil of the Governor Tastuanes, your official staff is perhaps at your
!

quarters

may

you

Alg.

Perhaps

Gue.

Take a

seat, friend

Alg.

Take a

seat, Giiegiience.

Gue.

Friend Captain Chief Alguacil, and what has

offer

Governor Tastuanes to say


Alg.

That you go

to

one, Giiegiience.

Captain Chief Alguacil.

him a-running and

a-flying,

Giiegiience.

Gue.

A-running and a-flying ?

a poor old man,

full

How

does he expect

of pains and aches, to run and

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

14

Amigo Cap" Alg M or y un silguero que esta en


portada del Sor. Gob or Tastuanes, que es lo que hace ?
1

la

Alguacil.

Cantando y alegrando a

los SefLores grandes.

Gueguence.

Ese

Alg

es

or

mi consuelo y mi

divertimiento.

Amigo Cap"

con que corriendo y volando?


Alguacil.

Corriendo y volando, Gueguence.


Gueguence.
j

Ha, muchachos

me

hablan

D. Ambrosio.

Quien

te

ha de hablar, Gueguence embustero?


Gueguence.

Me

hablas,

Don

Forcico

D.
No,

tatita,

Forcico.

seran los oidos que

le chillan.

Gueguence.

Ese

sera,

muchachos.

que voi a ver

si

puedo

Pues ten cuenta con

la

bodega,

volar.

Alguacil.

Ha, Gueguence, con que modo y con que


calas, qui provincia real del Sor.

cortecilla te

Gob or Tastuanes

Gueguence.
Pues,

y como, amigo Cap" Alg

or

Alguacil.

Primero ha de ser un velancico, y paltechua consolar


Cabildo Real del Sor.

Gob

or

Tastuanes.

el

15

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

fly ?
Friend Captain Chief Alguacil, and a linnet that
reaches the door of Governor Tastuanes, what does it do
there ?

Alg.

It

Gue.

That

and amuses the grandees

sings

my

is

consolation

and

how about

Captain Chief Alguacil,

there.

delight.

this

Friend

running and

flying?

Alg.

A-running and

Gue.

Ho, boys

do you speak to

Who

Don. Am.
old

a-flying, Giiegiience.

me ?

wants to speak to you, Guegiience,

humbug?

Gue.

Do you

Don For.
are buzzing.
Gi'ie.

No,

little

That may

shop, and

will

Don

speak to me,

Forcico

papa, perhaps

be, boys.

go and see

it's

your ears that

Well, then, look after the

if I

can

fly.

Ho, Guegiience in what style, and with what


you going to enter the royal presence of the
Governor Tastuanes ?
Alg.

etiquette, are

Gue. Well, now,


Alguacil ?
Alg.

First, there

how

should

I,

friend Captain Chief

should be a song, and such

like, to

amuse the Royal Court of the Governor Tastuanes.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

16

Gueguence.
Velancico,

amigo Cap"

campamento Sres

Alg

or

pues simocagiie

principales sones, mudanzas, velancicos

necana y paltechua consolar

Gob or

mo

Cabildo Real del Sor.

Tastuanes.
Alguacil.

Mascamayagua Gueguence.
Sres principales

Matateco Dio mispiales

sones, mudanzas, velancicos necana

paltechua sesule Gueguence.


Dan

vuelta los dos bailando y habla

el.

Alguacil.

Ha, Gueguence, ya estamos en

el paraje.

Gueguence.

Ya

estamos con coraje.

En

el paraje.

En

el obraje.

En

el paraje.

Alguacil.

Gueguence.
Alguacil.

Gueguence.

En

el

paraje.

amigo Cap" Alg

Pues,

or
,

no

me

modo y con que cortecilla he de entrar y


presencia real del Sor. Gob or Tastuanes ?

ensenara con que


salir

ante la

Alguacil.
Si, te

mi

ensefiare,

pero no de balde; primero ha de ser

salario.

Gueguence.

Pescados salados

Ha, muchachos

redes de pescados salados

Ahi

estan

las

BALLET OF GOEGUENCE.

Gue.

17

song, friend Captain Chief Alguacil

suspend in the quarters of the leading

men

dances, songs, ballets, and such things, to

then

the music,

amuse the

Royal Court of the Governor Tastuanes.

Alg.
At your service, Giiegiience. I pray God to
protect the leading men [and they will suspend] the music,
dances, songs, ballets, and such like, for this good-fornothing Giiegiience.
(They dance around the

stage.)

Alg.

Ha, Giiegiience

Gue.

Here we

Alg.

At

Gue.

To work

Alg.

At

are,

here

we

are at the place.

with heart of grace.

the place.
apace.

the place.

Gue. At the place. Now, friend Captain Chief Alguwon't you teach me with what style, and with what
etiquette, I ought to go in and come out of the royal
presence of the Governor Tastuanes ?
acil,

Yes,

Alg.
I

want

my

Gue.
fish

I'll

teach you

Salted fish

here
2

but not

for nothing.

First,

salary.

Ho, boys

are the nets of salted

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

18

D. Forcico.

Ahi

estan, tatita.

D. Ambrosio.

Que

has de tener, Giie-

redes de pescados salados

embustero?

giience,

Gueguence.

Como no
Cap" Alg

mala
or

casta, ojos

de sapo muerto

ya estamos desaviados de

los

Amigo
pescados

salados.

Alguacil.

Acaso no me

cele de pescados salados,

Gueguence.

Gueguence.
Pues, y como,

amigo Cap" Alg

Alguacil.

Reales de plata, Gueguence.


Gueguence.

Ha

redes de platos.

redes de platos

muchachos, ahi estan

las

D. Forcico.

Ahi

estan, tatita.

Gueguence.
Pues, amigo
platos.

barro

Cap" Alg

como de que

or
,

ya estamos aviados de

platos quiere

de

la china,

Alguacil.

Ayugama, no me

cele de platos,

Gueguence.

Gueguence.
Pues,

y como, amigo Cap" Alg


Alguacil.

Pesos duros, Gueguence.

or

6 de

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Don

Here they

For.

Don Amb.

What

have, Guegiience,

Gile.

Why

are, little papa.

nets of salted fish

do you pretend

not,

you bad breed, you evil-eyed brat ?

we

are just

now

out of

fish.

Alg.

Perhaps

Gile.

Well, what then, Captain Chief Alguacil

Alg.

Pieces of eight, Guegiience.

Gile.

Ha

some

to

you old humbug ?

Friend Captain Chief Alguacil,


salted

19

don't care for salted

dishes and plates.

dishes and plates

Don
Gile.

For.

Guegiience.

Ho, boys

have we

Here they

are, little papa.

Well, then, Captain Chief Alguacil,

plied with plates.

What

we

are sup-

kind of plates do you want,

china plates or earthen plates


Alg.

fish,

Neither one nor the other.

don't care for

plates, Giiegiience.

Gile.

Well, what then, Captain Chief Alguacil

Alg.

Hard

pieces, Guegiience.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

20

Gueguence.

Ha Quesos

duros de aquellos grandotes.

A, mucha-

chos, ahi estan los quesos duros que trajimos de sobornal?

D.
No,

tatita

se los

Forcico.

comio mi hermanito,

Don Ambrosio.

D. Ambrosio.

Que

quesos duros has de tener, Gueguence, embustero?


Gueguence.

Como no, mala casta, despues que


Amigo Cap" Alg M or ya estamos

te los

has comido.

desaviados de

los

quesos duros, porque ahi traigo un muchacho tan ganzo,

que no

me

deja nada.
Alguacil.

Acaso no me

cele de quesos duros,

Gueguence.

Gueguence.
Pues,

y como, amigo Cap" Alg

or

Alguacil.

Doblones de oro y de

plata,

Gueguence.

Gueguence.

Ha!

A! muchachos,

dobles.

sabes doblar?

D. Forcico.
Si, tatita.

Gueguence.

Pues dobla, muchachos, Dios persogue a mi amigo

Capn Alg

or
,

que ahora endenantes estuvimos tratando

y contratando con

el,

y ya

se lo

Uevo una bola de fuego

a mi amigo.
Alguacil.

Para tu
dobles.

cuerpo, Gueguence.

Acaso no me

cele de

BALLET OF GUEGOENCE.

Ha

Gue.

hard cheeses

21

those big ones.

Ho, boys

have we those hard cheeses which we brought along as


extras

Don

No,

For.

brosio, ate

them

Don Am.

little

papa,

my

little

brother,

Don Am-

up.

What hard cheeses do you


humbug ?

pretend to have,

Giieguence, you old

Why

Gue.

up?

you bad breed,

not,

since

Friend Captain Chief Alguacil,

out of hard cheeses, because

such a hog that he leaves

Perhaps

Alg.

me

you

we

them

ate

now
who is

are just

have a boy here

nothing.

don't care for hard cheeses, Giiegii-

ence.

Gue.

Well, what then, Captain Chief Alguacil

Alg.

Giie.

Ha

Don

my

we were

Yes,

of gold and silver, Giieguence.

Ho, boys

little

Well, then,

do you know how

toll

away, boys, for

talking and bargaining a

my

May

friend in a ball of

it

God has got

moment

whom

ago, and has

fire.

burn your body, Giieguence.

don't care for tolling.

to toll ?

papa.

friend the Captain Chief Alguacil, with

carried off

Alg.

toll

toll.

For.

Gue.
after

want

Perhaps

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

22

Gueguence.

y como, amigo Cap" Alg

Pues,

or

Alguacil.

Doblones de oro y de

Gueguence.

plata,

Gueguence.

Doblones de oro y de plata

como

soi viejo

sordo,

no oigo

Pues hableme
lo

que

me

recio,

dicen

que

y por

esas tierras adentro no se entiende de redes de platos, ni

de pescados salados,
onzas de oro y
quiere

ni

de quesos duros,

moneda de

plata.

ni

de dobles, sino

Y, vamos,

cuanto

Alguacil.

Todo

lo

que hubiere en

la

bodega, Gueguence.

Gueguence.
i

Todo, todo?

No me

dejas

nada?

Alguacil.

Nada, nada, Gueguence.


Gueguence.

Ni batuchito

Alguacil.

Ni batuchito, Gueguence.
Gueguence.

Ya

lo ven,

muchachos,

lo

que hemos trabajado para

otro hambriento.

D.
Asi

Forcico.

es, tatita.

D. Ambrosio.
Asi

lo

mereces, Gueguence, embustero.


Gueguence.

Arra

ya,

mala

casta,

comeras tus unas.

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

23

Gue.

Well, what then, friend Captain Chief Alguacil

Alg.

Doubloons of gold and

Gue.

Doubloons of gold and

silver.

silver

Then speak

loud,

am old and deaf and in these inland places people


know nothing of nets of plates, and of salted fish,

for I

nor about hard cheeses, nor about

ounces of gold and coins of


it,

tolls,

silver.

but only about

Well,

let

us

come

to

how much do you want ?


Alg.

Everything

Gue.

Everything? Everything?

anything

in

the shop, Giieguence.

You

won't leave

me

Alg.

Nothing, nothing, Giieguence.

Gue.

Not so much

Alg.

Not even an empty box, Giieguence.

Gue.

Now, boys, you

as an

see

empty box ?

how we have worked

to feed

another hungry fellow.

Don For.
Don Am.

So

it is, little

So you

papa.

deserve, Giiegiience,

you old hum-

bug.
Gue.
nails.

Get

out,

you bad breed, you

shall eat

your finger

24

BAILE DEL g0EGUENCE.

D. Ambrosio.

Las comeremos, Giiegiience.


Gueguence.
Pues,

ponga

las

manos

dos manos pone

las

el

hambriento, y que buenas unas se tiene mi amigo Cap"

Alg

or
,

parecen de perico-ligero

para estas unas

una bomba

caliente

Alguacil.

Para tu cuerpo, Gueguence.


Gueguence.
Pues, tome

muchachos

Uno, dos,

Ha

Cuatro cientos y tantos pesos

mi amigo Cap" Alg


no sabe cual

tres, cuatro.

or

Vd., amigo

mi

le

plata,

he dado a

Capn Alg

or
,

es real, ni cual es medio.

Alguacil.

Como no?

Si,

entiendo de todo, Gueguence.

Gueguence.

La mitad de
tillo

este

medio hacen dos

cuartillos

un cuar-

dos octavos, un octavo dos cuartos, un cuarto dos

maravedis, cada maravedi dos blancos.


Alguacil.

Pues, echelos todos.

Gueguence.
Pues, ensefieme.
Alguacil.

Pues, azetagago.

Gueguence.
Pues, maneta congon.
Alguacil.

Matateco Dio mispiales, Sor. Gobor Tastuanes.

25

BALLET OF GOEGUENCE.

Don Am. Let

us eat them, Giiegiience.

Then put out your hands, and

Gue.

fellow put out both his hands

has

my

my

and

monkey

May

Gue.

Well, here then [shows four

three, four.

some odd
you

don't

dollars

know

Why

Alg.

They
!

are

a hot

burn your body, Giiegiience.

Ha my money,

Chief Alguacil.

fine nails

Ho, there

hungry-

let this

what

Alg.

it

Captain Chief Alguacil

friend, the

like those of a scratching

shot for these nails

boys

One, two,

Four hundred and

my

have given to

But you,

coins'].

friend, the

Captain

friend Captain Chief Alguacil,

a real from a half a one.

not?

understand

all

about them, Giie-

giience.

The

Gue.

half of this half real

two octavos

a cuartillo

is

quarto

two maravedis

is

makes two

an octavo

is

cuartillos

two quartos

and each maravedi

is

two

blancos.

down with them

Alg.

Well, then,

Gue.

Well then, teach me.

Alg.

Well, then, pay attention.

Gue.

Well, then,

Alg.

pray

God

all.

show me.
to protect you,

Governor Tastuanes.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

26

Gueguence.

Matateco Dio cuascuane cuascuane Tastuanes.


Alguacil.

Matateco Dio mispiales, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.


Gueguence.

Matateco Dio panegiie palegiie Tastuanes.


Alguacil.

Hace

porfiado,

Gueguence

Vd. ha

menester una

docena de cueros.
Gueguence.

Docena de cueros
Aqui

6 cobijones.

Ha, muchachos, nos

el

amigo Cap Alg

faltan reatas
or

nos ofrece

una docena de cueros.


D.

Forcico.

Si, tatita.

Gueguence.
n

Amigo Cap Alg


crudia 6 de

or
,

y como de que

cueros,

de

gamusa ?
Alguacil.

Mas

azetagago, Gueguence.

Le da dos

rejazos.

