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TRANSACTIONS

AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

H E L D AT PHILADELPHIA
FOR PROMOTING USEFUL KNOWLEDGE

NEW SERIES-VOLURIE

47, PART 6

1957

NIKOLAOS MESARITES:

DESCRIPTION OF THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES

AT CONSTANTINOPLE

Greek Text Edited with Translation, Commentary,


and Introduction by

GLANVILLE DOWNEY
Associate Professor of Byzantine ~ i t e r a t u r e ,T h e Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection,
and Member of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard Unit'ersity

T H E AMERICAN PHILOSOPHICAL SOCIETY

INDEPENDENCE SQUARE

PHILADELPHIA 6

December, 1957

Library of Congress Catalog

Card No. 57-14857

PREFACE

The present edition was undertaken at Dumbarton


Oaks in 1945 as a part of the collaborative monograph
on the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople
which was planned by Professor A. M. Friend, Jr.,
Director of Studies at Dumbarton Oaks, and was to be
written by himself and by Professor Paul A. Underwood and the present translator. When the death of
Professor Friend in 1956 rendered impossible the completion of the monograph in the form planned by him,
the text, translation, and commentary became available
for publication separately, and they are offered here
since the work provides information which is of interest
to a number of scholars, not only on the structure and
decoration of the church and the imperial n~ausoleums
attached to it, but on the colleges which were installed
in the fore-court of the building, and on the surroundings
of the building. The six chapters describing the methods
of teaching and course of study form, in fact, one of
our most important sources concerning education in
this period in the Byzantine Empire, and they include a
valuable passage on music.
JVhen the present publication was being prepared,
the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection
made it possible for the translator to use both a microfilm and photographs of the manuscript, which were

obtained in 1945 and 1946, by the kind permission of


the authorities of the Ambrosian Library, through the
good offices of the late Professor C. R. Morey and of
Professor Kurt Weitzmann. The microfilm and photographs are now in the Dumbarton Oaks Research
Library.
The translator is indebted for assistance, not only to
the scholars named above and to Professors Friend and
Underwood, but to Dr. Egon IYellesz of Oxford, for his
advice in connection with Mesarites' allusions to musical
matters; to Dr. Shirley H . Weber, Librarian of the
Gennadius Library in Athens, for valuable bibliographical information ; and to Professor Sirarpie Der Nersessian, who supplied bibliographical references. The staff
of the Dumbarton Oaks Research Library must also
be mentioned. Finally, the translator is deeply grateful
to the American Philosophical Society for accepting
the edition for publication.
I n order to avoid unnecessary expense in the printing
of the Greek text, it has been thought desirable to
dispense with line numbers. As a consequence, the
references to the text and translation, in the commentary
and indices, are given by chapter and paragraph, rather
than by page and line.

G. D.

SYMBOLS A N D ABBREVIATIONS

[ ] = W o r d s added by the translator to complete the


sense are enclosed in square brackets.
. . . = A lacuna in the MS is indicated by . . .
A . J . A . = A+~zericanJournal of Arclzaeology.
A . J . P. = Awzerican Journal of Philology.
B . 2.= Byzantinische Zeitschrift.
Byz. = Byzantion.
Constantine of Rhodes= E . Legrand, Description des
ceuvres d'art et de 1'Pglise des Saints ApBtres de
Constantinople : Poitme en vers iambiques par Constantin le Rhodien, Revue des Btudes grecques 9 :
32-64, 1896. Greek text. introduction, critical notes.
The poem is cited here by the verse number.
C. P. = Classical Philology.
Downey, "Builder of the Original Church of the
Apostles " = G. Downey, The Builder of the Original Church of the Apostles at Constantinople: A

Contribution to the Criticism of the Vita Constantini Attributed to Eusebius, Dumbarton Oaks
Papers 6 : 53-80, 1951.
Heisenberg = A. Heisenberg, Grabeskirche und Apostelkirche, 2 v., Leipzig, Hinrichs, 1908. References
given here are to vol. 2 unless otherwise noted.
Janin, Bglises = La GBographie ecclBsiastique de I'ewzpire
bysuntin. I W e partie, Le si&ge de Constanti~zopleet
le patriarcat oecuwzhnique. Towte I I I , Les Bglises
et les wzonastBres, par R . Janin, Paris, Institut
franqais d'ktudes byzantines, 1953.
J . R . S . = Journal of Rowtan Studies.
P . G. = Migne, Patrologia Graeca.
P. L . = Migne, Patrologia Latina.
R . E. = Pauly-Wissowa-Kroll, Realencyclopadie der Altertz~~aszedssenschaft.
T . A . P. A . = Transactions of the Anterican Plzilological
Associnfion.

NIKOLAOS MESARITES :

Description of the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople

CONTENTS
PAGE

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855

List of symbols and abbreviations.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 855

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859

Life and works of Mesarites.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 859

Composition of the Description of the Holy Apostles.. 860

The Manuscript.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860

Nikolaos Mesarites, Description of the Church of the Holy

Apostles at Constantinople.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861

Translation, commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861

Chapter

1-11.
The Situation of the Church.. ............. 861

111-IV.
The Surroundings of the Church.. . . . . . . . . . . 862

V. The View from the Gallery and the Roof.. . . 864

V I .
The Baths Outside the Church.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 864

V I I - X I .
The College Outside the Church.. . . . . . . . . . . 865

X I I .
Invocation of the Apostles.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 867

X I I I .
The Plan of the Church. The Pantokrator.. 868

X I V .
The Pantokrator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 869

XV.
T h e Communion of the Apostles.. . . . . . . . . . . 870

X V I .
The Transfiguration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871

X V I I .
The Crucifixion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873

X V I I I .
The Descent of the Holy Spirit.. . . . . . . . . . . 874

X I X .
Matthew with the Syrians.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 875

XX. Luke Preaching a t Antioch. Simon Among

the Persians and the Saracens.. . . . . . . . . . 875

X X I .
Bartholomew Preaching to the Armenians.

Mark in Alexandria.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 876

X X I I .
The Annunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877

X X I I I .
The Xativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877

X X I V .
The Baptism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878

PAGE

Christ Walks on the W a t e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 878

The Raising of Lazarus.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880

The Betrayal and A r r e s t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 880

The Women at the T o m b . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 882

Christ Appears to the Women.. . . . . . . . . . . . . 884

The Priests Bribe the Soldiers and Persuade


Pilate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 884
X X X I . The Women with the Disciples.. . . . . . . . . . . . 885

X X X I I . The Disciples on the W a y to Galilee.. . . . . . . 886


X X X I I I . Thomas' Meetitlg with Peter and the Other

Disciples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 886

X X X I V . Christ Appears to Thomas and the Other


Disciples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 887
X X X V . Christ Appears to the Disciples on the Sea

of Tiberias . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 888

X X X V I . The Draught of Fishes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 889

X X X V I I . The Walls and Columns of the Church.. ... 890

X X X V I I I . The Sanctuary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 890

X X X I X . T h e Mausoleum of Constantine and the


Tombs of the Emperors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 891
XL. T h e Mausoleum of Justinian and the Tombs
of the Emperors.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 892
X L I . The Fore-Court of the Church .. . . . . . . . . . . . 893

X L I I . The College Outside the Church.. . . . . . . . . . . 894

X L I I I . Encomium of the Patriarch, John X Cama-

terus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 896

Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 897
Indices
I. Scriptural Passages.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919

11. Kotable Greek words.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922

111. Names and Subjects.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922

XXV.
XXVI.
XXVII.
XXVIII.
XXIX.
XXX.

T H E ORDER O F T H E SCENES AND T H E SEQUENCE O F T H E FRAGMENTS O F T H E MANUSCRIPT

T h e manuscript of the ekphrasis is fragmentary, and

the parts of the preserved text are now out of order in

I
XV
the manuscript, which at some time has been dismem-

bered and rebound as two manuscripts, with some of

the folios displaced from their original sequence. The


X V I
sequence of the chapters (as Heisenberg indicated)
X V I I
seems fairly certain. The exigencies of printing have

not made it possible to show the foliation of the manu-


X V I I I
script in the margin of the text, and instead the point at

which each manuscript page begins is indicated by a note

XIX
in the critical apparatus. The preserved chapters, and

XXIII
the folios in which they are preserved, are as follo~vs

( A = Cod. *lllbrosianus
g r 350,
93 sup. ; B
X X I V
= Cod. Lqmbrosianusgr. 352, formerly F 96 sup.) :

XLIII

Chapter
(incomplete at beginning)(incomplete at end)

A 8 U 9

Folio

(incomplete at beginning)-

(incomplete at end)

A 79, followed without


a break by A 81

(incomplete at beginning and


end)

B 38

(incomplete at beginning)-

(incomplete at end)

A 82, followed without


a break by A 80

(incomplete at beginning)(complete a t end)

B 39-40, followed without a break by E 1-15

INTRODUCTION

A part of the manuscript of Nikolaos Mesarites'


description of the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople was discovered in the Ambrosian Library in
Milan in November, 1898, by August Heisenberg
(1869-1930), and when the discovery was made known,
the authorities of the library realized that another manuscript contained further parts of the same work (on
these MSS, see further below). After transcribing and
editing the text, Heisenberg made use of the new evidence provided by Mesarites, in a study of the Church
of the Holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem and of the Church
of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, two famous
basilicas built (as Heisenberg thought) by Constantine
the Great. The testimony of Nesarites was the more
important since the church at Constantinople was demolished a few years after the Turkish occupation of
the city, and Mesarites gives information which is not
preserved elsewhere. Heisenberg's researches were
published in his book, Grabeskirche und Apostelkirche,
Zzuei Basilike~zKonsta~ztins;Untersuchungen zur Icu~zst
und Literatur des ausgeltenden i41tertuwzs, published in
two volumes at Leipzig by Hinrichs in 1908, and now
out of print. The Greek text and German translation
of Llesarites' ekphrasis, with a brief commentary, are
printed in volume 2 : 9-96, and a specimen page of the
manuscript is reproduced on Tafel 11.
The present translation will serve to make Llesarites'
ekplzrasis, as a major monument of Byzantine literature,
available to readers who do not have access to Heisenberg's version. Since Heisenberg made a detailed study
of the structure and decoration of the church, based on
Mesarites' work and the other literary testimonia, and
since Professor Underwood is preparing a new study
of the church, the present publication does not undertake to discuss these subjects. Viewed as a piece of
literature, the ekpltrasis is a characteristic production
which gives us a valuable insight into the literary interests of the day.
L I F E A N D W O R K S OF M E S A R I T E S

Nikolaos Mesarites was born in Constantinople in


1163 or 1164, of a faniily which belonged to the aristocracy of the c0urt.l His description of the Church of
This sketch is based on the detailed treatment of the life and
literary activity of hlesarites in Heisenberg's various publications, which should be consulted for further information:
AVikolaos Alesarites, Die Palasfrez~oll~tion
des Jolzatzlzes Konzncnos, Progr., Wiirzburg, Sturtz, 1907; introduction to Grabeskirclze u. Apostelkirche 2, Leipzig, 1908; Die Rlodestoslegende
des Mesarites, Beitruge zur Gesch. des christl. Altertunzs 11. der
by; Lit.: Festgabe Albert Elzrkard, 218-227, Bonn, Schroeder,
1922; n'eue Quellen zur Gesch. des latein. Kaisertums u. der
Kirchenunion: I, Der Epitaphios des Nikolaos Mesarites auf
seinem Bruder Johannes, Sikungsber. der Buyer. Akad, der

the Apostles was written at some time DeLween 1198


and 1203. The date is i~ldicatedby the allusion ( X L I I I ,
7) to kinship between the Patriarch John X Camaterus
(1198-1206), to whom the work is dedicated, and his
niece the Empress Euphrosyne, wife of Alexius I11
Angelus (1195-1203) ; this allusion would have been
apt only during the years of the patriarch's incumbency
which coincided with the time when the empress was
on the throne.?
At the time of the " palace revolution " of John Coninenus in 1201, Mesarites was sacristan ( a ~ ~ v o + d h a [ )
of the churches in the Great Palace, and simultaneously
had an appointment at St. Sophia connected with judicial
activities (id TGV ~ploewvr7js ~ ~ L W T ~ LpT~ ~Y dF A T l~s K K A ~ U / ~ F ) . ~
In the title of his Life of hlodestus, Archbishop of
Jerusalem, written soon after 1204, Mesarites is called
deacon ; and soon after this he was nanied referendarizts
by the Patriarch of Nicaea.
After the capture of Constantinople by the Latins in
1204, Mesarites remained in the city, and became a
spokesman and leader of the Greek population. With his
older brother John, who died in 1207,4 he took part in
the discussions which were being carried on with a
view to the union of the Greek and Roman churches.
In the years 1206-1208 he was active in maintaining
diplomatic conin~unicationsbetween the Greek clergy
of Constantinople and the court of Nicaea. At this
period he resided normally at Nicaea, and apparently
did not visit Constantinople after 1208. At some time
in or before 1213 he was made Metropolitan of Ephesus
and was given the title TtapXos T ~ U '~A Fu l a ~ .In the year
Wiss., phi1osoph.-philolog. 11. histor. Kl., 5. Abh. 1922 ; Neue
Quellen : 11, Die Unionsverhandlungen vom 30. Aug. 1206 ;
Patriarchenwahl u. Kaiserkronung in Nikaia 1208, ibid., 2. Abh.
1923; Neue Quellen: 111, Der Bericht des Nikolaos Mesarites
uber die politischen u. kirchlichen Ereignisse des Jahres 1214,
ibid., 3. Abh., 1923. See also the sketch of Mesarites' life by
J. Pargoire. Nicolas MvlCsarites, Mktropolite d'EphGse, Bclzos
d'orietzt 7 : 219-226, 1904; likewise A. A. Vasiliev. hlesarites as
a Source, Speculuwt 13: 180-182, 1938.
'Cf. Heisenberg, Grabcskircke u. Aposfclkirche 2 : 7-8.
Heisenberg's date of John's accession, 1199, has been corrected
to 1198 by the researches of V. Grumel, La chronoloaie des
~ a t r i a r c h d sde Constantinople de 1111 A 1206, Et~ldesi y z . 1:
263-268. 270. 1943.
On these offices, see Heisenberg, Nikolaos Mesarites, Die
Palastrevolution des Joha~znes Konz;zcfios, 54-55. For a study
of such functions, see Chrysostom M. Demetrios, Oi $tw~ar&~ o r h o r t i p ~ o v r ~r1js
s &V I < W V ~ ~ T ~ V ~ ~ V Ofieyahqs
U T ~ ~ E 7L 0 ; X p ~ f f r o i i
dKKXqfflas ( T e x t c la. Forschl~ngetzzzir byz-lielrgricclz. Phllologie

No. 7, Athens, 1927). See also Janin, Bgliscs, 485.


'John hlesarites had been a professor of the exegesis of the

Psalms under Alexius I11 (1195-1203) and had written a com-

mentary on the Psalms which was burned when the Latins

pillaged the capital. Sikolaos Mesarites' fondness for quoting

the Psalms in his ekplzrasis of the Church of the Apostles may

reflect his interest in his brother's mark.

860

D O W N E Y : N I K O I>AOS M E S A R I T E S

1214, when Cardinal Pelagius, whose mission was to


obtain the submission of all the Greek clergy, assembled
a conference at Constantinople, Mesarites served as the
delegate of the Empire of X i ~ a e a . ~
The date of Mesarites' death is not known. His
literary activity was considerable, and his complete
works have not yet been p ~ b l i s h e d . ~
C O M P O S I T I O N O F T H E D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E
HOLY APOSTLES

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

Constantine's work; they need only reflect a different


literary point of view, or a different understanding of
the scenes on the part of hlesarites.
As to the motive for the con~positionof Mesarites'
elzplzrasis, Bees argues that the work was written on
the invitation of the Patriarch John X, in order to
attract the attention of the public and of pilgrims to
the mosaics which had lately (according to Bees) been
renovated by the artist Eulalius. This hypothesis, however, depends upon the question of the date of Eulalius,
which is still open to debate. A more plausible motive
for the composition of the ekplzrasis may be found in
the unhappy events which attended the imposition of
the tax called the Alallza~zikon by Alexius 111. At the
end of 1196, Henry V I imposed upon the Byzantine
empire an enormous annual tribute, as war indemnity.
Alexius found it so difficult to raise the required sums
that he was driven to the extraordinary expedient of
opening the imperial sarcophagi and removing and melting down the gold and silver ornaments found in them.8
The collection of the tax nearly provoked a revolution,
and the plundering of the tombs at the Holy Apostles
must have made a profound impression. The opening
of the tombs must have occurred in 1197, since the
annual tribute was imposed at the end of 1196, and
Henry V I died on 28 September 1197.9 Since Mesarites'
ekphrasis was written at some time between 1198 and
1203, it seems not unlikely that the work may have been
composed in an effort to redeem the dignity of the
Church of the Apostles, and, so to speak, to soothe
outraged public opinion. The manner in which Mesarites refers to the patriarch in his closing chapter suggests that the impulse for the work may have come from
the patriarch. John X, having come to the patriarchal
throne in 1198, the year after the outrage, may well
have had a special interest in restoring the honor of
the Church of the Apostles, and it may have been felt
also that an ekphrasis such as Mesarites' would have
some effect in preventing further violations of the building and the tombs. One must also, as Bees suggests,
take into account the financial importance of the pilgrim
traffic for the churches of Constantinople; Llesarites'
ekphrasis, if circulated widely enough, would doubtless
be effective in stimulating the interest of pilgrims in
the church.

hfesarites states (XII, 12) that he is the first to


describe the Church of the Apostles. Such a statement
could of course easily represent literary license, and
Heisenberg (pp. 7, 126, 133) finds reason to believe
that hlesarites was familiar with the ekplzrasis of Constantine of Rhodes (who also states, v. 412, that he is
the first to describe the church). Mesarites would perhaps consider Constantine's performance so slight in
comparison with his own elaborate con~positionthat it
was not worth taking into account. Moreover, since
Mesarites' ekplzrasis was concerned exclusively with
the Church of the Apostles and its immediate -dependencies, while constantine treated other subjects as
well, Mesarites and his audience might have considered
his claim perfectly justified. Again, the purpose of the
two works was quite different. Constantine appears to
have been primarily interested (at least so far as the
work in its present form indicates) in the architecture
of the building, while Mesarites' main purpose was a
description of the mosaics.
When two authors describe the same monument it
is difficult to determine (unless there be verbatim borrowing) how much the later writer may have been
influenced by his predecessor. Heisenberg believes, for
example (p. 126), that Mesarites, in writing that the
central dome served to bind together all the domes in
the church (XIII, 5-6), followed Constantine's account
of the way in which the domes were bound together
(vv. 577-581 ) . Again, Heisenberg considers (p. 133)
that in his description of the marble incrustation of the
walls ( X X X V I I ) , lllesarites followed Constantine's
account of the same subject (vv. 725-750) " ziemlich
getreu."
Given the nature of the subject, it seems somewhat
hazardous to base any conclusion upon such comparisons, especially since literary convention was such that
T H E llANUSCRIPT
almost any man of letters, dealing with such subjects,
RIesarites' elzplzrasis of the Church of the Apostles
would be influenced, quite unconsciously, by a stock
is
thus far known only from various folios of Cod.
of conventional images and phrases which he had absorbed as part of his education. -Any differences between
Kunstgesch. Untersuchungen, Repert. f. Kt~nstwiss.40: 77,
Constantine's and AIesarites' accounts of the church 1917;
cf. hlalickij in Bys. 3 : 125, 1926.
need not show that Mesarites was not acquainted with
hTicetas Choniates, D E Alexio 1 : 632, 2-12 Bonn ed. ; De
Cf. R. Janin, Au lendemain de la conquPte de Constantinople:
Les tentatives d'union des kglises, Echos d'0rictzt 32: 3-21, 195202, 1933.
Heisenberg projected a complete edition of the extant works,
which seems never to have been published.

signis Const. 2 : 855, 16-856, 2 Bonn ed.


' L. Brehier, V i e et wzort de Byzafzce,
llichel, 1947; G. Ostrogorsky, Gesch. des
ed. 2, Munich, C. H. Beck, 1952; A. A.
Porphyry Sarcophagi in Constantinople,
Papers 4 : 15-16, 1948.

361-362, Paris, A.
byz. Staates, 329,
Vasiliev, Imperial
Duwzbavton Oaks

INTRODUCTION

VOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

Ambrosianus gr. 350 (= F 93 sup.), called A by


Heisenberg, and of Cod. Ambrosianus gr. 352 (= F 96
sup.), called B by Heisenberg.lo Heisenberg's designations A and B are retained here. These folios originally formed a part of a single manuscript, written by
the same hand, probably in the thirteenth century.
Heisenberg (p. 4) considers the manuscript to be a
copy of the author's own version, since it contains clear
cases of corrections which appear to be those of the
author himself. At some time, the manuscript which
we possess was dismembered and its sheets were bound
up, in some disorder, with other writings of Mesarites.ll
The beginning of the ekplzrasis (including its title) is
lost, and parts are lost from various portions of the body
of the work, but the conclusion is preserved intact. I n
the introduction, now lost, Mesarites presumably spoke
of the foundation of the church and its rebuilding by
Justinian (see Heisenberg's introduction, p. 5 ) . Heisenberg arranged the fragments (which conlprise eight
separate groups) in what he considered to be the correct
sequence, on the basis of the indications, which occur
at various points, of the position of the n~osaics,and
also on the basis of iconographical considerations.
Heisenberg divided the manuscript into chapters (see
his introduction, p. 9 ) and gave titles to the major

861

chapters, according to the subjects treated in them. In


one instance, it is difficult to determine the point at
which a new chapter should be begun, but for convenience Heisenberg's division has been retained (see ch.
XXVIII, note 2 ) . T o facilitate reference, paragraph
numbers have been added in the present publication.
In the translation, titles have been included, follo\ving
Heisenberg's precedent, as a matter of convenience to
the reader, but it should be remembered that these titles
are modern, as is the title given to the ekphrasis itself.
Because Mesarites' style and vocabulary at times present difficulties, an effort has been made to translate
his text as literally as possible. The present translator
acknowledges gratefully the assistance which he received
from Heisenberg's pioneer version, as well as from the
suggestions of his colleagues, the late Professor Friend
and Professor Underwood.
The text of the present publication reproduces, like
Heisenberg's, the orthographical and accentual peculiarities of the manuscript, except in cases in which correction is clearly unavoidable. The microfilm and photographs of the manuscript show that Heisenberg's remarkable skill and accuracy in transcribing the scribe's
sometimes difficult hand are worthy of the admiration
and gratitude of all scholars.

D E S C R I P T I O N OF T H E C H U R C H O F T H E H O L Y A P O S T L E S A T C O N S T A N T I N O P L E

BY NIKOLAOS RfESARITES.
T H E SITUATION O F T H E CHURCH

I. . . . teachings of the crucified Christ, our God, and


his disciples. Indeed the Church is not constructed
altogether in the middle and so to speak at the navel
of this Queen of Cities1 2. For the man who built it
E. Martini and D. Bassi, Cafal. cod. graec. bibl. Ambrosianae, Milan, Hoepli, 1906. T h e numbers assigned to the manuscripts in this catalogue (350, 352) were not yet in use when
Heisenberg transcribed the ekphvasis, and he did not employ
them in his edition (published in 1908), retaining the old
numbers F 93 sup., F 96 sup.
Most of 350 and 352 were written on paper (26.5 X 17.3
cm.), now much stained by damp, by a single hand at the end
of the thirteenth century. Some folios (none of which contain
parts of the ekphrasis) a r e in another hand of the fourteenth
century. Cod. 350 was described by Heisenberg in his Analecta:
Mitteilungen aus italien. HSS. by,-. Chrowogvaphen, 19-39,
Habilitationsschrift Wurzburg ; hlunich, Lindl, 1901. Corrections to this description, and a description of 352, were published
by Martini and Bassi, U n codice di Niccolb Mesarita, R m d i conti dell'Accad. di Arclteologia, Letteve e Belle A r t i , -"iapoli,
N . S., 17: 137-145, 1903 (cited by Heisenberg, p. 3, n. 4, only
by the pagination of the offprint) ; see the review by W. Cronert,
TOG
B . 2.13: 190-192, 1904. See also Sp. Lampros, " NQos
Nc~oA&ovBIeuapi~ov,"NQos 'EAAvvopvrjpwv, 1 : 412-415, 1904).

I
The opening of the ekphrasis is lost, and this chapter begins
in the middle of a phrase. The central hill of the city, the
Mesoloplzos, was vulgarly called the A l c s o i ~ p h a l o s (Patria, p.

[the city] ' had already preempted this [site], and in this
219, 9-12 ed. Preger; cf. Constantine of Rhodes, v. 451). A.
Grabar ( A l a r t y r i t ~ m1 : 227-231, 239 [Paris, College de France,
1946]), accepts hfesarites' statement that Constantine chose a
site in the middle of the city for the construction of the Church
of the Apostles. Mesarites refers however to the position of the
church in his own day; actually, the church, when built, was
fairly close to the Wall of Constantme. On the evidence for the
course of the wall of Constantine, see A. Van Millingen, By=.
Constantinople: T h e W a l l s of the C i t y , 15-33, London, 1899;
Th. Preger, Studien zur Topographie Konstantinopels, 111:
Die Konstantinsmauer, B.Z. 19: 450-461, 1910; F. Krischen,
Die Landnzauer v o n Konstantinopel p, 4, fig. 1, Berlin, De
ple
32-37, Paris,
Gruyter, 1935; R. Janin, C o ~ z s t a ~ t i ~ o byzarttixe
Institut f r a n ~ a i sd'Ctudes byzantins, 1950.
' According to some sources, the original Church of the
.Apostles was built by Constantine the Great, while other sources,
including Mesarites himself (in this chapter and in ch. X X X I X ,
below), attribute the construction of the church to Constantine's
son Constantius. Study of the tradition has shown, in the
writer's opinion, that the best evidence is that Constantius built
the church; c f . G. Downey, The builder of the original Church
of the Apostles at Constantinople: a contribution to the criticism
of the V i t a Constantini attributed to Eusebius, D t ~ m b a r t o nO a k s
Papers 6 : 53-50, 1951. This conclusion has been accepted by
several scholars, but others, notably J. Vogt and F. Vittinghoff,
have preferred to follow the tradition which attributes the
church to Constantine. See J. Vogt, Der Erbauer der Apostelkirche in Konstantinopel, Her?nes 8 1 : 111-117, 1953; F. Vittinghoff, Eusebius als Verfasser der ' L7ita Constantini,' Rheinisches
~ l l u s e t l m96 : 330-373, 1953 ; F. Halkin, Analecta Bolla?zdiana

862

D O W N E Y : NIKOL,AOS M E S A R I T E S

spot had built the church, which was a new construction of his own, in the name of the celebrated martyr
Acacius ; * there is a report which has come down to our
day, that his apostolic and holy body was first laid to
rest there beside the martyr's, and that later it was
brought here by Constantius, the second and middle
of his sons and was laid to rest in the church which
was raised in his name by the one who brought him
here 7-he who a few years later, I believe, perceived
the surpassing beauty of the place, just as the celebrated
Theodora did,s and instead of the center, and the region
about the navel, gave preference to the region a little
above the middle and about the heart."

a river, I think, that it swells and flows through a region


which is inhabited. I n the same fashion it is a foremost grace for a church of God to stand in the middle
of the city and draw to itself from all sides the people
of the Lord who bear the name of Christ, so that all
can come without trouble, when the wooden gong is
sounded; just as the heart itself, affected by the striking
of the wood,' feels a certain happy disturbance, and
its blood, which signifies the people of the Lord, is
called together
iron1 all sides for its nourishment and
protection by means of the services at evening and early
morning and at noon.
T H E SURROUNDINGS O F T H E CHURCH

11. The first and greatest praise of this Church is


that it is rich in possessing such a site and that it occupies
the place of the heart in relation to the whole body of
the Queen of Cities, from which those who dwell in
the city, ~ v h oare so to speak the remainder of the body,
draw, as if from a spring and a root, the means for
true living. 2. For it is a forelnost grace of a spring or

111. This Church, or rather a kind of wing- of the


church, has been to the Emperors from time imn~en~orial
a prized possession, wherefore they chose this place for
their unbroken sleep and their rest until the time of
resurrection,' and this was considered by the111 a beloved

70: 349-350, 1952; A. E. R. Boak, Spectllzlwz 28: 155-158, 1953;


R. J. H. Jenkins, Jozwrzal of Hellenic Studies 73: 192, 1953.
I. e., exactly in the middle.
T h e location of the Church of St. Acacius has not been
precisely fixed; see Janin, Eglises, pp. 17 ff., also Downey,
op. cit. (above, n. 2 ) p. 56.
T O the Mausoleum at the Church of the Apostles; see below,
X X X I X , 1. On the tradition that Constantine was originally
buried at the Church of Acacius, see Downey, op. cit. (above,
n. 2 ) , p. 56.
T h e Mausoleum, not the church proper;
see Downey,
. .
. OD.
. cit.
(above, n. 2 ) , p. 56.
There were (as with the main church) different traditions as
to the construction of the hlausoleum, some sources attributing
it to Constantine, others to Constantius. See the literature cited
above, n. 2.
The tradition that Theodora, not Justinian, was the prime
mover in building the new Church of the Holy Apostles appears
not only in hlesarites (here and below, XL, l o ) , but in the
Patuia, ed. Preger (Scr. orig. Const., 11), IV, 32, pp. 286, 16 ff.,
and in other late sources. T h e tale in the Patria is quasilegendary (see Heisenberg, p. 168), and it is difficult to know
what the origin of the statement which appears in hlesarites
might be.
The latter part of the sentence means that Constantius built
the Church of the Apostles a few years after he built the
Mausoleunl of Constantine. That the reference is to the Church
of the Apostles, rather than to the LIausoleum (which has just
been mentioned), is shown by the way in which Mesarites
speaks of Theodora, the reputed builder of the new Church of
the Apostles, and by the way in which he proceeds immediately,
in the opening sentence of the next chapter, to speak of " t h i s
church," i. e. the Holy Apostles. The words " a few years later "
also show that Mesarites refers to an event which followed the
building of the hlausoleum. If Mesarites, in this final clause,
had still had in mind the construction of the hlausoleum, he
would have had no reason to use the phrase " a few years later,"
having already written that Constantine's body was " later "
taken to the Mausoleum. Mesarites is wrong in saying that
Constantius chose this site for the church because it was in the
middle of the city. The church was in the middle of the city in
Mesarites' day, but in the time of Constantius it was near the
wall ; see above, n. 1.

hammer t o summon the faithful to services. Its employment is


illustrated by the passages collected by Du Cange, Gloss., s. v.
.$6hov, col. 1025; cf. also Heisenberg's note ad loc., p. 11, note 2.
The [hhov, being a single piece of wood which gave off one note,
differed from the u?jpavrpov or uqwavr?jptov, which was a set of
separate billets of wood arranged like chimes, which gave off
different sounds when struck in different places; see the passages collected by Du Cange, Gloss., s. 2.1 a?jpavrpov. The
striking of the mjpavrpov symbolized the driving of the nails into
Christ's hands and feet; its sounds were also supposed to represent the trumpets of the angels proclaiming the Last Day, or
the trumpets rousing the faithful to combat with the unseen
powers. See the statements of the handbook of symbolism called
the Historia ecclesiastics, in the versions attributed to Germanus
( P . G., X C V I I I , 385 A-B) and to Sophronius of Jerusalem, ed.
by N. Th. Krasnoselchev, 0 drev. liturg. tolkov., Lietopis istor.philolog. Obsch. pui imp. Novoross. Utziv.4 : 202, 13-15, Bizant.
otdiel. 2 : 1894.
I11
The hfausoleum is described in greater detail in Ch. X X X I X .
F o r the use of ?r.repljytov in this sense, see Du Cange, Gloss., s. v.
TTEP~V.
This is the first of a number of passages which hlesarites borrows or adapts from Libanius' encomium of Antioch
(Orat. X I ) . T h e borrowings are as follows:
hfesarites
Libanius
111, 1
17, p. 442, 7-8 ed. Forster
111, 3
19, p. 443, 4-8
111, 6
236, p. 520, 4-9
111, 6
234, p. 518, 21-519, 1
111, 6
200, p. 505, 14-16
IV 1
23, p. 444, 9-15
37, p. 448, 17-449, 7
v, 1
36. p. 448, 14-17
V, 2
178, p. 496, 19-20
V, 4
V I , 2-3
220, p. 513, 10-514, 3
V I , 4-5
237, p. 520, 11-15
XI, 2
186, p. 500, 8-10
T h e dnfioclzikos enjoyed a wide popularity in the Byzantine
period, and hlesarites' readers would have recognized the allusions readily (see Forster's notes in his Teubner edition of
Libanius, I, p. 412).
' F o r ~atp6s in this sense, cf. Mark 13 : 33; Luke 21 : 8 ;
Apocal. 1 : 3 ; 22 : 10.

