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Nov 20, 2014

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LNA 2.4GHZ

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LNA 2.4GHZ

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The Design and Simulation of LNA with the Frequency of 2.4GHz

Yongguang Lu， Shu-hui Yang，Yinchao Chen

College of Photoelectric Information and Communication Engineering Beijing Information &Technology University Beijing, China

Abstract— In order to accelerate the design and production of RF amplifier, an effective method is used to simulate and design the amplifier firstly with EDA tool software. The functions and key performance indicators of the low-noise amplifier are described in this paper. We design a low-noise amplifier and simulate its various parameters such as stability factor, noise figure, gain, input and output VSWR, and we obtain the simulation results and the final design of the circuit. The simulation results show that the design of LNA meet the requirements.

Keywords- Low-noise amplifier; Simulation; ADS; RF

I.

INTRODUCTION

In wireless communication systems, we generally place a low-noise amplifier on the front end of the receiver to improve the gain and reduce the noise figure. With the rapid development of communication technology, people’s requirements of the wireless communication tools have become more sophisticated, small power of radiation, the role of distance, large converging area have become the common pursuits of wireless communication equipment operators and manufacturers, so the requirement of receiver sensitivity is very high[1]. In a variety of specific(bandwidth, input signal-noise ratio have been set) and wireless communication systems, the key factors which can effectively improve the sensitivity is to reduce the receiver noise figure, and the key component which can affects the receiver noise figure is low-noise amplifier in the forefront of the receiver. The primary role of low-noise amplifier is to amplify the weak signals obtained by antenna from the air and reduce noise, so the design of low-noise amplifier is crucial to the receiver.

II. INDICATORS OF LOW-NOISE AMPLIFIER

The main indicators of low-noise amplifier include noise figure, amplification gain, input and output standing wave ratio, reflection coefficient and dynamic range[2], following we describe them respectively.

A. Noise figure

Noise figure is defined as the ratio of input signal and output signal:

NF =

SNR

in

SNR

out

(1)

For the single-stage amplifier, its noise figure is seen as follows:

F

=

F

min

+

4

r n

Γ s

− Γ

opt

(1 − Γ

s

2

) ⋅ 1 + Γ

opt

2

(2)

In the formula, F _{m}_{i}_{n} is the minimum noise figure which is decided by the transistor itself, Г _{o}_{p}_{t} , r _{n} and Г _{s} are the best source reflection coefficient, the equivalent noise resistance of the transistor and the input reflection coefficient of the transistor when F _{m}_{i}_{n} is obtained.

For the multi-stage amplifier, its noise figure is decided by the following formula:

NF

=

F

1

+

F

2

−

1

F

3

−

1

+

G

A

1

G

A

1

G

A

2

+ (3)

Here, NF _{n} is the noise figure of the first n-amplifier and G _{n} is the gain of the first n-amplifier.

In some systems whose require of noise figure is very high, noise temperature is very convenient and often used to represent instead of noise figure because the noise figure is very small and inconvenient[4]. The conversion relation between temperature and noise figure is given by the following formula:

Here,

T

e

T

e

= T

0

(

NF −

1)

(4)

is the noise temperature of the amplifier, Τ _{0}

=2900K, NF is the noise figure of the amplifier.

B. The gain of amplifier

Amplifier’s gain is defined as the ratio of input power and output power:

G =

P out

P in

(5)

978-1-4244-3709-2/10/$25.00 ©2010 IEEE

As can be seen from the equation, to improve the noise gain of the amplifier is very favorable to reduce the whole machine’s noise figure, but it may affect the whole dynamic range of the receiver if the low-noise amplifier’s gain is too high. Therefore, in general, low-noise amplifier’s gain should be considered with the noise figure of whole machine, dynamic range of the receiver etc.