Gueguence.

Arra
azotado

ya, con
;

que bueno, despues de pagado

me

has

esos no son cueros, esos son azotes.

D. Ambrosio.
Asi

lo

mereces, Gueguence, embustero.


Alguacil.

Matateco Dio mispiales Sor. Gob or Tastuanes, quini-

mente motales, quinimente moseguan, Alcaldes ordinarios

de

la Sta.

hermandad, regidores y notarios y deposi-

27

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

make you

Gue.

pray

God

Alg.

pray

God

to protect you,

Gue.

pray

God

to

Alg.

You

will

sing, Tastuanes.

Governor Tastuanes.

overcome Tastuanes.

are stubborn, Giieguence,

you need a dozen

hidings.

Gue.

Our

Ho, boys

do we need some

lines or covers

friend here, the Captain Chief Alguacil, offers us a

dozen hides.

Don
Gue.

Yes,

For.

How

little

papa.

about those hides, friend Captain Chief

Alguacil, are they green or dressed

Alg.

Find out more about them, Guegiience.

(Gives him two blows.)

Gue.
I

Get out

have paid

Don Am.

what right have you

These are not

So you

to beat

me when

hides, they are blows.

deserve, Giieguence,

you old hum-

bug.

Alg.

those

who

pray

God

to protect the

Governor Tastuanes,

carry his messages and transact his business,

the regular alcaldes of the

Holy Brotherhood, the

regis-

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

28

Eguan noche mo Cabildo Real

tarios.

del Sor

Gob or

Tastuanes.

Gueguence.

Amigo Cap Alg


n

si

estos son mis

libro

or
,

de balde

si

le

he dado mi dinero,

lenguajes asonesepa negualigua seno

de romance, lichua rezar escataci, iscala fionguan

iscumbatasi a

campaneme Tastuanes

Alguacil.

Asaneganeme, Gueguence.
Gueguence.
Si cana

amigo Cap" Alg

or

Matateco Dio mispiales, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.


Gobernador.

Matateco Dio miscuales

neme

quilis

Gueguence yatiguala

Gueguence.

Ya nemo

niqui

nistipampa quinimente moseguan.

Alcaldes ordinarios de

la

Santa hermandad, regidores

notarios (y) depositarios(.)

Real del Sor.

Gob or

Eguam noche mo

Cabildo

Tastuanes.
Gobernador.

Pues, Gueguence, quinquimagua licencia te calas qui


provincia real

Gueguence.

Valgame Dios,

Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes, pues que es

menester licencia ?
Gobernador.

Es menester

licencia,

Gueguence.
Gueguence.

valgame Dios, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes

Cuando yo

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.
trars, notaries

and

archivists,

29

[by day] and night,

in the

Royal Court of Governor Tastuanes.


Gi'ce.

money
I

Friend Captain Chief Alguacil,


for nothing,

if

these are to be

not bargain for a book

out of

when

come

Alg.

Perhaps

Gue.

If

in

have given

and

my

shall

Spanish, to read these prayers

before Tastuanes

may

my words;

offer

you one, Guegiience.

anywhere, friend Captain Chief Alguacil

[The Governor enters abruptly]

pray

God

to protect

you, Governor Tastuanes.

Gov.

pray

God

to prosper you, Guegiience

are

you

well?

am here, as is proper, [and I pray God to prothose who transact the business, the regular alcaldes

Gue.
tect]

of the

Holy Brotherhood,

archivists,

the registrars, notaries and

[by day] and night,

in the

Royal Court of

Governor Tastuanes.
Gov.

Well, Guegiience,

who

has given you a permit to

enter this royal province.

Gue.

God

need a permit

Gov.

Gue

bless me,

is it

to

when

A permit
O God
!

Governor Tastuanes, what

is

necessary.

bless me,

Governor Tastuanes

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

30

anduve por esas


por

la

tierras adentro,

Veracruz, por

la

Vera

por

la carrera

Paz, por Antepeque, arriando

mi recua, guia muchachos, opa Don Forcico


un mesonero

tupile traiga

de Mexico,

llega

donde

una docena de huevos, vamos

comiendo y descargando y vuelto a cargar, y me voy de


y no es menester licencia para ello, Sor. Gob or

paso,

Tastuanes.

Gobemador.
Pues aqui es menester licencia para

Gueguence.

ello,

Gueguence.

Valgame Dios,

Gob or

Sor.

Tastuanes, viniendo yo por

me columbro una nina que estaba


una ventana de oro, y me dice que galan el

una calle derecha


sentada en

Gueguence, que bizarro


Gueguence,

hay

dulce,

hombre

entra,

el

Gueguence, aqui tienes bodega,

Gueguence,

sientato,

Gueguence, aqui

Gueguence, aqui hay limon.

tan gracejo, salte a

la calle

como soy un

con un cabriole, que

con sus adornos no se distinguia de lo que era, lleno de


plata
Sor.

y oro hasta

Gob

or

el suelo,

asi

una nina

me

dio licencia,

Tastuanes.

Gobemador
Pues una nina no puede dar

licencia,

Gueguence.

Gueguence.

valgame Dios, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes, no seremos

guancos, no seremos amigos, y seremos de sones sepanegaligua,

no

fardesia de ropa;

en primer lugar cajoneria

de oro, cajoneria de plata, ropa de


trabando,

giiipil

seda, zapatos

de pecho,

giiipil

Castilla,

ropa de con-

de pluma, medias de

de oro, sombrero de castor, estriberas de

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

was traveling up country, on the road


.

Vera Cruz, and Vera


mules,

my

leading

Mexico, through

and Antepeque, driving

Paz,

my

Don Forcico comes


who brings us a dozen

twice

boys,

across a constable innkeeper

eggs

to

31

and we go on eating and unloading, and we load

up again, and

a permit

Governor Tastuanes.

for

Gov.

it,

go

right along,

Well, here there

is

and there

no need of

is

need of a permit

for

Gue-

it,

giience.

God

Gi'ie.

bless me,

Governor Tastuanes, as

was

who was sitting in a


golden window descried me, and says to me " What a
how gallant is Giiegiience
fine fellow is Giiegiience

coming up a

straight street, a girl

here's the

shop

for

you, Giiegiience

down, Giiegiience

sit

ence

there's a

fellow,

lemon

jumped

off,

there's

And,

here."

with

my

gave

in,

Giiegiience;

am

such a funny

what
;

and

it

full

of

was, covered

that's the

way

a permit, Governor Tastuanes.

Well, a

Gov.

as

tell

with gold and silver to the ground

me

come

riding cloak on, so

ornaments that you could not

girl

sweatmeats here, Giiegii-

girl can't

give a permit [here], Giiegii-

ence.

O God bless me, Governor Tastuanes, we won't

Giie.

be

fools

about

my

no,

we

will

be

packs of goods.

friends,

In the

and we
first

will

bargain

place, chests of

gold, chests of silver, cloth of Spain, cloth from smugglers,


vests, feather skirts, silk stockings,

golden shoes, beaver

32

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

lazo de oro

y de

ya pachigiie muyule Sor. Gob or

plata,

Tastuanes.

Gobernador.

Pachiguete no pachigiiete, Giiegiience, asamatimagas,

motel polluse D. Forcico y D.

(a sones) se palparesia

Ambrosio timaguas y verdad,


tumile

mo

y hermosuras

riquezas

tin

Cabildo Real.
Giieguence.

No

chopa quimate mollule, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.

No

chiquimate, Giieguence.

Gobernador.

Giieguence.

Pues

pampa,
necana,

cana amigo Cap D Alg

si

Sres. principales, sones,

or
,

simocagiie

palparesia D. Forcico timaguas

hermosura,

tin bellezas tumiles

nisti-

mudanzas, velancicos,

mo

verdad, tin

Cabildo Real.

Gobernador.

No

pilse

Cap" Alg

principales, sones,
resia

or

simocagiie campamento Sres.

mudanzas, velancicos, necana y palpatin hermosura, tin

D. Forcico timagas y verdad,

belleza tumile

mo

Cabildo Real.
Alguacil.

Mascamayagua

Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes.

Matateco Dio

mispiales Sres. principales, sones, mudanzas, velancicos,

necana y palparesia D. Forcico timaguas y verdad.


Aqui

el

Alguacil saca a D. Forcico pa hablar con

D.

el

Gobor.

Forcico.

Matateco Dio mispiales, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.

33

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.
hats, stirrup straps of gold

and

silver lace, as

may

satisfy

the clever Governor Tastuanes.

No,

Gov.

Giieguence.

am not satisfied with what you


Don Forcico and Don Ambrosio must

say,

give

a truthful account to our Royal Court, whether you have


riches

and abundant treasures.

Do you

Giie.

Tastuanes

Gov.

Then,

ballets

in

know

do not know

Guc.

pend,

not

already, clever Governor

it

my

it,

Giieguence.

friend Captain Chief Alguacil will sus-

if

presence, the

of the leading men,

truthful account to the

music, dances, songs and

Don

Forcico will give a

Royal Court about

my riches and

abundant treasures.

My

Gov.

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, suspend in the

quarters of the leading


ballets,

and

Don

men

the music, dances, songs and

Forcico will give a truthful account to

the Royal Court about their riches and abundant treasures.

At your

Alg.

God

Governor Tastuanes.

service,

to protect the leading

pray

men, and [they suspend] the

music, dances, songs and ballets, and

Don

Forcico

will

give a truthful account.


(The Alguacil takes Don Forcico aside

Don

For.

tuanes.
3

pray

God

to talk with the

to protect you,

Governor.)

Governor Tas-

34

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.


Gobernador.

Matateco Dio miscuales

quilis

Don

Forcico ya tiguala

neme.

D. Forcico.

Ya nemo

niqui nistipampa, quinimente motales, quini-

mentes moseguan, Alcaldes ordinarios de


dad, regidores, notarios

Cabildo Real del Sor.

depositaries.

Gob

or

la Sta.

herman-

Eguan noche mo

Tastuanes.

Gobernador.
Pues,

Don

semo verdad a

Forcico asamatimaguas

sones sepaguala motalce Giieguence quichua contar

hombre

rico, tin riquezas, tin

hermosura,

primer lugar cajoneria de oro, cajoneria de

me

de oro, monedas de plata, hay

sagua

giiil

tin belleza,

plata,

Don

en

doblones

Forcico.

D. Forcico.

O
y

la

valgame Dios, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes,


noche para contar

las

riquezas

es corto el dia

de mi padre; en

primer lugar cajoneria de oro, cajoneria de plata, ropa de


Castilla,

ropa de contrabando, estriberas de lazo de oro

y de plata, ya pachigiie muyule Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes.

Gobernador.
Pachigiiete no pachigiiete pues,
se palparesia tu hermanito

verdad

tin riquezas

Sor.

Gob

Don Ambrosio

mayague campamento
y

timaguas y
Cabildo real.

Forcico.

Tastuanes, sicana amigo

velancicos, necana

Forcico, a sones

y herrnosuras tumiles mo
D.

or

Don

Cap" Alg

Sres. principales, sones,

palparesia

brosio timaguas y verdad.

or
,

mudanzas,

mi hermanito Don

Am-

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Gov.

you well

Don

God

pray

35

Don

to prosper you,

Forcico

are

For.

am
who

here, as

protect] those

is

proper, [and

carry the messages, those

God

pray

who

to

transact

Holy Brother-

the business, the regular alcaldes of the

hood, the registrars, notaries and archivists, [by day] and


night, in the

Gov.

Royal Court of Governor Tastuanes.

Well,

Don

Forcico,

you are

about the stories which Giiegiience


is

to tell

tells,

me

the truth

saying that he

a rich man, and has property, and handsome and

beautiful things

in

the

first

place, chests of gold, chests

of silver, doubloons of gold, coins of silver; so


clearly,

Don

Don

me

Forcico.

O God

For.

tell

bless me,

Governor Tastuanes, the

day and the night are too short to


of

my

of

silver, cloth

In the

father.

first

tell

you

the riches

all

place, chests of gold, chests

of Spain, cloth from smugglers, stirrup

straps of lace of gold

and

silver, as

may

satisfy the clever

Governor Tastuanes.
Gov.

your

No, not

little

satisfied

brother,

yet,

Don

Don Ambrosio,

Forcico

will

for next,

give a truthful

account to the Royal Court about these

riches

and

abundant treasures.

Don

For.

Governor Tastuanes,

if

friend Captain Chief

Alguacil will suspend in the quarters of the leading


the music, dances, songs and ballets,

Don Ambrosio,

my

little

will give a truthful account.

men

brother,

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

36

Gobernador.

No

Cap" Alg

pilse

or
,

simocague campamento

Sres.

mudanzas, velancicos, necana, y palparesia su hermanito D. Ambrosio timaguas y verdad tin

principales, sones,

riquezas, tin hermosuras.

Algnacil.

Mascamayagua

Matateco Dio

Sor. GobS Tastuanes.

mispiales Sres. principales, sones, mudanzas, velancicos,

necana,
Aqui

el

palparesia

Don Ambrosio

timaguas y verdad.

Algl saca a D. Ambrosio pa hablar con el Gobr.

D. Ambrosio.
Matateco Dio mispiales, Sor. Gobernador Tastuanes.
Gobernador.

Matateco Dio miscuales,


tiguala

neme

quilis

Don Ambrosio, ya

D. Ambrosio.

Ya nemo

niqui nistipampa quinimente motales, quini-

mente moseguan Alcaldes ordinarios de


dad, regidores

mo

notarios,

Cabildo Real del Sor.

la Sta.

depositarios.

y
Gob or

herman-

Eguan noche

Tastuanes.

Gobernador.

Pues

Don Ambrosio asamatimaguas semo

sones (se)
giiil

verdad a

paguala motalce Guegiience quichua contar

hombre

rico.

En

primer lugar cajoneria de oro,

cajoneria de plata, ropa de Castilla, ropa de contrabando,


giiipil

de pecho,

giiipil

de pluma, medias de seda, zapatos

de oro, sombrero de castor, estriberas de lazo de oro y

de plata, muchintes hermosuras quichua contar sesule


Giieguence hoy melague

Don Ambrosio.

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

My

Gov.

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, suspend in the

quarters of the leading


ballets,

and

his

little

men

the music, dances, songs and

brother,

Don Ambrosio,

truthful account of the riches

At your

Alg.

God

37

will give a

and treasures.

Governor Tastuanes.

service,

to protect the leading

pray

men, [and they suspend] the

music, dances, songs and ballets, and

Don Ambrosio

will

give a truthful account.