I1
',4 free-hanging wooden board (Elihov) was struck with a

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 39573

C H U R C H O F THE H O L Y A P O S T L E S

dwelling, desired and cherished, second only to the truly


beloved dwellings of the Lord of hosts, when their souls
had left them and had been taken to their everlasting
11omes.~ F o r the rest of the churches of God lie, so to
speak, in the middle of confusion, and the ministers of
God are jostled by the mob and cannot sing their hymns
with freedom; but this is free and untroubled by all
such things. 2. A man who stands inside it or even
passes by outside and hears the song of the priests
singing hymns would say truly that the church had been
gifted with its location not on earth but in heaven, or
indeed in that paradise planted by God in the East.
3. Indeed one can see in it and in the regions surrounding it inexhaustible treasures of water and reservoirs of
sweet water made equal to seas, from which as though
from four heads of rivers the whole City of Constantine
receives its supp1y.j One can also see deep and fertile
soil, rich and soft, easy to dig, richly responding to the
desires of husbandmen, equally good for sowing and for
growing, and well suited to the production of both
classes of products, both tall trees with rich fruit, and
fruits in abundance; the beauty of these even surpasses
the q ~ a n t i t y and
, ~ the crops are taller than trees themselves are elsewhere. 4. One can see saffron growing
in the land about this Church, balsam and lilies, fresh
clover and hyacinth, the rose and the oleander and
everything of sweet aroma. 5. This is more lovely than
the garden of L a e r t e ~ ,than
~
the much-sung happy
Arabia. 6. F o r there is a variety of gardens in it and
pleasant aqueducts and a multitude of springs, and

houses hidden in trees,Qa scene of every pleasant view,


choruses of musical birds, a moderate breeze, sweet
scents of spices, the gardens of Alcinous, a Sicilian
banquet, the horn of Amaltheia, a feast of Sybaris,lo
the starting-point for every pleasure," vines and figtrees and pomegranates surpassing those of the Canaanites, whose fruits Joshua son of Nave, with Caleb, when
they spied out the land of Canaan, brought back to the
people in the desert, as a token of the land which was
foretold to them.12

On U K ~ Y as
? ~ "dwelling," see Antioch-on-the-Ouontes, I I :
The Escavatioizs, 1933-1936, ed. by R. Stillu~ell, 46, n. 10,
Princeton University Press, 1938.
Gen. 2 : 10; Anonynzozrs dcscuiptiotz of the building of S t .
Soplaia, p. 102, 11 ff. ed. Preger ( S c r . orig. Coilsfaut.). See
A. Frolow, Deux kglises byzantines dlapri.s des sermons . . .
de Leon V I . . . Etzides bys. 3 : 56-57, 1945.
' T h e reference is to the Aqueduct of Valens and to the
reservoirs in the vicinity of the Church: cf. P. Forchheimer and
J. Stryzgowski, Die by2. Wasseubehalteu von Konst. 19-20, 186,
Vienna, 1893, and K. 0. Dalman, Die Valens-Aqtradz~kt itz
Konst. Bamberg, Reindl, 1933; Istanbuler Forsch., 111.
' T h e words d p o i w s pkv dyaO+v-liskp ~ i sXljOos
,
are paraphrased
from Libanius' oration in praise of Antioch, Orat., X I , 19. Mesarites' statement that the land about the church was under
cultivation and not built upon fits other evidence which shows
that a t this period, because of the decline in the population of
the city, there were districts within the walls of Constantinople
which had ceased to be occupied by buildings and had been
turned to agricultural uses; see A. hf. Schneider, Die Bevolkerung Konstantinopels im XV. Jahrhundert, Nachrichteit
der Akad. der Wiss. in Gottittgen, Phil.-hist. Kl. 1949: 233-244.
Schneider thinks that the present passage refers specifically to
cultivated land in the valley of the Lycus ( o p cit., p. 233, n. 3 ) .
See also the same scholar's Regionen und Quartiere in Konstantinopel, in Klciizasief~zrnd Byzaizz 150, Berlin, W. de Gruyter,
1950, and R. Janin, Cottstattti~zople bycantirx 48 (Paris, Institut
franqais dlCtudes byzantines, 1950.)
Odyssey, X X I V , 336 ff.
~ a r a y w y l jhere means " aqueduct " (= d y w y 6 s ) . Heisenberg,
in his note ad loc. (p. 13, n. 2 ) , could only suppose that this

was the sense; but the meaning is proved by the context in


which it is employed by Libanius in Orat., XI, 236, p. 520, 7 ed.
Forster, from which hfesarites borrowed his own description.
' The sentence to this point is copied verbatim from Libanius'
description of the road from Antioch to Daphne in his oration
in praise of Antioch, Orat., X I , 234; see above, n. 1.
l o This portion of the sentence is borrowed, with certain omissions, from Libanius' description of Daphne, Orat., X I , 236; see
above, n. 1. On the literary allusions, see Heisenberg's note ad
loc. (p. 13, n. 3 ) .
llLibanius, Orat., X I , 200 (see above, n. 1 ) .

l 2 Num. 13.

IV

' T h e words 6Qv6pd T E s p d s ii+os . . . s o h l j s u p o ~ are a reminiscence of a passage in Libanius' encomium of Antioch, Ouat.,
X I , 23; see above, 111, n. 1.
Ships of Genoa, Pisa, and Venice frequently made piratical
raids in the Aegean and the eastern Mediterranean at this time,
and attacks on convoys bringing grain from Egypt were only
too familiar to the people of Constantinople when hfesarites
wrote; there had been particularly violent outbreaks of piracy
in 1192, 1194 and 1198 (see W. Heyd, Nist. dl6 conztlzercc du
levatzt, 2d reimpression, 1 : 232-239, Leipzig, Harrassowitz, 1936;
L. Brkhier, Vie et nzort de Byzaltce 358-359, Paris, A. Michel,
1947. There was also doubtless a vivid tradition of the events
of the terrible year 1091, when the capital was menaced by the
Turkish pirate Tzachas; see G. Ostrogorsky, Gesclaichte des
byzantinischefz Staates, ed. 2, 285, Munich, C. H . Beck, 1952).
On the technical use of ~ E T ~ K O P Lin~ ?this
~
sense, see Suidas,
s, v. (BVVWVGV. L L E T ~ K Oand
~ ~ Athanasius,
~?~)
Apol. contra Aria+los,
I X = P. G. X X V , 265 A ( 7 0 6 U ~ T O V~ E T ~ K O ~ L ~ ? ) ) .

IV. This land which lies about the Church is not


only fitted for the growing of plants, and for the sowing
of seed, but you may see in it trees growing to a great
height and laden with fruit and with the vines which
climb up in them, and crops growing under the trees;
for all the land around this Church is full of strength
and rich in wheat.' 2. People frotn whom this Church
is far distant can see from afar the wheat being brought
i n ; for those who live near it, the wheat alone which
grows in the land about their houses is sufficient for
their nourishment, and they need have no care for invasions of barbarians, for the mighty waves of the sea,
for the dangers from pirates,' for the laborious drawing
up of ships on the shore, for the troublesome handling
of the grain by shippers, or for any of the other things
which the mischievous minds of sailors can devise.
3. But the grain is laid away unsoiled in the storehouses, free from dust and chaff, with no moisture or
husks or rice-wheat, and the wheat is all wheat.

T H E VIEIV FROM T H E GALLERY A X D T H E R O O F

V. A man who walks about in the upper galleries of


the Church enjoys a varied pleasure as he gazes over
the backs of the northern and southern seas. For one
can see frotll there the sea, which itself lies there tranquilly and on its back bears freight-ships before a fair
breeze, a sweet sight to all men and a source of rejoicing
and pleasure. 2. And neither is he frightened by the
floods which the sea is wont to spew up,3 now here,
now there because he stands at a fitting distance from
it, nor does he hear the groans of the sailors or the
cries of drowning men. 3. How much and how wide is
the open coutltry which he sees beyond the walls, which
has been given its present name because men love to
visit it for its great beauty and pleasantness, what
description can portray in words? 4. See, the ruler has
gone otit for the salvation of his people and he is

staying in the Emperor's Tents, which are opposite


the palace and a little distance from it, and are built on '
this [land] ; for from ancient times, it has been the
custom for the Roman army to gather first on this plain,
as though cotning from diverse springs it1 lands everywhere into one meeting of the ~ a t e r s and
, ~ when it
has formed one river which will sweep aside everything
that comes in its way, to set out against the enemy from
this spot, for the place is sufficient for all kinds of
maintenance for numberless armies. 5. And at that time
the whole army can be seen by a inan standing on the
parapets and the towering outlines of the Church.
6. The place is always busy with the pursuits of the
hunt, and a man who wishes to watch these has no need
of anyone to point out the incidents to him, for the
quarry is ever under the eye of the onlooker, whether
it be a boar with savage tusks or a swift hare or a
leaping deer.g
T H E BATHS OUTSIDE T H E CHURCH

F o r examples of ~ b Grhporpa meaning the triforium gallery


or galleries, see the Anonymous Description of thc Bnildhlg
of S t . Soplzia, p. 93, 3 ed. Preger; Gregory of Nazianzus,
P. G., X X X V , 1037 A. As an adjective. the word is common in
the sense of taro-storied; used in the neuter plural, it meant the
sccond-story section, the second-story level. Heisenberg, not
knowing the passage in the Anon. Descr., took ~b Grhpo@a in
hles. t o mean the roof of the church, though he cites no parallel
for this use of the word and the present writer has been able to
find none. bles. himself uses Grhporpos in the sense of two-storied
in a passage (which Heisenberg overlooked in this connection)
in his funeral oration on his brother, published by Heisenberg,
Sit,-.-Ber. dcr Buyer. i l k a d . d. Wiss., pl1ilosopk.-philolog. tr.
Izistor. R l . 1922, 5 .4bt., p. 46, 6. The present elevation of the
hill upon which the church stood is about 64 m above sea level,
which is probably not more than one or two metres higher (if
a t all) than the elevation in the hliddle Ages hlap of Constantinople at 1 : 2000 of the Soc. Anon. Ott. d'ktudes et d'entreprises
urbaines (1922), Sheet 4 ; c f . I<. 0 . Dalman, Der ValcnsAqziadl~kt in Ronst. 37 (Bamberg, Reindl, 1933; Istanbuler
Forsch., 111). The hill was among the highest in the city, and
since hlesarites' description of the surroundings of the church
(111-IV) makes it plain that the immediate neighborhood was
not thickly built up (see above, Ch. 111, n. 6 ) , one could easily
enjoy from the triforium level and the roof such a view as
hlesarites describes.
C f . Iliad, 11, 159; Odyssey, 111, 142; Libanius, Oraf., XI, 37.
Cf. Libanius, Orat., X I , 36-37 (see above, 111, 11. 1 ) .
The area outside the city walls on the west was called the
2Ew + r A o x d ~ r o v , as distinguished from the dvrbs + r A o x d ~ r o v at the
hlangana Palace; see Nicetas Acominatus, p. 380, 17-22 Bonn
ed.; Heisenberg's note on the present passage in hlesarites
(p. 15, n. 1 ) ; R. Demangel and E . hlamboury, L e qziartier des
dlanganes e f la prewi2rc rhgion de Constarztir~ople 40, n. 2,
Paris, Boccard, 1939; R. Janin, Consfa~ztinoplebgzantinc 142144, 413, Paris, Institut f r a n ~ a i sd'ktudes byzantines, 1950; G.
Downey, Notes on the topography of Constantinople, .4rt Bulletin 34: 236, 1952. Since the Outer Philopation lies at a level
of from 50 to 70m. above sea level (G. S. G. S. map of Constantinople and vicinity at 1 : 25,000) at a distance of about
2 km. from the church, which stood at a level of about 61m.
above sea level (above, n. I ) , the view of the Philopation from
the church would be excellent, especially since the valley of the
Lycus furnished an intervening depression.
' The familiar picture of the victorious and triumphant ruler
saving his people comes to hlesarites quite automatically. The

VI. What, beside this great height of the Church and


its swelling profile,l are that Tower in Chalane,"r
the
shadowless Pyramids in Egypt? They are utterly
obscure and like a grain of millet and in no way fit to
be taken in comparison. 2. TVho could not love the
springs of mall-made warm water lying round about
the Church, the pools and colonnades, which the corntnon people are accustomed to call baths ? 3. Some of
subject has been treated most recently by hl P . Charlesworth,
Pietas and victoria: The emperor and the citizen, J R. S . 33
1-10, 1943.
'This use of Z x I with the acc. (instead of with the gen. or
dat.) to mean " o n " occurs also in X X X V , 1.
' Iliad, I V , 453 ; Libanius, Orat., X I , 178.
Presumably the Church of the Apostles contained stairs leading to the roof similar to those provided at St. Sophia; cf. E. H.
Swift, Hagia Sophia 137-142, New York, Columbia Unlv. Press,
1940. On the elevation of the hill upon which the church stood,
see n. 1 in this chapter.
hiesarites' allusion to hunting brings t o mind the popularity
and symbolic importance of hunting scenes in Byzantine art.
For discussions of the subject, see A. Grabar, L'E~rzpcrezir dulls
l'arf byz. 57-62, 133-144, Paris, Les belles lettres, 1936; G.
Downey, The Pilgrim's Progress of the Byzantine Emperor,
Cllzirck History 9 : 207-217, 1940; idem, Ethical themes in the
Antioch mosaics, ibid. 10: 367-376, 1941. The popularity of the
subject has been again attested by the mosaic floors discovered
recently in the Great Palace at Constantinople, which contain a
number of hunting scenes; see Tile Grcaf Palare of tiic Byzarliirze Ewpcrors, beitig a first rcport on the cxcavattoirs carried
o:it in Istanbzil on behalf of the W a l k e r T r l ~ s t( T h e Ciniziersity
of S t . rlttdrezcv) 1935-1935, 70-82, Oxford Univ. Press, 1917.
VI
hlesarites refers to the effect of the domes.
"he
Tower of Babel ; cf. Gcn. 10 : 10 ; 11 : 9. On the proverbial use of the expression, see G. IvIercati, B . 2.6 : 132, n. 5,
1897.
Paulus Silentiarius ( S t . Sophia, 612-616) mentions only
briefly the unroofed courts which surrounded St. Sophia; but
he made the observation (which hlesarites failed to do) that
tl?eir presence improved the lighting of the interior.

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

CHURCH O F T H E HOLY APOSTLES

them are designed for the winter season, some are and do not form a part of the real excellences which
appropriate for sutntner; and some are sheltered from individually have been added to the church-these
harsh winds while others are airy and raised on high, things are of such kind and so great in number, and
with nothing in common with the earth.4 4. Thus the are so admirable and so astonishingly precious, and our
whole place heals bodies, so that if one spends but a discourse has sufficiently-or, to tell the truth, so far
them. 2. What
short time there, and then retnembers that he rnust as was within its power-proclaimed
return h o n ~ e he
, ~ departs

with a healthier c o ~ ~ n t e n a n c e .now
~ of the treasure of learning which has its existence
But if he were asked in what he delighted most, he in it and is a natural part of it-the marrow one might
would be at a loss, so much does everything around call this, or the nourishtnent of the understanding-all
the Church rival everythitlg else, and so equally matched that is concerned with sacred music and with the arrayis each thing to the other. 5. No suffering is so strong ing of numbers and their extension to infinity and their
or so unconquerable or so stubborn or so to speak so reduction and division, and all that pertains to this
Herculean that this place would not drive it out of profession of ours,3 shall all this be left unhonored and
the body or the soul which it has seized upon, not only unmentioned and unsung? 3. O n the contrary, for it
when this place has actually received one who is pos- is this in truth which makes the Church, great as it is,
sessed by disease, but even when it is seen from some more venerable. 4. For when one sees some man who
distant place by such a one, or comes to one's memory. is seemly in his appearance, but more seemly in care
6. For if their shadows alone drove out the diseases concerning his character, and is comely in his dress and
would actual con- is well made in his person and figure and so to speak
which trouble human b o d i e ~ ,what
~
tact with those from whom the shadows went forth personable in all things, so long as one did not look
at him with ill will or only superficially ; and if one
not do ?
knew from certain plain signs that this man had an
educated mind and that in so far as pertains both to
T H E COLLEGE OUTSIDE T H E CHURCH.l
utterance and to inward thought," he had reached the
VII. These things, which are part of the external
highest point of training in virtue, both in understanding
features and, so to speak, part of the applied adornment,
and experience and it1 skill in the management of affairs,
This sentence is borrowed from Libanius' description of then one would not consider such a tnan praiseworthy
baths at Antioch (Orat., XI, 220) ; see above, 111, n. 1. While in external matters, and admire him for these reasons,
the fact that the passage is borrowed need not cast doubt upon and for his inner qualities pass him by unhonored and
the existence of such baths outside the church, it must be borne untested and leave him unadmired; 5. but one would
in mind that it does not constitute an original description of
such baths as existed there. Baths at the church are mentioned rather direct the greater part of one's admiration to
in the Eusebian V i t a Cotzstatttini, I V , 59. On the other ancient his inner qualities, not only because, by his naturally
evidence for winter and summer baths, see G. Downey in incomparable superiorities he has risen above inferior
A . J. A . 41 : 200, n. 3, 1937, and in Antiock-on-the-Oronles 2 :
things, but because the acquisition of these excellencies
208, n. 13, Princeton Univ. Press, 1938.
and successes has not been without trouble and without
' A Homeric phrase; cf. Odyssey, 111, 142.

' This sentence and the next two are closely adapted from
Libanius' description of Daphne, Orat., XI, 237 (see above, 111,
n. 1 ) . I n V I , 4, Heisenberg feels that rois must be added to
Mesarites' text for the sake of the rhythm: it is to be noted
that this article does not appear in the corresponding passage
in Libanius, which Heisenherg did not know.
A marginal note in the MS. states that the reference is to
leprosy. Epilepsy and elephantiasis were also both called " t h e
Herculean disease " (Liddell-Scott-Jones s. v. 'Hph~Aeios). Heisenberg suggests that the passage may show that the church
was within sight of a lobotropheiotl (see his note, p. 17, n. 1 ) .
Mesarites' choice of the epithet may have been influenced by
the circumstance that Daphne was also called 'IIpd~Aeis,and
that this name appears in Libanius' Antiochikos (Orat., XI,
233), from which Mesarites borrows heavily in this chapter
and elsewhere (see above, 111, n. 1 ) . On the name of Daphne,
see C. 0. Muller, Atttiq. Alztioch., 41, n. 14, Gottingen, 1839,
and L . Hugi, D c r Alztiochzkos des Libattios, 110-111, Diss.,
Freiburg-i. d. S . ; Solothurn, Verlag " Union," 1919.
Acts 5 : 15.
VII
The elementary curriculum, corresponding to the trivium, is
described here, while the advanced studies, corresponding to the
quadrivium, are reserved for the close of the ckphrasis ( X L I I X L I I I ) ; see X L I I , note 1. T h e elementary students were
installed in a colonnaded peribolos ( V I I I , 2 ) , out of which there

opened "seats of the Muses," i. e. schools. This peribolos seems


to have been three-sided, since I\IIesarites says that grammar was
taught in the eastern part, which was toward the Church of
All the Saints (i7111, I ) , music in the western part ( I X , 1 ;
note that this subject was placed at the greatest possible distance
from the churches themselves) ; and arithmetic in the remaining
section ( X ) , whose orientation he does not specify. The advanced students Lvere installed in the adjoining atrium (pronaos,
X L I , 1) ; c f . X L I I , note 2. L. Brkhier (L'enseignement classii Byzance, R e v . d'klst. et de
que et l'enseignement religieux t
philosoph. religiettscs 1911 : 51, n. 1 ) takes the peribolos of
V I I I , 2 to be the narthex of the Holy Apostles, which, being
composed (in his estimation) of three galleries, would have
accommodated the three subjects. Pcvibolos, however, is not
(at least to the present writer's knowledge) applied to a
narthex. See the discussion of the school at the Church of
the Apostles by F. Dvornik, Photius et la rCorganisation de
I'acadkmie patriarcale, Anal. Boll. 68: 108-125, 1950 (MPI. P .
Peeters, 2 ) .
Odyssey, 11, 290; X X , 108.
Rhetoric.
T h e reference is to uttered speech and to the speech which
philoresides in the mind; c f . Plutarch, Maxiwte C I L ~ I Zp~zttctpib~ts
sopho esse dtsserendl~rn,777 B. Mesarites uses the same phrase
below, X I I , 18.

,AOS M E S A R I T E S

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

labor; for God, you know, has put sweat before ~ i r t u e . ~their mouths and utter wisdom l and rehearse praise
6. I n the saine way I think it necessary not to leave for God the King of all, and of His saints who have
unproclaimed the inner superiorities of the church, lest imitated His manner of life and His sufferings. 2. Going
one do wrong to the subject of our praise in its better on a little, you will find lads and young men who have
and more important part.
just put away their boyhood, sounding forth sweet
melody and l~arinonioussong from their throats, their
V I I I . O n this side, then, there are open seats of the mouths, their tongues, their lips and their teeth.2
nluses of learning
- l toward the east and toward the
3. These beat the time with their hands in order to keep
church, quite close to this one, what has its glory in the voices and the inelody in time and train the behaving been founded in the name of all t h e eternal ginners, so that they may not slip away from the melodic
saints, which the wisest among Emperors, Leo was line or drop out of the rhythm or fall away from the
his name, constructed2 royally and magnificently and other voices or sing out of tune.3
with every b e a ~ t y . 2.
~ In these the teaching of the
X. Going on not much further you will see those who
grammarians takes place, and books are spread open
to lay out the preparatory steps of the study of gram- are busy with the art of reck0ning.l How do they close
mar, and youthful beginners are constantly reading their fingers so continuously and as constantly open
their lessons and pacing up and down through the eii- them, quickly curling thein next to each other and even
closure of the stoa; others are carrying their papers more quickly sending them off again, and learning, so
under their arins and reciting orally what is written to speak, the art of dancing with their hands and fearing
in them, since they have previously graven these things the rod, lest, if the hand makes a mistake along with
on the tablets of rnernory through continuous reading; the memory, it come to linger fondly on their palms,
others again, who surpass these in years and learning, which spread open unwillingly and secretly hollow themcarrying writing-tablets in their hands, rehearse prob- selves, when the rod like a bird of prey comes down on
1ems completely from the beginning, some of which thein with a great whistle and bends them back as it
they gather wholly from the material w l ~ i c lthey
~
have strikes them, and takes off the skin and the flesh and
in their hands. others of which they obtain elselvhere. does not leave without tasting the bones. For these
throwing the younger students into confusion and put- men who teach with their hands are a violent race and
ting them at a loss. 3. Still others, those who have brutal and ungovernable. 2. Indeed you may see most
achieved the higher and more complete stages, weave of them cutting into the children's shoulders unmerciwebs of phrases and transform the written sense into fully with whips of bulls' sinews. This happens for
riddles, saying one thing with their tongues, but hiding no other reason, I think, than that their natures are not
something- elie in their minds5 4. And you may see disciplined and because their calling, by which they have
still others who sit crouched over syllables and spend lived and in which they have grown old, is coinmonplace
their whole lives chopping up words and squeezing and rude. 3. Wherefore they always look upon their
them and shaving little words, who beat little boys and pupils with a wild and angry and bitter eye; and all
because of this power make theinselves high and inighty those who are under them are dejected, and tremble
and are fearful.
and are filled with pride.6

IX. There, toward the west, you may see hyrnnsingers with little children, almost infants, who lisp and
have only lately been taken from the breast. who open
W e s i o d , Opera, 289. On a Byzantine conception of the
struggle for the attainment of virtue, see G. Downey, T h e
Pilarim's Progress of the Byzantine Emperor, Chzcrch History
9 : 207-217, 1940, and Ethical themes in the Antioch mosaics,
ibid. 10: 367-376, 1911.
VIII
'I. e. schools, which were commonly called "seats of the
Muses" ( c f . Libanius, Orat., X I , 139).
See my article The Church of All Saints (Church of St.
Theophano) near the Church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople, Dztrnbarton Oaks Papers 9-10: 301-305, 1956.
Leo is said to have removed mosaics, marbles and columns
from the Church of St. Stephen for use in the Church of the
.Apostles and the Church of All the Saints (Patria, p. 280, 18 ff.
ed. Preger).
2 Corinth. 3 : 3.
' Iliad, I X , 313.
'This sentence is taken almost literally from Themistius,
Orat., XXI, p. 305. 20-25 ed. Dindorf.

X I . However, every passer-by, seeing the school life


of the student as described here, wishes to become a
student and to be a child for his whole life and a
IX
21 : 16.
'This enumeration of the vocal organs reflects Mesarites'
interest in physiology; see X X X I V , n. 7.
Practical instruction in music is described here, theoretical
instruction below, X L I I , 8-9. On the significance of these passages in the history of Byzantine music, see the commentary
below.

' Psalm 8 : 3 ; Matt.

' On

the method of reckoning in which the fingers of either


hand represent various numbers when held in various positions,
see the detailed study, with illustrations, by J.-G. Lemoine, Les
anciens procCdCs de calcul sur les doigts en Orient et en Occident, Rezez~e des Etzides Islawtiqt~es 6 : 1-58, 1932, followed by
G. S. Colin, Un texte inedit d'Ibn BundGd sur la dactylonomie,
ibid., 59-60. See also the arithmetical letters of Nikolaos
Rhabdas, ed. by P. Tannery, Mhiizoircs scirittifiqzces 4 : 90-96,
Toulouse-Paris, Privat, 1920, and T. Id. Heath, A history of
Greek dlatlzei~tatics2 : 551-552, Oxford, 1921.

CHURCH O F T H E HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19573

learner. 2. And all fathers who have tender affection


for their children, send their children to these studies,
some here, and some elsewhere; and some, who have
chosen to live with their brothers as one,l showing
towards those born after them the affection of second
fathers, because they are more advanced in years, send
their brothers ; and others, whom the proverb " an evil
neighbor is a great calamity " does not fit, send their
neighbors ; and others, who would exchange the beauty
of friendship for everything else because of the trustworthy and honest bearing of friends toward one another, send their acquaintances and friends; and, in a
word, all bring their sons, brothers, friends and acquaintances from all quarters and from the city as well as to
this home of the muse^.^ 3. And the seats are full of
the children, and the benches, and there is a twittering
of children round about the Church as though they
were some kind of musical birds, and the Church within
echoes with them, not with a distorted echo, as in the
mountains, but a kind of tnelodious sweet echo, as
though one heard angels sing.
INVOCATION O F T H E A P O S T L E S

XII. Now however it is time for us to proceed in


our description to the things within the Church and to
look at the things there with the eyes of sense and to
understand them with the eyes of the spirit.' For the
spirit is wont to advance from those things which are
perceived by the senses, and, led by the lesser faculty,
to understand ultimate things and to penetrate to the
secret places, to which the faculty which leads it is in no
wise able to c o n ~ e .2.
~ But now do you stand with me
and lay hold, along with me, of the present description,
you Apostles of the Lord, fellow-workers in His glad
tidings and laborers in His vineyard, since my care and
my zealous labor are for you. 3. Let one of you, like
a cloud, besprinkle me with eloquence, another with
wisdom, and another with understanding, which you
draw, as into a jar, from the never-failing divine spring
of the gifts of the Spirit, so that I may see a perfect gift
coming down to me from above, from you, and, through
you, from the Father of light^.^ 4. Except the Lord,
through you, build this house for me, which I purpose
to build with words for material and with the skill of
nly mind, so that I and every lover of the Apostles may
be able, through it, to see more clearly and more purely

I
Psalm 132 (133) : 1.
Hesiod, Opera, 346.
The phrasing of this sentence is a reminiscence of Libanius,
Orat., XI, 186.
XI1
Cf. the Liturgy of St. James in F. E. Brightman, Litzlrgies
eastrrn and zcrester~ 1 : p. 49, 24, Oxford, 1896.
Matt. 20 : 1.
Cf. James 1 : 17.