C. Input and output VSWR

Low-noise amplifier’s input and output VSWR represent its conditions of input and output matching circuit [3]. The input matching network is generally designed to obtain minimum noise and to approximate the optimum noise matching network not the best power matching network, while the output matching network is generally designed in order to obtain maximum power and minimum VSWR. Therefore, there is always some kind of mismatch in the input of low- noise amplifier. In some cases, this mismatch may cause system’s instability. In general, in order to reduce the impact of reflection caused by the amplifier’s input mismatch, we can insert a isolator whose insertion loss is very small.

D. Reflectance coefficient

We can see that from the formula (3) power amplifier will obtain the minimum noise figure when Г _{s} =Г _{o}_{p}_{t} , that is to say: NF=NF _{m}_{i}_{n} . However, from the perspective of power transmission this time, the input port is mismatch, so the gain of power amplifier will get smaller. But sometimes in order to obtain minimum noise, we sacrifice some gain when we design low-noise amplifier.

E. Dynamic range

In the design of low-noise amplifier, we should take full account of dynamic range of the whole receiver in order to avoid a serious nonlinear distortion. Generally the low-noise amplifier’s third order intercept point should be a little higher, at least 30dB more than the maximum input signal so as to avoid the nonlinear distortion when large signal is being input.

In addition, low-noise amplifier’s operating frequency; bandwidth and gain flatness within the pass-band is also factors that are needed to be carefully considered in the design process.

III. THE DESIGN PRINCIPLES

During the design process of low-noise amplifier, we must note that:

A. The option of zoom tube

Generally speaking, we usually consider the following two aspects when we select low-noise amplifier’s tube:

Noise figure of microwave low-noise tube is small enough and its working frequency is high enough. Generally the frequency of tube is four times higher than its working frequency. In the frequency of 2GHZ, the noise figure of PHEMT FET is 0.5dB and its high-end working frequency can be achieved 6GHZ.

Microwave low-noise tube should have sufficiently high gain and dynamic range. Generally, the gain of amplifier must be greater than 10dB and the inter-modulation component caused by non-linear amplifier when the system’s input signal reach maximum.

B. The design principles of input and output matching

circuits For the noise figure of a single-stage transistor amplifier, such as the formula (3), it can be expressed by a circle which is the noise figure circle. Every point on the circle represents a constant noise figure which can produce the source reflection coefficient. To get the required noise figure, we can draw a circle correspond the noise figure in the circle graph and then make source impedance match to a point. In the actual design process, we usually take the gain of amplifier into account but no minimum noise figure. In the individual design of the amplifier(assuming S _{1}_{2} =0), for a particular transistor, its S _{1}_{1} and S _{2}_{2} are certain, so different source reflection coefficient Γ _{1} and the load reflection coefficientΓ _{2} can constitute a constant- gain circle[5]. We can obtain the coefficient gain by matching the source reflection coefficient and the load reflection coefficient to the corresponding circle. We can get ideal results if we put constant-gain circle and equivalent noise figure together.

IV. CIRCUIT DESIGN

We design a amplifier with the following indicators: the frequency is 2.2-2.6GHZ, the gain is 11±0.3dB, noise figure is 2.6dB and the VSWR of input and output signal are no more than 1.4dB. According to the requirements, we choose the sp_hp_AT-41511_8_19921201 in device library of Agilent and its working condition is that: V _{c}_{e} =8V, I _{c} =25mA, Frequency:

0.1-6.0GHZ.

Firstly, we make the simulation of s-parameter to the transistor. In Figure 1, we can see three parts: Zin1, S- PARAMETERS and the circuit of SP models. The frequency of simulation is from 2.2GHZ to 2.6GHZ and its step is 0.02GHZ. Zin1 can control the input match of the circuit.

Figure 1.

The transistor’s simulation of s-parameters

From the simulation, we can obtain the transistor’s input match as in TABLE I .

TABLE I INPUT MATCH OF THE TRANSISTOR

So we can see that the input match is 23.108+j*11.231 when the frequency is 2.4GHZ, according this result, we design the input circuit and insert it to the SP models.

