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ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION DESIGN GUIDE Calculations for Electricians and Designers 2nd Edition

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION DESIGN GUIDE

Calculations for Electricians and Designers

2nd Edition

ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION DESIGN GUIDE Calculations for Electricians and Designers 2nd Edition
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION DESIGN GUIDE Calculations for Electricians and Designers 2nd Edition
ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION DESIGN GUIDE Calculations for Electricians and Designers 2nd Edition

Published by The Institution of Engineering and Technology, London, United Kingdom

The Institution of Engineering and Technology is registered as a Charity in England & Wales (no. 211014) and Scotland (no. SC038698).

& Wales (no. 211014) and Scotland (no. SC038698). The Institution of Engineering and Technology is the

The Institution of Engineering and Technology is the new institution formed by the joining together of the IEE (The Institution of Electrical Engineers) and the IIE (The Institution of Incorporated Engineers). The new Institution is the inheritor of the IEE brand and all its products and services, such as this one, which we hope you will find useful.

© 2008, 2013 The Institution of Engineering and Technology

First published 2008 (978-0-86341-555-0) Reprinted September 2008 Reprinted (with amendments) November 2008 Second edition (incorporating BS 7671:2008 (2011)) 2013 (978-1-84919-657-4)

This publication is copyright under the Berne Convention and the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved. Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers at The Institution of Engineering and Technology, Michael Faraday House, Six Hills Way, Stevenage, SG1 2AY, United Kingdom.

Copies of this publication may be obtained from:

The Institution of Engineering and Technology PO Box 96, Stevenage, SG1 2SD, UK Tel: +44 (0)1438 767328 Email: sales@theiet.org www.theiet.org/wiringbooks

While the publisher and contributors believe that the information and guidance given in this work are correct, all parties must rely upon their own skill and judgement when making use of them. The author, publisher and contributors do not assume any liability to anyone for any loss or damage caused by any error or omission in the work, whether such an error or omission is the result of negligence or any other cause. Where reference is made to legislation it is not to be considered as legal advice. Any and all such liability is disclaimed.

ISBN 978-1-84919-657-4

Typeset in the UK by Carnegie Book Production, Lancaster Printed in the UK by TBC

