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# FLUID MECHANICS

1. Draw a neat sketch of a pitot tube and describe its principle of operation.

## 2. What is priming of pump and why is it necessary to do priming before starting a

centrifugal pump ?
5

3. Starting from Eulers equation, derive the Bernoullis equation for potential
flow.
5
4. A long plastic tube with an inside diameter of 05 mm is connected to a faucet
wherethe pressure of water is 100 kPa above atmospheric. Estimate the length of the tube
so that the delivery is 25 lit/day. The inlet and delivery ends of the system are at ground
level. Assume density and viscosity of water are 1000 kg/m3 and 1 mPas respectively. 5

5. Derive Hagen Poiseuille equation relating pressure drop and average velocity for
laminar flow in a horizontal pipe. Explain its importance.
5
6.

A metallic sphere of specific gravity 7.0 falls in an oil of density 800kg/m 3. The
diameter of the sphere is 8 mm and it attains a terminal velocity of 40mm/s. Find
the viscosity of the oil in poise.
5

7. 4. A man weighing 90 kgf descends to the ground from an aeroplane with the help
of a parachute against the resistance of air. The velocity with which the parachute,
which is hemispherical in shape, comes down is 20m/s. Find the diameter. Assume
CD=0.5 and density of air=1.25 kg/m3
8.

In turbulent flow through a circular pipe derive the relation between average
velocity (Vavg) and maximum velocity (Vmax) using the equation Vavg= V max

9.

1/7

A crude oil of viscosity 0.97 poise and relative density 0.9 is flowing through a
horizontal circular pipe of diameter 100 mm and length 10 m. Calculate the

difference of pressure at the two ends of the pipe, if 100 kg of the oil is collected in
a tank in 30 seconds.
10. 7. a) Distinguish between streamline and streakline.
2
b) The pressure drop across a fluidized bed always remains constant. Explain the

## statement with proper reason.

11. Write a short note on the total shear stress in turbulent flow. Write about the Prandtl mixing length
theory for turbulent shear stress.
5
12. What is priming of pump and why is it necessary to do priming before starting a
centrifugal pump ?
b) What is fluidization ? Write the differences between particulate and bubbling
fluidization. What is minimum fluidization velocity ?
c) With a neat drawing, explain the characteristic curves of a centrifugal pump
d) In terms of pressure ratio what is the difference between a blower and a compressor

4
1+4+1
. 3
. 2

13. a) Show that the momentum correction factor and energy correction factor for laminar flow through a
circular pipe are

## and 2.0 respectively.

b) Three pipes of 400mm, 200mm, and 300mm diameter have lengths of 400m, 200m, 300m respectively.
They are connected in series to make a compound pipe. The ends of this compound pipe are connected
with two tanks whose difference of water levels is 16m. If co-efficient of friction for these pipes is same
and equal to 0.005, determine the discharge through the compound pipe including all the minor losses.
(7+8)
14 a) A centrifugal fan is used to take flue gas at rest and at a pressure of 737mm hg and a temperature
of 93.30C and discharge it at a pressure of 765mm Hg and velocity of 45.7m/s. Calculate the power
needed to move 16990m3/h of gas using standard conditions of 29.9in Hg and 32 0F. The efficiency of the
fan is 65% and the molecular weight of gas is 31.3.

b) An orifice meter with flange tapes is to be installesd in a 100mm line to measure the flow of water.
The maximum flow rate is expected to be 50m3/h at 150C. The manometer used to measure the differential
pressure is to be filled with mercury, and water is to fill the leads above the surface of the mercury. The
water temperature will be 150C throughout. (i) If the maximum manometer reading is to be 1.25m, what
diameter, to the nearest millimeter, should be specified for the orifice? (ii) What will be the power to
operate the meter at full load?

(9+6)

15. a) Define boundary layer. Discuss briefly about the development of boundary layer over a flat plate.
b) Determine the thickness of the boundary layer at the trailing edge of smooth plate of length 4 m and
width 1.5 m, when the plate is moving with a velocity of 4 m/s, in stationary air. Take kinematic viscosity
of air as 1.5x 10-5 m2/s.
c) Discuss the significance of the different terms of Navier-Stokes equation.

(2+3+5+5)

16) a) Particles of sphalerite (specific gravity 4.00)are settling under the force of gravity in carbon
tetrachloride (CCl4) at 200C ( specific gravity 1.594). The diameter of the sphalerite particles is 0.10mm.
the volume fraction of sphalerite in CCl4 is 0.20. What is the settling velocity of the sphalerite?
b) A bed of ion-exchange beads 8ft deep is to be backwashed with water to remove dirt. The particles
have a density of 1.24g/cm3 and an average size of 1.1mm. What is the minimum fluidization velocity
using water at 200C , and what velocity is required to expand the bed by 25%? The beads are assumed to
be spherical (s=1), and M is taken as 0.40.
c) Discuss about the utilizations of a fluidized bed .