(The Alguacil takes Don Ambrosio aside

Don Am.

pray

God

to talk to the Governor.)

to protect you,

Governor Tas-

tuanes.

Gov.

you well

am
those who

Don Am.
protect]

God

pray

to prosper you,

here, as

is

Don Ambrosio

proper, [and

carry the messages, those

the business, the regular alcaldes of the

pray

who

are

God

to

transact

Holy Brother-

hood, the registrars, notaries and archivists, [by day] and

by

Royal Court of Governor Tastuanes.

night, in the

Gov.

Well,

Don Ambrosio, you

truth about the stories


that

he

is

a rich man.

are to

which Guegiience
In the

first

me

tell

relates,

place, [that

the

saying

he has]

chests of gold, chests of silver, cloth of Spain, cloth from

smugglers, vests, skirts of feathers,

silk stockings,

golden

shoes, a beaver hat, stirrup straps of lace of gold


silver, quantities

and

of pretty things, as that good-for-nothing

Giiegiience relates

so

tell

me

clearly,

Don Ambrosio.

38

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

D. Anibrosio.

Valgame

Gob or

Dios, Sor.

Tastuanes, verguenza

me

da

contar las cosas de ese Giieguence embustero, pues solo

que cierre

esta esperando

la

noche para

salir

de casa en

casa a hurtar lo que hay en las cocinas para pasar


hijo

Don

una petaca

vieja totolatera,

que

tiene catre de seda

un petate viejo revolcado, dice que


son unas botias viejas sin

y son unas

el,

forro,

tiene

que

su

el palo,

porque

el

es

medias de seda y

tiene zapatos de oro,

chancletas viejas sin suelas, que tiene un

de oro, y es solo

Dice que tiene cajoneria de oro, y es

Forcico.

canon

fusil

se lo quitaron.

Giieguence.

Ve, que afrenta de muchacho, hablador, boca


revientale, hijo, la cabeza,

floja

que como no es hijo mio

me

desacredita.

D.

Forcico.

Quitate de aqui, mala casta

No se

espante Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes en oir a este hablador, que cuando yo anduve

con mi padre por

la carrera

ya estaba mi madre en
mala

casta, Sor.

Gob

or

de Mexico y cuando venimos

cinta de otro,

y por eso

salio tan

Tastuanes.
Giieguence.

Sor.

Gob or Tastuanes ya pachigue muyules teguane

motel poyuce

Don

bellezas, tumiles

mo

Forcico contar

tin

hermosuras, tin

Cabildo Real.
Gobernador.

Pachigiiete no pachigiiete, Giieguence, asamaquimate

mollule

mo

Cabildo

real.

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Don Am.
ashamed

God

bless me,

39

Governor Tastuanes,

to talk about the affairs

am

humbug,
dark, to go

of this old

Guegiience, "for he is only waiting until it is


from house to house, stealing whatever is in the kitchens,
to keep him and his son, Don Forcico, alive.
He says
he has a chest of gold, and it is an old bird-basket; that
he has a silken cot, and it is a dirty old mat he says he
has silk stockings, and they are old leggings, without
;

and they are worn out


and it
is only a wooden stock, because they took the barrel
away from him.

lining

that he has golden shoes,

slippers,

without soles

Heavens

G'iie.

lying tongue

what an impudent boy, a babbler, a

Break his head,

mine would slander me

Don

that he has a golden gun,

in that

my

boy, for no son of

way.

Get out of here, you bad breed.

For.

shocked, Governor, to hear this babbler

my father on the
back my mother was
with

this

one

Gue.

to

things

know

Don't be

when

road to Mexico, when

went

we came

big by another, and that

Governor Tastuanes, now are you not

Royal Court, that

Gov.

for

is

why

such a bad breed, Governor Tastuanes.

is

completely about

ful

us,
I

by what Don Forcico

satisfied

told

the

have quantities of pretty and beauti-

No, not
it.

satisfied

the Royal Court

would

like

40

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.


Gueguence.

No

chiquimate mollule Sor.

mayagiie amigo Cap" Alg


pales, sones,

mo

tinderia

or
,

Gob or Tastuanes

campamento

-piies

Srs. princi-

mudanzas, velancicos, necana y palparesia

tuma guiso

mo

Cabildo Real.

Gobernador.

No

pilse

Cap" Alg'

or
,

simocagiie campamento Sres.

mudanzas, velancicos, necana, y

principales, sones,

chua consolar sesule GiiegiienceQ


paltechua consolar

mo

Eguan mo

palte-

tinderia

cabildo real.
Alguacil.

Mascamayagua,

Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes.

Matateco Dio

mispiales Sres. principales, sones, mudanzas, velancicos,

necana y palparesia tinderia mo Cabildo Real.


Da vuelta el Giiegiience y los muchachos bailando con
habla

la tienda,

el

Gueguence.

Matateco Dio

neme mo

mispiales, Sor.

tinderia

matamagueso

Gobor

mo

Tastuanes, asanega

Cabildo Real.

muchachos, miren cuanta hermosura.

En

Alzen

primer lugar

cajoneria de oro, cajoneria de plata, giiipil de pecho, giiipil

de pluma, medias de seda, zapatos de oro, sombrero de


castor, estriberas

hermosuras, Sor.

de

la

de lazo de oro y de plata, muchintes

Gob or Tastuanes, asaneganeme

manana que relumbra

caneme esa

ese lucero

del otro lado del mar, asane-

jeringuita de oro para ya remediar el Cabildo

Real del Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.


Gobernador.

Para tu cuerpo, Gueguence.

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

The

Giie.

know

clever Governor Tastuanes does not

Well, then,

it.

41

let friend

Captain Chief Alguacil suspend

in the quarters of the leading

songs, ballets and talk, and

men

the music, dances,

open

will

my

tent to the

Royal Court.

My

Gov.

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, suspend in the

quarters of the leading

and such

ballets

men

like, to

Gueguence, and he

please this good-for-nothing

show

will

the music, dances, songs,

Royal

his tent, to please the

Court.

At your

Alg.

God

service,

to protect the leading

Governor Tastuanes.

pray

men, [and they suspend] the

music, dances, songs, ballets and talk, [to show] the tent

Royal Court.

to the

(Guegiience and the boys dance around the stage with the

Giie.

me

Let

Heft

pray

offer

it,

God

you

my

to protect you,
tent, to

show

Governor Tastuanes.
Royal Court.

to the

See what pretty things

boys.

tent.)

In the

first

place, a chest of gold, a chest of silver, vests, feather


skirts, silk stockings,

golden shoes, a beaver hat, stirrup

straps of lace of gold


things,

and

Governor Tastuanes.

silver, quantities

Let

me

offer

you

of pretty
this star

of the morning, which shines from the other side of the


sea

let

me

offer

you

this syringe of gold,

with which to

medicate the Royal Court of the Governor Tastuanes.

Gov.

May

it

be

for

your own body, Gueguence.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

42

Gueguence.

Como
en

este

mi muchacho

tiene tantos oficios,

unas tiene encajados los

las

que hasta

oficios.

Gobernador.

Seran de arena, Gueguence.


Gueguence.

Pues mas ha sido escultor, fundidor, repicador, piloto


de alturas de aquellos que se elevan hasta

Gob

or

las nubes, Sor.

Tastuanes.

Gobernador.

Esos no son

oficios

de continuo, Gueguence.
Gueguence.

Pues mas ha sido carpintero, hacedor de yugos aunque


sean de papayo, hacedor de arados, aunque sean de

tecomajoche ya pachigue muyule Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.


Gobcr?iador.

Ya

pachigiiete

palparesia

no

mo Don

pachigiiete, pues

Gueguence asanese

Forcico timaguas y verdad

tin oficios.

Gueguence.

Pues

pampa

si

cana amigo Capn Alg

Sres.

principales, sones,

necana y palparesia

Don

or
.

Mayague

nisti-

mudanzas, velancicos,

Forcico timaguas y verdad tin

oficios.

Alguacil.

Mascamayagua, Gueguence.
Sres. principales, sones,

palparesia D. Forcico
Vuelve

el

Matateco Dio mispiales

mudanzas, velancicos, necana y

mo

Cabildo Real.

Alguacil a sacar a D. Forcico.

43

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Gue.

mine

wonderful

It is

has.

He

is

Gov.

They

Gue.

Why, he

deep

are of

how many

trades this

boy of

in trades to his fingers' ends.

no account, Guegiience.

has been a sculptor, a metal founder,

a bell-ringer, and a pilot to the heights which rise above

the clouds, Governor Tastuanes.

Gov.

These are not permanent employments, Guegii-

ence.

Gue.

Then he has been a

carpenter, a

maker of yokes,

though of papaya wood, a maker of plows, though of


temple tree wood.

This should

satisfy the clever

Governor

Tastuanes.
Gov.
his son,

No,

Don

am

not yet

Let Guegiience

satisfied.

tell

Forcico, to give a truthful account of his

trades.

Gue.

Then,

if

friend Captain Chief Alguacil will, in

my presence, cause the leading men


dances, songs and ballets,
ful

Don

to suspend the music,

Forcico will give a truth-

account of his trades.

Alg.

At your

service, Guegiience.

pray

God

will

protect the leading men, [and they suspend] the music,

dances, songs and ballets, for the talk of

the Royal Court.


(The Alguacil brings Don Forcico forward.)

Don

Forcico to

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

44

D. Forcico.

Gob

Sor.

or

Tastuanes, hasta en las unas tengo encajados

los oficios.

Gobernador.

Seran de arena,

Don

Forcico.

D. Forcico.
Pues mas he sido escultor, fundidor, repicador, piloto
de alturas de aquellas que se elevan hasta

Gob or

las nubes, Sor.

Tastuanes.

Gobernador.
Pachigiiete

no

mate mollule

pachigiiete, pues

tin

mudanzas,

Don

Forcico asamagui-

mo

tin sapatetas

Cabildo

Real.

D. Forcico.

valgame Dios, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes, sicana amigo

Alg

Cap"

or
,

campamento

mudanzas, velancicos, necana


consolar

mo

Sres. principales,
tin

corridos

sones,

y palechua

Cabildo Real.
Gobernador.

No

pilse

Cap" Alg

or

simocague campamento Sres.

mudanzas, velancicos, necana y palpalichua consolar sesule Gueguence.

principales, sones,
resia

Alguacil.

Mascamayagua

Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes.

Matateco Dio

mispiales Sres. principales, sones, mudanzas, velancicos,

necana y palparesia consolar


Gueguence.
Primera bailada del Corrido, y habla

mo
el

Cabildo Real sesule

45

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Don

my

Governor Tastuanes,

For.

am

deep

in trades to

finger ends.

Gov.

Don

They

are of no account,

Why,

For.

Don

Forcico.

have been a sculptor, a metal

founder, a bell-ringer, and a pilot to the heights which


rise

above the clouds, Governor Tastuanes.

Gov.
also

No,

am

know some

not

satisfied, since

Don

Forcico should

clever dances and caperings, [to

amuse]

the Royal Court.

Don

O God

For.

me, Governor Tastuanes,

bless

if

friend Captain Chief Alguacil [will suspend] in the quarters

of the leading

ballets,

amuse the Royal Court.

My

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, suspend in the

quarters of the leading


ballets

giience

Alg.

God

the music, dances, songs and

they shall have some running dances and such

things, to

Gov.

men

and

the music, dances, songs,

order that this good-for-nothing Giie-

talk, in

may amuse

At your

men

[the

Royal Court].

service,

to protect the leading

Governor Tastuanes.

pray

men, [and they suspend] the

music, dances, songs, ballets and talk, in order that the

good-for-nothing Guegiience
(First ballet with the

may amuse

running dance.)

the Royal Court.

46

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.


Gueguence.
Sor.

Gob

mudanzas,

or

Tastuanes, ya pachigue mollule tiguita tin

tin sapatetas, lichua

consolar

mo

Cabildo Real.

Gobernador.

Pachiguete no pachiguete, Gueguence, asamaquimate

muyule, asanese palparesia motel poyuse

Don Ambrosio

a consolar

el

Don

Forcico

Cabildo Real.

Gueguence.

No

chopa quimate muyule, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.


.

No

Gobernador.

chopa quimate Gueguence.


Gueguence.

Mayague amigo Cap" Alg


principales, sones, corridos,

Don

or
,

campamento

Sres.

necana y paltechua consolar


mo Cabildo Real.

Forcico eguan D. Ambrosio

Gobernador.

No

Cap" Alg

pilse

or
,

simocagiie campamento Sres.

necana y paltechua consolar


Ambrosio mo Cabildo Real.

principales, sones, corridos,

Don

Forcico eguan

Don

Segunda bailada del Gueguence, y

los

dos muchachos.

Gueguence.

Sor Gob
mudanzas,

or

Tastuanes, ya pachigue mollule

tin sapatetas lichua

consolar

mo

tigiiita tin

Cabildo Real.

Gobernador.

Pachiguete no pachiguete, Gueguence.


Gueguence.
Sor.

Gob or Tastuanes asamaquimate mollule

danzas, tin sapatetas sones

Don

Forcico eguan

tin

mu-

San Martin, a lichua consolar

Don Ambrosio mo

Cabildo Real.

47

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.
Governor Tastuanes, now you are

Gue.

satisfied that

they have dances and caperings to amuse the Royal


Court.

am not satisfied. I would know


what Don Forcico and Don Ambrosio can
No,

Gov.

oughly

thor-

do to

amuse the Royal Court.


Gue.

Do you

not

know

do not know

it,

Governor Tastuanes

Gov.

Gue.

Let friend Captain Alguacil Major [suspend]

it,

the quarters of the leading

and such

like,

Don

that

Giieguence.

men

in

the music, dances, songs

Forcico and

Don Ambrosio may

amuse the Royal Court.


Gov.

My

son, Captain Chief Alguacil,

quarters of the leading

such

like, that

Don

men

suspend

in the

the music, dances, songs and

Forcico and

Don Ambrosio may

amuse the Royal Court.


(Second
Gile.

ballet of

Giieguence and the two boys.)

Governor Tastuanes, now you are certainly

satisfied that

they have dances, have caperings, to amuse

the Royal Court.

am

Gov.

No,

Gue.

Governor Tastuanes may certainly know that

Don
ings,

Forcico and

not

satisfied,

Giieguence.

Don Ambrosio have

to the tune of St. Martin, to

Court.

dances and caper-

amuse the Royal

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

48

Gobemador.