Contents

Cooperating organisations

6

Preface

7

Chapter 1

Design sequence

9

1.1 Load characteristics

9

1.2 Supply characteristics

10

1.3 Installation outline

10

1.4 Distribution design

10

1.5 Standard final circuits

11

1.6 Isolation and switching

11

1.7 Final assessment

11

1.8 Compliance with BS 7671

11

Chapter 2

Simple installations and final circuits

13

2.1 Introduction

13

2.2 Supply characteristics

13

2.3 Fault rating of switchgear

15

2.4 Final circuit overcurrent devices and cables

16

2.5 Final circuit voltage drop limitations

19

2.6 Fault protection

22

2.7 Short-circuit current protection

23

2.8 Protective conductors

24

2.9 Standard final circuits

24

Chapter 3

Maximum demand and diversity

25

3.1 Introduction

25

3.2 Installation outline

27

3.3 Final circuit current demand

28

3.4 Diversity between final circuits

31

3.5 Complex installations

34

Chapter 4

Selection of cables for current-carrying capacity 41

4.0 Symbols

41

4.1 Preliminary design

42

4.2 Overcurrent requirements

42

4.3 Current-carrying capacity tables

44

Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

3

4.4

Protection against overload and short-circuit

51

4.5 Protection against fault current only

52

4.6 Corrections for grouping not liable to simultaneous overload

54

4.7 Motors

56

Chapter 5

Voltage drop

59

5.1 Voltage drop in consumers’ installations

59

5.2 Distribution system voltage drop

59

5.3 Basic voltage drop calculation

60

5.4 Correction for inductance

62

5.5 Correction for load power factor

64

5.6 Correction for conductor operating temperature

65

5.7 Correction for both conductor operating temperature and load power factor 66

Chapter 6

Calculation of fault current

67

6.1 Determination of prospective fault current

67

6.2 Determined by enquiry

69

6.3 Determined by calculation

72

Chapter 7

Shock protection

79

7.1 Shock protection

79

7.2 Protective measure: automatic disconnection of supply

80

7.3 Circuit calculations

83

Chapter 8

Protection against fault current

85

8.1 The adiabatic equation

85

8.2 Selection from Table 54.7

87

8.3 Introduction to calculations

89

8.4 Simple calculation

89

8.5 Energy let-through calculation

91

8.6 Plotting protective conductor adiabatics

95

8.7 Protective conductor as a sheath or armour of a cable

98

8.8 Plotting of cable armour adiabatics

99

8.9 Calculation of armour capability

100

8.10 Conduit and trunking

103

8.11 Earthing and bonding conductors

104

Chapter 9

Calculations associated with testing

109

9.1 General

109

9.2 Continuity

110

9.3 Earth fault loop impedance Z s

110

9.4 Reduced section protective conductors

112

4 Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

Chapter 10

Impedance of copper and aluminium conductors

115

10.1 Introduction

115

10.2 Conductor resistance and temperature

115

10.3 Impedance of cables from voltage drop tables

116

Chapter 11

Harmonics

119

11.1 Introduction

119

11.2 Cable ratings

120

11.3 Voltage drop

121

11.4 Overcurrent protection

123

Chapter 12

Protection against voltage disturbances

125

12.1 Introduction

125

12.2 The overvoltages

125

12.3 Power frequency fault voltage

125

12.4 Power frequency stress voltages

129

12.5 Earthing of 11 kV substations

129

Chapter 13

Busbar trunking

131

13.1 Symbols

131

13.2 Voltage drop

131

13.3 Fault currents

132

Appendix A

Symbols

135

Appendix B

Standard final circuits

139

Appendix C

Avoidance of unintentional operation of circuit-breakers

155

C.1

Lighting circuit applications

Appendix D Further cable calculations

156

159

D.1

Cable life

159

D.2

Temperatures (core and sheath)

160

D.3

Inductance of cables in parallel

160

D.4

Calculation of sheath voltages

161

Appendix E

Symbols from CENELEC report R064-003

165

Appendix F

Equipment data

167

Index

187

Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

5

Preface

This book provides step-by-step guidance on the design of electrical installations, from domestic installation final circuit design to fault level calculations for LV/large LV systems. Apprentices and trainees will find it very helpful in carrying out the calculations necessary for a basic installation.

The book has also been prepared to provide a design sequence, calculations and data for a complete design. All necessary cable and equipment data to carry out the calculations is included. Consultants will be able to check the calculations of their design packages. It includes calculations and necessary reference data not found in the design packages, such as cable conductor and sheath temperatures and allowances for harmonics.

Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

7

Index

A

Adiabatic, equation curve plotting After-diversity demand Aluminium, cables coefficient of resistance conductors resistance Aluminium strip armour cables Ambient temperature, correction factor multiplier Area, steel underfloor trunking Armour, current rating Attenuation of fault level Automatic disconnection of supply

B

Basic protection Bonding conductors, supplementary BS 88 fuse characteristics BS 88 fuse disconnection times BS 3036 fuse disconnection times BS 7671 Appendix 4 Table 4B1 Table 4C1 Table 41.1 Table 41.3 Table 54.7 Busbar trunking, general fault currents voltage drop

C C C C C C C C C Cable adiabatics armour armour area armour as protective conductor calculations, further