867

the beauty of this house of yours, my human thoughts


and words, which build it, will have labored in vain.4
5. So do thou, Peter, the rock of the profession of
Christ and of the faith, on which Christ founded His
~ h u r c h ,sustain
~
my mind and my purpose, and grant
that for the remainder of the labor of building I may
lay a well proportioned and unyielding foundation in
my discourse.
6. Paul, thou mouth of the Lord, provide my tongue
and my mind with eloquence through the fire of the
Spirit, and change my reckless words to fair ones. And
strike the eyes of my mind with lightning, as thou wast
thyself struck with light, not beciuse I &I journeying
to the city of Damascus or desiring to bind the saints
and carry them off to Terusalen~,~
but because I seek
to bring t l ~ e nto~ this Cl~urchand to prayer and supplication to the Christ who was once persecuted by you and
to the rest of His disciples. 7. Give me the true word
when I open my mouth and grant that my understanding
may come to completion in thy name without blemisl~:
8. Luke, com~anionof the iournevs of Christ and
Paul, be 111y companion as I set off to make this tour
all around the Church on the wings of words. Do not
refuse these prayers to thee, but be my helper and give
me a tiny drop of the grace in speech which was granted
by God to thee.
9. I1'Iatthew and Mark, may the beginnings of my
present discourse be glad tidings, and h a y God grant
that my prayers may fall on the ears of those who are
willing to hear them, so that I may myself enjoy a
little of the blessed state of those who speak as you do.
10. John, friend of Christ, virginal t h e o l ~ g i a n ,thou
~
wast called son of thunder lo by Him because of the
Psal~rz 126 (127) : 1. Mesarites uses the so-called " Byzantine list" of the Apostles, in which Luke and Mark are substituted for Jude and James the Less.
' Matt... 16: 18
Literally, " Provide my tongue and my mind with a mouth."
' -4cts 9 : 1 ff.
Here there is a play on words, IIaOAos-raiiha, which cannot
be reproduced.
'John is called " i n every way maidenly" in the description
of the Transfiguration, XVII, 5. The tradition that John
was a virgin, and therefore was loved the more by the Lord,
appears in Nonnus' Paraphrase of the Gospel of John, XIX,
26-27 = P . G., XLIII, 904 B ; Jerome, A d v . Jozpi~tia,zttnt,I, 26 =
P. I-., XXIII, 258 A ; Augustine, I n Ioannis Evanqelzllm, Tract.
CXXIV, xxi. 7 = P. L., XXXV, 1976; in the Liturgy of the
Abyssinian Jacobites said to have been compiled by Basil of
Antioch, F. E. Brightman, Liturgies easter~z and wester~z 1 :
217, 20, Oxford, 1896; in the Syriac History of John, ed. by
W. Wright, Apocrypl~al A c t s of the Apostles 2 : 10, London,
1871 ; cf. also J . Ficker, Die Darstellu~zgetz der Aposfel in der
altchristl. ICihnst 32-33, Leipzig, 1887. This tradition is probably
connected with the high value placed on chastity and celibacy in
men which is indicated in Apocal. 14: 1-5. Below (XXXV, 1)
in another context Mesarites refers to the apostles as "virgins."
Mark 3 : 17; the reference is also to the thunder frequently
mentioned in connection with the writing of the Apocalypse,
4 : s ; 6 : l ; 8 : s ; 1 0 : 3 ; 11:19; 1 4 : 2 ; 16:18; 19:6. See also
below, XLIII, 8. The same tradition appears in the apocryphal
~

--

868

DO\\'NEY:

S I K O L,AOS M E S A R I T E S

lofty and mighty sound of the science of divine things


which was granted to thee, through which thou hast
thundered at the ears of unbelievers and dost still
thunder today. 11. Give my tongue too a sweet and
pleasing sound, and moisten its dryness with a tiny
drop from the waters flowing with life, from which thou
hast eagerly drunk, as thou leanest on the bosom of
Christ, the unquenchable spring of very \Visdom.ll
12. Andrew, first called,12 since I too have been as
I believe first called to this undertaking,l"ake
me
courageous li and firm and enduring for the con~pletion
of the undertaking.
13. Thomas, banish to perdition that doubt which
possesses my soul through the wiles of Satan who ever
envies fair things and seeks to forbid me to finish my
undertaking because of the difficulty of the work; but
banish with it those who say one thing with their
tongues and hide something else in their minds,15 who
are white and black at once,1 seeming white so far as
the outward man is affected, and showing the white
and pure character of friendship, and, so to speak, clad
with it outwardly, but black within, in their hearts which
sit in ambush, full of envy and abuse and anger and
darkness.
14. Philip, climb up to the four-horsed chariot of
my mind and sit there as once thou did in the chariot
of the Queen of Ethiopia's eunuch Candace l 7 and now
pray thee this-to
the complete
guide my mind-I
execution of the work which I have begun. 15. F o r I
too try to encompass the subject in my discourse according to my power and so to speak I read the book of the
description of the shrine but I do not entirely understand it, that is, not as is fitting, and I cannot put it
A c t s of J o h n by Prochorus; c f . R. A. Lipsius, D i e a p o k v y p h e ~ z
A p o t c l y e s c l ~ i c l l t e ~1 ~: 394 (cf. 362), Braunschweig, 1883-1890.
" John 13 : 23.
l2 Matt.
4 : 18; Mark 1 : 16 ; John 1 : 40. Cf. Rfesarites'
account of the disputation of 30 Aug. 1206, ed. A. Heisenberg,
Sit:.-Bev. d c r B a y c v . A k a d . d. W i s s . , phi1osoph.-plzilolog. u.
I~istov.KI., 1923, 2. Abh., p. 24, 14.
l3 In spite of his statement here, Mesarites probably knew
Constantine's ekphrasis ( c f . Heisenberg, p. 7 ) . Either Rfesarites' words are rhetorical, or (more likely) he considered that
Constantine's verses were so slight in comparison with his own
impressive discourse that they were not worth taking into
account.
'' There is a play on words, 'BvSpf'as--dvSpr~6s, which cannot
be reproduced in translation.
" I l i a d , I X , 313.
'' The sense is, "banish those who try to seem white when
they are really black."
The queen's name is given by error to the eunuch, who is
not named in the description of the incident in Acts 8 : 27ff.
Rfisunderstanding, which probably arose from the peculiar wordorder of Acts 8 : 27, and from the unfamiliarity of the name, had
similar results elsewhere; in the apocryphal A c t s o f Philib, for
example, it is written that Philip " came to the sea in the
borders of the Candaci" (M. R. James, T k c Apocrypl?al N e w
T e s t a n t e ~ z t442, Ch. 111, 33, Oxford Univ. Press, 1924) ; cf.
Grohmann, art. " Kandakoi," R. E. 10: 1859, and Lipsius, op. czt.
2 : 2, p. 137.

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

together with an understanding which is worthy of


the subject.
16. James, thy wanderings were cut short by the
sword ls which made thee a wanderer across heaven l"
and caused thee to sit beside Him for whom thou hast
suffered this blow. Do thou with the sword of the Spirit
cut out the heavy and earthy quality of my discourse,
which draws it down to earth and causes it to creep
along the ground, and does not permit the buoyance
and refinement of the discourse to rise toward heaven;
and do thou show forth my mind as one which traverses
heaven and my discourse as one which takes wing
through the air.
17. Simon, thou man of emulation, smite upon me,
for the con~pletion of this my undertaking, a worthy
spur of that envy, with which in thy envy thou didst
envy thy Lord.20
18. Bartholomew, thou art nailed to the Cross
through which the gates of paradise were opened for
Prepare my mind to be nailed to the sights
which are to be seen about this cross-formed Church,
so that it may gaze upon them tranquilly and may not
be drawn off by any of the things which seek to distract
i t ; thus through being nailed on it, and through observing it carefully, the paradise which is depicted in the
beauty of the Church and in its many-colored pictures
may be opened to it, so that it may enter and gaze on
the things within and may, so far as it can, furnish
for the understanding of its appreciative and grateful
hearers a clear conception, through the description in
pen and ink, of the outwardly expressed and inwardly
contained meaning.22
T H E P L A N OF T H E CHURCH.1 T H E PANTOKR.L\TOR

X I I I . This Church, 0 spectators, is in its great size


the greatest and in its beauty the most beautiful, as
you see, and adorned by its great artistry and brilliancy,
is an indescribable loveliness, an unimaginable creation,
a work of art of human hands'surpassing human thought,
visible to the eye but incomprehensible to the mind.
2. I t does not please the senses more than it impresses
the mind. For it fills the sight with the beauty of its
colors and by the golden gleam of its mosaics, and
Acts 12 : 2.
Constantine of Rhodes applies this epithet to the Church of
St. Sophia, v. 359.
20 I. e., smite me with the spur of envy, but let this envy be
praiseworthy zeal. Mesarites puns on the epithet " the Zealot "
which was applied to Simon (Luke 6 : 15 ; Acts 1 : 13).
Cf.Luke 23 : 43.
22 See above, V I I , n. 4.
Is

XI11
Constantine of Rhodes shows more interest in the architecture than Mesarites ( c f . Heisenberg, p. 138) and a greater
appreciation of it. Mesarites on the other hand was more
interested in the mosaics, which Constantine treats only briefly.

YOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

C H U R C H O F T H E HOLY A P O S T L E S

strikes the intelligence through its surpassing size and


skilful c o n s t r ~ c t i o n . ~
3. This Church, then, as we see it, is raised on five
s t ~ a s ,not,
~ however, in the manner of that pool of
Solomon at the S h e e ~ - g a t e ,because
~
no crowd of the
sick lies in it, waiting for the angel to trouble the waters,
but instead a crowd of those who are strong in Christ
and valiant to do mighty deeds through the power of
the Spirit, who wait indeed for the last trumpet call
from the angel, through which they who dwell in this
shrine h f five stoas will rise up from their tombs as
though from couches.'~ 4. Now the architect hrought
each of the stoas to completion in the shape of a perfect
hemisphere. 5. The stoas, however, are not all stretched
out at length, or unfolded side by side, but four of
them have their foundations in the form of a cross, and
face toward the four quarters of our earth, to the east,
I mean, and the west and the north and the sea;
while the other in the center stands up above them, and
the direction of this one faces toward h e a ~ e n ,calling
~
on the heavenly God-Man, I believe, to descend to it
and through it, as though fro111 heaven, and, in His
portrayed form, to gaze down upon all of the sons of
men, who by His command dwell upoil the earth, but
possess their commo~~~vealth
in h e a ~ e n . 6.
~ And like
a square-cut stone or a geometric outline, it [the central
hall] binds the other four to itself and binds them to
each other as well, and stands there as a kind of mediator and a reconciler of those which fornlerly were
separated from each other, in this, I believe, itl~itating
the mediator between God and man, who is portrayed
~ I Lthe midst of it [the central hall], Christ, truly the
square-cut stone,1 who bound together those things
which formerly were far divided, and who through Him"Xlesarites' praise of the church is conventional. However,
at least some Byzantine observers had a very fair understanding
of the elements of excellence in architectural design (cf. 0 .
Wulff, Das Raumerlebnis des Naos im Spiegel der Ekphrasis,
B. 2.30 : 531-539, 1929/30).
The heroott of Justinian is likewise described in comparison
with the pool of Solomon at the Sheep Gate, below, XL, 2. u r o k
meant basically any type of structure which contained pillars
(cf. G. Downey, The architectural significance of the use of
the words stoa and basilike in classical literature, A . 1.A. 41:
194-211, 1937) ; it is characteristic that Mesarites uses u s 0 6 to
denote not only the central hall and the four arms of the church
( X V , 1 ; X V I I , 1-2; X X I X , 1 ; X L , 2 ) but also the colonnades
which ran around the arms ( X X X V I I , 5-6). Zonaras calls
the hfausoleum of Constantine a stoa, X I I I , 4, 28, p. 25, 1.
' John 5 : 2-9.
St. Andrew, St. Luke, St. Timothy, and St. John Chrysostom
and St. Gregorv the Theologian (see below, X X X V I I I ) .
Thess. 4: 18.
The Sea of Marmara was at the south of the Church.
The four arms face the points of the compass, while the
central hall faces upward.
Philipp. 3 : 20. Mesarites introduces this theme again at the
beginning-of XIV.
l o Cf. 1 Peter 2 : 6 ; Ephes. 2 : 20; Acts 4 : 11 ; L X X Isaiah
28 : 16 ; Psalm 117 (118) : 22. See further A. Ehrhardt, Vir
bonus quadrat0 lapidi comparatur, H a r v . Theol. R e v . 38: 177-

869

self drew us, who were formerly His foes, to His own
Father and our God. 7. Beginning with Him, as though
from a kind of ke)ztrolz l1 against which, to use a daring
phrase, it would have been difficult for a Paul to kick,"
one can see a circle drawn about the edge of the hemisphere, and lines drawn, so to speak, to the outer border
of the circle; for if a point or a center is given, and a
radius, it is possible to inscribe a circle, as the geometricians say. 8. And the lines are not plain, but
they please the senses and impress the mind by their
varied colors and the brilliance of the gold and the
brightness of their hues. 9. One call see them indeed.
as they took their beginning, unseparated, from a sort
of sphere of the sun, when it was at the zenith,13 that is.
a kind of iris-colored light shining ill a circle around
the Sun of Justi~e,~"hrough which I believe the artist
wished to depict the forill of the halo in the clouds, and
then con~ingdown to an entl at the circular periphery
of the hemisphere.
T H E PANTOKRATOR

XI\-. This dome shows in pictured forin the GodMan Christ, leaning and gazing ? out as though froill
the rill1 of heave11,~at the point where the dome begins,"
193, 1945, and E. E. Le Bas, if7as thc corner-stone ~i Scripture
a pyramidion?, Pal. Explor. Q1tai.t. 78: 103-115, 1946.
l1 T h e pun on ~ 6 u r p o v , meaning " spur" and " center of a
circle," also includes an allusion to Christ as the ~ i v r p o vof the
Church (cf. Acts 9 : 5 ; 26 : 14). The play appears again in
the use of E y ~ e v r p o s , below, 3 9 . The pun is used again in
X X X I I , 1.
Acts 9 : 5 ; 26 : 14.
13
Z y ~ e u r p o sis a play upon ~ d v r p o vabove, 8 7.
l W n Christ as the Sun of Justice, see beloxv, 1 1 7 , 1. O n
the phraseology, cf. Apocal 10: 1.
XIV

' On the symbolism of this representation of Christ, see A.


Frolow, Deux Cglises byzantines d'apr6s des sermons peu connus
de LCon V I le Sage, Etudes by=. 3 : 50, 62, 1945. Mesarites
follows the not unusual practice of calling a dome both u @ a i p a
(here and in X V , 1) and 7jpiu@aipiov ( X I I I , 4 and 9 ) . O n this
usage, see G. Downey, On some post-classical Greek architectural terms, T. A. P . 4.77: 22-34, 1946.
' r a p a ~ l i r r wmeans that the image seems both to lean out
and to gaze; the word is evidently a reminiscence of Cant. 2 : 9,
r r a p a ~ 6 r r s w v 61h TGV 6vp[6wu, which is quoted below in this
chapter, 3 2. In St. Sophia, the spot in the gallery from which
the emperor viewed the services when attending informally was,
u
E. H.
at least in the tenth century, called the r a p a ~ u r r r r ~ d (see
Swift, Hagia SopIzia 134-135, New York, 1940).
5 s ht oirpauias l i v r v y o s , literally " a s though froin the heavenly
rim " ; the dome, as often, is thought of as representing heaven,
and Christ is thought of as leaning out over the rim of heaven
itself. l i v r v t , employed here in its ordinary sense, is often used,
in a quasi-technical sense, to mean the drum or ring of masonry
upon which a dome rested: or the curve of an arch, or a curve
in plan; cf. Paul. Silent., St. Sophia, 187, 370, 419, 458, 481,
483, 516, 612-3, 813, 864; Anzbon, 192 (cf. Downey, op. cit.,
28-29). Hence these words may have contained, for Mesarites
and his readers, a double sense. Christ gazed out over the rim
of heaven, and also out over the rim of the dome which represented heaven.

DOIVNEY: NIKOLAOS MESAKITES


toward the floor of the Church and everything in it, but
not with His whole body or in His whole form. This
I think was very wisely done by the artist as he turned
the matter over in his mind and revealed the very clever
conclusion of his intelligence through his art to those
who do not observe superficially, because for one thing.
I believe, we now know in part as though in a riddle,
and in a glass,5 the things concerning Christ and in
accord with Christ, and for another thing the God-Rlan
lvill appear to us from heaven at the tiiiie of His second
sojourn on earth, though the space of time until that
coming has never yet been wholly measured.' and because H e himself dwells in heaven in the bosom of His
Father and together with His own Father xvill return
to men on earth according to that saying that " I and
my Father \vill come and make our abode with hiin." "
2. Wherefore one can see Him, to use the words of the
Song,lo looking forth at the m-indows, leaning out as
far as H i s navel through the latticell at the summit
of the dome like an earnest and vehenient lover.
3. His head is of the same size as the body ~vhicliis
depicted as far as the navel ; His eyes, to those who have
achieved a cleaii understanding, are gentle and friendly
and instil the joy of contrition in the souls of the pure
in heart and of the poor in spirit.I2 For the eyes of
the Lord are upon the righteous, as the psalmist says.13
4. His look is gentle and \vllolly mild, turning neither

to the left nor the right,]%but wholly directed toward


all at once and at the same time toward each individually.
5. Such are those eyes to those who have a clean understanding; l5 to those, however, who are condemned by
their own judgment they are scornful and hostile and
boding of ill ; the face is m,rathful, terrifying, stern and
filled with hardness, for the face of the Lord is of this
fashion for evildoers.16 6. T h e right hand blesses those
who are straight in their paths and warns those who are
not straight and so to speak sends them back and turns
them from their disorderly way. 7. The left hand,
spreading its fingers as far as possible from each other,
supports the Gospel of Hiiii who holds it, and grasps
it closely and as it were rests it on the left side of the
breast, and by the resting of it there procures no snlall
relief froin the burden.li A little of this thought the
hand also lends to its arm, exhorting it as it were, to
take up the load so far as it can of this light and easilycherished
burden, which one might not unfittingly
call the burden of the Gospel. 8. T h e robe of the GodRIan is colored more with blue than with gold, warning
all by the hand of the painter not to wear brilliant
clothing or to seek purple and linen and scarlet and
hyacinth, or to go dressed in luxurious robes, but to
follo\v Paul m-llen he says, " not with braided hair, or
gold, or pearls, or costly array," l 9 and " having food
and rainlent let us be tIlere\vith content." ' O
T H E COhiNUKIOS O F T H E APOSTLES

d p ~ m
i eans the upper part of the dome, where the curve

begins. I n 2 below Christ is said to lean out "through the


lattice at the summit of the dome." r a B r ~ s refers t o u @ a i p a
rather than to t i v r v y o s . On the construction, see below, X V I ,
11. 46.
' Cf. 1 Cor. 13: 12.
' Luke 24 : 19 ; Acts 18 : 25 ; 28 : 31.
' On the Byzantine conception of the second advent of Christ
and the end of the world, see A. A. Vasiliev, Medieval ideas of
the end of the world: West and East, Rj'z. 16: 462-502, 1942-43.
John 1 : 18.

O John 14 : 23.

l o Cant. 2 : 9.

11 Heisenberg renders 6 r h 7 0 0
. . . B L K T U W T O ~ "Durch die
Offnung," which does not convey the full sense of the allusion.
I n the L X X , the phrase is 6 r b s G v ~ L K T ~ W Vliterally
,
"through
S
an adjective means "latticed," and
the lattices." ~ L K T U W T ~ as
used as a substantive (as here) s b ~ L K T U W T ~ V =Bwpis ~ L K T U W T ~ S ,
" lattice-window," which is essentially the meaning of the passage in the L X X . The basic meaning of Mesarites' words seems
to be that the figure of the Pantokrator, looking down from the
summit of the dome, is like the figure of the Youth in Cant. 2 : 9
" looking through the windows, peering through the lattices."
Heisenberg's rendering, then, is more suited to the passage in
the opening sentence of the chapter, where Christ is said to be
leaning and gazing out (5s
o i r p a v l a s t i v r u y o s , than to the quotation which Mesarites employs in the present passage. The idea
of Christ looking down from the summit of the dome as though
through an opening has been established in 6 1 (where Mesarites
uses r a p a ~ h ~ rinw reminiscence of Cant. 2 : 9 ) , and in the present
passage the allusion to the windows and the lattice is evidently
more literary than architectural or iconographical.
l 2 Matt. 5 : 3 , 8 ; Luke 6 : 20.
l3 Psalm 33 (34) : 16 ; 1 Peter 3 : 12.

XV. There support and hold up this hall,* which


can really be called the dome of Heaven since the Sun
of Justice shines in it, the light which is above light,
the Lord of Light, Christ, four arches, which are, so
to speak, Atlas-like pillars and arms,Vaking their in2 Kings 22 : 2.
1 Tim. 3 : 9.
l6 Psalm 33 (34) : 17; 1 Peter 3 : 12.
"Cf. hlatt. 11 : 29-30; see below, XX, 3, also the Liturgy of
St. Basil in F . E. Brightman, Litltrgies Easterlt and Western 1 :
314, 19, Oxford, 1896.
18 There is a play on words, c 6 d y x a X o s - c 6 d y y e A o s ,
which it is
not possible to reproduce; cf. below, X X , 3.
l o 1 Tim. 2 : 9.
1 Tim. 6 : 8.
XV
hlatt. 26 : 17-29 ; Mark 14 : 12-25 ; Luke 22 : 7-23.
The central part of the church, here called a u s o h , differed
from the four arms (called u s o a i above, X I I I , 3 and 5) in
having no colonnaded side-aisles ; but the essential characteristic
of a m o d , to the Byzantine mind, was the presence of columnar
supports, and the presence of the great piers in the central part
of the church fulfilled this condition. The section of the nave
of St. Sophia in front of the benta is called a stoa by Cantacuzene, Hist., 111, p. 29, 23 ff. Bonn ed. See above, XI11 3, n. 3.
See above, X I I I , n. 9, X I V , n. 4.
' On Christ as the Sun of Justice, see above, X I I I , 9.
%$ibcs
is the subject of both d r o u s ~ p i ( o u u c and d r a v t ~ o v u t u ,
and the phrase d r A a v r r ~ o ls r v e s o i o v ~ i o v e ss 2 ~ a Pi p a x i o v e s stands
in apposition to the subject; u x o O u a c modifies d $ i S e s . Ordinarily
d $ i s is applied only to a n arch or vault and does not include
l4

'
I

YOL.

47,

PT. 6, 19571

C H U R C H OF THE H O L Y A P O S T L E S

87 1

T H E TRANSFIGURATION
tervals from one another in the form of a four-sided
figure with equal sides, and deriving the strength of
XYI. 1. . . may my description find favor fro111 the
their construction from the firmness of the whole f i g ~ r e . ~Logos so that through]? its il~ostdivine po\ver it may
2. T h e arch at the east shows us the actual distribu- be so to speak transfigured ancl altered to greater clarity
tion with His own hands of the own Body and Blood of and may not suffer anything as those disciples suffered
O u r Lord and Savior Jesus Christ, which the Savior who went up with Him who were blinded by that clout1
inade as H e was going out to His willing ancl glorious of light which overshadowed them, in both the eyes
ancl life-giving death to His blessed table-companions of the mind and those of the body, and fell d o n n on
ancl followers. 3. There is depicted an upper chamber " their faces to the ground, having never see11 anything
of blue and purple composed of different colored stones nlore light than that glory h n d not knowing clearly
fixed together. with golcl glistening among then1 ancl ~ v h a tit was which was being done, but as though deshining out wit11 the other colors. 4. T h e draperies vie ranged in their \%its and as though perceiving these
with the richness of the chamber; the dining-room is events in a deep sleep and supposing that what was
strewn with Egyptian carpets, the table is covered with accomplisl~edwas an illusive dream rather than a vision
a cloth woven from equal parts of golcl bearing scarlet, of real it^.^ 2. For if Peter, \vho among them saw God
and Christ Himself, the sacrificer ancl the sacrifice, most clearly, barely kept himself awake, so far as he
stands at the table as though a t an altar. For an altar could, ancl in a certain dim fashion both saw and heard
indeed is this mystic and holy table, on which, accord- Moses and Elias prophesying His end, which H e was
ing to him of the golden tongue,1 Christ lies slain. to fulfill in Jerusalem, and ventured to advise that three
5. And H e slays Himself in unseen fashion, Himself tents should be pitched, one for Moses and one for
sacrificing Himself and not waiting for the hands of the Elias and one for the Savior Christ, who stretches
crucifiers. H e sheds His blood into the cup which H e heaven as a tent,8 since he suspected the lllurderous
holds in front of Himself with His hands. 6. And H e passion of the Jews, not knowing what he said, though
gives them to eat of His flesh, first tasting it Himself. shortly before he had received the revelation of the
With desire," H e says, " I have desired to eat this unutterable mysteries from God the Father,?what then
passover with you before I suffer" " lest through the might happen to this discourse of mine, which has not,
~~nwontecl
nature of the food. . . .
before the ascent, accustomed itself little by little to the
"

the supports. Here, however, Mesarites extends the meaning


of the word for the sake of a graphic image, and although arches
could, strictly speaking, be likened only to the arms of Atlases,
he applied to the arches the epithet " Atlas-like," which introduces the image of the supports which represented the trunks
of the Atlases. Since the comparison is purely literary (as is
indicated especially by the adverbial use of o i o v ) , there can be
no implication, in the use of the word ~ i o v e s , as to the plan or
construction of the supports of the arches. Mesarites was not,
a t this point, interested in giving a detailed account of the construction and appearance of the supports. H e merely wished to
indicate that the arches and their supports together " looked like
Xtlases." Constantine (vv. 617 ff.) describes the piers in somewhat similar terms.
"Literally, "having their strong construction through the
i s
and below ( X X X V I I I , 2 )
firmness of the figure." u h p ~ q ~ here
contains the idea of strength of construction, a natural development of its simpler meaning of " method of construction."
Mesarites chooses this elliptical construction to bring out the
idea of the figures mutually supporting and bracing one another.
' Cf. the similar phrases in the Liturgies of St. James and of
St. Basil, F. E. Brightman, Liturgies Easter?~and Western, 1 :
pp. 51, 22-23; 404, 27, Oxford, 1896.
Heisenberg renders d H r w y p c i @ q ' r a r " es ist im Hintergrund
clargestellt " ; below ( X X I V , 2 ) he translates the same word
" ist unten vom Maler gezeichnet."
These renderings, for which
no parallels are recorded in the lexica, may read too much into
the word, which in both passages had no more force than its
usual sense of " depict." Heisenberg gives it this simple meaning in the third passage in which Mesarites uses it, X I I , 18,
though in X X I V , 2 it might well mean " personify."
O Mark 14: 15 ; Luke 22 : 12.
lo Chrysostom, De cruce et l a t r o ~ ~Hovz.
e
I, 1 = P . G. X L I X ,
300.
l1 Luke 22 : 15

dazzling rays of that strange light and to sustained


contemplation of it, but flinches iron1 gazing at it
directly, lest the eyes of the mind be blinded by the
insufferable beam? of the dazzliilg light and be unable
XVI
Matt. 17: 1-13 ; hlark 9 : 2-13 ; Luke 9 : 28-36. The first
part of this chapter is missing in the manuscript.
"he
restoration is made by Heisenberg on the basis of the
thought expressed below in 2.
Mesarites regularly employs Ber6repos in the sense of "most
divine," " quite divine," "very divine." I n most cases the superlative sense seems indicated, though it is naturally not always
possible to be certain; see X V I , 8, 13, 15 ; X X V , 1; X X X V I I I ,
3 ; X X X I X 10; X L I I I , 5. This usage reflects the tendency to
use the comparative for the relative superlative: A. N. Jannaris,
A n historical Greek grammar, 514, p. 148; cf. 3 1190, p. 317,
London, 1897, and F.-M. Abel, Grammairr d z ~grer biblique,
37k, p. 152, Paris, Gabalda, 1927. I n Mesarites, the usage is
S,
it may appear
plainest in his employment of B E L ~ T E ~ Othough
also in ~ e p r e p y 6 r e p o v (adverbially), X X V I , 7 ; X X V I I I , 23. I n
r e p mean
o v
" the rather capacious
X X X I X , 2, T A ~ o ~ u ~ w p ~ ~ 6 may
nature." That some of these occurrences are not to be interpreted too literally is suggested by Mesarites' calling Mark
6 T D Y d ~ o u ~ 6 A wBv E L ~ T ~ T O(SX X I , 5 ) : there is no logical explanation for this epithet as applied to Mark, and as Heisenberg
suggests in his note ad loc. (p. 44, n. 2) the superlative may
represent simply a literary intensification of the epithet Boios
which is regularly applied to the apostles.
Literally, " overcome."
O r " vision."
Odyssey, X I X , 547 ; X X , 90; see below, 3.
' " Tabernacles."
Isaiah 40 : 22.
Matt. 16 : 17.

DO\I1NEY: NIKOI.,AOS M E S A R I T E S

872

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

look toward the sun, but is wise enough to protect his


eyes with the shadow of his hand, in fear lest these
lights of the body l3 suffer from it. 5. John however
does not wish to look up at all, but like an undistractetl
man, without cares, and in every way maidenly l h n t l
like Jacob a plain man,15 desiring to dwell on Tl~abos
as in a house, seems to lie there in deep sleep, wishing
to know nothing save to love Jesus and beyond that
to be loved very much by him.
6. And in this fashion the earth holds the disciples.
The space in the air supports a cloud of light and in the
nliclst of this bears Jesus, made illore brilliant than thc
sun, as though generated like another light from His
Father's light, which as though with a cloud is joined
to the nature of man. 7. For a cloud, it is written, antl
darkness were about Hiin,lGand the light produces thi,
[cloud] through the transforination of the higher nature
to the Iobver, because of this union which surpasses all
understanding and is of an unspeakable nature. 8. O n
each side of Him, [the space in the air bears in the
illidst of the cloud]1i Moses and Elias, the branches I'
of the prophets, that Moses who was given like Got1
to Pharaoh,l"vho
tested Egypt with the plagues sent
hy God, who parted the Red Sea with his rod antl
led the countless multitude of people through the \vatel
as though over dry land. who spoke with God on Sinai.
as though a man conversed with his friend, whose face
was glorified brighter than the rays of the sun 20 because God descended to him and spoke to hirn,?l wh(i
then san. the back parts of God,22but now sees Him
Odyssey, X I S , 547; X X , 90; see above, 0 1. S o t e that
Mesarites describes two phases of action, viz. the disciples press- face to face " 311 the flesh as H e speaks with hit11 ant1
i11q themselves to the ground, and later rising or attempting t o wit11 Elias of His voluntary departure froill the present
rise. Similar technique is used in his description of the \\'omen
at the Tomb (Ch. X X V I I I ) , in which the women are first life, and now repeats what had been prophesied condescribed " seated over against the tomb " (0 3) and then rising cerninq Win1 darkly and as though in a riddle,24 since
UD from their places and going
to the tomb ( 5 8) to converse these things are to have their fulfilln~entin not many
-

to meet these actions face to face, and flee as fast as it


can from the rnountain and leave these things unspoken
and unheralded? 3. F o r see what has happened with
the chief and chosen ones of the disciples, how, not
being able to endure a t all the rays which came, as
though from the nlost brilliant cloud, froin the color
of the flesh of the divine lzy~ostasiswhich dwelt in the
unapproachable light, they pressed themselves to the
ground, how they at once fell headlong on the earth,
covering their faces with their hands, as they looked
without protection on the unbearable strength of the
light, and without preparation encountered the strange
nature of the wonder. Later, after a suitable time, when
they realized that what they saw being done was not
an illusive dream but a vision of rea1ity,l0 Peter, the
il~ostvehement, springing up from the ground, since
he could,ll suggested the pitching of the tents, antl
though stricken in his mind, and with his senses taken
froin him, seemed to speak words, while Tames and
John, the sons of thunder,12 seemed rather to be stricken
with thunder and not to have the strength to rise from
the earth. 4. And the one of them who was older. Tames,
partly rising with difficultv on his knee, and supoorting
hi? still heavy head with his left arm, still has the
greater part of his body nailed to the ground, while his
right hand he holds closely to his eyes, like one who.
wakinq from deep sleep, somelvhere in the one11 air at
the hour of noon in high sunliner, seeks in~mecliatelyto
'O

with the angel.