No
Alg

chopa quimate mollule Giiegiience.

or

Nopilse Cap"

simocagiie campamento Sres. principales, sones

mo

San Martin a lichua consolar

Cabildo Real sesule

Giiegiience.
Aqui

dan vuelta todos bailando.

se toca S. Martin y

Gobemador.

muyule

Giiegiience ya pachigiie

tetas lichuas consolar

mo

tigiiita tin

sapa-

Cabildo Real.

Giiegiience.

Gob or Tastuanes asamaPortorico no amigo Cap" Alg

Pachigiiete no pachigiie, Sor.

quimate muyule sones

or

Don

a lichua consolar

Forcico,

y Don Ambrosio

mo

Cabildo Real.

Gobemador.

No

Cap" Alg

pilse

or
,

simocagiie campamento Sres.

principales, sones Portorico lichua consolar sesule Giiegiience.


Aqui

se toca

un ton antiguo y dan vuelta todos bailando.

Gobemador.

Giiegiience ya pachigiie

lichua consolar

mo

muyule

tigiiita tin

sapatetas

Cabildo Real.
Giiegiience.

Pachigiiete no pachigiie,

unos van para

atras,

Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes,

que

otros para delante.

Gobemador.

Eso no

lo se, Giiegiience.

quimate muyule,

tin

Pues, Giiegiience, asama-

mudanzas,

macho-raton a lichua consolar

mo

tin

sapatetas

Cabildo Real.

semula

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.
Gov.

do not certainly know

Chief Alguacil, suspend

in

it.

49

My

son, Captain

the quarters of the leading

men

[the music, etc.], that this good-for-nothing Giiegii-

ence

may amuse

the Royal Court with the tune of St.

Martin.
(The tune of

Martin

St.

Now,

Gov.

is

played, and they

Giiegiience, I

am

all

dance around.)

satisfied that

they have

caperings to amuse the Royal Court.

But

Gi'ie.

my

friend,

how Don

not satisfied; and, Governor Tastuanes,

Captain Chief Alguacil, might like to

Forcico and

Royal Court,

My

Gov.

am

Don Ambrosio

know

can amuse the

to the tune of Porto Rico.

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, suspend in the

quarters of the leading

men

[the music, etc.], that this

may

good-for-nothing Giiegiience

console [us] with the

tune of Porto Rico.


(An

ancient tune

Now,

Gov.

caperings to

But

Guc.

is

played, and they

Giiegiience, I

all

am

dance around.)

satisfied that

amuse the Royal Court.

am

not

satisfied,

Governor Tastuanes, as

some go from behind and others from


Gov.

they have

know nothing about

in front.

that, Giieguence.

Now,

Giiegiience, whether they have dances, caperings, like the

macho-raton, to

amuse the Royal Court ?

BAILE DEL GUEdUENCE.

50

Gueguence.
Sor.

or

Gob Tastuanes, ya bueno amigo Cap" Alg

campamento

Sres. principales, sones,

a lichua consolar semula macho-raton

A, muchachos

que

es de los

or
,

mudanzas, necana,

mo

Cabildo Real.

machos ?

D. Forcico.

Ahi
Aqui

estan, tatita.
se toca la

Valona para

los

machos, y habla

el

Gueguence.
Sor.

Gob

or

Tastuanes ya pachigue mollule.tin mudan-

zas, tin sapatetas, tin remates, tin

corcobios semula macho-

raton.

Gobernador.
Pachigiiete no pachigue, Gueguence.

Gueguence.

Pues Sor. Gob or Tastuanes, no haremos un trato y


contrato, que el sin tuno, sin tunal de eguan mo Dona
Suche-Malinche ?
Gobernador.

No

chopa quimate muyule, Gueguence.

No

chiquimate, Sor.

Gueguence.

Gob or

Tastuanes.

Gobernador.

No

or
Cap" Alg
simocagiie campamento el
Senor Escribano Real, chiguigua no provincia real lichua
obedecer eguan mo Dona Suche-Malinche.

Va

el

pilse

Alguacil a hablar con

el

Escribano Real.

Alguacil.

Matateco Dio mispiales,

Sr.

Escribano Real.

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.
Gue.

Governor Tastuanes, and good

Chief Alguacil, [suspend]

men

in

51
friend Captain

the quarters of the leading

the music, dances and songs, in order that

we

may-

amuse the Royal Court with the macho-raton. Ho, boys!

how about
Don

the mules

Gi'ie.

Here they

For.

(The Valona

is

are, little papa.

played for the mules.)

Governor Tastuanes, you are certainly

satisfied

that they have dances, caperings, finishing touches

and

curvetings, like the macho-raton.

am

Gov.

No,

Gue.

Well, then, Governor Tastuanes, shall

make

not satisfied, Guegiience.

we

not

a trade and a treaty between him, without a folly

or a fig-tree, and the lady Suche-Malinche

Gov.

Do you

Gue.

Gov.

My

know

not

do not know

it,

of

it

already, Guegiience

Governor Tastuanes.

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, suspend [the

labor] in the quarters of the

him obey our order

to enter

Royal Secretary, and

my

(The Alguacil goes

pray

to

speak with the Royal Secretary.)

God

to protect

let

royal presence, with the

lady Suche-Malinche.

Alg.

you Mr. Secretary.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

52

Escribano.

Matateco Dio miscuales,

neme

tiguala

quilis

Cap"

Alg"

or
,

ya

Alguacil.

Ya nemo
ligua

niqui nistipampa Sor. Escribano Real,

y Provincia

mo Dona

obedecer eguan

Gob or

Real, del Sor.

negua

Tastuanes, lichua

Suche-Malinche.

Escribano.

Pues, no pilse Cap"


Sres.

Alg

or

simocagiie campamento

principales, sones, rujeros,

mo Dona

eguan

y paltechua obedecer

Suche-Malinche.
Alguacil.

Mascamayagua,
Aqui

Sor. Escribano Real.

se toca el Rujero,

dan vuelta bailando

los

dos y habla

el

Escribano.

Matateco Dio mispiales, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.


Gobernador.

Matateco Dio miscuales


tiguala

quilis Sor.

Escribano Real, ya

neme?
Escribano.

Ya nemo niqui nistipampa


Dona Suche-Malinche.

lichua obedecer, eguan

mo

Gobernador.
Pues,

Sor.

Escribano

Giieguence guil hombre

Real,
rico,

asanegaguala

sesule

mo Dona

Suche-

eguan

Malinche.
Escribano.

Sor Gob or Tastuanes, asanegualigua vestir saya de la


China, giiipil de pecho, guipil de pluma, medias de seda,

53

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Sec.
cil

are

pray

God to prosper

you well

Alg.

am, as

you, Captain Chief Algua-

is

proper, Mr. Secretary.

You

will

enter the royal presence of Governor Tastuanes, to obey


his orders,
Sec.

pend

and also the lady Suche-Malinche.

Well, then,

my

in the quarters of

son, Captain Chief Alguacil, sus-

men

the leading

shoutings, and such like, that

may

the music, the

obey, with the lady

Suche-Malinche.

At your

Alg.

(The Rujero

Sec.

you well

service,

Mr. Secretary.

played, and the two dance around.)

pray

Gov.

Sec.

is

God

pray

God

am, as

is

Governor Tastuanes.

to protect you,

to prosper you, Mr. Secretary

proper, [and

come]

to

are

obey your

orders, with the lady Suche-Malinche.

Gov.

Well, Mr. Secretary, there

this good-for-nothing Giieguence,

is

who

a bargain between
is

a rich man, and

the lady Suche-Malinche.

Sec.

Governor Tastuanes,

ing, a petticoat

let

the bargain be for cloth-

from China, vest, feather

skirt, silk stock-

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

54

zapatos de oro, sombrero de castor,


Sor.

Gob or

Se vuelve

para monistilco

al

Tastuanes.

el

Escribano a su lugar, bailando con

el Alguacil.

Gobernador.

Ha, Gueguence, asiguala lichua escojer mosamonte.


Gueguence.
I

Desmonte

Gobernador.

Mosamonte, Gueguence.
Gueguence.

Yo no he hecho

trato ni contrato

con

el Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes, solo que sea mi muchacho.

Gobernador.

Eso no

lo se,

Gueguence.
Gueguence.

Ha, muchachos, que

Gob

or

trato

y contrato

tienes con el Sor.

Tastuanes.

D. Forcico.

De

casarme,

De

casarte

tatita.

Gueguence.
!

chiquito

tan

te

muchacho?
D. Forcico.
Si, tatita.

Gueguence.

Y con

quien

me

dejas,

muchacho

D. Forcico.

Con mi hermanito, Don Ambrosio.


Gueguence.

Que

caso

me

hara ese jipato!

atreves

casarte,

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.
ings,

55

shoes of gold, a beaver hat, for a son-in-law of

Governor Tastuanes.
(The Secretary returns

Ha, Giiegiience

Gov.

dancing with the Alguacil.)

to his place,

angers

it

me

that

you choose

so presumptuously.

Gue

Trumpery

Gov.

Presumptuously, Giiegiience.

Gue.

have not made any trade or treaty with the

Governor Tastuanes

it

must be

know about

Gov.

Gue.

Ho, boys

don't

my

boy.

that, Giiegiience.

what trade or treaty have you with

the Governor Tastuanes ?

Don

For.

Gi'ie.

chap

like

Don
Gue.

For me

to get married,

For you to get married


you dares to get married

For.

And

Yes,

little

with

papa.

little

What, boy

little

papa.

whom

are

you going

to leave

boy?

Don
Gue.

For.

With

What

my

little

brother,

Don Ambrosio.

care will that imp take of

me ?

me

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

56

D. Ambrosio.

Y yo tambien me

quiero casar.

Gueguence.

Para eso seres bueno.


escojer

mosamonte.

Don

Forcico asiguale lichua

Ve, que bizarra dama aqui, mucha-

cho.

D.

No

esta de

mi gusto,

Forcico.

tatita.

Gueguence.

Porque, muchacho?

D. Forcico.

Porque

esta

muy

pachaca,

tatita.

Gueguence.
Pues, que es iguana 6 garrobo para que este pachaca?

Quien

la

echo a perder, muchacho


D.

Forcico.

Mi hermanito, Don Ambrosio.


Gueguence.

Para eso sera bueno este soplado, ojos de sapo muerto,

Ve, que bizarra maneca,

por eso esta tan apupujado.

muchacho.
D. Forcico.
Si esta aventada, tatita.

Gueguence.

Quien

la avento,

muchacho
D.

Forcico.

Mi hermanito, Don Ambrosio.


Gueguence.

Como

aventastes esta dama,

Don Ambrosio?

57

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Don Am.

And

too want to get married.

You're good enough

Gile.

makes a bargain

to

gay lady

my

Don

Don
Gue.

She

Why
For.

Gue.
stuffed

here,

For.

Gue.

Don

is

boy

Because she

Who

For.

For

my

is

little

Gile.

Don

Gi'ic.

She

Who
For.

my

is

my

puffed up,

little

is

boy ?

is

the reason he

puffed her up,

My

How

is

stuffed, little papa.

Don Ambrosio.

brother,

that the bloated fellow

that

papa.

an iguana or a garrobo, that she

See, here's a gay cake-baker

For.

much

too

has spoiled her,

My

evil-eyed brat

Don

taste, little

my boy ?

Is she, then,
?

Forcico

See what a

not to

is

not,

Don

for that.

choose presumptuously.

brother,

so played out.

is

boy.

little

boy

good enough, the

papa.

Don Ambrosio.

did you puff up this lady,

Don Ambrosio ?

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

58

D. Ambrosio.

De dormir con

vos,

Gueguence.
Gueguence.

mala

Callate,

Ve que

casta.

bizarra dama, esta otra,

muchacho.
D. Forcico.
Esta,

si,

esta de

mi gusto,

tatita.

Gueguence.

Sabes escojer, no muchacho, pero no sabes escojer un

buen machete para hacer un buen desmonte.


D.

Tambien,

Forcico.

tatita.

Gueguence.
Sor.

Gob

or

Tastuanes, mosegua trato y contrato.


Gobernador.

No

mocegua, Gueguence.
Gueguence.

No mocegua, Sor. Gob or Tastuanes


muchacho que se me pierde.

lo

que siento

es

mi

Gobernador.

Eso no

lo se,

Gueguence.

Aqui

se casan, y habla el

No

Cap" Alg

Gobernador.
pilse

campamento
yunta de

sesule

botijas

chigiiigua

mo

Provincia Real,

Gueguence lichua obedecer con una

de vino de Castilla para en chocola

paltechua brindar

mo

Cabildo Real.
Rcgidor.

Simocague, Sor. Alg


Gueguence.

or

or

En nombre mo

Mayagvie, amigo sesule

Cabildo Real te damos los

BALLET OF GUEGOeNCE.

Don Am.

It

59

came from sleeping with you, Guegii-

ence.

Shut up, you bad breed.

Giie.

gay lady

Don

For.

This one? Yes, she

know how

my

boy, what a

is.

You know how

Gue.
don't

one

this other

See,

suits

to choose,

me,

my

little

boy

papa.

but you

choose a good axe to make a good

to

clearing.

Don
Gue.

That

For.

also, little papa.

Governor Tastuanes,

let

us

make

a trade and a

treaty.

is

Gov.

will

make

it,

Giie.

will

make

it,

the loss of

Gov.

my

don't

Governor Tastuanes. What

I feel

boy.

know about

(The marriage takes

Gov.

Guegiience.

My son,

in the quarters of

that, Giicgiience.

place.)

Captain Chief Alguacil,

my

nothing Guegiience

let

Royal Province that

is

going to

treat the

it

be known

this good-for-

Royal Court

to

a yoke of jars of Spanish wine.

Reg.

Suspend [business], Mr. Chief Alguacil, and

attend, friend good-for-nothing Guegiience.

of the Royal Court,

we

In the

name

give the congratulations, and also

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

60
parabienes

de eguan

inmenso que goce con

mo Dona
Don

Suche-Malinche,

de

Forcico, tu hijo, Giiegiience.

Alguacil.

Ha, Giiegiience, asanegualigua y Provincia Real del


Sor.

Gob or Tastuanes y

paltechua obedecer con unayunta

de botijas de vino de Castilla en chocola y paltechua


brindar mo Cabildo Real del Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.
Giieguence.

Ha, muchachos, ya
es, ser

Ya

lo ven, aviados estamos.

Bueno

casado, pero ahora se nos ofrece un gran trabajo.

viene

Cap" Alg

el provincial
1

6 en Nindiri

or
,

y no tenemos provision.

Amigo

en

Managua

cele de provincial, Giiegiience;

unayunta

a onde dejo

al provincial,

Alguacil.

Acaso no me

de botijas de vino.
Giieguence.