a

c

d

f

g

i

r

s

t

2.8, 4.5, 8.1, 8.4 8.6, 8.8

3.4

Table F.9 10.2, Tables F.4, F.17 Ch. 10 Tables F.1, F.7A, F.8A, F.9 Table F.9

4.3.2, 9.3.2 4.3.2, Table F.2 Table F.10

8.9

6.2.2

7.2

7.1

8.11.3

8.6, 8.8 Tables 8.6, 8.8 Table 8.7 4.3, 4.6, 5.3

4.3.2

4.3.3

7.2.1

7.2.3

8.2

Ch. 13

13.3

13.2

4.3.2

4.3.5

4.3.5

4.3.5

4.3.3

4.3.4

6.3.2, 9.3.2, Table F.3

4.3.5

5.6

8.8

8.7, Table F.8B Tables 8.9, F.7B, F.8B 8.7, Table 8.9 Appx D

Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

187

Index

core temperature

D.2

data

Appx F

impedance

10.3

life

D.1

ratings, harmonics

11.2

reactance

D.3

sheath earth

8.7

sheath temperature

D.2

voltage drop

10.3

Cables buried in ground

4.3.5

Cables, in parallel, inductance

D.3

in thermal insulation

4.3.4

Calculations final circuit current demand

3.3

current-carrying capacity

Ch. 4

motor

4.7

prospective fault levels

6.3

shock protection

7.3

voltage drop

5.3

Cartridge fuse short-circuit capacity

6.1

CENELEC Report R064-003

13.1

symbols

Appx E

Certificates

1.8, 2.2.1

Circuit-breaker characteristics energy let-through

Appx C, 4.5 8.4.2, 8.5

short-circuit capacity

6.1

unintentional operation

Appx C

Circuit cooker

3.3.1 Ex2

demand

3.3

final immersion heater lighting motor protective conductor sizes shower

Ch. 2, Appx B 3.3.1 Ex4 3.3.1 Ex3 3.3.1 Ex5 2.8, Ch. 8 2.4.1, 2.6, 3.3.1 Ex1

Circuits, lightly loaded

4.3.3

standard Coefficient of resistance

Appx B 10.2, Table F.4

Completion certificates

1.8

Complex installations

3.5

Conductor adiabatics

8.6

impedance operating temperature

Ch. 10 4.3.6, D.2, Table F.3

Conduit

8.10

Continuity testing

9.2

Cooker circuit

3.3.1 Ex2

Cooking diversity

3.4

Coordination load, device and cable characteristics

2.4

Copper, coefficient of resistance

10.2, Tables F.4, F.17

conductor resistance

Tables F.1, F.6, F.7A, F.8A, F.14, F.15, F.16 Ch. 10

conductors Core temperature

D.2

Correction factors

6.3.2, Table F.17

188 Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

Index

Cross-sectional area, armour steel conduit trunking

Tables F.7B, F.8B Table F.10 Table F.10

Current-carrying capacity

4.3

Currents fault

4.2.1

Currents overload

4.2.2

D

Definitions, symbols Demand commercial domestic

4.0, Appx A Ch. 3 3.4.1 Ex1 3.1, 3.4.1 Ex2

final circuit

3.3

Departures from BS 7671

1.8

Design

Ch. 1

Design current I b

2.4

Design, preliminary

4.1

Design responsibility

1.8

Deterioration of cables

Appx D

Direct contact see Basic protection Disconnection times

7.2.1

Distribution circuit, overcurrent protection

4.2

diversity

3.4

Distribution design

1.4

Distribution system, calculations

6.3.3

voltage drop

5.2

Distribution transformer impedance Diversity Domestic demand

Table F.5 Ch. 3, 3.4 3.1, 3.4.1 Ex2

E

Earthing arrangements

2.2.2

Earthing conductor

8.11.1

Earthing of 11 kV substations

12.5

Embedded generation

1.1.2

Equipment tables

Appx F

External earth fault loop impedance

2.2.3, 6.2

F

Fault currents

4.2.1, Ch. 6

busbar trunking

13.3

determined by enquiry

6.2

Fault protection

2.6, 7.1, 8.1.3

Fault rating, switchgear

2.3

Fault voltage

12.3

Final circuit

1.5, Ch. 2, 2.9, Appx B

demand

3.3

diversity

3.4

formulae thermal insulation voltage drop Formulae, circuits

Appx B Appx B 2.5, 5.1 Appx B

Fundamental frequency

11.1

Fuse characteristics

4.5, 8.4.1, 8.6, 8.8, 8.9

Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

189

Index

G

Grouping,

three-phase

4.3.3

lightly loaded

4.3.3

overload

4.6

rating factor

4.3.3

H

Harmonics

Ch. 11

cable ratings

11.2

discharge lamps

11.1

overcurrent protection

11.4

switch mode power supplies

11.1

voltage drop

11.3

Household demand

3.1

HV supplies

1.2

HV system earth faults

12.3

I

I 2 t

8.1

characteristics

4.5

energy let-through

8.5

Immersion heater circuit Impedance steel conduit steel trunking transformers

3.3.1 Ex4 Ch. 10 Table F.11 Tables F.12, F.13 Table F.5

Indirect contact see Fault protection Inductance of cables in parallel

D.3

Inrush current

Appx C

Installation certificates

1.8.2

design overcurrent

4.2

outline

1.3, 3.2

schematic

3.2

small

2.2.1

voltage drop

Ch. 5

Isolation

1.6

I t tabulated cable rating

2.4.1, 4.3.1

J

no entries

K

k factor

8.2

Kitchen demand

3.1

L

Lead, coefficient of resistance

10.2, Table F.4

Let-through energy

4.5

Life of cables

D.1

Lighting circuits

3.3.1 Ex3, Appx B

voltage drop

2.5

Load characteristics

1.1

diversity

3.1

power factor – voltage drop

5.4

190 Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

M

Index

Main bonding conductors

8.11.1

Maximum demand

Ch. 3

Maximum earth fault loop impedance

7.2.3

Maximum prospective short-circuit current

6.2

Mineral cable heavy duty light duty Motor circuit

Tables F.15, F.16 Table F.14 3.3.1 Ex5, 4.7

Motor diversity

3.4

(mV/A/m)