The context shows that in writing Ss E ~ X EMesarites
~
was
using Z ,.
~ W= .~ O S S ~ ( Vand
Z
that he meant that Peter was the only
one of the three apostles who was able to rise; the phrase thus
means " a s he (alone) was able (to rise)." hlesarites has
already remarked that Peter was " t h e strongest (of them) "
and he goes on immediately to tell how James and John seemed
not to have the strength to rise; James got up with difficulty
as far as one knee, but John remained on the ground as though
sleeping. Further indication of Rlesarites' intention to distinguish between the attitudes of Peter and James appears in
his use of Q a v a u ~ d sof Peter's action and of Gravaurds of James'
action. When the two verbs are used together, in this kind of
context, the former (with BE-) indicates complete action, while
the latter (with Gra-) indicates only partly completed action.
This interpretation of the passage escaped Heisenberg, who
renders Ss E Z X E V " soweit er konnte." While this is a possible
meaning of the phrase if considered out of the context, Heisenberg, in adopting it, seems t o have overlooked the distinction
which Mesarites expressly makes between the strength and will
of Peter and those of his two companions, and seems also to
have overlooked the significant variation between the verbs
QEavaurds and Gravau~ds. Heisenberg may have been led (perhaps unconsciously) to adopt this interpretation by the subsequent description of Jalr~esrising par ly from the ground. F o r
a clifferent use of the phrase, see X X I I , 4, with n. 7.
'"ark
3 : 17; see above. XII, 10.

'"Rlatt.
6 : 22.
l' See above, X I I , 10.
'Wen. 25 : 27. cf. also 28: 10 ff.
P s a l n ~96 (97) : 2.
" The oriqinal thoug-ht has been interrupted by the excursw
on the cloud. The interrupted sentence is now continued, so
that Mwuijv K ~ L' HAiav are the objects of @pel above, 3 6. The
words rap' ~ K ~ T E P 6U6 T O ~ T O U with which the names of the
prophets are introduced imply that the phrase 6v r a l i ~pQuov
~
is
to be supplied here along with the verb. The description of the
" space in the a i r " extends to 3 14.
18Cf. Isaiah 11 : 1. Heisenberg renders ci~pipovas" Fiirsten,"
which gives the sense but does not reflect the Biblical allusior~
(which 11e does not note). Below (5 12) Elias is called " t h e
foundation of the prophets." Constantine of Rhodes (v. 906)
writes of the heart of Judas as " t h e foundation of the evil
spirits."
ID
Exod. 7 : 1.
" Exod. 34 : 29.
" Literally "because of that most divine descent and converse." On blesarites' use of B e r b ~ ~ p o see
s , above in this chapter,
n. 3.

"" Exod. 33 : 23.

" "or. 13: 12.

'' 1 Cor. 13 : 12.

\.c)L. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

days; 9. that Elias, irresistible in his zeal for the Lord,


who with merely a word from his mouth closed the rainbringing gates of heaven for three years and twice as
many
who burned with a blazing fire in his
heart through his whole life because of the contempt
which was shown to the true God, and was snatched up
iron1 earth in the fiery chariot 2Qnd was translated
as though to the heavenly places which the Lord rules."
10. And Moses bears in his hands that Book" which
through the number five of its writings, as though
through the equal number of senses, inakes mailkind
better both according to the letter 'Qnd so to speak
outwardly ; but Elias bears nothing save that unwrought
and simple mantle,30 the rough skin, the scripture says,
which resembles the leather cloaks," and that girdle
made in the same fashion, which ever contained and
mortified his loins.32
11. These alone of the prophets stood with Him in
His glory, because, I believe, of the sublimity of their
manner of life and of their lofty station. The one of
them indeed led the whole race of the Hebrews I~ack
from polytheism and mistreatment in Egypt to the fear
of God and settled thein in a land flowing with mill< and
honey ; 33 while the other, illally years later, whet^ the
people of Israel had again fallen away from God antl
had returned, like clogs to their own v o n ~ i t , ~to
' the
\vorship of idols, caused them to change, through the
fire which he called down from heaven on the burnt
sacrifices, to consume them, and led them back to the
~vorshipof
The one had died many years before,
the other, while he seemed to be snatched up, as though
to heaven, still was thought to be among the living ant1
t o he a forerunner of the coming which was foretold bja11 the prophets, even ~ 1 1 e nthe tu-0-fold arrival of Him
who was to coille was not plainly u n d e r s t ~ o c l . 12.
~ ~ For
when H e was pleased to appear on earth as God ant1
to walk among men, H e created the Forerunner, appropriate to Himself, who came a little before Hi111 antl
took his origin from the earth,"' John the illustrious,
the child of the desert, he who was greater than all
those born of women ; " ailtl \\-hen I-Ie shall come <low11
froin heaven 3%fter the fulfillnient of this age, then xvill
FJe again think fit 4 0 to sent1 from FTca\-cn His fore-

" Kings

17 : 1.
2 Kings 2 : 11.
" Deut. 11 : 12.
' T h e Pentateuch.
2n 2 Cor. 3 : 6.
" T h e meaning of Pr6s is nlade certain hl- the contest: nu
other example has been found.
'' 1 Kings 19: 13, 19; 2 Kings 2 : 8, 13-14.
3' 2 Kings 1 : 8.

""osh. 5 : 6.

3
'

Pro% 2 6 : 11.
'I5 1 Kings 18 : 37.
3 e John 1 : 21,25.

'3 John 3 : 31.


" W a t t . 11 : 11 ; I.uke 7 : 28.
30 1 Thess. 4 : 16.
l6

873

C H I J R C H OF T H E H O L Y APO.STLES

runner, the great Elias, the foundation of the prophets,41


the angel become flesh, in a manner fitting to God.
13. The cloud about Jesus is not heavy with rain,
not misty, not barren,4- but carries within itself the
divine seed ; it is no darkened, gloomy cloud. Indeed the
Light born of Light, the unapproachable Light ~vhich
d\vells in it," is visible in transfigured form, and sheds
a little of the glory of His most divine 44 form upon
His friends and disciples.
14. After this fashion is the space in the air. The
space above the heads of these figures, that is, in heaven,
shows nothing else than that Voice with which God the
Father, as the Savior Christ was baptized and rose
up out of the water, bore witness to the truth of His
Sonhoocl, publicly proclaiming Him with the title of
I~eloveclSon." 15. And see, how this [Voice] coming
clo1\-11 just as if from the summit of the heavenly universe *" falls like rain on the still dry and barren souls
of the disciples, so that in a time of burning
1 mean of doubt conceriling the passion and the resurrection, they might not be in danger of suffering from
tmexpected evils, but might draw into their souls, like
;L spring of some inost divine 4 s dew and consolation
and rest, this Voice descending from the Father, a s
inexhaustible sustenance for the journey, since thus
they do not lose faith in Him n-110, it has been testified,
\\ill as a man ~villiilglysttffer the extreme of indignities
i01- { I \ .

THE C R U C I F I X I O N

11-11. 13ut Him whose glory the disciples saw just


no\\- as H e was transfigured on Thabor,' and whose
end the chiefs of the prophets spoke of, which H e was
going to fulfill in Jerusalem-let
us, going along a little
further in our discourse, see Hitn hanging on the cross
in the hall at the east,3 thus willingly fulfilling in Golgotha His entl, \vhich was a little before spoken of in
Thahor by the prophets, and dying His death on the
'O S o t e the substitution of the aorist for the future, which can
he made when the future event is vividly depicted.
" See above, 3 8.
12
I. e., unproductive.
' 3 1 Tim. 6 : 16.
44
On Mesarites' use of Ber6repor, see note 3 in this chapter.
' 5 Matt. 3 : 17 ; Mark 1 : 11 ; Luke 3 : 22.
" Note that Mesarites here uses o@aipos, meaning the universe,
not o @ a i p a , which he employs elsewhere to mean a dome (see
above, X I V , n. 1). Heisenberg, translating " aus dem Gipfelpunkt der Kuppel," did not observe the distinction.
" Cf. Psalm 62 (63) : 2 ; Apocal. 7 : 16.
18
On hiesarites' use of B~r6repos,see note 3 in this chapter.

XVII
Matt. 27 : 35-56 ; Mark 15 : 24-41 ; Luke 23 : 33-49 ; John 19 :
18-30.
Heisenberg translates Zv r @ r a p 6 v r r . . . 8 a p 6 p " auf diesem
Thabor hier." The context, however, shows that the words
Zv r@ r a p 6 v . r ~are used in the normal adverbial sense. 0 a P 6 p is
the genitive of place.
V. e. in the eastern arm of the church, which Mesarites calls
o r o d (on his usage, see X I I I , n. 3).

874

DOWNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

cross for us, but appearing in glory again on the cross,


even though H e had neither form nor comeliness as
H e hung on it and died as a man-He
whose willing
ascent to the cross and crucifixion Rloses once of old
prefigured by nailing and hanging the serpent of brass
on a pole, so that in our day when a man looks ever
upon Him, he is in no danger of suffering any evil
thing.> 2. For we have truly seen our life, the Savior
Christ, hanging on the cross, and the words of the
prophets have come to pass and the Savior like the
ram in the thicket of thorns or like the lamb which
takes away the sin of the world has been nailed fast
to the wood of the cross by the descendants of Abraham.
enduring His death willingly, dressed in a gray gari ~ ~ e nthis
t , ~being a sign of suffering and burial, stretching out His hands and by this gesture the people of the
earth everyhere. . . .g
T H E DESCENT O F T H E HOLY SPIRIT1

X V I I I . . . . from those things which are spoken now,


is there not agreement with the things which were
prophesied by them of old, and must we not suppose
that the divine power and grace are one and the same,
both that which once cast its shadow? over them and
that which has lately sojourned in these men and in
the form of tongues of fire has sat upon each one of
them? 2. Do these men indeed not open their mouths
clearly in parables and utter dark sayings from of old
such as we have heard from our fathers the prophets
but have not understood? 3 . But now we understand
them through the teaching of these men. Do these men
also not declare the mighty deeds of the Lord and God
ancl Savior Christ who is proclaimed by them, and His
Isaiah 53 : 2.

' Tohn 3 : 14-15. A similar talisman against scorpions was set


up in Antioch by Apollonius of ~ y a n a ccording to ?iIalalas,

p. 264, 10-15 Bonn ed.; cf. A. Schenk von Stauffenberg, D i c


roetrr. Knisergesclz. hci ,llalalas 243-239, Stuttgart, Kohlhammer,
1931.
a Gen. 22 : 13.
'John 1 : 29.
Constantine of Rhodes (v. 9281 states that Tesus on the
cross was r u w v b s , which could mean clad in an undergarment.
llesarites states ( X X V , 4) that during the baptism ~ e s u swas
yupv6r ( c f . also XXXV, 10). Cf. Heisenberg, p. 191.
' Here the manuscript breaks off. The thought suggests that
the remainder of the sentence might have had reference to John
21 : I8 ( c f . John 12 : 32).
XVIII
Acts 2 : 1-11. The first part of this chapter is missing in the
manuscript.
This was the shining cloud which surrounded persons xvith
brightness : Matt. 16 : 5 ; Mark 9 : 7 ; Luke 9 : 31.
The translation of this incomplete sentence as an interrogation differs from Heisenberg's understanding of it, but the sense
seems to be clearly indicated by the contest, especially by the
next sentence, and by the presence of od~ol;v,which Heisenberg
appears not to hare taken into account.
' Psalm 77 (78) : 2 ; c f . Psalm 48 (19) : 5, and Matt. 13 : 35.
Cf. Psalm 33 (41) : 2.
- -

~~

~~

[TRANS. -4XIER. PHIL. SOC.

miracles, which as God-man H e wrought not in Egypt


or in the plain of T a n i ~ ,but
~ in all Judaea and the
country round about it and in this capital of Judaea,
the city of the Great King, whose name is Jerusalem?
4. Their teachings breathe the strength of fire which
consumes the adversary like an easily kindled reed or
like tow or a faggot \vhich lies near a f ~ r n a c e .5.
~ No
one dares to gaze at these men, lest the pupils of the
soul's eyes should suffer. They angle for all, as though
with a fishhook, with the tongue and with the claritj.
ancl sweetness of speech which dwells in i t ; they dralv
them in, as in a net, wit11 their teaching of the message.'
6. H o w many powers has this power of the fishers!
How skilful is the drawing of this net! Yesterday indeed and on the days before that "hey caught mute
fish; but today they have abandoned the taking of fish,
and they draw up, from the deep of ignorance and
untruth, that alone among the living things on e a r t l ~
~ v l ~ i is
c l endowed
~
with intelligence and reason, and b\the light of truth which is iroclaitned by them, thefbring it to the Savior Christ. 7. After these men we
all of us follow and, bidding farewell cotnpletely to the
traditions handed down from our fathers, which taught
11s to \vorship one God, Creator of heaven and earth
and of all things visible and invisible, we believe instead
in the word proclaimed by them, which they have added
to this doctrine, namely that God begat a Son, before
time was, without flux and without pain,ll equally
\vithout a beginning and co-eternal and Ico~kzoousiou
\\-it11 the Father; and that the Father possesses a holy
Spirit which appears through the Son and proceeds
from the same Father; that H e is of a single three-fold
ousia, and consists of three hgpostaseis who are indivisibly divided and inseparablv separated, the one by
reason of their phgsis, i n d oiherAby reason of the&
h~~,bosfnsis." 8. T o wllom intleed could God and Father
have said " Let us make man in our image, after ouilikeness," l 3 save to those who were of the same nature
as Himself and the same power and lordship? 9. F o r
the l~lost peculiar image of God Himself which was
granted to the first-created was the lordship and the
rule over all things on earth.14 which was a token of
the one holy Trinity which existed before all beginning :
for " A11 things," says David,15 " are thy servants."
V s a l m 77 (75) : 12.
' LXX Dan. 3 : 16.
Mark 1 : 17.
T i t e r a l l y , " for three days before."
10
The muteness of the fish n-as proverbial; see, e. g., Lucia~:.
(,'ffll11s, 1.
11 For cippei'urws cf. llethodius, Dc Siriicor~e ct .4117ta, I11 =
1'. (;. S V I I I . 356 A, and Athanasius, E x p o s . fidci, I1 = P. G.
X S V , 203 E.
" Compare liesarites' statenlent with the Definition of the
Council of Chalcedon (351) in hIansi, S a c s . c o ~ t c .a ~ i l p l .coll.
( ed. of 1759), 7 : 116 E-C.
l 3 Gen. 1 : 26; c f . Hebr. 1 : 5.
li Gen. 1 : 26.
'"Psalm 118 (119) : 91.

VOL. 17, PT. 6, 1957]

CHURCH O F T H E HOLY APOSTLES

10. 'lliherefore indeed does the same psalmist say,''


" By the word of the Lord were the heavens made, and
all the host of them by the breath of His mouth," if
there were not with the Father the Logos, through
which H e created the ages, and the Holy Spirit, through
which H e established the host of heaven? 11. And if
His only-begotten Logos was not truly made flesh
through the holy and ever-virgin Mary in these last
times l 7 for our salvation, and did not receive the cross
and the tomb for us, and rising from the dead and
taken up to heaven did not sit now, in the flesh which
H e assumed, at the right hand of the Father, and shall
not come again to reward each one according to his
works, as these men have now taught us, why indeed
does David sing in another place, introducing the person
of the Father speaking to His only-begotten Son who
was caught up to Him in the flesh.ls " The Lord said
unto my Lord: Sit thou at my right hand, until I
make thine enemies thy footstool " ? 12. If David was
really King of Israel, it would have been of all things
most unnatural for him to speak thus to his son Solomon
or to any other of mankind. 13. Then it is by all means
necessary that this should have been spoken by God
the Father to God His own Son in the words of the
prophet and king David, who, inspired by the Holy
Spirit, sang of things to come and in that passage named
the enemies of the Savior Christ, concerning whom,
at the beginning of the Psalms and of the prophecy
of Christ, he says,lVi Why do the heathen rage, and
the people imagine a vain thing? The kings of the earth
set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together,
against the Lord, and against his anointed,"-those
enemies who plotted the treachery against Him and the
cup of suffering on the cross, which, w11en. . . .?O
MATTHEW W I T H T H E SYRIANS1

. . . differing in their opinion concerning the


resurrection and judgment and concerning the Holy
Spirit and the nature of angels; for concerning the
incarnation of the IVord of God, they had long since
come to an agreement according to their beliefs.
2. The expression of Matthew's face is thoughtful.
as he seeks to convince ? with written proofs and with
reasonable arguments those who oppose his gospel. EIis
opponents seenls to cling mightily to what is obscure.
XIX.

Psalm 32 (33) : 6.
Cf. 1 Peter 1 : 20: " [Christ] who verily n.as foreordained
i ~ e f o r ethe foundation o f the ~ v o r l d ,but was manifest ill these
last times t o you.''
l 8 Psalms 98 (99) : 5 : 109 (110) : 1 ; cf. l l a t t . 5 : 35; 22: 1145 : I.uke 20 : 41-43 ; Acts 2 : 31-35.
I D Psalm 2 : 1-2 ; cf. -4cts 4 : 25-26,
O' Here the manuscript breaks o f f .
XI1
' T h e first part o f this chapter is missing in the manuscript.
T h e context indicates that this is the sense in which Alesarites uses d t e r d { e r v here, though no other occurrence in this
meaning seems to be attested.

875

according to the letter, and to strive not to be brought

over to the sense of the writing, no matter what happens;

but like a fly on a sore they hover over the word which

wounds their souls. 3. Nevertheless, they seem after

much discussion to confess defeat, honoring truth and

preferring light to darkness.

L U K E PRE.4CHING A T .;ZNTIOCH. S I M O N .ARIOXG

AXD T H E S A R A C E N S .

T H E PERSI-\NS

XX. The arch on the west, in its southern part,

shonrs Luke and Simon, the one in Antioch, the other in

Persia and in the land of the Saracens1 2. The people of

Antioch stand near Luke, because he was himself by

birth an Antiochene; they are manly in their look,

dignified in their appearance, not with long beards, not

braggarts, not of resounding speech, not sordid in their

thoughts, not easily moved to wrath, of a rather white

complexion because of the healthiness of their bodies,

not from any diseased quality which colors the body in

its three-fold dimensions with pallor, as one who was

not expert in these things might say; but from a certain

natural quality of their bodies, which has its origin in

the peculiar nature of the humors in their deep seats;

111 the majority of these cases, I believe, this gives its

color to the surface of the body, and in this way, in

succession, nature produces children which are for the

most part similar to the parents.* 3. Concerning the

proclamation of Christ and His rising from the dead

they are in no wise in disagreement, but with great

joy they receive the kindly and light yoke of the gospel,'

XX

In Byza~itineusage, all -4rabic-speaking people were calletl

S a p a ~ v v o i ;earlier the name had been limited t o the -4rabic-

speaking people o f Transjorda~land southern Palestine, and

subsequently it was applied to the inhabitants o f the Syrian

desert. See Moritz, " Saraka," K . E. 1 : A, 2388-2393, also C.

de Boor. I?. Z . 9 : 634, 639, 1900.

ZEusebius. Hist. r c r l . , 111, 3. 6 ; Qllarstt. Ez.nilg.. Sz~ppl.

Qilcrc9sf. nd S'fcpllt~i~niii.
= P. (7.
X X I I , 961 A.

C f . Plutarcli, I J i . pltrr.if:s p h i l o s o ~ i r o i i ~882


~ ~F.
~,

' T h i s characterizatiou oi tile people o f Zintioch seems t o have


been designed to enhance their dignity as the people who were
first called Christians, possihly also to counteract the rather
unattractive reputation which they acquired, at least later, for
laziness, quarrelsomeness, effeminacy and turbulence (cf., e. g.
Julian's dlisopogo~i and Philostratus, Life o f Apollotli~~so f
T g a i ~ a ,111, 58). Possibly also there was a certain amount o f
contempt for barbarians contained in the rather pointed differences between the Antiochenes and Alexandrians and the Saracens. Persians, and Armenians as described in this and the
following chapter. T h e stylized descriptions o f peoples ant1
individuals which Slesarites employs here and elsexvhere ( V I I .
4-5; X X I : X X X V I , 3 ) are in the tradition o f brief portraits
which play an important part in Byzantine literature, c o n t i n u i ~ ~ ~
an old tradition o f classical literature and biography; see G.
AIisener, Iconistic portraits, C. P. 19: 97-123, 1921, and R . A.
Pack, *TSIOI'SRMOSII<.I in Libanius' .4ntiochicus, A. J . P. 56:
S17-3.:0. 1935. For a further treatment o f the subject, see also
E. C. Evans, Gaien the physician as physiognomist, T . A. p.A.
76 : 287-298. 1915.

' Matt. 11 : 29-30; cf. above, X I V , 7.

D O W N E Y : NIKOLAOS M E S A R I T E S

and they mock the quibbling of the Hellenes and shake of Alexandria. The faces of the Armenians are shameoff its demented folly and its high-flown and vain pre- less, even though they strive to conceal and indeed distences at science. 4. Wherefore they first of all men guise by softness the shamelessness which lurks beneath.
won for themselves the right to be named after C h r i ~ t , ~This, however, is revealed all the more because it is
the new naiiie which followed the prediction of the not possible to drive out or alter what exists by nature.
theillselves Christians by their works They are not sinlple in their ways, but are rather secrel ~ o p h e t showing
,~
and naming themselves accordingly, and immediately tive and crafty, in the phrase of the theologian,' and
they were ailxious to receive from the haiids of Luke sycophantic and wily. 2. They set great importance,
the Gospel of Christ which he had previously ~ r i t t e n . ~ holvever, I think, like the people of old of the same
5. The Saracens "lid Persians [are] near Simon,lo name in Phoenicia, the Gabaonites, on running out to
tlressed in Persian robes, rather slack in the care of meet Bartholon~ew-as those people did to meet Joshua,
their beards, with their eyebrows puckered up, and son of Nave, he who destroyed the kingdoms of Canaan,
xvith their hair ruffled up over their faces, and looking when with figured friendship and wit11 a servile air
at him with Titan-like gaze,ll adorning their heads with they sought to ward off the attack which threatened
many-colored headdresses, sky-blue, intense 'l red, and them by means of an oath extracted before the events."
white. 6. They seem too to resist the apostolic teaching; 3. The faces of these Armenian Gabaonites are tense
for each of them, as one can see, jostles his neighbor and their ~valkis like their faces, and they are like wild
wit11 his elbows, trying to come face to face with Siinon, beasts in every respect, and unpolished, while sense
so as to be able to reply to his q u e s t i o i ~ s .7.
~ ~H e on the of honor and reasonableness are com~letelvabsent from
other hand is the more zealous ]"here, attempting to them, and they do not attempt to approach Bartholomew
either as a guest or as a t ~ a v e l l e r . ~4. H e however
overconle their ignorance and their age-old guile.
greets "them aild calls them to him and converses with
them like a most loving father, speaking words which
B A R T H O L O X E W P R E A C H I N G T O T H E ,4R?rlENIXKS
sweeten, illore than honey and the c o h b , ~the souls
hlARK I N ALEXANDRIA
o f those who listen in a spirit of understanding, in
XXI. Opposite these [scenes], and toward the north, simplicity of heart and uprightness of thought; but he
in fact, are Bartholomew and also Mark; Bartholornew tloes not receive a simple answer from the Armenian
in Gabanos in Great Armenia, Mark among the people Gabaonites, because their race is not simple, but secretive and crafty.
"Acts 11 : 26.
5. Mark, the most godly of the Apostles, [is preach' Isaiah 62 : 2.
A n allusion to the tradition that Luke wrote A c f s as well as ing] aillong the Alexandrians. The Alexandrians stand
his Gospel, and that he composed the latter first, mentioning it with relaxed limbs; they have come to tlie teacher
as ~ b .v . . xp&ov X6yov in Acts, 1 : 1.
with a free will. not with reservations, not foolishly,
See above, note 1 on this chapter.
not
babbling nonsense, not jeering, as most of the barl o xepi has been translated "near," a sense in ~ t h i c hit frequently occurs when used with a substantive in the accusative barous nations do, not delighting in scurrilous jokes,
(Liddell-Scott-Jones, L c s . , s v., C 1 fin.), instead of with the not laughing loudly at those whom they rail at, clothed
commoner meaning of " round about," because the latter transla- in short tunics because of the dignity of this fashion
tion, by iudicating that the Persians and Saracens stood all
round Simon, might impute to hfesarites a description of the
iconographic grouping which he may not have intended to
convey. O n the -\cts of Simon and Jude in Persia, see the
.ipostolic history of Abdias, V I I ff , in \I.R. James, The
.lpocryphal X e w T c s f a w z e ~ ~464
t , ff., Oxford Univ. Press, 1926.
'I This description is adapted from tlie portrait of Thrasycles
in Lucian. Tiltloit, 54. See abote, note 3 on this chapter.
'Titerally, " stretched "
'% xp6j3Alji.'a in the logic of Aristotle is a question as to
nhether a statement is so or not (Liddell-Scott-Jones, s. ZJ.).
l 4 An allusion to his being called " the Zealot " (Luke 6 : 15 ;
4cts 1 : 13). Mesarites employs the epithet with reference to
Simon's personal character rather than as an allusion to his
supposed membership in the party of the Zealots.

SXI
place of this name in Armenia does not seem to be recorded. Heisenberg in his note nd loc. (p. 43, n. 4 ) points out
that in the legend of Bartholomew's Acts in Armenia there are
references to a place variously called ' A v a v i a rrbhrs, 'AkA/3av6v,
etc. Mesarites may have misunderstood this name and called
the place rdiPavos by e r r o r ; or he may have deliberately altered
the name in order to provide an occasion for the allusion to
the story of Joshua introduced below.

'A

Gregory Xaz., Epifaph.


Basil., 17 = P. G. X X X V I , 417.
-4 typical proverb was 'AppQvrov EXars rpihov, xaipov' hxdpbv p+
d i k e . See K. Krumhacher, hfittelgriech. Sprichworter, S.-B.
dcr bay. A k a d . d. IViss. Z I L Aliittclzcrl, phi1osoph.-philolog. 11.
histor. CI., 1893, 2 : 246-248, and typical verses of tlie poetess
Kasia, ed. Krumbacher, ibid., 1897, 1 : 366.
' T h e Gibeonites trapped Joshua into making peace with them
(Joshua 9 ) . Mesarites uses the almost untranslatable phrase
61h 7 6 s dv6puou rrpoA-rj$ews, literally " b y means of the taking
beforehand (of an oath) consecrated by oath." On the form of
the name, r s , ! 3 ~ w v ; ~ a rand I'a,Bawvirar, see Benzinger, " Gabaon,"
X.B. 7 : 416-417.
* lfesarites evidently means that after the people had come
out to meet Bartholomew, they were reluctant to have anything
to do with him.
V n unusual sense of r p o u i q i . ' ~ :literally, he " lets them come
to him."
'Psalm 18 (19) : 11.
The use of the superlative is, as Heisenberg points out,
surprising, and there may be more behind it than simply an
intensification of the epithet deios. On Mesarites' use of 0 ~ ~ 6 repos, see X V I , 11. 3.
' Literally, " loins."

VOL. 47,

PT. 6 , 19571

CHURCH O F T H E HOLY APOSTLES

uf dress; for they are not lazy or dainty. Their faces,


which are inclined to be grave, are made more grave
by the teaching of Mark than Gyges was by the turning
of the ring, through which, according to some, he became
king of the Lydiansg
T H E ANNUNCIATION

XXII. Thus do the messengers


of God stand in their
"
various places. and of such fashion is the attitude and
inclination toward their teaching of the various barbbarous nations to whom they were sent out. 2. But let
us go on, in the words of Isaiah,l to the Virgin and
prophetes~,~
in the arch toward the north, the one which
faces toward the west-to
her who received in her
womb the Logos of the Father, a prophetess because
of Gabriel's recognition of her and his showing himself before her; who, through his [Gabriel's] word
which announced the unutterable conception of the
Logos, was deemed worthy to receive the coming of the
Holy Ghost and the overshadowing of the pourer of
the Most High.5 3. Let us look at the Virgin as she
sits like a pjestess in the temple, devoting herself to
Got1 alone with her unceasing prayers and supplications
to Him, astonished by the sudden appearance of Gabriel,
disturbed by the strangeness of what she has heard
and by the unexpected tidings. 4. She has just now
risen from the little pallet, just as she was 6-for she
had work in her hands-both because the coming of
the visitor had not been previously announced, and because of the stranqe and astonishing character of the
visit of him who s ~ o k eto her. Her whole posture is
erect, as when one is about to listen to royal commands,
hlesarites' phrasing is awkward, but the sense is clear. On
the legend, which is told by Plato (Rep., 359D-360X) and
others, see K. F. Smith, The tale of Gyges and the King of
T,ydia, A. J. P. 23 : 261-282, 361-387, 1902.

SXII
Isaiah 8 : 3.
Luke 1 : 26-38.
' hlesarites' explanation is not strictly correct. The Virgin
i.; called ~po+ijrrs, like Anna (Luke 2 : 36), because knowledge
,)f future events, hidden from others, had been revealed to her.
Heisenberg (p. 45, n. 2) thinks that the epithet is used because
the Virgin was to bear the Logos.
,
desigMesarites uses the technical term ~ a p b o ~ a v t swhich
uated the formal appearance of the Byzantine emperor surrounded by his court (cf. Du Cange, Gloss., s. v.).
Luke 1 : 35. The translation of the latter part of the sentence
differs from Heisenberg's, which may, however, be correct (his
interpretation would be: " . . . who, through Gabriel's word
which announced the unutterable conception of the Logos and
the coming of the Holy Ghost, was deemed worthy to receive the
overshadowing of the power of the hlost High.") The translation adopted seems favoured by the presence of ~ a at
i the beginning of the last phrase. The ambiguity is characteristic of
Mesarites' flowery manner.
On this sense of Dr E Z X E Y , see Liddell-Scott-Jones, s.v. Exw,
11 2a. The Virgin got up quickly (presumably still holding
her work in her hands) when surprised by the unannounced and
rlnusual visitor. For a different use of the term, see XVI, n. 11.