Ya
ser

lo ven,

con

muchachos, una yunta de bueyes, y ha de

carreta.

Alguacil.

Acaso no me cele de bueyes 6 de carreta, Giiegiience.


Una yunta de botijas de vino de Castilla para en chocola
brindar su Cabildo Real Sor. Gob or Tastuanes.
Giieguence.

Ya lo ves, muchacho, en que empeho me


casado.
Ya ves la providencia que pide

metes, con ser


el Sor.

Gob or

Tastuanes, una yunta de botijas de vino de Castilla para

en chocola del Sor. Gob or Tastuanes


6 a sacarla, muchacho

te atreves a buscarla

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Suche Malinche,

to the lady

hugely with

Don

may

enjoy herself

Forcico, your son, Giiegiience.

Ha, Giiegiience

Alg.

that she

61

known

it is

vince of the Governor Tastuanes that

in the

you

Royal Proare to

obey

him, and treat the Royal Court of the Governor Tastuanes

yoke of

to a

Ho, boys

Gue.
It is

fine

The

is

Provincial, in

Perhaps

are already provided

for.

now we have a
coming, and we have

big
not

Managua

or in Nindiri

don't care about the Provincial

wine-jars.

Now

Gue.

we

Friend Captain Chief Alguacil, where

you leave the

yoke of

see

Provincial

prepared for him.

Alg.

you

thing to be married, but

job on hand.

did

Spanish wine.

jars of

you

see, boys,

a yoke of oxen, and, no

doubt, the cart as well.

Perhaps

Alg.
giience

treat the

Giie.

by

don't care about carts or oxen, Giie-

a yoke of jars of Spanish wine for a lunch, to

Royal Court of Governor Tastuanes.

Now, boy, you

getting

see in

Now

married.

what a bother you put

which the Governor asks, a yoke of


for the
it,

Governor's lunch.

or to getting

it,

boy

me

you see the contribution


jars of Spanish

Are you equal

to

wine

hunting

for

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

62

D. Forcico.

No

tengo de onde,

tatita.

Gueguence.

Para escojer mosamonte

si

eres bueno.

Te

atreves a

buscar una yunta de botijas de vino de Castilla,

Don

Ambrosio?
D. Ambrosio.

No

tengo de onde, Gueguence.


Gueguence.

Que
I

no

cosa buena has de hacer, mala casta

te atreves,

muchacho

Con

que,

D. Forcico.

No,

tatita.

Gueguence.

Pues a ganar 6 a perder voy a buscar


botijas

la

yunta de

de vino.

D. Forcico.

No

vaya,

tatita,

ya

me

avie de la yunta de botijas de

vino.

Gueguence.

A onde te aviastes,

muchacho

D. Forcico.

En

casa de un amigo.

Gueguence.

enseno hacer amigo

Quien

te

Usted,

tatita.

D.

Forcico.

Gueguence.
Calla,

muchacho, que

hacer amigo

dira la gente

que yo

te

enseno a

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Don

For.

You

Gue.

don't

know whence,

are bold

enough

of jars of Spanish wine,

Don Am.

What

Giie.

don't

are

don't you dare to,

Don

For.

No,

papa.

to choose [a wife] preto

hunt up a yoke

Don Ambrosio?

know

where, Giiegiience.

you good

for,

you bad breed ?

Well,

boy?
little

papa.

Well, then, be

Gue.

little

Are you bold enough

sumptuously.

63

it

to

win or

lose, I

shall

go

in

search of the wine myself.

Don

For.

Don't go,

little

papa,

have already provided

the wine.

Gile.

Don
Gue.

Don
Gile.

Where
For.

you get

taught you to

You,

little

Shut up, boy.

hear] that

it,

boy

In the house of a friend.

Who
For.

did

make

a friend

papa.

What

taught you to

will the folks

make

a friend

say

[if

they

64

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

D. Ambrosio.

Y pues no es verdad que

ensenas a malas mafias a tu

hijo ?

Gueguence.

Arra

ya,

mala casta! malas mafias como

Amigo Cap" Aig

or
,

de botijas de vino, no habra un macho de

de

la

comunidad

las tienes vos.

ya estamos aviados de
la

la

yunta

cofradia 6

Algnacil.

Vean, que fama de hombre de bien

Gueguence.

Soy hombre de

Traigo mis machos, pero estan

bien.

algo raspados desde su cruz hasta su rabo a lichuas


gencia,

amigo Cap" Alg

de los machos

or

D. Forcico.
Ahi, estan,

tatita.

Aqui dan una vuelta bailando y cojen

D.

Ya

los machos.

Forcico.

estan cojidos los machos,

tatita.

Gueguence.

Encojidos?

Sera de

frio.

D. Forcico.

Los machos ya estan

cojidos.

Gueguence.

Cojudos

Pues no eran capones.


D. Forcico.

Cojidos los

machos,

tatita.

dili-

Ha, muchachos, que es

65

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

And

Don Am.
ways

evil

evil

ways.

you bad breed

out,

Have you not

hood, or of the village

Alg.

See,

Gue.

am

sequence of

Don

for

an honest man.
little

my

we have now

mule of the brother-

an honest

have

man

my own

mules,

raw, from withers to crupper, in con-

energy, Captain Chief Alguacil.

what about the mules

For.

you are the one with

what a reputation

but they are a

Friend Captain Chief Alguacil,

provided the wine.

boys

not true that you teach your son

Get

Gi'ie.

is it

Here they

Ha,

are, little papa.

(They dance around the stage and lead

in a

number of masks, dressed

as mules.)

Don

For.

Shriveled up

Gue.

Don

For.

For.
5

are

now

driven up,

That must be from

little

papa.

cold.

say the mules are driven up.

Livin' studs

Gue.

Don

The mules

Then they were not

The mules

are driven up.

altered.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

36

Gueguence.

machos?

Cojidos los
estan los

machos

Pues hableme recio!

D. Forcico.

Aqui

estan, tatita.

Gueguence.

Que macho

es este puntero,

muchacho

D. Forcico.
El macho

viejo, tatita.

Gueguence.

este otro

macho ?
D.

Forcico.

El macho guajaqueno.
Gueguence.

este otro

macho

D. Forcico.
El

macho mohino.
Gueguence.

este otro

macho

D. Forcico.
El macho moto.
Gueguence.
i

Ya

aparejaron,

muchachos

D. Forcico.

No,

tatita,

aparejeselos Vd.

Gueguence.

Todo

lo

ha de hacer

el viejo.

D. Forcico.
Si, es

mejor,

tatita.

>

A onde

67

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Gue.

Where

Don
Gue.

Don
Gue.

Don
Gue.

Don
Gue.

Don
Gue.

Don
Gue.

Don

Driven up, are they


are the mules

For.

Here they

And
For.

And
For.

And
For.

The

is

are, little papa.

this thin one,

old mule,

little

other mule

this

That

Speak out loud to me.

Which mule
For.

The
For.

papa.

the dried-up one.

is

other?

this

That

is

the quarrelsome mule.

this other

one

The rowdy mule.

Are they harnessed, boys


For.

boy

No,

little

old

man

Yes,

it's

papa

harness them yourself.

has to do everything.

better, little papa.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

68

Gueguence.

Ya

esta sana la cinchera de este

macho, muchacho

D. Forcico.

Ya

esta, tatita.

Gueguence.

Y este

otro

macho

ya esta sana

la rifionada

D. Forcico.

Ya

esta, tatita.

Gueguence.

Que

sana ha de

por delante

estar,

muchacho,

onde

se estaco este

si

asi tanta estaca tiene

macho, muchacho ?

D. Forcico.

En

el

potrero, tatita.

Gueguence.

Eso merece por


la vaticola

ralirse del

potrero a otro potrero.

de este macho, ya esta sana, muchacho

D. Forcico.

Ya

esta, tatita.

Gueguence.

Que

sana ha de estar, muchacho,

flucion por de bajo de las piernas

le

si

la tiene

ha bajado

muy

Revientalo, muchacho.

D. Forcico.
Revientelo Vd,

tatita.

Gueguence.

Ahi

se reventara solo,

muchacho, que

D.
Alzar

el fardo, tatita.

Forcico.

falta ?

la

hinchada ?

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Gue.

Don
Gue.
yet

mule well

Is the girth-gall of this

For.

It

And

69

yet,

boy?

papa.

is, little

mule,

this other

is its

backband-gall well

Don
Gi'ie.

For.

How

can

Where

of it?

papa.

It is, little
it

be well

if it

has such a stick

in front

did this mule run such a stick in

itself,

boy?

Don
Gue.

In the colt yard,

For.

That

is

what

is it

Don
Giie.

now

For.

Giie.

It

papa.

be well, boy,

it

down beneath

swelling there

Don For.

can

Burst

Burst
will

the crupper-gall of this other

boy?

well,

It is, little

How

has passed

papa.

deserved for running from one

And

pasture to another.

mule,

it

little

it

it

the inflammation

open, boy.

open yourself,

burst

if

the legs, and there's a great

of

itself,

little

boy.

papa.

What's wanting

now ?

Don

For.

Heave up the pack,

little

papa.

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

70

Gueguence.
I

Calentar

el

jarro

D. Forcico.
Alzar

el fardo.

Gueguence.

Ha!

A onde esta el

el fardo!

fardo?

D. Forcico.

Aqui

esta tatita.

Gueguence.

A
azul,

mi tiempo, cuando

cuando

me

fui

muchacho,

vei en aquellos

el

tiempo del hilo

campos de

alzando aquellos fardos de guayabas,

los

Diriomos

no muchachos

Alguacil.

Date

priesa,

Gueguence.
Gueguence.

Me llevas

preso

Porque, amigo Cap" Alg

or

Alguacil.

Que

te

des priesa!

Gueguence.

Dejeme acordar de mi tiempo, que con eso me conHa! muchachos, para onde vamos, para

suelo.

atras 6

para delante?

D. Forcico.
Para delante,

tatita.

Gueguence.
Pues, a la guia, muchachos.
Aqui

se

montan

los

muchachos en

los

machos.

Gueguence.

Muchachos,

no habra un peinador para brindar

Cabildo Real del Sor

Gob

or

Tastuane

ei

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Heat up the

Gue.

Don

For.

Gite.

O
For.

Gue.

In

lifting

Where

the pack.

Here

my

it is, little

when

time,

when

the blue thread,

mos,

Heave up the pack.

Don

flask

71

was

is

the pack

papa.

was a boy,

Hurry

Gue.

You

the time of

in

those plains of the Dirio-

in

those packs of guayabas

Alg.

isn't

it

so,

boys

up, Guegiience.

take

me up ?

What

for,

friend

Captain

Chief Alguacil?

mean hurry

Alg.

Gue.

Let

myself with

behind

Don
Gue.

me

up.

recall

that.

old times, that

Say, boys, do

we go

may
in

console
front

or

For.

In front,

little

Then go ahead,

papa.

boys.

(The boys mount the mules.)

Gue.

Boys,

isn't

there a cheeky fellow to toast the

Royal Court of the Governor Tastuanes

BAILE DEL GUEGUENCE.

72

D. Forcico.
Si,

hay,

tatita.

Gueguence.

Senor

Gob

or

Tastuanes,

asaneganeme

Castilla

en

chocola de vino.
Gobernador.
S'guale, Gueguence.

Gueguence.
Sor. Escribano Real,

asaneganeme

Castilla en chocola

de vino.
Escribano.
Siguale, Gueguence.

Gueguence.
Sor.

Regidor Real, asaneganeme

Castilla en

chocola

de vino.
Regidor.
Siguale, Gueguence.

Gueguence.

Amigo Cap" Alg

or

asaneganeme

Castilla en chocola

de vino.
Alguacil.

Siguale, Gueguence.

Gueguence.

Pues nosotros, a

la gorra,

muchachos!

FIN.

BALLET OF GUEGUENCE.

Don

For.

Gi'ie.

Yes, there

is, little

Governor Tastuanes,

Spanish wine, as a

73

papa.

let

me

offer

you some

treat.

Gov.

Follow him, Giiegiience.

Gue.

Mr. Secretary,

let

me

offer

you some Spanish

wine, as a treat.

Follow him, Giiegiience.

Sec.

Gi'ie.

Mr. Registrar,

let

me

offer

you some Spanish

wine, as a treat.

Reg.

Follow him, Giiegiience.

Giic.

Friend Captain Chief Alguacil,

some Spanish wine,

Follow him, Giiegiience.

Gi'ie.

Then,

it

you

for nothing,

and

as a treat.

Alg.

drink

me

offer

let

for us,

boys

we'll get

ourselves.

END.

it

NOTES.
Page

The Dramatis

These have been disI may add that the


" Regidor de Cana " may be for " RegidorDecano." Otherwise I do not see a meaning to it.
The term " Alguacil "
<;
"
bailiff."
might be translated
constable," or
Page 6. The salutations exchanged between the Alguacil
and Governor are repeated frequently between the characters.
In the first, the words would seem to be the Nahuatl matataca, to beg, to pray, and miecpialia, to watch over, to pro4.

Persona?.

cussed in the Introduction, page xlv.

in the reply, for the latter is substituted miequilia, to


;
prosper, followed by qua///, good, or well.
The terminal s,
in ?nispia/es, miscuales, is probably a remnant of the Spanish
No p//se is the vocative nopi/tze, my dear son, comos, you.
pounded of the inseparable possessive pronoun of the first
person, no, and tepil/zin, an affectionate or reverential form,
from the root pilli. The expression need not be taken as
literally meaning relationship, as the Nahuasused the formula
tect

nopi/fzintz/ne in addressing all persons of position.


o/ica/zin,

Nopiltzintz/ne ,

"

seas bien venido, 6 ilustre

Ma moySenor."

Carochi, Gram. Mex., p. 20.