Ch. 5, 10.3

N

New supplies

2.2

O

Office design

3.4.1

Overcurrent devices, cables, circuits

2.4

Overcurrent protection

4.2

Overload currents

4.2.2

not simultaneous

4.6

parallel cables

4.4.2

protection

8.1.2

protection against

4.4

protection, omission

2.4.3, 4.5

small

4.2.3

Overvoltage protection

Ch. 12

P

Parallel cables

D.3

Part 7

1.4.6

Peak tripping current

Appx C

Phase displacement

Ch. 11

PME

6.2.4

Power factor – voltage drop

5.5

Power frequency stress voltages

12.4

Prospective fault current

1.4.3, Ch. 6

Prospective short-circuit currents single-phase

Table F.18A

three-phase

Table F.18B

Protection against electric shock

7.1

overload and short-circuit

2.7, 4.4

Protective conductor adiabatic armour as

2.8, 8.3, 8.6, 8.8 1.4.5, 8.7, 8.8, 8.9

conduit as

8.10

cross-sectional area

8.2

reduced section

1.4.5, 9.4

sheath of cable

8.7

sizes

Ch. 8

trunking as

8.10

Protective measures, shock

7.1

PVC cables single-core

Tables F.7A, F.7B Table F.6

Q

no entries

Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

191

Index

R

R 1 + R 2

9.2

Radial final circuits

2.4.1, Appx B

voltage drop

2.5

Rated short-circuit capacities

6.1

Rating factors

4.3.1

Reactance of cable

D.3

Reduced section, protective conductors testing

9.4

Regulation 28 of ESQCR

6.2

Regulation 410

7.1

Regulation 431.1.1

4.2

Regulation 432

4.4, 4.5

Regulation 433

4.2.2

Regulation 434

4.2.1, Ch. 6, 8.1.3

Regulation 434.1

6.1

Regulation 434.5.2

8.1

Regulation 435.1

8.1.2

Regulation 512.1.2

4.3.6

Regulation 523.9

4.3.4

Regulation 525

5.1

Regulation 534.1.4

8.2

Regulation 543

Ch. 8

Regulation 543.1.3

8.1

Resistance, coefficient correction factors mineral cable of conductors

10.2, Table F.4 6.3.2, Table F.17 Tables F.14, F.15, F.16 Ch. 10, Table F.1

Rewireable fuses

4.3.5

Ring final circuits

2.4.2, Appx B

voltage drop

2.5

R0604-003

13.1, Appx E

S

Schedule of test results

9.1

Schematic

3.2

Sheath, temperature

D.2

voltages

D.4

Shock protection

1.4.4, Ch. 7

circuit calculations

7.3

Short-circuits

4.4

capacities switchgear

6.1

current three-phase supply

6.2.3

single-phase Shower circuit Simple installations

2.7, 6.2.2 2.4.1, 2.6, 3.3.1 Ex1 Ch. 2, 3.4.1

Simultaneous overload, not liable

4.6

Single-core cables

Tables F.6, F.9

Socket circuits, radial

2.5.1

Special installations or locations

1.4.6

Standard circuits

1.5, Ch. 2, Appx B

Standby systems

1.1.2

Star-delta starting

4.7

Starting current

Appx C

Steel, coefficient of resistance

Table F.4

conduit, impedance

Table F.11

192 Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

Index

trunking impedance underfloor trunking

Tables F.12, F.13 Table F.10

Storage heater diversity

3.4

Stress voltage

12.4

Submains

3.4

Substations – Earthing of 11 kV

12.5

Supplementary bonding conductors

8.11.3

Supply, characteristics

1.2, 2.2

earth fault loop impedances

2.2.3, 6.2

fault level attenuation

6.2

system fault levels

6.2

Switchgear fault rating

2.3

short-circuit capacities

6.1

Switching

1.6

Symbols CENELEC

4.0, Appx A Appx E

System earthing

2.2.2

T

Table 4B1

4.3.2

Tables 4C1–4C6

4.3.3

Table 52.2

4.3.4

Tables 54.2 to 54.6

8.2

Table 54.7

8.2

Temperature conductor corrections

7.3

Temperature correction Testing

Tables F.2, F.3 Ch. 9

continuity

9.2

earth fault loop impedance

9.3

Thermal insulation

4.3.4

final circuits Thermoplastic cables Thermosetting cables Third harmonics

Appx B Tables F.7A, F.7B Tables F.8A, F.8B Ch. 11

Three-phase voltage drop

5.3.2

TN systems

2.2.2

Transformer impedance

Table F.5

Triplen harmonics

Ch. 11

Trunking

8.10

TT systems

2.2.2

Typical distribution system

6.3.3

U

Unintentional operation, lighting circuits

Ch. 1

V

Voltage disturbances protection Voltage drop

Ch. 12 1.4.2, 2.5, Ch. 5

busbar trunking

13.2

cables

10.3

conductor operating temperature

5.6

distribution system

5.2

final circuit

2.5

inductance

5.4

lighting circuit

2.5

multiplier C r

Table F.3

power factor

5.5

radial final circuit

2.5.1

Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology

193

Index

ring final circuit

2.5.2

temperature correction

5.6, 7.3

three-phase

5.3.2

Voltage factor c

Table A.1

Voltages, sheath

D.4

 

W

Water heater diversity

3.4

 

XY

no entries

 

Z

Z

41

7.3

Z

e

2.2.3

Z s

7.2.3, 9.3

194 Calculations for Electricians and Designers

© The Institution of Engineering and Technology