877

and she awaits the announcement, facing the interview


guardedly, indeed, because of the fall from grace of
the first mother of the race. 5. Gabriel stands as though
he had just flown down from heaven-he
shows his
wings still somewhat spread-and as though he had entered the maiden's room through the roof. His feet
are separated from one another about a cubit, about as
far as those of people who are running, his attitude
that of a zealous servant, eager to carry out swiftly the
bidding of Him who issued the command. 6. His face
is gracious, not forbidding or inaccessible, since he does
not come to carry away a soul which has committed
unforgivable sins. H e stretches out his hand toward the
maiden, intending not to carry off her soul but to bless
her, and tells her the tidings of joy, announcing the
conception of his and her Lord; and the glad message
is inscribed above the head. 7. The word comes to the
hearing of the Virgin, and enters through it to the brain ;
the intelligence which is seated in the brain at once lays
hold upon what comes to it, recognizes the matter by
its perception, and then cominunicates to the heart itself
what it had understood. The heart is iillinediately agitated, and debates begin to rise up to the maiden's heart
as she debates, in virtuous fashion, what the greeting
means. 8. And she already turns to a careful examination of the greeting ; for the Virgin was truly maidenly,
not merely in her person but even in her very thoughts,
and she requests the messenger to describe clearly the
manner of the conception. " For how," she says, " shall
I, a maiden, conceive and give birth, having no experience at all of a man ? " Then she hears of the thing which
surpasses wonder, which the coming of the Holy Spirit
and the overshadowing of the pourer of the Most High
intimate in clearest fashion. 9. She yields herself wholly
to the conception of the Word, which is beyond thought
and speech-for she calls herself a ~ e r v a n t possessing
,~
no desire which opposes the fulfilment of the wish of
the Lord-and the Word of God at once, as one might
say, undergoes the act of incarnation.
T H E NATIVITY

XXIII. And see now, over against the arch, that


portentous scene, the Virgin herself who is now7 also a
woman who has just been in childbirth, even though this
woman who has given birth suffered no labor pains.'
She lies on a straw mattress in the cave as though
on a gilded royal couch worthy of S ~ l o m o n showing
,~
the face of a woinan who has just been in pain--even
though she escaped the pangs of labor-in order that

' Luke

1 : 38,48.

XXIII
2 : 1-20. With Mesarites' account, compare the description of the Nativity by St. Andrew of Crete, P. G. XCVII,
820 B-C.
' This could be translated " on a bed."
Cant. 3 : 7.

' Luke

878

D O W N E Y : NIKOLAOS M E S A R I T E S

the dispensation of the incarnation might not be looked


upon with suspicion, as trickery. 2. The infant is
wrapped in swaddling-clothes, and the uncircumscribable is bound tightly with bonds. H e who existed
before time was, is a new-born babe; the ancient of
days is an infant at the breast. H e who is present
everywhere and fills all things is confined in the smallest
kind of cave; the boundless is a cubit long; H e who
holds all creation in His all-powerful grasp is carried
in a weak hand. Very wisdom is unable to speak; I i c
who established the heavens is unsupported by His
own feet. Dumb animals about Him who all the . . .
in heaven. . . .lo

[TRANS.AMER.

PHIL.

SOC.

and as though he had not the strength to resist. For


fearing lest the waters rise about him and sweep him
off to sea, he steadies himself with one hand on the bet1
of the river, using his hand as though it were an iron
anchor, and the other hand he holds over the mouth of
~ that it serves as a lid, so
the outpouring ~ t r e a m ,so
to speak, on the outflow of the water, and stops it up.'
C H R I S T W A L K S ON T H E W A T E R

9 X V . But what is happening to me? I have fallen


somehow into the depths of the Jordan itself and do not
know where I shall make land. I wish to check my
stylus and my pen which has helped me in this crossing
of the river, which, like an oar in some black sea, has
T H E BAPTISM
constantly been dipped into this vessel of an inkstand
XXIV. . . . the neck, and the head lowered to the and withdrawn; and the insatiate desire to see will not
ground. For they are not haughty and unbending like let it rest, since it has grown accustomed to the sojourn
that one who was cast out of heaven because of his at the sweet-tasting waters and since it has once tasted
exalted pride and exchanged darkness for light; for the quite divine pleasure in them, and it forces me to
these [angels], I believe, bear further witness by such steer the skiff of my mind with full sails toward the sea
humility and such an attitude to the voice of the Father which faces me, Gennesaret, so that I inay spend my
which comes down from on high to give recognition to time on the sights there. 2. What I shall do, I knou
God, and calls out in a great voice that H e who is being not; I do not fear for myself, but for illy companions
baptized is the beloved son of God, and as though by and fellow-sailors, lest any one of them suffer from dizzia finger, by means of the Spirit, which comes down ness because of the great length and the roughness of
upon Him in the form of a dove, points out the one the journey about the sea on which my discourse
who is acknowledged by the Voice, coming upon Him
presses me to embark. 3. But we must trust
and remaining upon Hiin and upon no other.
now in the Logos, our Savior Christ, who by His word
2. The Jordan is depicted "n the form of a man, (logos) alone stilled the buffets and the wildness of the
bending back in the waters3 experiencing difficulty, for winds and the waves, and we must sail the ship of the
he wishes to halt the flow of his own waters and to calm mind from wave to wave. For this stream of Jordan
them because of the presence of Him who walls up the bears us on, even against our will, to this ocean-like
waters in h e a ~ e n .3.~ One of his feet stumbles a little sea nearby, as though to some ocean, since all rivers.
and he seems as though he were falling and sinkii~g,~according to the word of the seer,4 run into the sea ailtl
empty into it.
Oikonowzia is a technical term used with reference to the
4. And see how H e who a short while hefore stootl
Incarnation. See Theodoret, Dial., I1 = P. G. L X X X I I I , 129 C,
and Heisenberg's note ad loc. (p. 47, n. 1 ) .
' I. e. Sncomprehensible, surpassing understanding.
"XX
Dan. 7 : 9,13,22.
Isaiah 40 : 10, 12.
Psalm 32 ( 3 3 ) : 6.
On the deoiction of animals in the scene of the Nativity, see
a letter of the patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch and ~ e r u s a l e m
sent to Theophilus in 836, published by L. Duchesne, L'iconographie byzantine dans un document du I X e siecle, Rowza e
I'Ouielltc 5 : 274, 1912-1913 (on the date and character of the
letter, see Duchesne's introduction, ibid., p. 223).
l o Here the manuscript breaks off.

XXIV
3 : 13-17 ; hlark 1 : 9-11 ; Luke 3 : 21-22 ; John 1 : 29-33.
The first part of this chapter is missing in the manuscript.
Heisenberg renders 6 r e j w y p a @ q r a i "ist unten vom l l a l e r
gezeichnet." This meaning, which is not attested elsewhere,
may read too much into the word; see above, X V , 3, n
LIalickij, B y z . 3 : 149, 1926, renders " tomb6 i la renverse,"
which may read too much into S r r i a j w v .
Psalm 103 (104) : 3.
' blalickij (loc. cit.) renders ~ a r a r e u c h v"Ctant tomb&," which
forces the meaning.

' Matt.

' rpoxo.rj properly means " a n outpouring," i. e. " t h e mouth ot'


a river." Mesarites may have used the word here, by an exceptional extension of the meaning, to designate the vessel out oi
which, according to the usual iconography of such scenes, the
river was flowing, and Heisenberg and hlalickij understand thc
passage in this sense. I t is possible, however, that hlesarites
intended to use a poetic figure and, though aware of the presence
of a vessel from which the stream flowed, spoke only of the
gesture with which the figure representing Jordan stopped the
flow by placing his hand over the "mouth," i. e. over the flow.
of the water itself. The latter interpretation is adopted here
because it seems more characteristic of hlesarites' style, ant1
because it preserves the ambiguity of the original.
dva@pCiuuw may mean either " t o stop up " or " t o open "
something that has been blocked up. Heisenberg adopts the
latter interpretation but the former seems preferable as a
pendant to h i r w p a r i j w .

XXV

hlatt. 13 : 22-23 ; hfark 6 : 35-54; John 6 : 16-21.

' On Llesarites' use of Beibrcpos, see X V I I , n. 3.

Cf. the play upon logos in X X V I I I .

Eccl. 1 : 7.

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

C H U R C H O F THE H O L Y A P O S T L E S

naked on the streams of Jordan now stands on the


shore of this sea, clothed now and, because of their
excessive motion, calming the tumult and ceaseless
movement of the waves. 6. Observe well this strange
kind of sea depicted on this wall, high in the air, and
understand clearly, through the agency of the artist's
hand, how there can be waters in the air, in the upper
parts of a b ~ i l d i n g . 6.
~ Gaze on this howling sea; see
the waves, how some are piled up high as mountains,
as they roll in the open sea, while others lie quiet, as
they are drawn to shore on the coast, as if, from reverence for the Lord who stands there, they gathered themselves together and broke themselves off. Observe how
the atmosphere about it is dark, how it is misty, so to
speak, and smoky; how the clouds are gathered, how
violently the air bears along the ship on the clashing of
the 1%-aves,as some northeast or north wind blows
stormily. 7. See the people in the ship, how some of
them are backing water, while others are urging the
ship forward, how each of thein bids his neighbor to
l a y hold even more quickly upon whatever piece of
the ship's gear is at hand, lest the ship be dashed upon
the rock and broken up and bring peril to those in it.
8. And if the confused roaring and tossing of the sen
did not smite upon our ears and block them up, we
would hear their articulate cries as they gave orders to
each other in their anxiety lest through liegligence the
ship be lost.s
9. And this, one can see, is tvhat the whole cluster
of the disciples does and suffers, in peril in the ship in
the middle watches of the night. What, then, does the
Savior and Teacher, their own and all men's? Did H e
perhaps forget His disciples in their peril, as they
suffered grievously? Did H e turn them out to make
trial of the vexations in the sea beyond their powers?
10.Not in any way at all. While the night still remained,
and the time was still to come when it should turn its
back on the day and yield it the prize, the Savior appears
to them, walking on the sea as on dry land. 11. They,
doubting lest what they see be a vision and not reality,
were .even more distressed by a two-fold fear. But H e
who banishes the sufferings of all men, banishes their
anguish at once, saying those words, " Fear not, it is I."
\Vhat then, upon this, does Peter do, he who was
ardent in all things? Hearing those words " I t is I,"
he immediately replies to Him, " If it be thou, bid me
come unto thee on the water." lo 12. H e then replied
to him. " Come," and with that word the water was
j

yupv6r may mean "clad in the undergarment."

See above.

XVII. n. 8.
V s a l m 103 (104) : 3.

' The

sea.
In this sentence Heisenberg finds a reminiscence of the same
scene in a cycle at Gaza described by Choricius, Laud. iliauc.,
I, 65, p. 19 Forster-Richsteig.
Acts 4 : 13.

l l a t t . 14 : 28.

879

spread beneath Peter as though it were dry land. But


then, stricken by the strangeness of the miracle, and
doubting, because of the greatness of the portent, that
this walk on the sea might not reach its goal, he began
to sink and cried out loudly to his Master, " Lord, save
me." 13. And He, seizing with both His hands the right
hand of Peter, as quickly as H e could, drew up his
whole body from the depths of the sea, and by speaking
to him those words, " 0 thou of little faith, wherefore
didst thou doubt?" l1 he draws up a s well his soul,
which was sinking into the depths of unbelief,12 and to
him who was in peril of death in both ways,13 quicker
than a word the Savior in marvelous fashion gave the
gift of life. 14. F o r Peter, who at first walked on the
sea because of his faith, now appears an involuntary
struggler in the depths, like a tumbler, because of his
lack of faith, and is tossed about by the savage waves.
facing final drou~ning. See, indeed, how he draws in
the sea which washes about him, how sharply he gasps
among the waves. 15. And if we were near him, we
\ ~ o u l dsee how his cheeks were puffed out and how his
I~reatlicame out as though through a pipe in the water
ant1 was condensed by the coldness of the air, and was
expelled from his nostrils and his nose, from his lips
and from his mouth. 16. Peter wishes to prostrate
himself in adoration before the Lord, but the ceaseless
nlotion and the yielding water of the sea do not permit
this. H e wishes to bow his head, but fears to be
tlronnecl; he desires to assume an upright posture and
tloes not succeed because of the swirling of the water.
17. H e seeks to swim and raises his feet behind him.
seeking to use them as a ship does rudders, and he uses
as a keel his belly and chest, which his heart urges on
restlessly.14 18. His left hand cuts like an oar the waves
which swell up about his face; while the right is seizetl
by both the Pantokrator's hands, which drew Peter up
completely like another Adam out of the depth of Hades.
just as over against the arch, Lazarus, dead for four
days. is raised u p from the tomb by the \vord,15 as
though by hands; Lazarus, to whom we must now
hasten quickly to turn our attention, giving not even a
nlomentary rest to our discourse, much less one of four
days, as the Savior did of old, in order that, hy this four
days' delay, H e might win belief in His deetl.16

Matt. 14 : 31.
Psalm 68 (69) : 2,15.
l 3 Because both body and soul were sinking
l 4 Literally, " h e uses as a keel the convulsive effect of the
heart on the belly and chest."
" AClyos here appears to meant the word spoken by Christ.
rather than Christ the Logos (cf. the opening words of the next
chapter). However, it is possible that hlesarites created the
ambiguity intentionally.
By waiting until the body had been buried for four days, at
which point decomposition should have set in, Christ was able to
prove that Lazarus had really died and had not been in a swoon

880

D O W N E Y : NIKOI> A O S M E S A R I T E S
T H E RAISIXG O F LAZARUS

XXVI. Let us look upon Him now, how with a


word alone H e raises up from the tomb and from death,
as though merely from a bed and froin sleep, a man
dead for four days; how H e now, making a show of
being ignorant, seeks as a inan to learn the place of
burial of him whose death H e had three days before, as
God, announced to His disciples. See how H e is grieved
and weeps for His friend, He, the gladness and joy of
all mankind, weeping Himself because H e is not free
from the 1,urdens ot nature and its unblamable griefs,
11ut c o n ~ n ~ a n d i nHgi s suffering not to pass beyond the
liii~itsof moderation and to confine its nature to the
bounds comtnon to all men, because H e Himself is not
merely a man, but God as well, and holds in servitude
to Himself, and obedient in all respects, the nature
which H e has assuined, even though this nature is not
deprived of its own free will.
2. Look at Martha and Mary, the sisters of the
11~11-iedman, how on bent knees they are bowed over
the feet of Jesus, washing them with the tears of their
grief for their brother, and how they move their Teacher
to \veep with them for the beloved Lazarus, and bring
Him who is the source of all succor to coininon emotioi;
wit11 them. 3. T h e more vehement of the sisters holds
her head high, and by the expression of her face alone,
one inight say, seeks to beseech the Lord, presenting her
request to the Savior chiefly by means of her eyes and
I)y the expression of suffering and grief on her whole
face. 4. 1311t the Savior is depicted with a somewhat
melancholy expression on His face, ancl His whole posture has assumed a very kingly and commanding aspect.
T h e right hand rebukes 110th xvhat is seen, namely the
tomb which holds the l ~ o d yof Lazarus, and what is
perceived 1)y the mind,?nainely Hades, which four days
before had made haste to swallo\v his soul. 5. H i s
inouth, l~onever,\vhich spoke little, to use the \vord of
I ~ a i a h so
, ~ that his voice was not heart1 in the streets,
but which on the contrary had power for great things,
according to another writer *-for it is written, " H e
\pake, and it was done "--called forth Jvith most divine
voice to him who was no longer able to hear, only
these ivortls, " Lazarus, come forth." 6. And Hades.
trembling, as quickly as it could loosed the soul, which
it had so eagerly swalloived, and Lazarus' soul once
inore enters its body, and the corpse rises from the tomb
as from a bed and comes to Him who called him, bound
in grave clothes like some slave who against his master's
11ish has run far off into the country, and with his whole
l~odvshackled with handcuffs and chains on the feet
is ~~nwillingly
brought back and restored to his owner.
XXVI
John 11 : 1-45.
' I. e. invisible.
Isaiah 42: 2 ; cf. Matt. 12: 19.
' Psaltn 32 (33) : 9.
"John 11 : 43.

[ T R A N S . A M E R . PHIL. SOC.

His entire body is bloated, wl~ollyunapproachable became of the decay which has set in upon the wasted and
putrefying body. T h e stone at the toinb, which covered
Lazarus, has been rolled away, and the toinb, from
which he has just now risen, is dark. 7. The disciples
cannot support the stench which is given forth by the
tomb and by Lazarus, and hold their noses. They wish
in curiosity to gaze upon him who is risen, but they
roll their eyes backward because of the heavy stench
which comes from him; they wish to praise with their
lips and their tongues Him who raised him up, but they
inust cover their mouths with their mantles ; they desire
to be far from the place, but the strangeness of the
miracle holds then1 and will not let them go. 8. The
apostles are filled with amazement and full of astonishment, perceiving how with a word alone H e hat1 just
noiv raised fro111 the tomb a Inan who has already
decayed. \Vhat manner of man can H e be, they think
to themselves, \vho has wrought such wonders ; " Really
this is in truth," they say, " H e who once breathed the
ioul into Adam, and gave breath to the father of all,
even though, as a man, H e wipes away the tears of His
eyelids. How indeed should death and Hades obey
Him, unless, ill the ~ o i - t l sof the prophet.' all things
(lit1 not serve and obey H i m ? "
T H E BETRXYrZL AND ARREST

X X Y I I . Him who just now freed the inan dead for


four days from the unbreakable bonds of death, see
I-Tim, you who behold this, seized by lawless hands like
a criminal, and bound, in the hall at the east. 2. Let
us not abandon Him like the cowardly disciples and
leave Him alone as H e draws near H i s voluntary
passion ant1 falls into this a m b u s l ~ ,which,
~
as it were
in secret," in this h a l l , ~ l ~ o sviolent
e
inen contrived
for Hiin after the raising of Lazarus; but let us follow
l<im, not only as far as the court of the high priest,"
1)ut if at all possible even until the return and the
sojourn with His friends and disciples in the period of
forty days following the passion and the resurrection,
so that in thought we may feast with H i i ~ l ,tinder~
standing Him in a different fashion from that fornler
time, when H e was living in the flesh and feasting with
His disciples ; so that, indeed, by follo\ving with Him
and s o j o u r n i ~ ~\\-it11
g Him i l l this fashioii. \ye ma!. our"11

~ c p r c p y b r c p o v , see

' IAXYIla11. 7 : 27.


' Matt.

ST-I, 11. 3.

XXVTI
26 : 37-56 ; l l a r k 14 : 43-51 ; T.uke 22 : 47-53 : John

IS : 2-13.
0
1
1
the accentuatiot~of Pue8pav, see n. 17 o t ~this chanter.
"John 7 : 4 and 10; 18:20.
"ere
Mesarites is presumably using stoa to mean the whole
arm of the church, as he does in the preceding sentence.
Only Peter and " another disciple " followed Jesus (John
IS: 15).
T u k e 24 : 41-43.

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

CHURCH O F T H E HOLY APOSTLES

selves receive a pledge in the kingdom of H i s Father,


along with those who follow H i m with all their soul
and all their devotion, a pledge of joy and exultation
of a very new and different kind.
3. But thou, 0 E n ~ y thou
, ~ first cause of all evil,
who dost cast a malicious eye on things that are untouchable, and dost aspire to things that cannot be
approached, plotting to cast the deathless into death,
what is this inixed and disorderly crowd which thou
hast collected together against H i m ? 4. W h o are these
bearers of torches, themselves worthy of darkness, who
breathe n~urderousfire against the Light of the IVorld? "
W h o are these who bear clubs in their hands against
Him who with strong hand, and arm raised on high,
led Israel out of the midst of the Egyptians? lo W h o
are these drawing swords against Hill1 who posted the
flaming sword as a guard at the gates of Paradise? l1
W h o are these men who bring forward these spears?
W h o is their commander, who their captain? And
against whom have they come forth murderously, and
with wild hatred? Did H e not, in H i s daily presence
ill the Temple, speak H i s word to them? '? 5. Did H e
contrive something secretly in H i s discourse against the
whole race of the Jews ?
Wherefore has thou l4 armed
these men subjected to thee, that they come forth so
murderouslyand wilclly upon the guardian of our souls
and bodies as upon a thief? 6. Do thou look now, along
with all illen-unless perchance thou hast blinded thy
very eyes from the poisollous disease which dwells in
thee---on the sweet Jesus in the midst of the men who
gaze upon Him recklessly and like wild beasts, sta~lding
like a spotless lamb; and do reverence to His gentleness, as H e is embraced by both hands of His betrayer
and disciple, and with a kiss, the syillbol of betrayal,
is placed in the hands of those who will carry H i m off.
7. See how thou hast urged the pupil to run eagerly to
the teacher,15 not at morning twilight but at evening,
ant1 it1 the nighttime-the pupil who before this spent
his whole time in gluttoily and deep snoring and alinost
never wolce up and never was able to show a \vakinq eye
a t the rising of the s u n ; and in addition to this had
heen entrusted with a school-box by the teacher, so
that his bad conduct might not be excused in this \vay.lG

' On

~arv6repov,see X V I , n. 3.
Heisenberg suggests that Mesarites here had in mind the
apostrophe to Envy by Constantine Manasses, vv. 3248 ff., p. 140
Bonn ed.
John 8: 12.
Cf. Exod. 6 : 1.
Gen. 3 : 24.
l 2Matt 26 : 55 ; Luke 21 : 37.
l 3 John 18 : 20.
" Envy.
l T h e comparison of Jesus to the teacher and the apostles to
the pupils is made again in X X X I I I , 1.
lo I. e. so that he might not be able to excuse his absences
from school by the pretext of not possessing a school-box. The
allusion is to John 12 : 6 ; 13 : 29, where Judas is said to have

881

8. T h e pupil approaches the teacher, not seeking to


learn anything froill Him, but to deceive the teacher;
he wears on his face the expression of a pupil, but when
his undertaking is laid bare, he shows it full of guile
and trickery. 9. For the ambush l i is plain, the troop
of men is clearly visible to all; H e who as Lord is able
to bring death is patient in the face of slaughter, ancl
H e who is the source of life is filled with sympathy for
the murderer. H e gives his cheek to be kissed to the
man who has ceased to be a friend; H e offers His lips
to the greeting of the man who moved his lips in deceit
against Him, and he speaks that word " Friend " to
him; H e spreads His hands to embrace the man who
spread his 11antls to receive the money of betrayal. Like
some captive, H e who frees Adam from the bitter
servitude of Hades is Himself dragged off; H e is pushed
and pullecl at,out,ls H e does not however struggle or
cry out, I ~ u tlike a spotless lamb H e is led off to
sla~~ghtei-,lWiinself
like a shepherd who is beaten.?O
10. \\'hat then in the face of this does Peter do, who
a little while before had sworn to die with H i m ? H e is
zealous xvith the same zeal 'l for his Teacher, and he
tlraws his sword from its sheath and cuts off the ear
of the servai~t-Ilalchus was his name-that ear which
hat1 so evilly listened to the plot against the hlaster ;
and the blood running d o w i ~shows proof of the cut.
11. This does not pass unnoticed by that eye which overlooks nothing, and Peter's hatred of evil does not escape
unseen. For this reason, indeed, I think, was Peter so
eager to stain his sword wit11 blood, namely that he
might I)y his deeds show his captain, Christ, that he
was not one to flee from battle or cast away his shield.
12. T h e cry of LIalchus strikes the ears of the Lord,
ancl the sympathy of Him who was pity itself anticipates
the cry. Malchus laments the cutting off of the ear, ancl
his joy in its restoration anticipates his outcry. 13. T h e
cutting off of the ear occupies Malchus, and care for
his escape occupies Peter, lest he be d e t e ~ t e d . ~ T e a r s
been in charge of the purse or moiley-box, also called glossaI Z O I I ~ O I L .S ee Heisenberg's note ad loc. (p. 57, n. 2 ) .
" Here and above, 0 2 of this chapter, as Heisenberg points
out in his note, Mesarites writes fi Zvespa, and the accentuation
is here made certain by the rhythm. As Heisenberg notes, this
form represents a contamination of fi QvCspa and r b Evespa, the
latter being common in the Greek of the Septuagint.
l 8 Literally, "there are pushing and pullings upon Him."
l o Isaiah 53 : 7 ; Acts 8 : 32.
20 Zech. 13 : 7 ; Matt. 26: 31.
Possibly through a lapse in which he confused Simon Peter
and Simon, Mesarites employs a figure of speech ({GAov [?IXo;)
which may have been intended as an allusion to the epithet of
Simon, 6 {~+r?jr (Luke 6 : 15; Acts 1 : 13), which he had
already introduced in a previous passage ( X X , 7). Mesarites
had also alluded to the boldness of Peter (Acts 4 : 13) a little
while previously ( X X V , 11).
2 2 In order to indulge in the pun peXrrrp6r-peX~prp6s,
Mesarites
has rendered the text somewhat obscure. The translation given
above indicates what appears to be the literal meaning; Heisenberg offers a more elaborate rendering which approximates the
complexity of the original : " Das Ohr war Malchus zerschnitten

882

DOWNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

of pain begin to flow from his eyes and he brushes away


tears of joy. 14. H e scarcely has time to pick up the
thing which was cut off, and the ear is as sound as it
was before. H e sees the blood flowing down, and he is
quite unable to recogrlize the cut from which the blood
comes. While the blood is a token of the cut, the restoration of thing cut off serves to conceal the cut. T h e servant ackno~vledgesas God Him whom n ~ e nof enslaved
tninds seize as the enemy of God, and with a free tongue
he extols the forbearance of Him who suffers evil fronl
those who receive good at His hands.
T H E W O M E S A T T H E TOMB

X X V I I I . ,As far as this point our discourse has


been pleasant, since it has traveled over the smooth and
most joyful road of the miracles and wonders of our
all-powerful Savior; from this point it seems grievous
to those who hear it and as though dressed in black
garments, and it will walk with a slower foot because
of the unpleasant nature of the story, and, so to speak,
its deathlike and funereal character.' 2. But let no one
of those who follow the logos fall out because he hears
i ~ c hthings as these now from us. For the logos will
not endure for very long to clear such a road as this
nor will it spend much time on the story nor will it of
its own accord relate the whole of the events which are
l~eforeour eyes. 3. Indeed the discourse itself will invite the women to weep for this suffering; or rather it
will advance toward them as they are shown seated
over against the tomb which is diametrically across from
\veeping. I believe, for Hinl \~11olies in it, or intleetl
und zugleich war sein Herz, da er Petrus entronnen war, von
Sorge zerschnitten, es mochte entdeckt werden." Heisenberg
suggests that a change in the punctuation of the manuscript
i
would produce
(reading 85 ~ X L ~ ( E WIPI d, r p q P ~ T W ~ a @wpaO?j)
better sense: " Malchus was occupied by care for the cutting off
of his ear and by anxiety for his escape, lest he be detected by
Peter." This would fit better with the thought in the remainder
of the sentence, which is concerned with Malchus' action.
XXVIII
Matt. 27: 61 ; 28: 1-8; Mark 15: 47; 16: 1-8; Luke 23: 55;
24: 1-10; John 20: 11-18.
Although Heisenberg's division of the text into chapters has
been retained here as a matter of convenience, it must be noted
that the first two 55 of this chapter form a transition between
the last scene and the present one, and belong almost as much
with the preceding chapter as with this. I n writing that " a s
far as this point our discourse has been pleasant," Mesarites
refers to the sceues which preceded the Betrayal and Arrest,
not the scenes which preceded the Women at the Grave.
' Discourse.
Discourse.
"he phrase a? ~ a r d v a v r rr o c arb 6rdperpov fi$iv rh@ou ~aO+$evar is a reminiscence of Matt. 27: 61, in which Mary Magdalene
and the other Mary are said to be ~ a O f i e ~ v ad is i v a v r r T O O rd@ou.
On a passage in a sermon of Leo VI which appears to allude
to a representation of the same scene, see A. Frolow, Deux
eglises byzantines dJaprPs des sermons peu conuus de Leon V I
le Sage, Etudes bjrs. 3 : 52-53, 77-85, 1945.

[TRANS. AMER. PIIIL. SOC.

looking to see where the body of Jesus is laid.s 4. And


the winged logos, being quicker than logos-for
the
other logos is slower than logos, and there is indeed a
logos which flies faster than logos-has already reached
5. Let us now follow in its tracks and let us
eavesdrop on what it says to them, so that we nlay know
who111 they are weeping for and for whom they break
their hearts; over whom they scar their cheeks with
scratches, not in pretense or for pay,1 but froin their
whole souls; for whom their hearts are smitten, for
whom the tears gush from their eyes like springs, and
for whose sake their faces are downcast and dejected
and glooilly and full of grief. 6. For these reasons our
logos, coining to them before ourselves, has made inquiry of them; l1 but they not only do not wish to give
an answer to that which brings the question,12 but they
do not even desire to listen to it, overcome as they are
by the disaster and robbed of all their intelligence by
the catastrophe, and gazing in complete absorption only
at the toiub itself, unable to be drawn from it. 7. But
I believe that they are suffering thus and doing these
things for the sake of Him who according to the
jx-ophet l 3 was born as a man that has no strength, and
among the dead was reckoned free, as God; m y h l a s t e r
and Lord, Jesus, that sweet name and sweet reality, both
to these women and to all mankind.
8. Mary Pllagdalene herself, however, and the other
Mary, ~vhorn the logos14 indeed [calls] the wife of
Cleophas, see them, ho\v, not suffering our logos to
press cares upon them through its questioning of them,
they rise up from their places and i o to t h e t o m b , desiring perhaps to wash the body of Jesus with myrrh
and to steal the body froin the tomb,16 unseen by the
guards, and to take it to their homes. 9. But their plan
is not brought to an end. For the logos li will not be
left behind by them, even though their journey be extended to the parts beyond Gadeira,18 but it will instead
follow close upon their steps; and the body of Christ.
which they hoped to wash with myrrh, or to car]-y alvay
&lark 15 : 47.
' T h e winged thought, quicker than a spoken word, has
already reached the women; for the spoken word is slower than
thought, and there is also the divine Logos, which is quicker
than human thought.
' I . e. in the tracks of the winged thought; cf. Odyssry, 11,
406; V, 193.
' Acts 21 : 13.
'O Not as hired mourners.
" I . e. our thought has gone out to the women before we
ourselves have approached the picture.
'
I I. e. to the thought.
' T s a l m 87 (88) : 5-6; see below 5 18.
l4 Narrative ; cf. John 19 : 25.
'' Thought.
'' 011the tradition that the women came to the tomb to put
perfumes on the body, or even to steal it, see Frolow, op. cit.,
82. Mesarites' description may be taken to indicate that the
scene of the Women at the Tomb was shown in two pictures.
Discourse.