Ya tiguala neme, I take to be ye tiqual/i tinemi, in which ye
is a particle of contraposition, and both the adjective-adverb
qua///, and the verb nemi, to live, to be, are preceded by the
second personal pronoun ft. The compound mascamayagua
appears to be from maxca, yours, literally, your thing (mo,
your, axca, thing), and the optative particle mayecuele,
equivalent to the Spanish ojald; hence the meaning is
" yours to command," or "at your service."
In his next words the Governor uses a phrase which is
repeated by various speakers with a "damnable iteration"
throughout the comedy. Simocague would, in pure Nahuatl,
be ximocauoliia, the imperative second person singular, of the
compulsive form of mocaua, to cease, to stop, or to suspend
something.
The noun mocacaua is the word for the pauses
The reason for the frequent repetition
or intervals in music.
of the request, I suppose to be that in the ancrent exhibitions
of the drama numerous assistants joined in dancing, singing

75

76

NOTES.

and playing on musical instruments

and when a

specified

was to be performed, or an important conversation to


be repeated, they were courteously addressed, and requested
Dr. Valentine tells me that in
to be silent for a time.
Guatemala the term gente principal is commonly used to designate the most prominent inhabitants of a pueblo.
Necana y paliechua, Nahuatl words, united by the Spanish
conjunction.
The former is Nah. nequaniliztli, dancing
motions; the latter, elsewhere written palechitaa.nd pa/eguisa,
ballet

a corruption of paleuqui, suitable, or appropriate things.


a form of Sp. hemos, is an antiquated expression for
tenemos.
The word mo in the expression mo Cabildo Real may be
the Spanish mio, my ; or the Nah. mo, thy, thine. The
Cabildo was originally the chapter of a religious house, and
later a council, but at present it is applied in Central America
to the municipal courts, and the house in which they sit.
is

Hemo,

Page 8. In the second reply of the Alguacil on this page


there are evidently several words omitted which I have supplied in brackets in the translation.
The same has occurred
elsewhere, and it was to be expected, as nearly all the Nahuatl
expressions have become unintelligible to the native populaAs most of these formulas
tion of the present generation.
are repeated several times, we can approximate to what the
full expression should be.
Yd nemo niqui nistipampa, is a frequent reply in the play to
a formal salutation of a superior. I have translated it as
some corruption of the Nahuatl words, ye nemonequi
presence is proper," /. e. "I am
nixtlipampa, literally,
present before you, as is my duty." The Alguacil, as having
charge of the patrol, hastens to speak of its wretched
uniform.
The adjective sesule, constantly applied to Giiegiience, evidently in a depreciatory manner, is probably from
the Nah. tculli, worthless.

"my

Page 10.

While the Governor and Alguacil are conversing,

Guegiience and his sons enter, and overhear the


All three understand
tions of the Governor.
means, but it is the cue of Giiegiience to assume
signification.
To the brusque rejoinder of Don
he pretends to be deaf, and this feigned difficulty
is depended on as one of the main elements of
throughout.

last direc-

whom he
a different
Ambrosio
of hearing
the comic

77

NOTES.

The

epithet

mala

casta,

of bad

blood,

as

applied by

own

(putative) son, becomes intelligible


later in the play, where it is stated that he was begotten

Guegiience to his

during his legal father's absence in Mexico.


Embustero, which I have rendered " humbug," is more
exactly a boasting, bragging charlatan.
Dr. Valentine
suggests " blower," in the slang sense of that word.

Page 12. Asuyungua. The


asu, asa, and ase, seem to be

numerous words which begin

compounds with

the

Nah

in

aco,

"perhaps," used in introducing a positive statement mildly,


or in presenting a question in the form of an assertion, as aco
amo timocahua, " perhaps you have not fasted," meaning
" you surely have not.
(Carochi.) It is usually combined with
other particles, and the analysis of such compounds in the
altered form presented in the text becomes exceedingly
uncertain.
After the announcement of his person and official position
by the Alguacil, Guegiience repeats his titles in a tone of
affected admiration, and inquires after his staff of office,
which was not visible. This staff was all-important to the
dignity of an alcalde or alguacil.
In Nahuatl this official is
called topile, he who carries the staff, from topilli, staff.
'

'

Page 14. Giiegiience, who has no desire to appear before


the Governor, makes an excuse that he will learn how to fly,
and is about leaving, when he is called back by the Alguacil.
The words te calas, qui provincia real, should probably read,
ticalaquia presencia real, the first, from calaquia, to enter, as
on page

8.

Having agreed to take a lesson in etiquette,


Guegiience pretends quite to misunderstand the Alguacil,
when he claims pay for his instructions.
Redes, " nets " of salted fish. The reference is to the
method adopted by the Indians of Central America in carryThis is in a net which is suspended between
ing burdens.
the shoulders by means of a strap which passes across the
forehead.
Such a net is called in Nicaragua matate, and in
pure Nahuatl, matlauacalli the strap or band by which it is
When the material
supported is the tnecapal, Nah. mecapalli.
to be transported is a fluid, a jar of earthenware is suspended in
the same manner. A small earthenware cup, found in Nicaragua exhibits this, and also some ingenuity of arrangement. It
represents a woman, with one of these jars on her back, seated.

Page

16.

(See p. 78.)

78

NOTES.

Page 18. Ojos de sapo muerto, lit. " eyes of a dead toad."
Such eyes were considered to exercise an evil influence, and
to bring bad luck.
Page 20.
Dofilar.
This Spanish word means to toll a
chooses to understand the
be a request to doblar,z.x\d
announce to his sons that the Alguacil has suddenly

bell, as at a death.

Alguacil's
hastens to
died.

demand

Giiegiience

for doubloons to

CUP PROM NICARAGUA.

Page 24. The coins which Giiegiience names are those of


cuarto was a brass piece, equal
the old Spanish currency.
to a half-penny English, or one American cent (Delpino,
Spanish and English Dictionary, 1763.) It was worth four
maravedis, and eight cuartos equaled a real de vellon.
The phrase maneta congon is of uncertain signification. I
have translated the first word as the imperative form of nextia,
to show, to disclose ; congon may perhaps be a corruption of
coneiontli, boy.
The Alguacil now begins his instruction, and repeats, for
the benefit of Giiegiience, the proper salutation which should
The old man pretends
be used in addressing the Governor.
to misunderstand them, and makes use of other words, similar
I have not sucin sound, but of an insulting signification.
ceeded in showing, in the English text, this play upon words.
Page 28. Asonesepa negualigua, etc. This passage has proved
unintelligible to me, and the rendering is little more than a
The phrase is the same as at the foot of p. 30.
guess.

79

NOTES.

In the midst of the conversation the Governor suddenly


appears, and Giieguence turns to him with the customary and
proper salutation, thus showing that his desire for instruction
from the Alguacil was a sham.
On the phrase te calas qui provincia real, see the Notes to

page 14,

Page 30. Mesonero, a person who owns or has charge of


a meson, a house in which the poorer classes of travelers
sleep, providing their own food, and that of their beasts (Dr.
Valentine).
For tupile see Vocabulary.
Antepeque or Tecoantepeque,

Thomas Gage, who

visited

Guaxaca.

of

the seaport

" This
in 1625, wrote of it :
the chief for fishing in all that
it

Port of Tecoantepeque is
country ; we met here in the ways, sometimes with fifty,
sometimes with a hundred mules together, laden with nothing
but salt fish for Guaxaca, the City of Angels, and Mexico."
new Survey of the West Indies, p. 195. (London, 1699.)
Dulces are sweetmeats of various kinds, eaten usually
between meals. Squier remarks:
"The Spanish taste for
dulces long ago passed into a proverb, but it rather surpasses itself in Nicaragua.
The venders of dulces,' generally bright Indian girls, gaily dressed, and bearing a tray,
covered with the purest white napkins, and temptingly spread
upon their heads, pass daily from house to house and it is
sometimes difficult, and always ungallant, to refuse purchasing
something from their stock." Nicaragua, Vol. I, p. 275.

A
'

'

'

The punctuation toward the foot of the page should probably be, " no seremos guancos ; no; seremos amigos, etc. The
guipil de pecho is the short upper jacket worn by the women.
A guipil de pluma is a skirt woven of feathers. In ancient
times, these garments, skillfully constructed of the beautiful
plumes of tropical birds, were esteemed as the most valued
articles in the treasures of kings, and the most magnificent of
royal costumes.
The art of feather-weaving continued for
some generations after the Conquest. Indeed, as late as 1840
one family in Mechoacan preserved it. The reference to it
in the text, however, is a sign of antiquity, as it has long since
disappeared in Central America. See an interesting monograph on the subject by the eminent French antiquary, Ferdinand Denis. Arte Plumaria ; Les Plumes, leur Valeur et
leur Emploi dans les Arts au Mexique, au Perou, etc. Paris,
1875.

80

NOTES.

Page 32. Much of this page is rendered with doubtful accuracy, as the text is very obscure.
Page 34. Hay me sagua, the same as hoy me/ague, p. 36 ;
hoy, Spanish, now, to-day, melaua, Nah., to speak out, or
openly.
Page 40. The reference to the star would seem to be
that when the tent is opened a star is visible through it, which
Giiegiience offers to the Governor.
Para tu cuerpo, " an extremely filthy expression." (Dr.
Valentine.)
Page 42. Seran de arena. "They maybe of sand,"/.
<?., they are of no value or importance.
Yugos de papayo, yokes of papaw wood, a soft wood, worthless for the purpose, as is also the wood of the tecomajoche,
the Plumeria, for plows. The intimation is that Don Forcico
was smart enough to cheat his customers.
The Nicaraguan plow is a wooden instrument of the most
primitive construction.
The following cut from Mr. Squier's
work represents one.

A NICARAGUAN PLOW.

Page 48. The tunes mentioned, the St. Martin, the Valona,
the Porto rico and others, are still preserved in Nicaragua.
Page 30. Sin tuno, sin tunal. An obscure phrase which
Tuna is the prickly pear,
none of my advisers can explain.
tunal, the plant that bears it, various species of Opuntia.
Tuna, in the university slang, means beggarly, reckless;
" estudiantes de la tuna," mendicant or vagabond students.
(See Don J. Arias Giron, Costumbres Salamanquinas.~)
Page 34. When the Governor uses the Nahuatl word
mocemaii, presumptuously, Giiegiience feigns to understand
him to say desmonte, which means, in Nicaraguan Spanish, a
clearing, and also the worthless waste products thrown out of
a mine.

Page 36.

Giiegiience leads in several girls,

and presents

NOTES.

81

them to Don Forcico, which gives the pair an opportunity


for some coarse jokes.
Pachaca, stuffed up, here meant in
the sense of being with child.
Iguana o garrobo, the latter
the male of the iguana, a thick tree lizard of the tropics.
Aventada, puffed up, taken in the same sense as pachaca.
Page 38. The machete, which I have translated "axe,"
is a long, heavy knife or cutlass, in extensive use in Spanish
America, for domestic and agricultural purposes. It is shown
in the following cut.

THE MACHETE.

Una yunta de botijas de vino, a yoke or brace of wine jars,


probably so called from having been carried by a neck yoke,
one suspended on each side.
Page 60. The Alguacil speaks to Giiegiience of toasting,
brindar, the Court, and Giiegiience feigns to hear him speak
of the provincial or ecclesiastical officer in charge of the
province.
It is an example of assonance which is lost in the
translation.
Managua and Nindiri are towns in the Mangue
district of Nicaragua.
See the map on page xii.
The next affected misunderstanding of the old man is to
take una yunta de botijas, a yoke of bottles, for una yunta de
bueyes, a yoke of oxen.
Page 62. Hacer amigo, to make a friend. This is the
phrase which is used by courtezans with reference to securing
a male patron to pay their expenses, and for that reason
Giiegiience affects to be shocked by the employment of it by
Don Forcico.
Page 64. The words of the Alguacil, " What a reputation,
etc.," are with reference to the charge of Don Ambrosio,
that Giiegiience had taught his son evil ways.
The introduction of the mules,/, e. the actors dressed as
mules, as described on page xlviii, is the occasion of several
,

extremely obscene puns and allusions.

Page

68.

Potrero, colt -yard, or pasture-lot, a play on the

82

NOTES.

similarity of the word to puteria, a brothel.


The estaca referred to is, of course, an obscene allusion, as is also the

fluccion por debajo de las piernas, i. e., the scrotum.


Page 70. PI tiempo del hilo azul. This idiom has foiled
all whom I have consulted.
Dr. Valentine thinks it refers to
the season of the year when the verdure reappears after the

drouth.
F. Diego Duran states that the village conjurors
were accustomed to suspend charms to the necks of boys by
blue and green threads.
{Historia de las Jndias de la Nueva
Espana. Tom. II, p. 275.) Thus understood, the time of
the blue thread would be equivalent to boyhood.
Campos de los Dirioitws.
The Mangue word Diriomo
means the hill of abundance, or of great fertility. The
locality so named is shown on the map, page xii.
This is the fruit of the guayabo tree, the
Guayaba.
Psidium pyriferum. It is red in color, and about the size of
a small apple.

Page 72. A la gorra, literally "for the cap," an idiom


meaning that one receives something merely for taking off
a gratuity.
Dr. Valentine, however, writes me
;
understand nosotros d la gorra to mean ' then we shall
"
have to do without.'
the cap

"

"

VOCABULARY
OF
Nahicatl and Provincial, Unusual or Antiquated Spanish Words.

A
Apupujado, Sp. Worn out, played out.
Arra " Get up Get along " A cry of

the muleteers to their

animals.

Asa

The various words beginning thus are compounds


commencing with the Nah. aco, which expresses a
doubt, or implies a question, =perhaps, maybe. Olmos
says

" Quiere

Asama

decir ftor vcntura,

Gram. Nahuatl,

dudando."

This prefix to various words

which

respondiendo 6

p. 179.
is

the Nah. acoma,

a strengthened form of aco.

is

Grain. Mex.,

p. 181.

The

syllable

ma

Carochi,
is

also the

as

above,

sign of the imperative.

Asamaquimate,

Nah.

and

know.

of acamo,

The

gut

is

the object-

pronoun of the third singular, him, her,


but its employment in this connec-

ive
it,

compound

matt, to

that

tion

Asamatimaguas, or

is

incorrect.

timagas,

Nah.

Probably

from

afoma (see above), and either temachtico, to


come to teach, or tell; or temaca, to give
something

to a person.

Asanecaneme,

see

Asaneganeme.

Asanegaguala,

see

Asanegualigua.

Asaneganeme,

Nah. Probably aco ni ca nemactia, the last


word meaning to give or offer something to
another, " perhaps I may offer something, "=
" May I offer you some ?

83

84

VOCABULARY.

Asaneglialigua, Nah.

Probably aco and necuilhuia,

bargain, treat

Asanese, Nah.

A compound

p. 42.

word.

of aco

and some unknown

= asones, q. v.

Probably

AsetatO, Sp. ant. and prov. for sientate, sit down.


Asiguala, Nah. From aco and perhaps qualani,
angry

Asones,

to

grow

(?).

From aco, and probably nechca

Nah.

to deal,

for.

or nepa, adverbs

and time, "these," "then," "once," "formerly." Sometimes it is written a sones, and asonesepa.
Asuyungua, Nah. Compound of aco and noyuhqui, thus, in
this manner (? Cf. Carochi, Gram. Alex. p. 190).
of place

Ayugama,

= ayoccampa, nowhere, not at

Nah.