(5+7+3)

17. a) Derive the equation giving the velocity distribution at steady state for laminar flow of a constant
density fluid with constant viscosity flowing between two flat and parallel plates. The velocity profile
desired is at a point far from the inlet or outlet of the channel. The two plates will be considered to be
fixed and of infinite width, with the flow driven by the pressure gradient in x-direction.
b) With a neat drawing, explain the characteristic curves of a centrifugal pump.
c) What is non-Newtonian fluid, give two examples.

(8+5+2)

18. a ) Write about the advantages of triangular notch or weir over Rectangular
Notch or weir.

b) Crude oil of specific gravity 0.85 flows upwards at a volume rate of flow of 60
liter/s through a vertical venturimeter with an inlet diameter of 200mm and a throat
diameter of 100mm. the co-efficient of discharge of the venturimeter is 0.98. The
vertical distance between the pressure tappings is 300mm.
i) If two pressure gauges are connected at the tappings such that they are
positioned at the levels of their corresponding tapping points. Determine the
difference of readings in N/ cm2 of the two pressure gauges.
ii) If a mercury differential manometer is connected in place of pressure gauges,
to the tappings such that the connecting tube up to mercury are filled with oil,
determine the difference in the level of the mercury column.
(3+12)
19. a) Derive an expression of virtual head developed by a centrifugal pump & show that it is

## independent of the density of the fluid.

b)
How cavitation does occur in a centrifugal pump? Distinguish between blower &
compressor.
20. a) What do you understand by 'kinetic energy correction factor' ? Find out its value
for a Newtonian fluid flowing through a circular long straight tube in laminar
condition.
b) The velocity distribution for a three-dimensional flow is given by u = x,v = 2y and
w = 3 z . Find the equation of the streamline passing through ( 2, 2, 1 ).b) Water is
flowing at 25 C (density 998 kg/m3) through a pipe of 5 cm diameter at a velocity of
0033 m/s and Re.no = 1700. Calculate the pressure drop per unit length.
c) Determine the distance from the pipe wall at which the local velocity is equal to the
average velocity for turbulent flow in pipes.
(2 +
3+ 3 + 2+5)

21. a) Particles of sphalerite (S.G. 400) are settling under the force of gravity in a
fluid at 20C having S.G. 1594. The diameter of sphalerite is 010 mm. The volume
fraction of sphalerite in
the fluid is 020. What is the terminal velocity of sphalerite. Given fluid = 103 cp (at
20C).

b) Water at 20C is pumped at a constant rate of 9 m3/h from a large reservoir resting
on the floor to the open top of an experimental absorption tower. The point of
discharge is 5 m above the floor, and friction losses in the 50 mm pipe from the
reservoir to the tower amount to 25 J/kg. At what height in the reservoir must the
water level be kept if the pump can deliver only 01 kW ?
(10+5)

22.

## Write short notes on any three of those

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

(53)

Hotweir Animometer
Rotameter
Advantages of a V-notch over a rectangular notch.
Difference between particulate fluidization and bubbling fluidizaqtion
Priming of a Centrifugal pump, and its importance
Pitot tubes.

## a) fluid particles move in an orderly manner.

b) momentum transfer is on molecular scall only.
c)shear stress is caused more effectively by cohesion than momentum transfer.
d)shear stress are generally larger than in a similar laminar flow .
ii) The value of critical Reynolds number for pipe flow

a) 1300

b) 10,000

c) 100,000

d) none of these

iii)

## Isotropic turbulence occurs

a) where there is no velocity gradient
b) At high temperature
c) on in Newtonian fluid

d) none of these
iv) In laminar flow though a pipe, Fanning friction factor (f) and Reynolds number (N
related by
a) f= 16/N Re
c) f = 0.079/ NRe 0.20

Re

) are

b) f= 64/N Re
d) f= 0.316 /N Re0.20

v) The ratio of the local velocity to the maximum velocity in laminar flow through pipes is given
by
a) u/u max = r/R
c) u/u max= {1-(r/R)}2

## b) u/u max = 1- (r/R)2

d) u/u max = 1-(r/R)

a)
b)
c)
d)

Mass
Energy
Momentum
Both (a) and (b)

vii)

a) 2100
b) 100
c) 0
d) Infinity

viii)

## Tooth paste is an example of

a) Bingham plastic fluid
b) Dilatants fluid
c) Pseudo plastic

d) Newtonian fluid
ix)

Priming is needed in a
a) Reciprocating Pump
b) Centrifugal Pump
c) Gear Pump
d) Diaphragm Pump

x)

## A fluid is a substance that

a) has to be kept in a closed container
b) is almost compressible
c) has zero shear stress
d) Flows when even a small shear is applied to it

xi)

a) Plunger
b) Centrifugal
c) Diaphragm
d) Pneumatic

xii)

## The pressure loss is maximum in

a) venture meter

b) orifice meter

c) rotameter

d) flow nozzle

xiii)
Which of the flow measuring devices is used to measure flow rates in an
open channel

xiv)

a) Rotameter

b) Pilot tube

c) weir

d)none of these

a) N2 D3

b) N D2

c) N3D5

d) N 2 D

## xv) Cavitation in a centrifugal pump can be avoided by keeping the,

a) inlet pressure high

xvi )

## a) tall narrow vessel

b) deep bed of solids
c) shallow beds of solid & proper choice of particle size
d) very large particles