I' I. e. to the end of the world.

1-OL.47, PT. 6 , 19571

CHURCH O F T H E HOLY APOSTLES

883

lvith them, will not be found remaining in the tomb, but aspect of their faces, the redness of their blood having
it will be found to have risen up from the grave in the run away to the heart, which was the first organ to
first light of dawn, or in the middle of the night, tl~rough suffer the shock, in order to bestow upon it courage and
the Life which inseparably dwells in it according to its vitality and security by means of its circulation about it.
I~ypostasis, the Logos of God the Father and His 17. F o r the women saw the angel and began to pour
forth their souls; they saw the angel and the spirits in
wisdom and power.Ig
10. They have already coine to the toillb without their souls struggle to find a way out; they saw the
outcry and beating of breasts and noise of weeping. For angel and their hearts were stirred, though not with a
these womeil do not now conduct theillselves as people stirring of joy but a fearful and unaccustomed one, so
are accustomed to do when they draw near the tombs of that it collapses and altogether stops beating. T h e feet
of the illourning women break down and they are in
their loved ones, but they are timid and f e a ~ f u l , 'terri~
fied by the guards, breathing quickly and restraining danger of suffering a pitiful fall, as the blood sinks
their weeping, lest they be detected by the illen on guard together about the heart. 18. But he who is seen in the
and fall into the net of those who lie in wait.?l 11. T h e visioil encourages them, and gives them life again and
expression on their faces is full of anxiety, and doubts strengthens thein afresh, and through the glad tidings
rise up in their hearts, as to who will roll away the of the resurrection, raises them from their collapse.
,tone from the door of the tomb for them, how the work " 1I:lly do you, weeping, seek among the dead H i m who
can be accomplished undetected, how they can steal lives? " he says; " why, among the corpses, Hiin who
tinheard past the guards, how they are to anoint the is risen? " IVherefore do you seek anlong those who
body of the dead man with the myrrh which they carry are held by the unbreakable bonds of Hades, the only
in their hands. 12. And as they turn over in their ininds one who among the dead was reckoned free? 2 V e r i l y
these thoughts and others like them, their eyes are cast the Life of all men has been recalled to life, and the
down toward the ground, since the doubts which rise resurrection of all men has risen. 19. TtTitness of my
up to their nlinds and hearts are wholly earthly and word are these seals of the tomb w11icl1 have been loosed,
human; but then when they are forced to reflect on the cutting out and tearing away of the bars of the door
the all-powerful nature of Him who lies dead, they raise and the nails, the abandonment in the tomb of the towel
their eyes and indeed look up to heaven. 13. And first and the linen cloths, the falling asleep of the unwatching
of all they see how the stone has been rolled away from guards, deathlike almost and so to speak unwaking.
the tomb, not by human hand, but by a truly divine which they experienced when the stone was rolled away
power which sits on the stone, wl~ichhas flown down from the tomb, stricken in their minds by fear. 20. Confrom heaven and rolled away the stone fro111 the sepul- sider ti~em.h o ~ vthey became like men thunderstruck ;
chre after the resurrection of the Savior; and then how, seized by fear as though by sleep and lying one
they see the angel in clear view,22 sitting on the stone upon another just as they fell, they were cast down to
o f the sepulchre. 14. And again there comes upon them the ground, seeming heavy of head and drowsy and
fear and trembling, greater than they had expected to sluggish and drugged with sleep. 21. For all their senses
feel. and distraction, because of the astonishing and and their energies ceased to function. Some of them
terrifying and strange aspect of the angel. 15. And may be seen -%tretched out snoring; others lean their
immediately the tears, which are running down from heads on their on11 shoulders or on those of the others ;
their eyes noiselessly, a s from a spring, are turned to some again press their hands and their knees against
done, and are forced to run back; and they consider
their bodies and support their cheeks on the palins of
turning back and going by another road if possible, and
their hands, achieving, by reason of their exhaustion,
the feet of the women, formerly sn-ift, are stilled, and
no
ordinary closing of the eyelids and blindness of eyesz7
they are i m m o ~ a b l eand fixed, as are the feet of those
22.
But leave them here sleeping thus on this spot,
~ h o according
,
to the saying, stand in r i g h t e o ~ s n e s s . ? ~
almost
asleep without waking, and go swiftly to the
16. Like statues of mood and stone are the women bearing myrrh, ant1 a strong yellow tint tlesceilds on the friends and piipils of Him who is risen, and after telling
''The play upon logos which began with the opening of the
scene reaches its culmination in the account of the Resurrection.
'O Hebr. 12 : 21.
'' Cf. Psalm 9 : 31 (10 : 10) ; 56 (57) : 7.
" Here Mesarites chose to substitute ~a6'apGs for the description of the angel's white robes which appear in the gospels
(Matt. 28 : 3 ; hiark 16 : 5 ; Luke 24 : 4). Heisenberg translates
~ a 8 a p d s "in lichter Gestalt." This meaning is possible, but
uncommon. A more commonplace rendering has been adopted
here in order to avoid the possibly unwarranted introduction
into the text of a significant iconographic detail.
'' Psalm 25 (26) : 12.

" Luke

24 : 5.
87 (88)
~, : 5-6 : see above., 8
" 7.
" T h e use of lpaivovrai suggests that Mesarites forgot for a
moment that he was reproducing the angel's discourse, and
instead wrote in descriptive fashion.
"This seems to represent the sense of the second clause of
the sentence, though no parallels have been found for uuprrux4
in the sense of U ~ F X T U E C S and for ~ 4 ~ 0 xmeaning
4
exhaustion.
Malickij, Byz. 3 : 133, 1926, renders " . . . esperant abriter
leurs paupieres et leurs yeux contre l'kclat de la lumiere." I t
does not seem possible that droxli can mean "l'eclat de la
lumiere" ; moreover such a reading does violence to 6rd.
" Psalm

884

DOIVNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

[TRANS. AIZER. PHIL. SOC.

because of the combination in one of the conlplete


natures, which here are considered to be parts of the
whole because of the oneness and indivisibility of the
hypostasis.' 2. For H e is both wholly god and wholly
man, fair in beauty beyond all the sons of men, pouring
out the gift of joy from His lips on the women who
were grieved even unto death by the shanleful nature
of the death which came upon Him. 3. The wonlen
11end tlie wliole gaze of their eyes down upon the
ground, unable to look back into the godlike aspect of
His face, supporting their whole hodies on knees antl
elbolvs ; their lia~lds,which have grasped His irnniaculate feet, cling to then1 ardently. 4. They will not let
them g o ; they desire to hold in bonds the uncircuni>cribable; they kiss the fair feet which first brought
glad tidings of peace ancl good things to all the world?
They pour forth tears of joy from their eyes according
to that saying of the prophet,' " The lament which the!
CHRIST APPEARS T O T H E WOMEN
sang at evening is changed in the niorning to rejoicing."
X S I X . Then while they are making their way to 5. They clo not wish to let go the feet of the Savior.
the tlisciples, behold, the Savior, as though froill some first because they follo~vhard after Him, body ant1
hidden and secret place at the angular point of the sfoa,? soul ; "hen also, I think, because they fear to be separated frnm Him and to be left utterly alone to fall into
comes out to meet them, saying to them " Greeting."
the
hands of that synagogue of the Jews, which the
H e is godlike in His appearance, l ~ e r o i c .antl
~ as one
hand
of the artist has depicted over against the stoa.
inight say, in another manner of speech, a half-god.

them the glad tidings of the resurrection, bid thein


hasten out to Galilee, so that they niay see Him there."
23. These things the angel spoke to the women. But
our logos,-8 very curiously '"gazing
and looking about
here and there, has perceived the inan who depicted
these things with his hand, as he is to be seen, standing
upright at the tomb of the Lord, like some sleepless
~vatcher,wearing that sobe and all the rest of the garnlents which he wore with distinctioil in life and with
which he adorned the outer tnan while he painted these
things, achieving success, as in everything, with himself as ell.^^ 24. And our discourse would \villinglp
spend some time over the praises of this man, and with
the greatest justification, were it not that it was under
conlpulsion to accompany these women, hastening wit11
then1 as they hasten to go off to the disciples according
to the co~nmandof the angel.

Thought.
n. 3.
" The artist was evidently known to hare been vain about
his dress, and he seems to have reproduced the details of his
costume with a care which made his appearance among the
other figures of the scene striking. This self-portrait of the
artist has been discussed by Heisenberg in Xenia 138 and in
Phil. Wocla. 41: 1030-1032, 1921, and by hlalickij, By=. 3 : 130131, 1926. A marginal note in the manuscript (see critical
apparatus) states that the reference is to Eulalios.
"1'1

T E ~ L E ~ - ~ ~ Tsee
F~O
SV
V ,I ,

XXIX
hfatt. 28 : 8-10,
' Or, " a t the diagonal point of the stoa."
RZatt. 28 : 9.
' Here, typically, hlesarites employs an allusive epithet which
is capable of several interpretations. T h e word may have been
used simply as a literary pendant to O e o e l ~ e X o s and fiplBeos, a
usage which would be natural and graceful in the classical
literary tradition, though in the present context the juxtaposition
is a little startling theologically, in its likening of Divinity to a
classical "hero." Again, the word may have been used to indicate that Christ was shown in heroic stature, i. e., greater than
life-size in relation to the figures of the women. This method
of depicting Christ was not u~lusual,however, so that one might
wonder why this detail is mentioned at all, or why it is mentioned here and not in other passages. I t is possible, however,
that, since Mesarites is interested here in making allusions to
the idea of Christ's divine and human natures, he chose to introduce an additional epithet which would extend and elaborate, in
s
$piOeos.
striking fashion, on the ideas suggested in O ~ o e l ~ e h oand
I n this case f i p w i ~ b s would be intended to allude both to the
nature of Christ and to the stature in which he was shown.
Again, the word may be intended to describe something in the
attitude or costume of Christ (independently of stature) which
made him seem "heroic," as, for example, Procopius uses the
i
the significance of the
phrase $ p w i ' ~ & s ~ ~ O w p b ~ t uto~ aindicate
costume of Achilles in which Justinian was depicted in the

T H E PRIESTS BRIBE T H E SOLDIERS A N D

P E R S U A D E PILATE

SSS. So, let us see, what is this crowd of Te1k.i


now, and on what is it bent? What is this cohort of
soldiers, and who is the commander? I s that not tlie
traitor Tudas again there? I s this not again the agreement of the crucifiers? For again we see money rountetl
out, inquiries ancl agreenlents ancl hidden talk antl
secret counsel and \vords whispered in ears.3 2. Rut
if it please you, let 11s go on with the discourse; for
statue in the huoustaeum ( D c aed., I , 2, 9 ) . In this case
Mesarites miyht still have used the word not only to describe
the fiuure but also to introduce a variation on the epithets
6 e o e ~ ~ e X oan1
s
fiplOeos. The manner in which the word is employed provides an instructive example of Mesarites' love or'
subtlety.
Jesus, thoueh God, miqht by a play upon words be called
a half-god because of the presence in Him of the divine anti
human elements.
Rom. I n : 15.
' Psalm 29 (30) : 6.
Psalm 62 (63) : 9. Literally, " they are attached to His
tracks, body and soul."
XXX
' hlatt. 28: 11-15.
Properly, the tenth part of a legion, i. e. (according to the
classical reckoning) about 600 men if legionaries, o r about 500
or 1,000 men if auxiliaries. Since u ~ e i p ais also used loosely of
any band or detachment of troops, Xlesarites' employment of the
word does not necessarily convey any implication of the number
of soldiers shown. Cf. John 18 : 3 and 12.
Judas has already been described in the scene of the Betrayai
and Arrest ( S S V I I ) .

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19573

CHURCH O F THE H O L Y A P O S T L E S

885

what we see now is not the actual deeds but the picture you have heard \+-it11 your ears of the waking of the
of them. 3. With money these lawless men corrupt the Savior but you did not wish to understand it, and with
soldiers who were entrusted with the guarding of the your eyes you see the wonders worked by Him and
tomb, instructing them to announce that the body of the you close your eyes to the truth, in order that you may
Savior mas stolen and that H e did not rise up, seeking not be converted and that the physician of our souls
in this may to conceal the resurrection or at least cast and bodies may not heal you-He who sent His onlydiscredit upon it, lest they be stoned as the slayers of begotten Son for the healing of all sickness.O 9. You
God by the n~ultitudeswho believed that the one who cannot hide your light under a bushel;1 you cannot
was crucified by them mas God and not sitnply a mere carry your flag in your bosom; l1 you cannot again
human being. So they purchase the deception with bury in the tomb Hitn who is risen. You cannot again
their money; they destroy the truth because it suits entomb deep in Tartarus Hitn who went down to Hatles
their pleasure to do s o ; and those men4 who were and bound the powerful one and took as spoil and carried
Christ has truly wakened ; l3
previously unexceptionable witnesses of the resurrec- off everything there.l-0.
tion, and proclaimed the truth with loud voices in the H e has appeared to the wornen bearing myrrh; H e has
city, were now won over, receiving the fat and hand- allo\ved them to hear His voice and His word which
brings joy, and H e has pernlitted them, so far as they
filling payment of the nloney, so that they agreed-as
the hand of the artist tells us by means of the bending were able, to lay hold of His feet with their hands, and
of their necks and the nodding of their heads-to an- has con~nlanded them to report to the apostles His
nounce to all the people a raid by night on the part of waking.
the disciples, and a thieving attack upon the111 by the
friends of the Savior, and the disappearance of the dead
T H E LVORIEN W I T H T H E D I S C I P L E S 1
body through theft; for soldiers are for the most part
XXXI. Now let everyone who is incredulous, inwont to be corrupted by money. 4. And see now the
cluding
y o u r s e l ~ e s ,see
~ how the woiilen disciples of the
false counsel xvhispered in the soldiers' ears by the
Lord
are
even
now
bringing to their fellow-disciples,
slayers of the Lord inscribed above the scene itself,
the
apostles,
the
tidings
oi joy which announce the resurand see the lie itself serving as identification of those
rection
of
the
Savior;
how
they, who are by nature timid
who contrived it, instead of a real description; for they
and
weak,
confidently
give
full satisfaction, as eyewere taken in the devices which the wretches contrived j
witnesses
of
the
Lord,
to
the
terrified
group of the disagainst Him \vho was risen.
ciples
;
how
they
rouse
these
discouraged
men from
5. And the soldiers, under con~nlandof an officer,"
fear
and
doubt,
as
though
from
sleep,
and
urgently
\\-ere corrupted by these lawless men in the fashion
comilland
them
to
hasten
to
Galilee.
2.
Rut
some of
\vl1ic11 we have just described. But what of their leader,
tlle centurion Longinus? J'lTere they strong enough to
corrupt his mind, in respect to his belief in the Savior
'Psalm 102 (103) : 3 ; cf. the Liturgy of St. Mark in F. E.
and his esteem of H i m ? 6. Not in any fashion. O n the Brightman, Litzrrgies eastern and twestern 1 : 116, 2, Oxford,
contrary, in revenge for his belief in Christ, they seek 1896.
l o Matt. 5 : 15.
to procure by bribery, from Augustus Caesar ' through
C f . Prov. 26 : 15, " The slothful hideth his hand in his bosom ;
Pilate, his beheading. 7. 0 how were you so crazed, it grieveth him to bring it again to his mouth," and Psalm
Pilate, *\nnas, and Caiapl~asand the rest of the list of 59 (60) : 6, " Thou has given a banner to them that fear thee " ;
. also Psalm 73 (74) : 11. The meaning here apparently is,
the leaders of the people, that you did not, in quest of "c fYou
are so stupid that you would hide a light under a bushel,
the resurrection, inlitate these feeble wornen, in their and so slothful that you would not acknowledge the Lord's
~vatchfulnessby night, their waiting at the tomb, their victory-instead you would carry the Lord's flag in your bosom.
close watch upon the Savior? J'lThy were you so de- But you are no longer able to do these things." I have been
mented? 8. 0 how were your hearts so stony, that, unable to find the passage in St. Andrew of Crete which Heisenberg cites in his note ad. loc. (p. 67, n. 1).
after the resurrection of the Savior, you contrived a
Matt. 12 : 29 ; Mark 3 : 27. On the iconography of the Harscheme to conceal that resurrection? In truth has that rowing of Hell, see C R. hforey, East Christian paitztirzgs i n
word of the prophet found its fulfilment in you; for the Frccr Collection, 45-53, New York, AIacmillan, 1914 ( Cltiv.
The soldiers.
" P s a l m 9 : 23 (10: 2 ) .
.\lthough the Greek seems to make no suggestion to this
effect, it seems possible that Mesarites meant " thong11 under
command of an officer. . . ."
I t is more likely that diryo6u.rou xai Kaiuapos is a reminiscence of Luke 2 : 1, where the decree that all the world should
be taxed is tnentioned, than that A17youu~osis used as the Byzantine title. Heisenberg adopts the latter interpretation in his
translation, but admits that the former reading is possible.
Isaiah 6 : 9.

o f Alichigan Studies, Hutftaltistic Ser., X I I ) ; idem, Notes on


East Christian miniatures, A r t Bull 11 : 57-58, 1929; ,4. Grabar,
L'Enzperezw d a m l'art bgz., 245-249, Paris, Les belles lettres,
1936.
l 3 John 24 : 34.
XXXI
Mark 16 : 10-11 ; Luke 24 : 9-11 ; John 20 : 18.
" Here a i r is used in the sense of "including," rather than
of " along with." Mesarites does not mean that he supposes that
his audience actually consists of disbelievers. For literary effect,
he puts his hearers, for the moment, in the position of the doubting apostles. See below, XXXIV, 1.

886

DOifTNEY: N I K O L A O S M E S A K I T E S

the men look upon their words as those of drunken


old ~ v o m e n ,or
~ scoffingly disiiliss them as though they
had got up from sleep at dead of night and had run
to the tomb of the Savior and had seen some phantoni
in it, such as are often pointed out at the tombs of the
departed. Others will not turn their ears to listen to
them; others again, observing the stubbornness of the
wonlerl, question them more seriously and compel their
fellow-disciples to listen to what is being related. 3.
Still others begin to believe in part in the \vomen's
words, because of the clarity and positiveness of their
tidings, and ceasing to contradict them, they at least
are willing to listen to them. Others again con~niunicate
their doubts to each other and ask one another who
it can have been that was seen. 4. The women bearing
myrrh are even rnore insistent, and cajole the ears of
the disciples more than is seemly, swearing solemnly
to the doubted resurrection of the Lord, and then giving
way to circular argument,* by recalling the words of the
Savior to thein before His Passion, namely " A little
lvl~ileand ye shall not see me, and again, a little while,
and ye shall see me." and then " After I am risen
again, I will go before you into Galilee." '
T H E D I S C I P L E S O N T H E WAY T O GA4LILEE1

X X X I I . The disciples are stung by these lvords,


and pricked by the memory of those sayings, as though
by a kc~ztron, though not that which is farniliar to
geometricians,? they are roused to the same belief as
the \\-omen have concerning the Master, and their quest
for Him, and they all speedily set out on the road to
Galilee. young and old, men of years and others in their
prime: atid released from the disbelief which held fast
the house of their souls, as though from one startingpoint, they set out together towards Christ, the judge of
the games. 2. The youth does not outrun the old man,
and the grown man does not spring out before the aged
one; those in the prime of life do not in disorderly
fashion elbow the old men and push them to one side,
but they make way for them and desire to go along
behind them. 3. For their contest is not against blood
and flesh, which perishes and can be undone and dissolved into the elements from which it came into being,
but their struggle and their race is to see Him who rose
up from the dead, no longer clothed in flesh, but at

"'

Tim. 4 : 7.
Literally, " then giving ground to reciprocal proof."
Tohn 16: 16.
a k a t t . 26 : 32.
XXXII
Xfatt. 28: 16.
' The pun on ~ Q v r p o v ,meaning "spur" and "center of a
circle," cannot be reproduced. Mesarites uses the same pun
above, X I I I , 7.
Byhv is used here in its two senses oi "athletic contest" and
" struggle against obstacles."

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

the same time not without body, according to Gregory,


great in tl~eology.~
4. And they all follow along in a row, but their
leader is Peter, ardent in all things5 See him, h o ~ as
,
the best guide of the reasoning sheep of Christ, he leads
the flocks to the chief shepherd, Christ, and how he
will not let the reasoning flock of Christ scatter to
mountains and valleys and deserts and cleft^.^ 5. For
not one of them was left behind, not one of them
wandered or was lost, save for that son of perdition
who betrayed the Savior and Teacher and rose up
against the Good Shepherd."
6. See him as he strides along with long steps,1
as though forgetting his age. H e is happy and cheerful
and would like to dance, as he sings a song which
banishes the weariness of the journey, taking its beginning fro111 the resurrection of the Savior. 7. H e is
unerring l' on the road, leading them all, and going
before them. H e does not stumble at all, he does not
wander from the straight course, he hits upon the mostused way, he does not leave the road which leads to
eternal life.12 8. His step is not careless or fatigued or
loose or weak. H e urges them all to follow him zealously atid all his expression, all his look and all his
gaze are turned upon those who follolv. 9. Already a
cloud of dust seems to be raised from the earth into
air above their heads, stirred up by the feet of the
apostles and mounting up, and it seems to rise into
the air almost like a storm of wind and to reach to the
sky. All the apostles are joined to one another like
some golden linked cord; l 3 for they are all running
for a prize to the judge of the games, the Savior Christ.
10. .And if we continued to run with thern to the end,
0 spectator, me \vould see clotted drops of sweat running
down their whole faces. and see how they wiped them
away with their clenched fingers and cast far away these
drops of sweat froin their eyebrows.
THOMAS' M E E T I N G W I T H P E T E R A N D T H E
OTHER APOSTLES 1

X X X I I I . And in this manner they hasten on to


Galilee. But let us, guided on our way, so to speak, by
the pictured handiwork of the artist, go to that disciple
'Gregory Naz.. Epist. CI, ad Cledott. I = P. G. XXXVII, 181.

' ,4cts 4 : 13. See above, XXV, 11; XXVII, 10.

5cf.John 10: 12: Matt. 12:30: 18:12: Luke 11:23: 15:4.

john 17: 12.

John 10 : 11-14.

Peter.

l oA reminiscence of such passages as Iliad, VII. 213; X I I I ,


809; Odyssey, IX, 450; XI. 539.
The pun on the word for "asphalt" and the adjective
derived from a @ i A A w cannot be reproduced.
" Xatt. 7 : 11.
I" Cf. Iliad, VIII, 1 9 ; Plato, Thraetrttts, 153c.

' John 20 : 21-25.

XXXIII

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19.571

887

C H U R C H OF T H E H O L Y A P O S T L E S

who showed his doubt in such fair fashioq2 and let


us see what is this crowding of the disciples about him,
and how, like some fellow-student who has left off his
studies and has come to the school after the teacher has
left, they teach him better concerning the time when the
teacher is present, and upbraid his d e f e ~ t i o n . 2.
~ He,
however, does not wish to listen to them but prefers
to think otherwise concerning the resurrection of the
Master, and does not lend a willing ear, even though
he is informed of these things by all of them in agreement and by Peter himself; he dismisses all of them
as easy-going and prone to believe every word they hear.
3. Peter replies to him very energetically, telling how
he himself saw the Lord after the resurrection, how the
Lord entered when the doors were closed, how H e gave
the greeting of peace to His disciples, how that which
was seen was not an illusion of the sight, no phantom
of the night, no vision of the midday brightness, but the
Savior Himself stood among them in the flesh when
the doors were closed upon them, and shared with them
His usual conversation and speech. 4. Thomas however draws himself up against Peter in contrary and
contradictory fashion, saying " Thou wilt not persuade
me, Peter," instead of replying " If thou persuade me."
5. The gesture of his hand is censorious and the expression of his face is energetic. For Thomas will not accept
the miracle without proof, and he wishes to be an eyewitness himself of the nail-pierced hands of Hitn who
is risen, and of the side pierced by the spear. 6. " Beyond human knowledge and perception, Peter," he says,
" i s that which thou now tellest me. For how can
hearing embrace or the mind understand such things
as these? Indeed, if H e truly died, how can H e live
again? If, indeed, as thou sayest, H e is risen as God,
how, when H e was about to die as a man, did H e not
kill the crucifiers as God and escape death? For it is
not possible for God to die. 7. In truth, after dying on
the cross, the corpse, cared for by Nicodetnus and
Joseph, was placed in the tomb, without breath and
without feeling. In what fashion now does H e live and
how can H e return among men after the former fashion?
Didst thou not thyself deny Him three times. Peter,
when I-Ie was condemned by Annas and Caiaphas the
high priests, saying that thou didst not know whence
' I t is difficult to decide whether Mesarites uses ~ a h G shere in
the sense of " in seemly fashion " or in the sense of " understandably," in which he employs it in the next chapter ( X X X I V ,
8). I n the former sense, Thomas' doubt could be said to be
" fair " or " seemly " because it proved that the disciples were
not credulous and easily misled. In the latter sense, Mesarites
may have intended to imply that it was natural for Thomas to
doubt because of his character. I t is possible that Heisenberg is
right in translating " in so schoner \Ireisen : Mesarites may
have meant to say that the whole incident was touching or
beautiful because of the contrast between the completeness of
Thomas' doubt and the earnestness of his conviction when he
finally realized the truth.
T h e comparison of Jesus to the teacher and the Apostles to
the pupils is used above, X X V I I , 7-8.

H e came? How then dost thou recognize Him now as


one risen? Come, Peter, I cannot bear to hear thee
chattering this nonsense, showing thyself a flatterer and
a dissembler. 8. Thou dost make thyself like to one
who sings to a deaf man, or one who talks into the
ear of a corpse. Why dost thou in vain give life to
one who is dead? Why dost thou discourse praise to
one who is utterly unable to hear? These things do
not suit thy time of life,j thy many years, thine easy
old age, or thy silvering hair. By some infant, or by
drunken old women,6 hast thou been deceived, old man.
9. Hast thou seen Him, Peter, Him who died on the
cross, Christ? Lead me to H i m ; for wherever thou wilt
lead the way, I shall eagerly follow thee. I shall test
the scars and the wounds of the hands and the feet, I
shall see the prints of the nails, I shall look at the side
pierced by the spear. In no way will the passing of a
few days have caused the scabs of blood to disappear.
Let us go, let us be quick ! Lead me on, old man ! "
C H R I S T A P P E A R S T O T H O M A S AND T H E

O T H E R DISCIPLES 1

XXXIV. ,4nd it is better, I think, for those who


have once decided to accompany the discourse, to leave
Thomas and Peter to themselves here, conversing with
one another in this fashion, and immediately and not
after eight days, to cast the beams of our eyes on what
is over against the arch, because you are not among
the unbelievers or the hesitant or those who are in doubt
concerning the resurrection of the Savior, but among
those who have received the tidings with faith. 2. See
now, 0 you who follow with us, here again a closed
house and the band of disciples gathered within and
Thomas with them, and the Savior and Lord Jesus.
appearing in the midst of them noiselessly and unseen,
as formerly, and again giving them the greeting of
peace,* and then turning his words to the unbelieving
disciple, and permitting him to feel His hands and side,
and graciously showing his bared side, in confirmation
of the resurrection, in the very bone and flesh, but
free of all fatness, and with an opening which gaped
so as to receive the hands of the disciple, which the
impact of the spear made as it struck heavily therethe scar which was not of such a nature that it could
not be lost, for along with His perishable nature H e
stripped off everything that was perishable, as the great
Cyril taught us.3
Matt. 26 : 69-75.

' Literally, " thy grayness of

hair."

1 Tim. 4 : 7.

XXXIV
John 20 : 24-29.
"ohn 20 : 19.
a Cyril of Alexandria wrote that when Christ rose from the
dead H e put off corruption and everything that rises from it
( C O I I I ~ ~illI CL~ica~iz,
~ ~ . V, 14 = P. G. L X X I I , 560 C ) ; cf. Acts
13 : 34-35.

S88

D O W K E Y : ;L'IKOLAOS h l E S A K I T E S

[TRANS. ~ M E R .P HIL.

soc

3. But Thomas, as he hears and sees these things, and that you approve what we say and assent and that,
is seized by fear, and does not in any fashion dare to though not speaking, you express the same opinion.
draw near the Savior, but indeed trembles and begins 9. If it seems well to you, come with us, if indeed you
to draw back, withdrawing his foot, he who a little have not with Peter outstripped us, as we are driven to
while before was bold and contradictory and set himself hasten on and behold at last the final miracle, the
against everyone; for he does not quite dare to touch clausula l2 of all the miracles of the Savior after the
the body of the Lord. 4. But the disciples resist him resurrection, and the final seal, that which was perand push hiin forward from behind, repaying him for formed in marvelous fashion at the catching of the fish.
his disbelief in them and in the Teacher Himself, and
with force they constrain him to approach the Teacher,
C H R I S T :ZPPEARS T O T H E D I S C I P L E S O K T H E
though he resists as much as he can with his feet. 5. So
SEA O F TIBERIAS
he, though unwillingly, stretches forth his hand, with
XXXI'. There is a ship upon the sea of Tiberias,
his eyes opened to their widest, free from all rheum and the rowers in it are the select of the apostles, virgins
and flux and murky a c ~ r e t i o n .The
~
Savior, however, in their number, and self-controlled in their chosen n a y
assumes the posture in which H e received the wound ' of life-for they are seven altogether; ' and with them
and bends over and seems almost, so to speak, to fear are punting-poles and fish-hooks, fore-stays and nets,
the touching of the scar. 6. The hand of Thomas enters and tlie rest of the equipinent and gear of the ship;
in at the side of the Savior like some spear stretched for their purpose is the catching of fish. There is a
out far and pressed against an unresisting body, and complete stillness of air over the sea, a11 utter lack of
it scrapes closely at the wound like some instrument of wind, a heaving up of the depth of the sea and a most
P a i e ~ n and
, ~ tries to tear open the wound.7 7. T h e side thorough straining of the waters in it through the letting
seems to shrink from Thomas' continued handling of down of the nets into the depths and their being drawn
it, and wishes to pour forth blood and water again, not up again, but there is no catch of any k i i ~ d . 2.
~ The
in the former fashion, but first the clear water of con- disciples are disheartened as they toil through the night
viction e--because the doctrine of the true resurrection in vain, and they are at a loss when they wonder \vlience
is clearer than any light-and after that the blood, be- they shall be fed when the day comes; for it is three
cause of the red color of the liquid which, as we know, years already since they abandoned all to follow Christ.
the einperors use for t h e true confirmation of their 3. And some of them, listless and dejected, sit at random
con~inands.~
in the prow, and others in the stern, wondering again.
8. And in the picture, these are the things that the I imagine. where on the bosom of the sea they shoultl
side of the Lord suffers. But you who are feeling it, let down their nets.
4. While they were thinking over these things, nllen
why are you still delaying and shrinking back, and
why do you not, now as forn~erly,in a loud voice pro- it was already the first light of dawn and the gray of
claim as Lord and God Him whoin you have touched, early morning, the Savior appeared to them on the
and why do you not make manifest to us the things shore, and siinply and in comnlon speech, and in homely
that have been revealed to you in mysterious fashion fashion, with the greeting " Children," spoke to these
through the truthful touch? But you will not give heed men, some of whom were already elderly, ant1 sought
to us. and rightly so.1 for the things which we see and to learn from them whether they had anything to eat,
who clearly kne\v all things
which are described in this discourse are not real and feigning ignorance-He
living things but are lifeless and painted.ll One would even before they were born. 5. They, thinking that thi.;
say, however, that though silent you are in agreement mas merely another ordinary man, immediately returnetl
to him that answer expressive of having nothing ~vhich

' Heisenberg

notes that it is not clear which disease is meant.