AzetagagO, Nah.
to

all,

never.

Apparently a corrupt form from acicacaqui,

understand.

B
Batuchito,

A small box, in which money, etc., is

Sp. prov.

kept.

c
Cabildo,
Cabriole,

A chapter; a council. In Central America, the


municipal court. See p. 76.

Sp.

Sp.

kind of riding coat

Campaneme,
Cana, Nah. A

p. 28.

?.

" a narrow riding coat

(Delpino, Span. Diet.)

without sleeves."

Probably

for

campamento.

"any time," "anyCuix cana otimoyolcuiti, Have you confessed


anywhere ? It cannot begin a sentence, but must always
follow some other word (Carochi, Gram. Mex., p. 158).
particle,

expressing doubt,

where.'"

Cele,

Sp. prov.

anxious for

A
;

form of zelar, to be zealous for, to be


no me cele, I do not very strongly desire
;

used ironically.

ChigUlgua, Nah.
Chiquimate, Nah.

Chopaquimate,

Perhaps

From

Nah.
seem

ti

calaquia, you will enter in.

mati, to

know,

qui, objective.

Quimati, see above.


to

be personal forms.

Chopa and chi

VOCABULARY.

85

Chocolatl, a drink made from cacao.


It has
been doubted whether there was a Nahuatl word in
this form.
Don Jesus Sanchez denies it in his

Chocola, Nah.

Glosario de Voces Castellanas derivadas del Idiotna


Nahuatl, sub voce (Mexico, 1883.).
But its pure
Nahuatl origin seems to be established by another

Museo National de Mexico, Tom. iii,


its meaning was in a wider
sense a refection in general, just as the English word
" tea " means a meal.

writer {An. del

From

p. 86).

Cinchera,

The

Sp.

the text,

body of a horse

portion of the

where the saddle

girth

is

or

mule

fastened.

Cobijones, Sp. Large leather coverings to protect goods, etc.


Cojudo, Sp. Not castrated. Applied to the entire horse, etc.
Columbrar, Sp. To descry, to discern at a distance. " Lo que
veo y columbro, respondio Sancho," etc. Don
Quixote, Pt.

CongOfl, Nah.

24.

p.

I,

cap. xxi.

Perhaps conetontli, a boy, or young

person.

Consentidor, Sp. A conniver, procurer, pimp.


CorcoblOS, Sp. Curvetings, gambolings. Applied to
in certain

Corridos,

Running

Sp.

CuaSCuane,

steps, or motions, in certain dances.

From

Nah.

the steps

dances.

cuicani, to sing, chant.

D
Desmonte,

Sp.

clearing

the refuse from a clearing, or

See note, page

from a mine.

80.

E
Kalian,

Nah.

Escataci,

p. 28

form of ihuan, and, as well

as.

(?).

G
Galagua, Nah. calaguta,
GanzO, Sp. prov. a goose

to enter, to
;

a fool

come

into.

also a glutton.

86

VOCABULARY.

Garrobo.

large species of tree lizard

iguana (Berendt, Lengua


gua, MSS).

GuajaquenO, Nah. From

the male of the

Nicara-

Castellana de

quauhuaqui,

to

appear thin and

dry, like a stick.

GuailCOS,
Giiil,

Sp. prov. for guanacos, foolish,

Probably

Sp. prov.

which

que

for

es

el,

persons.

silly

or quel,

who

the, or

is

Guipil, Nah.

form of gueipil, or

de algodon

mangas."

sin

The short skirt,


women. " Camisa

kuipilli.

without sleeves, used by the Indian

Jesus

Sanchez, Glosario de

Voces Castellatias derivadas del Nahuatl,

s.

v.

Guiso, see Tomaguiso.

L
Lichua, Nah.

Probably an abbreviated form from tla achiua,


make something lichua obedecer, to make

to do, or

to obey.

Linar,

Sp. prov.

To

please, amuse,

used in some

is

= consolar,

for

which

it

(Berendt.)

districts.

M
Machete,

Macho,

heavy knife, or
cayan word). See page 81.
Sp. prov.

Sp.

sort of cutlass (a Bis-

male of any animal, especially of a mule

used

generally for mule in the Giiegiience.

Macho-raton,

Sp.

Literally,

ragua applied

"the male mouse," but


to a fantastic costume,

to the play, or baile, in

page

xlvii.

It

may

which
also

it

is

mean

in Nica-

and hence

worn.
a

See

mouse-

colored jack.

Maneca,

Maneta,

Nah. From mana, to make maize cakes, or tortillas


manacan, one who likes to make such (cf. Carochi,
Gram. Mex., p. 136).
;

Nah.

Probably the imperative form of nextia [ma, xi

nextia), to show, to disclose or inform.

87

VOCABULARY.

Mascamayagua.

Nah.

A compound

thine,

it

is

of

maxca {mo, axed)


and

thine (literally, thy thing),

mayacuele, the optative particle, or else ma


It is evidently
aye caui, thine always.
equivalent to " yours to

your service,"

Matamagueso,

see

Matateco, Nah.

command,"

" at

etc.

Tumaguiso.

Slightly altered

form of matataca,

to beg, to

pray, possibly by the addition of the Spanish personal


pronoun, I, " yo."

Mayagua, or Mayague,

Nah.

Apparently the sign of the


of a wish
yecuel, in Nah., also conveys the idea of promptness
and earliness (Carochi, Gram. Mex., p. 175).

and expressive

mayacuele,

optative,

Nah. A form of melaua, to say


speak openly. The termination que, in
Nah., marks the plural of certain nouns and tenses.

Melague, Or Melagua,
clearly, to

From

MlSCualeS, Nah.

miequilia,

to

prosper,

augment,

increase.

From

Mispiales, Nah.
protect.

miecpialia,

to

much, used as an intensive

Mo,

watch

guard,

over,

In both the above words, the prefix

is

miee,

particle.

Nah. Second person, sing., of the inseparable possessive


pronoun, no, my, mo, thy, y, his, to, our, amo, your, yn, theirMo is also the reflexive pronoun of the third person singular,
and appears to be occasionally used in the Guegiience as
the possessive of the third person, probably from analogy
with the Spanish su.

Mocegua, Or Mosegua,

Nah.

Apparently

chiua, to unite in doing something.


nic, the

Mohino,

composition being

ce,

one,

from

The n

is

tnoeen-

eupho-

and achiua,

to do.

Applied to a mule proceeding from a stud and


a jenny also, peevish, cross.
Sp.

Mollule, or Muyule, Nah.


clever,

crafty

itself

ingenious, talented.

Apparently from molotl, smart,


a derivative from yollo, able,

88

VOCABULARY.

Monistilco, Nah.

Apparently from monetli, son-in-law, with

the postposition

Mosamonte,

Nah.

by, etc.

co, for,

mocemati, presumptuously, too boldly.


Derivatives, apparently, from

Motales, or Motalce, Nah.

motlaloa, to run, to carry messages,

with the signification messengers.

Motel, Nah.

An

p. 38.

interrogative negative particle, properly

monel.

MotO,

Noisy, rowdyish

Sp. prov.

"El muchacho mal

a noisy, blustering person.

criado que motea."

La

(Berendt,

Lengua Casteliana de Nicaragua, MSS.)

Muchintes.

The

Sp. mucho,

much, with the Nah. augmenta-

tive termination

tzin,= very much, very extensive.

Or

the pure Nah. muchintin,

else,

muchi.

Olmos,

Mudanzas, Sp. prov. The


Muyule, see Mollule,

Gram. Nahuatl.

all,

plural of

p. 48.

motions in a dance.

N
Necana,

From

Nah.
used in

Neganeme,
Negua,

Nah.

see
If

nequanaliztli, dancing motions, as are

bailes.

Asaniganeme.
a separate word, this

to disclose

oneself, to

is

probably from

show oneself

is,

it

neci,

however, a

doubtful expression.

Negualigua, Nah.

Neme,
Nemo,
Ul,

Nah.

From

From

necuilhtiia, to bargain, to deal for.

nemi, to

live, to

be (Sp.

estar), to dwell.

see Niqui.

Nah.

Found

in the

construction

should probably read ni monequi,

becoming

or necessary.

Nistipampa, Nah.

The

Sp.

me

postposition

nemo
it

is

niqui,

which

proper for me,

conviene.

pampa,

ixtli,

the face,

and the first possessive pronoun no. The compound means " I, present," or " in my presence."
Carochi, Gram. Mex., p. 45.

VOCABULARY.

No,

Nah. First person, singular, of the inseparable possessive


pronoun. See mo. It is also used for the Spanish negathroughout the play.

tive, no, not,

Nonguan,

page

An unknown word

28.

which, from

its initial

Mangue
common.

nasal, has the appearance of being from the

tongue, in which this sound

very

is

o
Opa,

Nah., oppa, twice.

P
A

Pachaca, Nah.

derivative from pachiui, to stuff with food,

The

to satisfy the appetite, etc.

verbal nouns ending

can usually signify place where, but this is to


be considered a verbal adjective, from the pluperfect
pachiuhca.
in ca or

Pachigue, or Pachiguete, Nah. From pachiuitia, to satisfy


a person. The frequent expression, pachigue no
pachiguete, should probably be punctuated pachi-

Pagliala,

gue ?

No pachigutee, =

satisfy

me.

Nah.

p. 36,

Satisfied

No, you do not

Compare a

truncated word.

sones

sepaguala, p. 34, and a sonesepa negualigua, p. 28.

Palegue,
see Panegqje.
o
I

fc>

'

Palparesia, Nah.

From papal, or papallotl,

No doubt an

Sp. parleria.

like the English babble,

talk, conversation.

onomatopeietic word,

Hebrew, Babel, which

it

resembles, both in pronunciation and meaning.

Palteclllia, Nah.

From paleichqui,

appropriate things.

favorable, advantageous or

See page 76.

Paneguia, or Panegue, or Palegue, Nah. From panauia,


to get the better of another, to

The

termination, gue, or guia,

overcome, conquer.
in

one of past time


See Carochi, Gram. Mex., p. 54.
verbal forms,

Peinador,

is

this

and other

in the Nahuatl.

Perhaps the Spanish word so spelled, which


means a hairdresser, and hence an effeminate person.

p- 70.

But it may be a Spanish form from the Nah.pinauh/ia,


another to the blush, or out of countenance,

to put

the compulsive form of pinaua, to be ashamed.

90

VOCABULARY.

Perico ligero,

Sp. prov.
Cercoleptes

claws.

In Nicaragua, the night-monkey,


candivolvulus, which has sharp

It is

elsewhere applied to a species of

and to the bee bear, Myrmecophaga,


(Berendt, Lengua Castellana de Nicaragua,
MSS).
parrot,

From petlacalli, a

Petaca, Nah.

box, trunk or chest

a square basket, with a lid


tapa,

Petate, Nah.,

hecho de palma" (Berendt,


petlatli, the native

especially

" cajon quadrangular con


id).

rug or mat, woven of palm

leaves or rushes.

Pilse, Nah., piltzin, son, vocative, piltze.

See page 75.

Polluse, or Poyuse, Nah. Apparently a form oipoa,


relate, give an account, preterit, pouh, pouhca.

to tell,

Q
Qui,

Sp.,

who

Nah. Probably a derivative from achiua,


make. Compare Lichua.

Qllichuas,
QuillS,

also at times for Sp. aqui, here.


to

do or

Nah., qualli, good, well.

Quinimente,

Nah., quin, he, those, aquin, who.

be a demonstrative form, but

to

It

would seem

its

analysis

is

obscure.

Quinquimagua,

Nah.

A compound

of macua, to give, to

concede, with the pronouns quin or aquin.

R
Rebiatar,

Sp. prov.

mule

Recti a,

Sp. prov.

Remates,

To

tie

behind, as the muleteers

in the line to the

A team,

Sp. prov.

The

mule

in front of

tie

one

it.

or line, of mules.
finishing steps, or closing figures of

a dance.

Rinonada.
RujerOS,

The hinder portion of a horse or mule, over


which passes one of the harness straps.

Sp. prov. for rugidos, bellowings or shoutings.

name

of a tune.

The

VOCABULARY.

Sagua,

p. 34.

Sapatetas,

mutilated word

91

see Melague.

Sp. prov. for zapatetas, from zapato, a shoe.


slappings, the

name

Shoe-

of the figures in a rough, noisy

dance.

Samo,

Nah., p.

Semula,
Seno,

Probably some compound of amo, no, not.

8.

Sp. prov. for similar, like, similar

to.

Sp. prov. for sin, without.

Sepaguala, Nah.

See Paguala.

Sepanegaligua, Nah.
with

in the

Sesule, Nah.

compound

adjective,

of calaqnia, to enter,

prefix, as cepan, together, or

ixpan,

presence of some one.

perhaps with

less,

compound

some

of

ce,

tculli,

one, or

good for nothing, worthIt is an


te, some one.

a depreciatory manner to the

applied in

Guegiience.

Sicana, Nah.

See Cana.

Silguerio, Sp.

prov. for xilguero,

Simocague,

Nah.

Imperative

suspend, cease.

Sobornal,

SoneS,

Sp.

The

a.

linnet, or thrush.

form

of

mocauct, to pause,

See page 75.

excess or addition to a load.

Tunes, music.

Sp.

T
Tatita, Sp.

Little

papa.

diminutive of

could also be derived from the Nah.

Tecetales, or Tesetales, Nah.


shame,

TeCOmajoche,

From
to

endearment.

tatli,

It

father.

tctzauia,

to

be a

be scandalous.

Nah., tecomatl, vase, xochitl, flower; a tree

bearing

small white flowers, a species of


Plumiera, allied to the East Indian " temple
tree."

Teguane,

Nah.

Form

of tehuantin,

pronoun,

first

person

plural, we, us.

XicinO, Nah.,

ticitl,

a native doctor, a charlatan

lots for divination

be

ticitoni.

one who casts


ticiti, might

a personal form, from

92

VOCABULARY.

Tiguala, Nah.

compound

of

See note, page

well.

ti,

and

thou,

qualli,

good or

75.

Tigllita, Nah. A word of uncertain meaning, pages 46, 48, in


the phrase molhde tiguita.
It may be a first person
plural, from quixtia, tic quixtia, we do our duty, we

do our

Timaguas,

best.

Nah.

Either from temaca, to give something to

another

Tin,

Sp.

form

passages for

to have.

tetter,

and

tenemos,

tiene,

tration of the

Tinderia,

or from temackti, a teacher,

for

and

tienen,

wearing away of forms

an

instructor.

stands in different

It

is

in this

a good illusmixed dialect.