After inserting the input match circuit, we do the simulation

of S _{1}_{1} and S _{2}_{2} , and we obtain

From Figure 2, we can see that for the input-port, reflectance is very small and the input impedance is about 50Ω;

result as Figure 2.

but for the output-port, reflectance is not very small and output impedance is not as same as load impedance. So we should design output match according to the input conditions. By using the optimization tool of ADS, we can easily obtain the responding output circuit. Input and output match circuit design is a difficult work in the design of amplifier, but we can easily design the circuit we require by using ADS, so it can save much time for us. The whole circuit based on SP model is can be seen as Figure 3.

Figure 2.

Smith chart of S11 and S22 after inserting the input match circuit

Figure 3.

The SP model circuit

In Figure 3, there are four micro strip, two terms which are both 50Ω and input circuit in the design, then we use the SSMATCH to design the input circuit and we use the micro stripe line to build output circuit, and its indexes include:

H=0.8mm, Er=4.3, Mur=1.Here, H is micro strip line’s base board thickness, Er is relative dielectric constant and Mur is relative permeability.

In the process of input circuit design, we use the Design Guide>Passive Circuit in ADS, and the input circuit is seen as in Figure 4.

Figure 4.

Input match circuit

V. THE SIMULATION RESULTS AND ANALISICS

We make the simulation of S-parameters to the whole circuits; we can obtain the following index of the amplifier:

A. Stability factor

Figure 5.

Stability factor of the amplifier

The stability is an important factor of amplifier, if it get very small (below 0.9), the amplifier will be unstable and hard to achieve the expect performance.

From Figure5, we can see that from the frequency of 2.2GHZ-2.6GHZ, the stability factor of amplifier is bigger than 1, and in the frequency of 2.4GHZ, the stability factor is about 1.282, so the amplifier we design is stable.

B. Noise figure.

Figure 6.

Noise figure of the amplifier

As we can see in the Figure 6, in the frequency of 2.4GHZ, the noise figure is 2.654 dB and is according with our requirements.

C. Gain

Figure 7.

Gain of the amplifier

In the Figure 7, we can see that the gain is 11.222dB in the frequency of 2.4GHZ and it is also right for our requirements.

D. Input and output VSWR

Figure 8.

Input and output VSWR

From the Figure 8, we can see that in the frequency of 2.4GHZ, the input VSWR is 1.398dB and the output VSWR is

1.354dB.

VI.

CONCLUSIONS

In this paper, we design a low-noise amplifier whose centre-frequency is 2.4GHZ. Its gain is about 11.222dB and its noise figure, input and output VSWR are 2.654dB, 1.398dB and 1.354dB respectively. The results represent that the amplifier we design is fulfill the requirements.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors would like to thank the Communication Institute of New Technologies of BISTU for providing ADS bought from Agilent to us.

REFERENCES

Yanhua Chen, ChaohuiLi, Xiawei, The application of ADS, 1rd ed , vol.13, POSTS& TELECOM PRESS,2008, pp.263-281

[2] Zhiwei Huang, Circuit design of RF power amplifier, 1rd ed, vol.1, Xi'an Electronic Science and Technology University Press, 2008, pp.1-

[1]

47

[3] |
Andrei Grebennikov, RF and Microwave Power Amplifier Design, 1rd |

[4] |
ed, vol.6, Publishing house of electronics industry, 2006, pp. 144-180 Jingchang Nan, Yongsheng Feng, Yuanan Liu, “Design and Simulation |

[5] |
of Linear Small—signal Transistor’s 1.5GHz Amplifier”, computer simulation, Vol. 24, No. 5, May 2007, pp.302-305 Zhenya Lei, RF/Microwave circuits introduction, 1rd ed, vol.8, Xi'an Electronic Science and Technology University Press, 2005, pp.117-141 |

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