Literally, "depicts in His posture the wounded man."
' The physician of the gods in Homer : Iliad, V, 401, 899-901 ;
Odyssey, IV, 232.
Mesaritesf interest in medical and physiological detail may
a t times (as here) seem excessive, but it must be remembered
that in his day a certain amount of medical training was a part
of general education, so that when Mesarites writes as he does
here, he is indulging in literary display. Other passages in
which he exhibits his medical knowledge a r e : 11, 2 ; I X , 2 ;
X I I , 1 ; X X I I , 7-8; XXV, 14-17; X X V I , 7-8; X X V I I I , 16-17;
X L I I , 2-5.
* Num. 5 : 18 ; Protevang. Jacob. 16 : 1.
'Red ink was used to sign the imperial chrysobulls; cf. Cod.
J l ~ s t .I , xxiii, 6.
l o See ~ a h & sabove, X X X I I I , 1, n.
Literally, " a r e not among the living but among the soulless
and painted things."

l ' c i ~ p o ~ e A e b r i o vis a technical term for the clausula of a verse.

XXXV
John 21 : 1-7.
The number seven was known as a a p 8 d v o s ; see belolv, X L I I ,
6. One can understand that the apostles were not only x a p 8 t v o i
by nature, but also a h # p w v e s by choice; or one can understand,
with Heisenberg, that while they were a a p O i v o i as far as their
present number was concerned, they were men of intelligence
and discernment by inclination (he translates, " Jungfrauen der
Zahl nach, aber an Gesinnung verstandige Manner "). The
former interpretation seems to fit better the notion of the excellence of celibacy and chastity which appears in Apocal. 14: 4,
and is reflected in hfesarites' emphasis on the virginity of John
(above, X I I , 10, with note).
I. e. the water was displaced when the nets were let down,
and then was thoroughly strained when they were drawn up
again.

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

889

CHURCH O F T H E HOLY APOSTLES

is quicker than all other answers, namely the word


'' Xo." This was because they were not in the hulllor
to give answer in long sentences, and also because they
did not know who it was who addressed this inquiry
to them. 6. How indeed could they have known accurately, when His form and His voice and His body were
altered and changed from the perishable nature, subject
to suffering and transitory, into the nature which is
free from suffering, imperishable and g ~ d l i k e ,in
~ a
fashion which only H e knows-He who is able to change
and alter everything to conform to His will? 7. Then
when the Savior heard that they had nothing, desiring
to make Himself known to them by the power which
resided in His voice, H e con~n~anded
them to cast the
net on the right side of the ship, and to find fish there.
8. And they straightway carrying out the command,
not only do not draw up the net einpty of a catch, a s
before, -but even are not strong enough to drag it up
to themselves and to the ship because of the multitude
of fish.

9. Then John, \\.ho recognized the power of the


Savior's words from the result, both pointing with his
finger and speaking to Peter, made it plain to him that
that inan who spoke to them was truly the Savior and the
Lord and no other. 10. And Peter, when he learned
this, showing in his actions the burning nature of his
love for Him, and not waiting to put on his garmentsfor he was naked, on account of having cast himself
into the sea a little while before because of some necessity of the work 5-and swinln~ingwith his hands and
steering with his feet, reached the Lord before the
others. And H e reached out His hand to him, and
again, as one can see. draws him out of the sea rejoicing
and exceeding glad.6
Cf. 1 Cor. 15.35-58.
Heisenberg in his note ad loc. (p. 77) feels that the text
at this point may not be sound. Since the account of the incident
in the Gospel of John contains the words (21 : 7) r b v drev66rqv
6rc{6oaro, ?v y h p y u y v d s , ~ a ZpaAev
i
eaurbv is r q v BaAaouav,

Heisenberg thinks that we should expect Illesarites' text to


read r o r a r o y a p y u y v b s 467 r p b y r ~ p o f i611 rrva r q s r k x v q s xpcicoi
BaAaouav, which is
BkAAer haurbv . . . Thus the ~ a following
now superfluous, would have more meaning. However, Heisenberg thinks that we cannot be sure of this point because we do
not know what the " Byzantine " text of the gospel was. While
Heisenberg's suggested restoration of the text would be in some
ways more logical, the text as it stands is satisfactory, and
some may feel that Heisenberg here seeks to put too rigid an
i hich Heisenberg finds
interpretation on the text. T h e ~ a w
troublesome need not be superfluous. hlesarites makes it plain
that he is giving a different account from that of the gospel
at least in that he says that Peter did not wait to put on his
garment, and in this case Mesarites might have made a point of
using the phraseology of the gospel in a different sense. Having
already written paXciv Caurbv is r q v BaAauuav i n the parenthetical remark, Mesarites might well have felt it unnecessary to
state explicitly that Peter cast himself into the water when he
recognized the Lord. I t should he noted that y u y v d s can mean
" clad in an undergarment only " ; see Heisenberg, p. 267.
W a t t . 5 : 12 ; Apocal. 19 : 7.

T H E D R A U G H T OF F I S H E S

X X X V I . T h e rest of the disciples, steered by the


hand of the painter toward the shore over against the
arch, draw the ship up on land, and there, I believe,
render the Savior the honor which was due Him. This
is the shore to which I think we have come more quiclcly
than was n e c e ~ s a r y since
,~
we used, for our little boat,3
the wings of speech, so that we might contemplate the
miracle wrought there by the Savior. 2. T h e disciples
go out of the ship; they see bread and fish on the coals.
As giver of the feast, Jesus invites them to breakfast,
H e who gives food to all flesh.4 3. H e takes in His
hands the bread and the fish and divides them among
the disciples, standing upright and not reclining. And
they as they receive the food do not recline, but consume
it standing, seeming hungry, since they had toiled sufficiently hard through the whole night. They are barelegged to their knees, since they often had to put their
feet in the water; their thighs are n~uscular,manly and
strong, kvell-fleshed and sinewy. Their arms are bare
to the very shoulders ; their hands are strong and broad
of palm; they are strong to grasp the oars, powerful
in struggling against the blasts of the winds and in
resisting the savage waves6 They are girded up in simple
fashion, ~vrappedin garments which are not soft, with
fine purple borders, but one might call them stout and
rough and suited to work connected with the sea, dyed
a grayish color; and, in a word, they are all fitted out in
true nautical fashion.

4. And they all seein still to be eating. But Peter


alone, since, I suppose, he received his food from the
hands of the Lord before the others, and ground it up
lvith his teeth before all the rest and put it down into
his gullet as quickly as possible, turns again, like a
man eager for activity and mindful of his work, and
draws up the net from the sea, bracing himself wit11
his feet and grasping with his hands the fishing net,
which is co111pletelyfull of great fish, a hundred and fifty
and three, still gasping and beating against each other.
5. And Peter turns his head toward his companions and
fellow-workers, calling to them, I suppose, to lay hold
along with him and drag the net out to dry ground,
since he alone has not the strength to draw it out easily
hiillself because of the multitude and size of the fish in
it and because of its tendency to slip back into the water
on account of their weight.
XXXVI
John 21 : 8-14.
' The meaning seems to be that hlesarites would have liked to
describe in greater detail the journey of the apostles to land,
and their greeting of Jesus.
"John 21 : 8.
' Psalm 135 (136) : 25.
ro6rous refers to r 6 6 a s , understood from yuyv6roSes.
O n this descriptioil of the physical appearance of the apostles,
see above, S X , n. 4.

SYO

DO\I.'NEY : K I K O L A O S M E S A R I T E S

THE WALLS '4ND COLUlilNS O F T H E C H U R C H

X X X V I I . As far as this p i n t the discourse has, I


think, 0 spectator, adequately pointed out with its
finger, and described, all the graphic decoration on the
walls of the church. ~f~~~ this point it has decided
to let its winged course sink a little, as though from
the air, from the portions of the Church \vhiCh are raised
up in the air, and to spend a little time on those
\Vhich rise up from the pavement. 2. The whole Church,
for the sake of strength and beauty, is bound round
about, from the pavement to the summit,^ by three
girdles, one might say, woven out of stone, placed at
symmetrical intervals from each other, which it is the
custom for those \~11oare learned in these matters connected \Vith buildings to call string-courses. I n the
remainder of the space, doTvnto the pavement, the whole
wall is covered kVith many-colored sawn stone. 3. ~h~
craftsman in finishing the stone brought it to such thinness that the wall seems to be covered kVith manycolored woven cloths. 4. Indeed the stone bursts forth
into such a shimmer 2 that its glistening surface vanquishes any flower. Thus astonishing and corrlpletely
surpassing is the native excellence of the stone, or rather
the skill of the craftsman, who strove to add beauty to
nature.
5. It is supported, for the rest, with columns which
are both numerous and of varied appearance, which
begin and, so to speak, sprout up out of the pavement
and colne to an end at the dressing of stone which is
over the faces 4 of the colonnades, 6. For the colonnades
which support the whole Church are twelve in number
and the columns which support these colonnades are
close to seventy, a detail arranged by the architect not
\vithout purpose. I think, but in order that this might be
indeed a living church of christ, supported by colonnades and columns equal in number to the Disciples
of Christ.

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

squares fro111 each other encloses wlthin itself, like a


or rather like a kind of heart which
point, as it k~\.ere,~
holds the whole body of the Church together,"l~e
sacred fb'siasteriolz, [the curved place] being semicircular at the east-so much of it as lies about the steps
of the sacred throne-but
so much of it as lies about
the holy table) on the \vestj being quadrangu1ar.j 3. And
On its north side, toward the \vest, John the
the Golden both in tongue and mind, who was more
F'reclous than any gold, the true arch-priest of the
who imitated the chief shepherd, who gave his life for
his sheep,b the great wonder of the inhabited world, had
his body laid to rest on the pavement.1 H e pours
forth myrrh sweeter than 2.11 sweet odors, which gushes
UP from his holy body as though from a strong-flowing
spring and oozes out with the greatest force onto the
image of him, formed of silver, which lies on the stone
above the tomb, graven with quite divine power ; 'I and
it comes out from his head or from his hand, or at
it begins
his knees and goes to his beard
and flows over the edge of his episcopal robe and fornls
a pool about the whole tomb.= And to my statement
every One who has seen this
bear witness and has
borne
and his testimony is true.13
4. Toward the south, opposite him, is Gregory, called
the Theologian, who breathed fire from his mouth and
consumed every heresy with fire, contained in an oblong
of
because he who
lies in it was ruddy nit11 spiritual beauty,14 glowing
ever in mind and heart with the fire of the spirit, and
"ith his tongue adorned with the beauty of
5. The holy table of Christ itself conceals within

the meaning of K U K A L K ?.~ . . T E P L @ ~ P E L ~see


Y , below, n. 5. ~ ;
" ~ ~ 6 means
s
marble; in addition to the evidence cited by LiddellScott-Jones, s. 71 AEUKOALBOS,see Manuel Chrysoloras, Episf. ad
I ~ ~ I ~ ~, ~ 1~~=. p,
, , G. ~C-VI,
~ 48
, '4.~ ~
I. e. focal point.
Literally, " o r rather like a unification, through a heart, of
the Church, as though it were a whole body." Cf.Letter of
T H E SANCTU.4RY
Aristeas, 155.
' T h e central part of the church both separates and holds
S S X V I I I . The whole floor of the Church is drawn
together the four arms.
in
four
squares,
which
are
separated
from
one
up
' St. John Chrysostom. Chrysostom's tomb is also mentioned
and [the
by a curved
is paved in the tenth-century History ila three parts of Oukhtan(s of
with marble.' 2. The curved place ~ h i c hseparates the Ourha, transl. by M. Brosset, Dejrx hisforicns aynthnicns (St.
Petersburg, 1870), 0 90, p. 275.
' Hebr. 2 : 17.
XXXVII
John 10: 15 Chrysostom's death was caused by h a r d s h i p
See the similar phrase in Gregory Naz., P G. X X X V ,
imposed on him in his exile.
1037 B.
Literally, " rece~vedthe deposition of his body."
? Literally, " aetness," " moisture."
l o On the translation of the body of Chrysostom to the Church
The church; Mesarites evidently felt that a too specific indication of the change of subject would detract from the poetic of the .4postles, see Chrysostomus Eaur, Der I~eil. Joharllzes
Ckrj~sosforrt~~s
rr. seirte Zeit 2 : 383-390, Munich, Hueber, 1929-30.
quality of h ~ description
s
o n hlesarites' use of O E L ~ T E ~ Osee
S , XVI, n. 3.
' Ordinar~lyx p 6 c w x o v is used only of the outer face or f a ~ a d e
'' Psalm 132 (133) : 2.
of a building; Procop., B e l l , V, 25, 21-22; De a r d , I, 1, 31 ;
'"ohn
19 : 35 ; 21 : 21.
Photius, Honz. L X S I I I , 3, ed. i\r~starchou,11, p. 300, 1
l 4 1 Sam. 16: 12.
.qccording to the Sylzarariztwz of the church
XXXVIII
at Constantinople ( A r t a SS.,L X I I I ) , ed. H . Delehaye, 422,
a r " umschlossen "
21 ff., Brussels, Soci6t6 des Bollandlstes, 1902, the relics of
Heisenberg's rendering of ~ r s p ~ A a p P 6 v e ~by
Gregory were brought to the Holy L4postlesduring the reign of
is less exact
The "four squares " are the four arms of the church. On Coilstantine T'II, 913-959.

e ~ ~

VOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

C H U R C H OF T H E HOLY APOSTLES

891

up on all sides by numerous stoaed angles, for it was


built for the rece~tionof his father's bodv and of his
own and of the dodies of those who shoild rule after
them4 3. T o the east, then, and in first place the body
of C ~ n s t a n t i n e ,who
~ first ruled the Christian Empire,
is laid to rest within this purple-hued sarcophagus as
though on some purple-blooming royal couch 6-he who
was, after the twelve disciple< the thirteenth herald
of the orthodox faith, and likewise the founder of this
imperial city. 4. The sarcophagus has a four-sided
shape, somewhat oblong but not with equal sides. The
tradition
is that Helen, his mother and his fellow-worker
T H E MAUSOLEUM O F CONSTANTINE AND T H E

for
the
orthodox
faith, is buried with her son. 5. The
T O M B S OF T H E E M P E R O R S

tomb toward the south is that of the famous ConXXXIX. But let us, if you please, go off to this stantius, the founder of the Church. This too is of
church which lies toward the east, so that we may look porphyry color but not in all respects similar to the
at the things in it, in order to admire and describe tomb of his father. ,iust as he who lies within it was
them-this
church whose founder our discourse has not in all ways similar to his father, but was inferior
already1 declared to be Constantiu~.~2. This whole to his father, and followed behind him, in piety and in
church is domica1 and circular, and because of the mental endowment. 6. The tomb toward the north and
rather extensive area of the plan, I suppose, it is divided opposite this, and similar to those which' have been
mentioned, holds the body of Theodosius the Great
Mesarites em- like an inexhaustible treasure of noble deeds. 7. The
" Literally, " gave themselves to slaughter."
ploys the same play upon u@aylj in his description of the Com- one toward the east, closest to this one, is that of
munion of the Apostles (above, X V , 4). Here the antithesis
is between the slaying of the Apostles in martyrdom and the Pulcheria. She is the honored and celebrated founder
of the monastery of the Hodegon ; see how she, a virgin
slaying of Christ on the altar in the sacrament.
''Literally, "transparent." The silver shone so brightly that herself, holds in her hands the likeness of the all-holy
it seemed as transparent as glass.
JTirgin.g 8. This tomb holds the dust of him who was
In addition to meaning veil or curtain, katapetaswta is used

itself, like an inviolate treasure, the bodies of Luke and


Andrew and Timothy, who sacrificed l5 themselves for
Him ; it is fashioned wholly of pure and shining l6 silver.
6. The little roof which lies over the holy and sacred
table, which people are accustomed to call the kafapefaswza,l7 begins in the shape of a square supported by
four columns, and ends in the shape of a pyramid made
of triangular sawn slabs of royal stone,ls which the
craftsman made so thin that this i'zatapetasma, as it is
stretched out, seems to be made of white linen cloth.

to mean ciboriuwz; see Mesarites' use of the word in Die Palastrevolution des Johanjtes Konztzetzos, ed. by A. Heisenberg, p. 35,
14-15, Progr., Wurzburg, Sturtz, 1907; Nicetas Chon. p. 856,
6 Bonn ed.: F. hliklosich and J. Muller, Acta et diplowzata
graeca nzcdii aevi sacra et profana 3 : p. 55, 18, Vienna 18601890 (an imperial decree of A . D. 1202).
1 8 p a u r X i ~ b s Aieos was probably not a type of marble, as
Heisenberg thinks (p. 81, n. 2 ) , but merely white marble of so
fine a quality that it was considered of "royal" excellence.
Fine marble could be called pauihif.6~ XiBos just as the basil,
ocimtlnz basilicum, was called r b p a u i h i ~ b v (sc. +ur6v) because
it was considered "the royal herb " (see below, X X X I X , 3,
with note).
XXXIX
1)

L.

* A. D. 337-361. Lists of the imperial sarcophagi in the Mausoleums of Constantine and Justinian at the Church of the
Apostles are given in the Book of Ceremonies, 11, 42, pp. 642646 Bonn ed., and in two anonymous lists, one published by
DuCange, Constantifzopolis christiana Book IV, pp. 109-110,
1680, the other by Banduri, Imperiunt Orientale 1 (2) : 121124, 1711, with commentary, 2 : 807-816.* Banduri's list is reprinted by Bekker in Codinus, Exc. de antiq. Constantinop., 203208, Bonn, 1843 (without Banduri's notes), and also reprinted
in P. G., CLVII, 725-740 (with most but not all of Banduri's
notes). O n the relationship of the lists, see J. B. Bury, The
ceremonial book of Constantine Porphyrogennetos, Eng. Hist.
Rev. 22: 217-219, 223-225, 1907. T h e present writer has prepared a new study of these lists which he hopes to publish
shortly.
u+aipoei8ljs is applied to the whole building but means simply
that it possessed a dome; the octagonal church a t Antioch is
called ~ K K ~ Vu+aipoei8-rjs
U ~
in Theophanes, A. AI. 5833, p. 36, 28
ed. De Boor. On the use of splzaira and sphairion to mean a
dome, see Ch. XIV, n. 2.

* The translation of this sentence given here represents the


essential meaning, but some of Mesarites' words are capable of
being understood in slightly different senses.
'Constantine the Great, 324-337. On his burial, see P.
Franchi de' Cavalieri, I funerali ed il sepolcro di Constantino
Magno, Bcole franc. de Rome, M i l . d'arch. et d'hist. 36 : 205-261,
1916-1917.
' Egger's correction of BK yiJs to edv+js is unquestionably correct. The reading of B, followed by Heisenberg, would presuppose the existence, as a form of the name of the basil plant,
of
pauiXetos, a form which is not elsewhere attested (the
ordinary name of the plant is 7 b p a u i A i ~ 6 ~in; modern Greek,
6 p a u i A c ~ 6 s ) . In his description of the "royal couch," however,
Mesarites may have had in mind a comparison of the imperial
purple with the hue of the purple or dwarf-purple basil, which
has leaves and blossoms tinged with purple, as distinguished
from the sweet basil and the compact basil. -4. A. Vasiliev,
who accepts Egger's emendation, translates the passage " Thus,
eastwards, in the first place, in this porphyry coloured sarcophagus, as if on the imperial crown, which blossoms from
the earth, rests the body . . ." (Imperial porphyry sarcophagi
in Constantinople, Dzrnzbarton Oaks Papers 4 : 9, 1948).
' 6 8; sc. XdpvaE. Mesarites follows the same usage in the
following entries. T O him, h d p v a t could be either masculine or
feminine.
"79-395.
' Pulcheria was the sister of Theodosius I1 (408-450) and
wife of Marcianus (450-457) ; she died in 453. She and Rlarcianus were the first imperial persons to be buried in the BIausoleum of Constantine since the burial of Theodosius I. In his
note on this passage (p. 82, n. 6) Heisenberg cites the entry in
the IIapaurdueis u L ; v ~ o ~ ox pi o v i ~ a i (45, p. 52, 12-14 ed. Preger,
Scr. orig. Coi~st.,I ) which describes the installation by Leo I
(457-474) at the empress' tomb of a symbolic representation of

D O W N E Y : NIKOLAOS M E S A R I T E S

an eillperor among wise men and a wise man anlong


emperors.1 This is the tomb of the Empress Theophano,ll the worthy and venerable, whose memory is
everlasting, whose husband was the Wise Emperor,'?
the truly wise Empress, who lived a praiseworthy life;
" for the first wisdom is a praiseworthy life," as the
holy writings say.13 9. This is the tomb of Constantine,
the first emperor born in the purple, and her son.14
whose name is great in righteous judgment. This is
the tomb of Zeno,15 the Arianizing emperor, who for
this was cast out of the kingdom of heaven. This is
the tomb of Anastasius Dikoros,lfi concerning whom
the story is that fire was sent from heaven and consumed
the e i ~ ~ p e r o r~, 'v~h ohad previously been threatened with
this punishment because he attached himself to those
who attribute to Christ one volitional activity and one
H e built a house which had its whole fabric
made of baked brick and mortar, a kind of second
Noah's ark, so that he might escape, as he thought, the
disaster which threatened him ; he was a fool, who hoped
to escape the threat which the voice of God uttered
against him.lQ 10. This is the tomb of Basil the Maceher much-admired integrity : IIoAhk rij paurAi8i I I o v A x ~ p i aACwv
6 piyas ipaxdpr[ev. U e v xu2 pvilpqv a37ijs rijs TEAECLJUEWS
ITETCAEL,
xai i v 13 rci@ct, acrijs a3rbs iurbpque ri) rabrqs L'vbaApa. " Leo the

Great admired the Empress Pulcheria greatly, wherefore he


instituted a memorial of her integrity, and at her tomb he
depicted the representation of this." The empress' integrity of
course included her virginity. The " representation of this integrity" must be the representation described by hfesarites, in
which the likeness of the Virgin held by the empress symbolizes
the latter's virginity. Heisenberg is mistaken in stating that
the Leo named in the passage in the Parastaseis quoted above
is Leo V I (886-912). H e overlooks both the date of the
Parastaseis, which was written between A . D. 712 and 716, before
Leo VI's time, and the fact that Leo V I usually is called 6 uo@6s.
T h e Leo usually called 6 pC-yas, as in the passage in the
Parastaseis, is Leo I (157-174), who would probably have had
more occasion than Leo V I to be an admirer of Pulcheria.
Possibly Heisenberg was misled by the circumstance that the
next tomb mentioned by blesarites is that of Leo V I ; but this
juxtaposition does not necessarily show that Leo V I was responsible for the representation of Pulcheria mentioned by
blesarites. On the foundation of the Church of the Hodegetria,
and on the miraculous icon, see, most recently, R. L . Wolff,
Footnote to an incident of the Latin occupation of Coilstantinople: The Church and the Icon of the Hodegetria, Traditio
6 : 3-32-323, 1948.
Leo V I , the \Vise, 886-912.
Died 893.
I
' Leo VI.
'Yf. Prov. 1 : 7 ; 9 : 10; Psalm 110 (111) : 10.
'
I Constantine V I I , 913-959.
'
I 474-491.
l a =\nastasius I , 191-518.
I
' blalalas (p. 109, 17 ff. Eonn ed.), followed by the Cllvortico~z
Pascl~nlc(p. 611, 8 ff. Eonn ed.), relates that -%nastasius,having
fallen ill, died of fright produced by a thunderstorm. Theophanes (A. 11. 6010, I , p. 161, 18 ff. De Boor) cites the tradition
that he \\as struck by lightning.
Mesarites confused bionophysitism and its later outgrowth.
blonothelitism, and thus mistakenly attributes the later form of
the heresy to .%nastasius.
l D Iliod, 11, 38-41.

donian," who by il~ostdivine l' providence was raised


from a lowly walk of life to the eminence of the imperial
position-he who, they say, removed a quantity of the
decoration from the church of the heralds of God22
and transferred it to the sacred house which he himself
built in the name of the chief marshal of the powers
on high, the church whose title is the N ~ u . ?11.
~ This
is the tomb of Nicephorus P h ~ c a s , ?a ~most brave and
warlike and prudent man, who lost his life by treachery.
The tomb in the inner part of the Church 2 5 contains
Con~tantine,'~
born to the purple, the brother of the great
~ This
emperor who is known as B u l g a r o k t o n ~ s . ~12.
is the Constantine who built this Church in the form
in which it is now to be seen, as various people have
told us.'8
T H E ?rlAUSOLEUhl O F J U S T I N I A N A A S T H E
TOhfBS O F T H E EMPERORS

XL. Let us go on a little, if it seems good to you,


0 spectator, to another building, which is called a
Izeroo~z,a nd is named by soille a place of t~lourningbecause there are buried in it the emperors, who are, one
might say, her0es.l 2. You see another building with
five stoas like that pool at the Sheep Gate of Solomon;
Basil I, 867-886.

biesarites' use of ~ E L ~ T Esee


P OX
S ,V
I , n. 3.
" I. e. the Church of the Apostles.
'3 The Patria, p. 288, 13-15 (Scr. orig. Const., ed. Preger)
states that Basil I removed mosaic and marble decoration from
the Holy Apostles for use in the church called the Area. biesarites does not mention that Basil I also restored the Church of
the Apostles (Constantine Porphyrogenitus, V i t a Basilii, 80, p.
323, 1-5 Bonn ed.).
2 4 Nicephorus 11, 963-969.
'' I. e. in the central part of the Mausoleum.
'Tonstantine V I I I , 1025-1028, son of Romanus 11, 959-963.
2 7 Basil 11, 976-1025.
kiesarites means that Constantine V I I I repaired or restored
the hfausoleum of Constantine.
'O

" On

The use of the term heroott to designate the Mausoleums


of Constantine and of Justinian was a continuation of the classical use of the term to designate the shrine or tomb of a deceased
"hero." The Christian Emperor could be called a "hero "
because of his resemblance to the ancient "heroes " in being
like God but with a lesser degree of power; on the ancient conception of the " hero" in this respect, see .%. D. Nock, The cult
of heroes, Havz,. T l ~ e o l Rez-.
.
3 7 : 162-163, 1944. The conception
of the emperor as a hero is reflected in the statue of Justinian
as .%chilies which was erected in the -4ugustaeum at Constantinople ; see G. Downey, Justinian as =\chilies, T . A. P. A. 7 1 :
68-77, 1940; hl. P . Charlesworth, Pietas and Victoria: The
Emperor and the Citizen, J. R. S. 2 3 : 10, 1943.
'John 5 : 2 ; see above, S I I I , 3, where the Church of the
Apostles is described with the same phrase. The blausoleum of
Justinian stood at the north of the main building. hfesarites'
words indicate that it was near the hlausoleum of Constantine
which stood at the northern part of the eastern side of the main
building (cf. X X X I X , 1-2). Since the tomb of Constantine
had previously been mentioned in the itinerary, it seems likely
that these "tombs of the emperors " are those in the hlausoleum
of Justinian; cf. Heisenberg, pp. 138-139. blesarites' description
indicates that the Mausoleum was cruciform, like the Holy
=\pestles.