Sp. for tenderia, a shop, booth or tent, in which wares


are displayed for sale.

Totolatera, Nah. From tototl, a bird

or fowl fietaca totolatera,


;

a basket for carrying fowls.

TumaguisO,

Nah.
quica,

compound

of tuma, to untie, open,

which

verbal termination,

a.

and

signifies

performance of the action of the verb to which


is added.
Olmos, Gram. Nah., p. 157.

a
it

An

Tumiles, Nah.
lizttt,

same

adjective from the

fatness, corpulence,

and

root as tomana-

signifies

abounding,

abundant.

Tunal,

Sp. prov., from a Haytian (Arawack) word.


It means
a plantation of the native American cactus figs, or

See page

prickly pears.

Tupile, Nah. An officer of


From topile, he who

80.

justice,

an alcalde or

carries a staff;

being the badge of the

topilli,

alguacil.
staff,

this

office.

V
Vaticola,

Sp. prov.

The

posterior of

an animal

the crupper

Possibly from veta di cola, vein of the

region.

VelariClCOS, Sp. prov.

for villancicos, rustic

tail.

songs sung at the

doors of the brotherhoods (co/radias) at certain


festivals (Berendt,

Leng.

Castel.

MSS).

Y
Ya.

Interjection.

You

there

Yes, there

de Nicaragua,

INDEX.
ALVA,

Drums, xxx.

B. de, xlv.

Anahuac, v, vi,
Antepeque, 79.

Duran, D., xxi, xxx,

vii.

Arawack language,

FEATHER WEAVING,

xx.

Aymaras, xv.

Flutes, xxxv.

Aztecs, v, xvi.
migrations of,

Fonseca Bay,

viii.

vi.

GAGE, THOMAS,

BAKER, THEODORE,

xxxviii.

Bancroft, H. H., ix.


Baptista, J., xlviii.
Balsam Coast, the, xxxvi.
Barber, E. A., xxxiii, xxxviii.
Benzoni, G., xi, xvi, xxii, xliv.
Berendt, C. H., v, vi, xi, xxv, xxxi,
xli.

Bertonio, L., xv.


Bobadilla, F. de, vii.
Brantford, Dr. J. F., x, xxxv.
Brasseur de Bourbourg, xliii.
vii, xi.

CACHO, THE,

xxxvii.

Canahuate, dance, xxvi.


Carimba, the, xxxvi.
Carochi, H., xvi, 75, 77.
Chapanecs, H., viii, ix, xxii, xxxix.
Chiapanec, see Chapanecs.
Chiapas,

Chilchil, the, xxxvi.

Chinegritos, Los, xxvi.

Chirimoya, the, xxxviii.


Cholotecans, vi, n, viii.

Gomara,

vii.

Guegiience,
Play described, xli.
Derivation, xlv.
Story of, xlviii.

HAEFKENS,
Honduras,

J.,

ICAZBALCETA,
JUCO, THE,

KEKCHIS,
Kiches,

xxiv.

xvii.

J.

xlii.

xliii.

LACANDONS,

xxxviii.

Inditas, xxx.

Lessing, G. C, xlvi.
Levy, Pablo, xxiv, xxx,
Logas, xxv.

MACHETE, THE,

DELPINO,

Mangue language,

Macho- Raton,

viii.

xliii.

81.

the, xlviii.

Maguateca, vii.
Malinche, air of, xxxviii.
Managua, Lake, viii.
Province,

Dirians,

G., xlviii.

xxxv.

Cholula, derivation, viii.


Chorotegans see Cholotecans.
Cofradias, the, xxxix.
Coreal, F., xxii, xliv.
Cuscatlan, vi.
F., 78.

xxii, 79.

Gatschet, A. S., xxxviii.


Giron, J. A., 80.
Gollena, Dr., xviii.

Las

ix.

Denis, F., 79.

79.

Flint, Dr. Earl, x, xxxix, xli.

Ayacachtli, the, xxxvi.

Buschmann,

xliv, xlviii,

xi,

xxxi.
xi, xiii.

Mangues, v, viii, xxii.


Marimba, the xxviii.

94

INDEX.

Masaya, viii,
Mayas, ix.

REMESAL,

xvii.

Rocha,

Mice, superstitions about, xlviii.


Morelet, A., xxx, xxxviii.

NAHUAS,

v.

Lake

derivation of, xlvii.

Ticknor, George, xxv,

of, v, viii,

xxxv.

vi.

DANCE OF,

xliv.

Ticomega, vii.
Titicaca, Lake, xv.
Toro-Guaca, dance of, xxvi.
Torquemada, vii, ix.

vi.

xxvi.

Ollita, instrument, xxxi.

Oviedo, F. de,

xlvii.

Tempsky, Von, xxviii, xxxviii.


Ternaux-Compans, vii, ix.

vi.

Ometepec, Island,

F. C, xlviii.
Squier, E. G., v, vi, x, 79.

Tecoatega, xx.
Tecoantepeque, 79.

of, v, xi.

OLLITA,

la, xii.

SALAZAR,

TASTUANES,

Negritos, dance, xxvi.


Nets, for burdens, 77.

Nicaraguans,
Nicaraos, vi.
Nicoya, Gulf
Niquirans, v,

P. F., ix.

E. de

Suchi-Malinche,
Derivation of,

Nahuatl language, v, vi, xiii.


Nahuatl Spanish jargon, xxi.
Namotiva, xxx.
Navarro, J. M., xxxix.

Nicaragua, v.
Derivation of,

J.

ULUAS,
Urrutia,

J.

xliii.

A.,

xxiii.

xi, xxxi.

v, viii, xi, xix, xxi.

PEREZ, GERONIMO,

VASQUEZ,

F., vi, xxii.

Valentine, F. H., 76, 82.


Valentine, P. J. J., ix.
Vera Paz, Province, xxxviii.

xix.

Peru, xv, xxxi.


Pito, the, xxxiii.

Plow, Nicaraguan, 80.

QQUICHUA LANGUAGE,
Quijongo, the, xxxvi.

WHISTLES,

xxxiii, xxxv.

xvi.

ZAPATERO, ISLAND,

xxxiii.

Atorpal

Library of

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The European Market will be supplied by


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NO.

I.

THE MAYA CHRONICLES.

Edited by
1 vol.,

8vo, pp.

271).

DANIEL

G.

BRINTON, M

Price, paper, $3.00

D.

cloth, $3.50.

This volume contains five brief chronicles in the Maya


language of Yucatan, written shortly after the Conquest, ami
carrying the history of that people back many centuries. To
these is added a history of the Conquest, written in his native
The texts are preceded
tongue, by a Maya Chief, in 1502.
by an introduction on the history of the Mayas; their
language, calendar, numeral system, etc. and a vocabulary
;

is

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NOTICES OF THE PEESS.


"We

hope that Or. Hrinton will receive every encouragement in his labors to disclose
Americans these literary antiquities of the Continent. lie eminently deserve* it, both
by the character of his undertaking and ihe quality ol hie work." The Ameruan (Phila.)
" It would he dithcult to praise ton highly tin- task Dr. BrintOE lias gel before him.
Prepared by long Studies in the same field, he does not undertake the work as a novice.
*
* There should ho no hesitation among those wh<> wish well t o American antiquaThe Critic.
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*' Maya
Chronicles "J is a most important contribution to the literature id" American
* * Comparative linguists, as well as archaeologists, will find a new
*
antiquities.
and very interesting subject of si inly in these remains." The Saturday Jiecieic London).
" The efforts of Dr. BrintOD will he welcomed by all antiquarian students, for they are
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manner.'' The American Autiijnarian.
to

No.

THE IROQUOIS BOOK OF

II.

Edited by
1 vol., 8vo.

The

"

HORATIO HALE,

Price, paper, $3.00

Book of Rites "

is

Esq.

cloth, $3.50.

a native composition, which was

preserved orally for centuries, and was written

century ago.

It gives

RITES.

down about

the sjjeeches, songs and

ceremonies

which were rehearsed when a chief died and his successor


Mas appointed. The fundamental laws of the League, a list
of their ancient towns, and the names of the chiefs who composed their

may

first

council, are also comprised in the work.

It

be said to carry the authentic history of Northern

America back to a period fifty years earlier than the era of


Columbus. The introductory essay treats of the ethnology
and history of the Huron-Iroquois League and its founders,
the

of the

origin

Book of

Rites,

the

composition

of the

Federal Council, the clan system, the laws of the League, and
the Iroquois character, public policy, and language.

NOTICES OF THE PEESS AND OF EMINENT WRITERS.


"Thir-

work may be

These precious
*

open a field of Indian research new to ethnologists. * *


antiquity are concise in their wording, and full of meaning.
Sir. Hall are almost as valuable as the texts themselves."

said to

relics of

The additions made by

The Nation

New

York, September 13, 188:5.


of the author, added to this fascinating title, will insure its favorable
reception, not only by ethnologists, but also, the reading public. * * * A remarkanil
discovery,
indisputably of great ethnological value. * * * A book which
able
Science, August 31, 1883.
is as suggestive as this must bear good fruit."
"

The reputation

"The work

contains much new material of permanent interest and value to the


the scientist. * * *" The. Magazine of American Hilton/, Sep-

historical scholar anil


tember, 1883.

"In this Book of Rites we have poetry, law, history, tradition and genealogy, interGood Literature, August 18, 1883.
esting and valuable for many reasons. * * * "

"The Book of Rites is edited by the eminent philologist, Mr. Horatio Hale, who has
done so much to elucidate the whole subject of Indian ethnography and migrations, with
the argument derived from language in connection with established tradition; and
especially to disentangle Iroquois history from its complications with the legends of their
mythology." Auburn Daily Advertiser, July 21, 1883.
"The book is one of great ethnological value, in the light it casts on the political and
social life, as well as the character and capacity, of the people with whom it originated."

Popular Science Monthly, November


"It

is

1883.

a philosophical and masterly treatise on the Iroquois league and the cognate

language, mental characteristics and polity, such as we have never


had of any nation of this Continent. * * * " ft-. J. Gilmary Shea.

tribes, their relations,

"It is full of instructive hints, particularly as bearing on the state of so-called savages
before they are brought in contact with so-called civilized men. Such evidence is,
from the nature of the case, very difficult to obtain, and therefore all the more valuable.
* * * "_Pro/. F. Max MUller.
" It gives us a much clearer insight into the formation and workings of the Iroquois
league than we before possessed." Hon. George S. Conorer.
" It contains more that is authentic and new, of the Iroquois nations, than any other
single work with which I am acquainted." Rev. Charles Hatvley, D. D.

No.

THE COMEDY-BALLET OF GGEGUENCE.

III.

Edited by

DANIEL

1 vol., 8vo.

G.

BRINTON, M.D.

Paper, $2.00

Cloth, $2.50.

curious and unique specimen of the native comic dances,


with dialogues, called bodies, formerly common in Central
America. It is in the mixed Nahuatl-Spanish jargon of
Nicaragua, and shows distinctive features of native authorship. The Introduction treats of the ethnology of Nicaragua,
and the local dialects, musical instruments, and dramatic
representations of that section of our continent.
map
and a number of illustrations are added.

Other important works, in various native languages, are


the course of preparation, under competent editorship.

Of these may

be mentioned

THE NATIONAL LEGEND OF THE CREEKS.


by A.

8.

in

Edited

Gatschet.

The

original account, written in 1735; an English translaand a re-translation into the Creek language, in which it
was originally delivered, by an educated native, and into the
Hitchiti, a dialect cognate to the Creek.
lation,

THE ANNALS OF THE KAKCHIQUELS.

By Ernantez

Xahila.
These chronicles are the celebrated Memorial de Tecpan
Atitlan so often quoted by the late Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg. They are invaluable for the ancient history and mythology of Gautemalan nations, and are of undoubted authenticity and antiquity.

THE ANNALS OF QUAUHTITLAN.

Edited by A. F.

Bandklier.
The original Aztec text, with a new
known as the Codex Chimalpopoai.

This is also
one of the most

translation.
It

is

curious and valuable documents in Mexican archaeology.

ABORIGINAL AMERICAN
Daniel G. Bkinton,

ANTHOLOGY.

Edited

by

m.d.

collection of the songs, chants and metrical compositions


of the Indians, designed to display the emotional and imaginative powers of the race and the prosody of their languages.

The following two works are


hut are related to

from

the

by

it

not portions of the series,

their contents.

They may be obtained

same publishers.

AMERICAN HERO-MYTHS.
A STUDY

in the NATIVE RELIGIONS of the WESTERN CONTINENT.


By DANIEL G. BRINTON, A.M., M.D., etc.

(Philad'a, 1882.)

8vo, pp. 251.

1 vol.,

Cloth, Piice, $1.75.

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*
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country." The Literary World (Boston).
*

"This study ot certain of the most remarkable stories of American mythology


exceedingly interesting." The Saturday Review (London).
" In Ins

'

in style

Dr. Brinton gives as the due to the religious thought


It is a learned and careful book, clearly written, popular
method, ami must be a good deal fresher than a novel to

American Hero-Myths

of the aboriginal Races.

though

most readers."

scientific in

is

'

The American (Philadelphia).

"This volume

is the first attempt at what is entitled to be regarded as a critically


accurate presentation of the fundamental conceptions found in the native heliefs of the

tnhes of America.
'

This

is

The New Emjlund

'

llibliopolixt.

thoughtful anil original contribution to the science of comparative religion."

The Boston Journal.


"
to

We

regard the

'

Hero Myths as a valuable Contribution


The Teacher (Philadelphia).
'

to

the history of religion and

comparative mythology."

"* * These few extracts give no idea of the mass of legends in this volume, and the
queer, out-of-the-way information it supplies c mcerning the ideas and usages of races
now extinct or hastening to extinction." The Dublin Evening Mail.
"Dr. Brinton, in his ' American Hero-Myths, has applied the comparative method
soberly, and backed it by solid research in the original authors."
The Critic (New York
1

I.

ABORIGINAL AMERICAN AUTHORS,


AND THEIR PRODUCTIONS.
A

Especially those in the Native Languages.


to the

By DANIEL
1 vol.,

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Contribution

History of Literature.

G.

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BRINTON,

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etc.

Price, $1.00.

essay founded on an address presented to the Congress

of Americanists, at Copenhagen, in 1883.

It

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tongues,

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and printed ).

in English,

An

own

Latin and Spanish (both manuscript


is

opened to

and

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entirely novel field of inquiry

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