D O W N E Y : N I K O LA O S M E S A R I T E S
him. 2. Gaze upon this preliminary festival in the as well, to get on the way home-stay with me a little
evening, with its lights, and see how all these people of and lend me your ear, and listen to my words ; for I will
tell you everything rapidly on account of the rather
the Lord \vho bear the name of Christ, of all kinds
and all ages and ranks come before you bearing lights late hour.
and escorting the procession, all in order according to
T H E COLLEGE OUTSIDE T H E CHURCH
rank and calling, and pass through the capital city in a
circuitous course with the great Paul, as though proX L I I . Around these front courtsZ of the Church
gressing '' from Jerusalem to Illyricum," with holy is assembled a crowd of children, youths, men, and old
songs, and incense, and come to an end again, after men, con~posedof all ages and all manner of men, some
a circuitous c o u r ~ e at
, ~ this shrine of the Apostles.
putting questions to each other concerning letters and
3. Do not linger over this sight, however, but draw accents and the rules of short and long syllables and
near this porphyry w a t e r - t r o ~ g h ,and
~ see how there is nouns and verbs. Others are concerned with figures
only water flowing into it and a few pieces of bread of speech and all kinds of forms of coillplete and incomfloating in the middle of it, and how these men surround plete rhetorical figures and with questions of clarity
it, swineherds and others who live rough lives, croaking and force. Others again deal with problems and questhat rough
- " Oh " which frightens every one, when the tions of dialectic, put forth propositions which are
earthenware wine-jars are lowered into the basin care- oracular in their con~pleteambiguity, and demand that
lessly and without attention and too quickly by one of in response to the propositions, the conclusions be laid
those appointed for the purpose, so that they sometimes down strictly according to rule and not according to
get broken, and then snatching at the wine mixed with free process of thought; and then refute, as no phiwater, and the morsels of bread, which spout out of the losopher, the man \vho reasons according to nature,
jars, and gobbling and drinking down the mixture. while they ridicule, as being no natural scientist, one
4. See how those who do not recognize this deep " Oh," who reasons according to logic.
this hoarse, frightening cry, which is terrifying, are
2. The physicians' students gather about that water
rooted to the spot with fear, while those who are accus- trough yonder, not to observe it as though it were
tomed to this croak, run up to the well-know11 spectacle diseased or battered by the rubbing of the earthenware
and shake with laughter.
vessels on it, so that they might bind it up or put an
5. If then you stay with us until late evening, you emollient plaster on it--certainly not! for that is not
will see other marvelous sights. Do not object, saying the way to cure the nature of a stone, even if it were
that your ears have suffered from this hoarse shouting, ailing in some way-but
so that they may, gathered
or that it is toward evening and that the day is far around it at their leisure, chatter as though they were
spent.8 6. For you know well that I will never leave reasoning sparrows, of the combinations of temperayou or forsake
Indeed we would cause you the m e n t ~ ,and
~ \vhich parts of the body are first seized
greatest loss, if we did not compel you to remain here,
if at all possible, with us, so that you could see the part
XLII
The study of the lower group of the liberal arts, corresponding
of the festival which takes place in the morning; for
perhaps it would not be possible, for soine serious to the trivium, is described early in the ekplzrasis ( V I I - X I ) .
reason, for you to come to the festival at dawn. 7. In The description of the more advanced courses, corresponding to
the quadrivium, was evidently reserved for the end of the work
order that this may not happen to you-for I see you since this arrangement enabled Mesarites t o close his ekpl~rasis.
already struggling with all your power, and your feet as he had opened it, with an account of the surroundings of
the church, and also provided a suitable occasion for introducing
the encomium of the Patriarch in the final chapter. Georgius
translates "of both sexes," but a nocturnal procession would be composed only of men. Below ( X L I I , 1) Pachymeres describes the revival of the Patriarchal School after
Mesarites uses the same phrase again in his description of the the end of the Latin domination, and mentions that a part of it
college, in a context which shows clearly that the reference is was situated at the Holy Apostles (De Miclzacle Palaeoloqo,
I V , 14, v. I, pp. 283,16-284,7 Bonn ed.). See further the d ~ s to men only.
Paul writes in Rom. 15: 19 " . . . from Jerusalem, and round cussion of this school by F. Dvornik, Photius et la reorganisation de I'acadCmie patriarcale, .4?1al. Boll. 68: 108-125, 1950
about unto Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of
P . Peeters 2 ) .
Christ." Cf. Gregory of Nyssa, Etzconlitrirt o,i Sf. Basil, 12, (~lfklat~ges
Vroalilia is a more general term than protzaos ( X L I , 1) ; cf.
and Eusebius, Hist. eccl., 11, 18, 9.
A E ~ L @ ~ ~ L I KL V
VK A L K ~ V
refers to the journeys " round about " Zonaras' use of the word, 111, p. 157, 9 Bonn ed. This and the
follo\ving chapter show that the advanced courses were carried
(K~KAw
mentioned
)
in Rom. 15: 19 (cf. the use of K ~ K above
A ~
on in the atrium (proxaos), while the elementary courses are
in this ) . The procession followed a circuitous or all-embracing course rather than a circular one; compare the K U K A L K ~ ~ said ( V I I I , 2) to be carried on in a three-sided pcribolos.
llesarites' statement here that the proatilia were occupied by
lreplosos 706 Y E & mentioned above, X I I , 8.
students of all ages shows that he understood that the proaiiliu
' T h i s rrAuv6s (mentioned again in X L I I , 2) was presumably
a fountain, such as generally stood in the atrium of a church, included both the peribolos (elementary instruction) and the
firoxnos (advanced courses). This shows that the pcribolos and
but Mesarites for some reason prefers to call it a trough or
the pvotlaos were adjacent.
tank or basin.
' On the medlcal matters discussed here, see Heisenberg's
Luke 24 : 29.
notes ad loc., which it is unnecessary to repeat in thls place.
H ~ b r 13:
. 5.

' Heisenberg

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

C H U R C H O F THE H O L Y A P O S T L E S

[by fevers], and of the veins and the arteries, and concerning intermittent and terminal [fevers], and concerning the " crooked" or the " ant-like " beating of the
pulse, and concerning the strong and the weak beat,
and the beat which is more rapid than is natural, and
concerning the onset of a disease and its climax and its
decline; 3. and whether one should apply the term
" chill "
to the stage reached on the third or the fourth
day, and concerning the marrow found in the back and
that which is always contained in the thicker and larger
bones, and posing questions to one another concerning
the remainder of such subjects, such as the heart and
the brain, the liver, the spleen and the lungs, which of
these is the origin of all formation of the human body,
which part comes into existence following the first part,
and so on through the series until it ends at the last
element; 4. whether the male element, coming into
contact with the female element, remains unaltered until
the formation of the whole, or whether, after giving
over the original power which it carries in itself for the
formation of the living body it loses this formative
power, and is like a bit of leaven which is mixed with
the dough of wheat-flour, and then becomes assimilated
with the body and a part of it, having also been the
origin of i t ; or whether the element coming from the
male, being the most suitable for the formation and
extension of the bones and the sinews, is divided up
among these and is dissolved in them, while the element
coming from the female, since it consists of blood, is
destined for the parts which are formed rather of soft
and fleshly substance, since flesh is nothing more than
solidified blood; 5. and whether our power of sight
directs itself outward or whether images are received
by u s ; and whether the power of feeling, in all the
organs of sense, gets its strength from the brain, or
whether for some objects the seat of the faculty is the
brain, which receives the objects of sensation, while
for others it is the heart, so that sight and hearing transmit to the brain the first contacts with the objects of
sensation, and from it obtain distinction among the
objects, while touch and taste and smell refer to the
heart sensations as soon as they encounter them, and,
when the heart has first made its decision, they themselves are then affected and participate in the sensation
along with it.5
6. Here you will see people who are concerned with
the relations of numbers putting questions to each

' biyos : Heisenberg, noting that the translation is doubtful,


renders " Fieherhitze," but the terminology applied to fevers by
the medical \vriters is such that Mesarites would seem to be
rcferring to a question of terminology rather than to a question
of which stage
- a fever would have reached on the third or the
fourth day.
' O n Mesarites' interest in physiological matters, see X X X I V ,
n. 7.
On the arithmetical subjects discussed here, the reader may
consult Heisenberg's notes ad loc., which it seems unnecessary
to repeat. hlost of the present sentence is repeated verbatim it]

895

other, how it is that One is the beginning of all nuillbers


and is not a number, and how it is that one number
is called odd and another even, and how it is that
another number partakes of both qualities and is called,
in both name and practice, odd-and-even,7 while another
is called the n ~ a i d e n and
, ~ \vhy one number has a female

character, to wit, the even, which joins itself with the

odd, while this latter has a male character because it

is paired with the even; and how the number which

is called odd-and-even, after both of them, has won the

name of life-creating because pregnant women, if they

fall into any danger, will not suffer a miscarriage in

a month which is named for an odd-and-even number,

such as the fifth and the seventh and the eleventh.

7. And there [you will see] the people who are concerned with geometrical lines and surfaces and threedimensional bodies and plane and solid figures, triangles,
I mean, and tetragons and hexahedrons and octahedrons,
dodecahedrons and eicosahedrons and with pyramidal
figures and the circular forms which comprise semicircles and circles and with the figure of the halo which
is visible in the clouds.Q 8. Near these [you will see]
people who are concerned with tones and harmony,
since this branch of learning took its beginnings from
arithmetic; though it did not take these beginnings to
itself immediately, but the mediator between it and the
fundamentals of arithmetic. and the transmitter, was
geometry; and this again [geometry], I think, constituted the most suitable intermediary of the subject with
the highest of the sciences, to wit mathematics. 9. You
can hear them indeed, disputing with each other, ~vith
words strange to most people, and never heard,1 talking
to one another of ~ P f af nd Izypatc^ and fiarltypate* instead
Mesarites' funeral oration on his brother, ed. A. Heisenberg,
Sit,-.-Bey. der Buyer. A k a d . d. W i s s . , phi1osoplz.-philolog. z r .
Izistor. K I , 1922, 5. Ahh., pp. 31,24-32, 8.
'These are numbers which become uneven when divided by
some power of two.
The numher seven, so called because it cannot he divided
except by the numher one; see above, X X X V , 1.
The present sentence is borrowed, in somewhat modified and
expanded form, in Mesarites' funeral oration on his brother, ed.
Heisenberg, op. cit., p. 32, 12-19. Heisenberg finds the use of
repL in the phrase r e p i ~ 0 5 - a x 4 r a ~ o s troublesome but points
out that it is supported hy the corresponding passage in hlesarites' funeral oration. Actually its presence does not seem
unusual, save for the fact that hlesarites in this sentence uses
r e p i first with the accusative and then with the genitive.
With the practical instruction in music, described in ch. IX,
Mesarites contrasts the academic discussion of theory, which, he
implies, had no hearing on current practice; it is not impossible
that the account which he gives of the debates of the theorists
is deliberately presented as nonsense. O n the significance of this
passage in the history of Byzantine music, see E. Wellesz, A
Izistory o f B y z u ~ z f i ~ zw~ztsic
e
a ~ t dIzyfrt~zograplzy,55, Oxford Univ.
Press, 1949. \Vellesz, characterizing the passage as "almost
entirely nonsensical," points out that " Mesarites drew his
knowledge, directly or indirectly, from passages in the pseudo.4ristotelian ProbIer?~s, the Eisagoge of Gaudentius, and the
Enchciridiorz of Nicomachus, without understanding the subject-matter he cited."

896

DOWNEY: NIKOL

of strings, and of ~izesiand para~+test,and of how the


interval which they call the diatessar6n is correspondingly called the epitritos by the mathematicians, while
that which is called diapente seems to them [the
musicians] to be the Iztvtziolios, corresponding to the
diapente of the mathematicians; and of why the octave
is called diapas6~zand of how the first mode in it is
found to be the principal, and of why the fifteenth string
is called disdiapas6~z,and why the whole instrument is
called fifteen-stringed when it has sixteen strings.'l
EXCOMIUbl O F T H E PATRIARCH, J O H N X

CAhIATERUS

XLIII. So there is a loud twittering of voices about


this fore-court and this water-trough, as though of all
manner of sparrows, pressing close about springs and
pools ; and not a little disturbance and confusion is
raised from the mingled cries, as now one thing, now
another, is put forward for examination by the learners
or by the teachers, and some of them strive to support
their own views, while others maintain that the truth
is not of such fashion, so that there are times when they
fall into difficulty in the solution of the problem, and
use harsh words to one another, and allusions to ignorance and lack of philosophical and physical learning
stream from their mouths and they blow and belch
them at one another. 2. With such quarrels, for lack
of a judge, they bring their gathering to a close;
though tomorrow-note
well-things will not come to
pass in the same fashion. 3. But if some disagreenlent
arises between them, they will end their gathering in
friendly fashion, agreeing, as I have heard some of them
say to each other, to turn over to the great and foremost
archbishop, after the con~pletionof the bloodless sacrifice, as to the most learned and impartial judge, the
solution and elucidation of the matters in disagreement.
4. F o r we too have a high-priest such as Paul portrays,
when he describes, with his divinely inspired words, the
true b i s l ~ o p .5.
~ H e is not only wise in divine matters,
as one 1\-11o thinks and reflects within hilnself on divine
On the significance of the relationship 16: 15 mentioned in
the last phrase, see Ptolemy's H a n n o n i k a , I, 15, 34-40, translated
by Ingemar During, Ptolemaios und Porphyrios uber die Musik,
Goteborgs Hogskolas Arsskrift 4 0 : 49-55, 1934.
XLIII
'John X , Patriarch of Constantitlople 1198-1206. H e was
the uncle of the Empress Euphrosyne, wife of Alexius 111
Angelus (1195-1203), as the play upon B E ~ ~ T T Jand
S
BeCos below
shows; cf. above, p. 859. On the career of John X, see V.
Grumel, L a chronologie des Patriarches de Constantinople de
1111 1206, Etudes by:., 1 : 263-268, 270, 1943.
This type of common study and disputation, carried on
\vithout supervis~onor discipline on the part of a teacher, was
called u i , A A o y o s , and was in use at Constantinople at other
periods as well; see Brehier, op. cit., 54 (above, V I I , n. 1 ) .
~ ,~ ,.
O Y ,I E D E is
~ S translated " high-priest
" because of the allusion
- .
to Hebr. 8 : 1.
4 H e h . 4 : l l f f . ; 1 Tim. 3 : 2 f i . ; Titus l : f ff.

matters, but is most learned and exalted ill all the


\visdom concerning earthly matters, through which he
possesses riches of speech in a most finished and exquisite fashion, and his mind is sharp in the comprehension and elucidation of the divine concepts. A s a
grammarian he is superior to Histiaios and Theodosius,' as a rhetorician to Demosthenes and Hermogenes,%as a philosopher to Aristotle and Plato, as an
arithmetician to Xicoi~~achus,as a geometrician to
Euclid, as a illusician to Ptolemy, as a scholar in the
physical sciences to Anaxagoras and Pythagoras and
Socrates himself, the teacher of Plato and Aristotle.
6. And by such and so many natural and acquired
excellences is 111y lord and chief shepherd distinguished
as regards his inner m a n ; and with equal excellences,
in outstanding fashion, as regards the outer man. 7. For
he sprang from a noble race and in blood is connected
with our Empress, the ,4ugusta, linking the surname of
sacred 111ajesty.~so to speak, with himself alone, not
only because of his virtue but because of his relation
with it lo by blood.ll His divine zeal for praiseworthy
things has like a sun circled all the ends of the earth; l 2
he is our way leading up to God, our way leading away
from evil, our asgunlent leading to better things; a
pillar of the church, a bulwark of the faith 13-I even
say the greatest thing I can, a God to those on earth.
F o r he both in unseen fashion guides and administers
all things, and in visible wise maintains and controls
in every way this second world, n1an.l4 8. H i m would
I confidently name, after James and John, a third son
of thunder,15 who with the fire of the Spirit has forged
of copper a tongue which breathes forth the wrath of
holy fire and looses a voice of thunder and lightning
against the heresies. Him I might unhesitatingly call
a flame of divine fire as a leader of the Church of
Christ and a laborer for the Spirit; l6 for a flame of
fire the psalmist calls those who are ministers in the
Spirit.l7 9. H e too opens his mouth in parables and
utters riddles from of old, as our fathers, wise in God.
and the illuminators and teachers of the world, have

' On
' Cf

Ifesarites' use of B e i d ~ e p o s ,see X V I , n. 3.

Lucian, Symposium, 6.

' Theodosius of Alexandria, grammarian of the fourth century

A. D

' H ermogenes

of Tarsus, celebrated rhetor, horn co, .I. n. 160.


title applied to emperors.
l o " Sacred majesty."
11
I. e., he alone among his contemporaries was worthy, because of his virtues as well as his relationship, to hear, in his
surname, an indication of "sacred majesty." This is a characteristic play upon B E L ~ T T J Sand B e i o s , the Patriarch being the
Empress' uncle.
'' Psalm 18 (19) : 4-6.
" Cf Apoc. 3 : 12 ; Tim. 3 : 15 ; Gal. 2 : 9.
l 4 Cf. Democritus, 39 ( H . Diels, Frag. d. Vorsokr., ed. 5, 11,
11. 153) : a v B p w ~ o sp ~ ~ p d~ s6 u p o s .
'
I Mark 3 : 17 ; see above, X I I , n. 10.
l a Cf. .4cts 13 : 2.
" Psalm 103 (103) : 4.
B E L ~ T T J Sa,

VOL. 47,

PT.

CHURCH O F T H E HOLY APOSTLES

6, 19571

told us in their divinely inspired writings.ls H e unfolds


his tongue like an unfailing spring, a source of satiation
for all folk kvho thirst after upright belief. 10. 0 streains
of eloquence, not like the Nile enriching Egypt with
seven mouths, but with one mouth alone besprinkling
the xvhole inhabited earth and enriching it with inex-

haustible riches, may we be filled with eloquence ourselves through the whole span of life, sa that we may be
enriched in our souls as well as in our bodies, and may
find eternal blessings as well as those of the present
life, in Christ Jesus our Lord, to whom be glory for
ever. Amen.

( X I K O L A O S AlESARITES: D E S C R I P T I O N O F T H E CHURCH O F T H E H O L Y A P O S T L E S
A T CONSTANTINOPLE)
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DOWNEY: NIKOL-40s MESAKITES

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plav Aaob 6 KparGv ~ a xapapkvei
l
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& V ~ K T ~ ~ &~0811urap~vas,
W V
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l
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~ rb & xahairdrwv TGV X p d ~ w v~ p a r i j u a v ix' 2xriPov, 5+aiPlueis 72 ~ a ~l a r a r o ~ h(sH 18) ~ a Suov
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it

'

it

it

iuriv &AT16i)s,2 pdyav bvra rbv

IV

--

T<s with red initial A.

10

% fol. 89.
plj~06evEUTLV Heis, plj~06Qv
Curiv
CEL&S
H eis, Ccrhs A.

' Kap~oCrarwith red


' 7j8b with red initial

-4

11

H eis,

TO~TOL~

roi~rou;

A.

initial A.

A.

%dxepcriyeu6ai Heis, dxeppeiyeu6ai A.

8ieurhvar Heis, GieurCvai A.

6uqv with large initial A.


' ?rpouwvupo~~~ivqv
Heis. ?rpouwv~~poup~vgv
A. I n margin
first hand) rb (brAorr6' 8gXoi.
6pa with large initial in red A.
Z K ~ YHeis,

~ S u ~ v v a sA.
p i u y a y ~ Q i a vHeis cf. Hom. Iliad IV, 453, upiyyayerav A.

'

(in

'

'

V;JV
uc~vdrcpov&xepyd[erai.

T $ ~ a p hHeis, ?rap& r $

auxoAbs with large initial in red A ; in lower margin (in


later hand) auxoAos ?rep2 ?repuDv dp$v A.
'I A fol. 857.
VI
' si with red initial A.
~ a r ob8Cva
'
Heis, ~ a ~ o v 8 i vA.
a
hva+id Heis, CvaCra A (correctly, as Heis notes, if -pia is
monosyllabic).
Heis adds <rois> before u3paurv but cf. Liban., Orat. XI, 237.
In margin (in same hand) rilv A38 (bvul A.

' ri with

A.

VII

red initial A.

d ~ a r a y y e h ~ oHeis,
v
dxardyeArov A.

UOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES

IX. ' E ~ c i 8 e vZ60is i s r p b s 8vup;/v +ahrV6o;s d v xaiui


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;
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v 73 ra'vrwv pauihei ~ a BE+
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IX
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3pvq6obs $ahrq6obs A. Heis brackets 6. since $. was evidently a correction of it, though the scribe copied both.
' o? Heis, li A.
A fol. 86'.
"i~pbv with red initial A.
' pq6' Heis, p+ 6' A.

'pq6' Heis, pL(;I 68 A.


6Qov Heis, 6Eiv A.

pq61: Heis, p+ 6P A.

uapwop6pos Heis, uap~op6ppos A.

CiKahhLis~E~al
Heis, d ~ a h 6 s s ~ sA.a ~

VIII
$us1 in red A.
Breev with large red initial A.
XI
T ~ VZK' roughly scratched out A
TGVwith red initial A.

A 01. 86V.
A fol. 87'.

' 6$1 in red A.


3 E
, K ~si) a b s b Heis, P s r r o a u r b A cf. Psalnt 132 (133) : 1.

dssa Heis, dssa A.

it

DOWNEY: NIKOL,AOS MESARITES

[TRANS. AEIIER. PHIL. SOC.

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pov T$v ~ X L ~ E I ~ dvr~$oYov.
T~LV
i~+pducws pcrCwPov rk ~ a ~l o p $ A v dvarrijvai f*;I uvyxwpodv,
rlj rod rve6paros paXalpq rrp~eh;v ~ ; p a v o p L ; ~ o v pot
h
TAV
XI1
vodv ~ a Tl ~ Vhdyov ai8cpo6pdpov dvd8r~(ov.
'487 with red initial A. Throughout the chapter, the initials
17. Hlpwv b [rlhw~7js, [ljhov T L K ~ V T ~ O 2ra~vcrdv,
V
06 Ka?
or first few letters of the apostles' names are in red ink, with a
a 6 ~ 6 s[1lh&v i[7jhw~asT @ ~ v p l yu c ~ l ,r p b s r$v rod rapdl,ros
marginal number (a', p', r', etc.) opposite each name A.
LV
pol h ~ ~ c ~ ~ l j ~p KaT ~E ~o~ s& T W U ?ppahov
ir' i p l .
' dhhb in red A.
Pnrppavbrw Heis, Crrpa~brwA.
uvpnapopdpr7uac Heis, u~tynapopapr+juacA.
Lperipov Heis, $perdpov A.
p i ~ p 6Heis, pr~pbA.
A fol. 87V.
10 rpdrpwpov corrected to rdrpwpov A.
~ar7jurpa$ar Heis, ~ariurpa$ar A.
A fol. 88'.
rpoBvyovpQry not certain, this corner of the page being damZppaAov Heis, E,upaAAov A.
aged by damp A.

'

'

CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

18.

Bap60hopaic,

~ a \ cr a p a 8 c l u o v A h a r

p i v rpou7jhwual

T@

+vcCX%Tluav, ipoG

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Si

05

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Heis,

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A.

XI11
in left margin, opposite this line, a large
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' a5rq

902

DOWNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

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~ a ieph
l
rpdaeta, iv 8 ~ a ~l a r hrbv Xpvao.Fv s j v yAGrrav ~ a l i d a r c p o v 82 ~ a Xpdvov
&ap ~ O [ rodrois
E 6pGuBai rb 8p&pevov, b pkv u v v ~ o v & ~ a r o s
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l
' 4 in red A.
4 in red A.
A fol. 89V.
' ~ J Sairrbs oEGev airrds i~poupyBvA the last two words are canl2 pq8B Heis, p$ 62 A.
celled with dots, but as Heis observes this must be an error
l3 pq6Q Heis, p$ 62 A.
since the cancellation must have been meant for the first two
xv
words; both phrases being present in the original, the scribe
copied both and later the erroneous correction was made.
rabrqv with first letters in red A.
Expl. A fol. 89V.

'
uc$aipav Heis, uc$aipav A.
b$i6es Heis, ci$i6es A.
XVI

'11 in red A.
A fol. 79r.

' 6~a6obscorrected to dirasobs A.


'pq6Q Heis, p$ 6B A.

6~~66pevos

Heis, drer66p~uosA.

' airrais Heis, airrois A.


ODpa Heis, ebpa A.
airrb Heis, airrbv A.

' ci~p6u@OeyrdHeis, &irp6o@qrdA.

Ouu~aurljp~~u
with first letters in red A.

CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

903

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A fol. 79'.

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The first o of ~arorrreu~6ra


in
erasure A.
l o Expl. A fol. 79" inc. A fol. 81'.

6ai'sr~bvHeis, 6ai;'ri~bvA.

12
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X V I I . 'AAXh y h p 0: T$V %[av e l 6 0 ~oi paO,ral ;V T $


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<~arapljue7ar>added b y Heis, cf. 1 Thess. 4 : 16.

jl in red A.

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l4

V ~ E ~ ,

904

DOLVNE'17 : NIKOLAOS MESARITES

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

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IS

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Expl. B fol. 38'.

CHURCH O F THE HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

...

~ h ls %(as r ~ p ldvau~duewq 81aXIX. (H41)


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XXI

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XXII

d&iBi

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later hand A.

W S

CHURCH O F THE HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

it

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XXVII
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B fol. 2=.

T C Heis, r i B.

CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19573

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CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

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'r h

XXX

Heis, raviiv B.
B fol. 51.
h v v a added above line by first hand B.
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' B fol. 5'.
'Above @wv@ ~ a isi a mark which Heis thinks may refer to
a marginal note; however (as Heis observes) such a note, if it
existed, has been effaced by damp.

'B

XXXII
01. 6'.

DOWNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

912

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

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8 i a ~ p y 6 e i u r j vB.

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fol. 6V.

h a h a + Heis, AaiAa$ B.
a d r o b s Heis, a b r r j v B.

U U ~ E E O ~ O ~ O Heis,
ES

XXXIII

a ; of a6700 erased

' 8 i a ~ o p y 6 e i u r j v Heis,

B.

'B

B.
XXXIV

uuve[opoieis

fol. 7'.
Heis, noting that the accent in B is uncertain because
of damage from damp; the photograph indicates d$LFos in B.

' d$i8os

VOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES

iavrod rplrovra hdyov ~ a lr+v TGV XeipGv abrod ~ a r?js


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74 8 i 8 a u ~ d h y~ a ~ a v a y x d ~ o vruhic,i u ~ o vZuov rois iavro6 roulv h ~ l r d v ~ e ?s j ~ o h o i % ~ a 74
s ~pc;pas TOV K ~ O ~ V T oi
~ L 8', i r l r p ~ p v a v ,
b v ~ e p e l 8 o v ~ a5.
. 6 82 ~ a dl ~ w vr p o ~ e l v e i XeiPa T ~ V;avrod, ~ a dl ~ v 8 i G v ~ eirl
l i?js BaAdrrrls ~ d h r w v
? ~ V E ~ ~ ~ C V iOsV rb
S ravrcA& ZXwv T O & 6+6aAPods, ~ a e a p o h s dvaAoyi~dpevoira'hiv olpai, r o i ~ a rGv
A7/prls r d u r I s ~ a irippolas
l
~ a Al L ~ V V ~ i~r~i oOv Vp ~S o ' p a ~ o6 s82
~ s h so4rwv XaAXuovu~S l ~ r v a .
4. ( H 76) Tadra yobv d v a h o y i j o ~ l v o i s aG~ois
rep?
uwi;7p iuXrl~ariupCvosT ~ Vr pavparlav Kal r p b s iaurbv mvi[clvwv ~ a rep>
l
r+v r?js &reih?js dvau~a'hevaiv ozov e i ~ r i v8 ~ 6 1 ~ -rb 79s ?jplpas ~ p w i v d v re ~ a h; u ~ a v y 2 s IT; rbv alyiahbv 6
IK&
~ Sa Tl E T ~ L ~ ~ C V~W aS b+ehGs
l
~ d p e v o s . 6. eia8&vei repl T+V 706 a w ~ i j p o srAevPhv
X ~ l P u w ~ + pa b ~ o i siriar21s ~ ~ ~ W T $pa
~ o$ST~ rivhs
l p i [ abrGv ~ a yrlp&ul
rob @wp& ~ a e a r e p e lris AdyXrl pa~p66ev i ~ ~ e r a p ~l va~~l p b s r2j TGV raiSlwv ~ ~ o u ~ 70;s
l
rap' aGrGv +llov, el 7 1 r p o u &pa i r e P e l u ~ c i u aebCvSorov, dvau~ahcdei m X v & T ~ Vobhiv KovTas rpoac+dvei ~ a paOciv
+a'yiov ZXoiev, rbv dyvoodvra ~ ~ ~ p a r i j d ~ 6e .rrdv~a
v o s ua+Gs
rpadpa dvai u e l rivos ipyahciov Hairjovos, ,l3oiAerai sb
~ 8'~ E~
nva .~ a rodrov
l
efvai
[avciv. 7. ?j 82 rhcvph oIov d ~ o O A i p o p l vi~
~ rijs TOG Owp& ei8;os r p b T+S r06rwv Y ~ ~ C 5.u or
alps ~ a 56op
l
(je6uai Pepov'hrlrai, rGv AoirGv dvOp&rwv oidpevoi, rapev0; r+v rod p+ EXei~1
uvxv?js ira+ijs ~ a rdhiv
l
~
dhhrls raXv7E'pav d r d ~ ~ i u i v7+v
, ' 05 ' a h 4
06 ~ a r hXdyov rbv rpdrepov, dhh' 56wp p b h e v ~ b vZAeypod 6 v / \ o r i ~ +rdur)s
e b O d p ~~)XELV
~
$UTE ~ a paKpol
Sih rb rijs dXrlOods dvaurduews + o i b s ravrbs ~aOap&repov, dsexplvavro, rodro pkv
rodro
62
Kal
74
p$
~
&
h
o
v
B
s
vsi6i6dvai
r
h
s
d
r
o
~
~
l
u
e
i
s
,
eisivai
alps 8' a3 8th rb rod xvpod ~ p v @ p o ~ a ~Kal
~ s robs
,
,8auiAeis
r p b s PePalwuiv dXllOij rGv Stareray- rbv r+v reduiv iluris e)17 rodrois rpoadyovra. 6. rGs yhp
~ ~ ~ p i j u O ayiv&u~opev
i
ilv ~ a i8euav
l
d ~ ~ i P G ps e, r a u ~ e v a u O e l u ~a&$
s
~ a pesapri+l
pivov abrois.
l
pop+ijs ~ a rijs
l
+Ooyyijs ~ a rod
l
u&paros i~
8. Kal radra pkv iv ypa+ais ?j rod Seurdrov r d u X e i rhevpd. Belulls ~ a r?js
l
r p b s ~b draOip ~ a l
0-6 6' 6 sadr7v d v a a ~ a h e d o v r l plAXeis ETL ~ a dvaSdll
l
~ a l rod +Oaprod ~ a ili-a07~od ~ a (jevurod
01s
0E6e
hdyois
abrbs 6 r d v r a
d+Oaprov
~
a
O
l
eoei61arrpov
ohX>~ d p i o v~ a 0ebv
l
peyaho+&vws d v a ~ ~ ~ d r r ie si sr d h a i Kal
V
perarp~relv Kal ~ E T ~ U K E V ~8~vdpevos
~ E ~ V
;
vdv T ~ Vb r b cod I)llAa+&pevov ~ a rl h p v u r r l p i w 6 ~ s<K rijs r p b s 76 ~ O K O ~a674
T O ~ T O U SdKrlKods 6 awrrip, yvwpluai
dhTldods ira+?js dva~ahv+6lvra uoi ~ a ?jp*.iv
l
dp lS+a xa6iur@s; 7. sb y0dv pr1S2v KK~?juOai
d M ' 0 6 ~ira'l'eis ?jpGv ~ a Kl ~ X G S871
, pVS' i s ip+iXois &Ah' OlAov aGrois iavrbv h~ rod r?js havi-06 +ovijs ivepyod, i r l r h
V a l
hv d G X o i s rk ~ a ypa+ais
l
r h vdv lo b+' 4pGv ~ a O o ~ & p e v d6etih rod rholov pCpV PaXeiv ~ehedeiT O ~ T O U S 76 ~ ~ K T V O ~
( H 75) re ~ a 74
l Adyy 6iaypa+dpeva. eZroi 6' dv 71s OXri ebpeiv. 8. 0i 8' E J O ~ S7b K E X E U U O ~ Vi ~ 7 e h ~ u a v ~06e spdvov O ~ K
~ v~ ~ K T V O Vdhh'
,
068' dvehiruai
~ a uiwrGv
?
u v y ~ a ~ a ~ ~ @Kal
e u abrbs
~ a i rois rap' ?jp&v heyo- d y p a s K E V ~ Vdvljyayov i s i ~ p & rb
rodro r p b s iavrohs ~ a rl p b s 76 rhoiov eiuayayeiv d r b roC
p~v01s E ~ ~ O K l1
E ~ ~
S a lovvopohoyeis Kal ovp+OlyyeuOai p+
+Otyydpevos. 9. el 8; uoi ~ O K E ~~ , a al v p ? r ~ ~ e d O pet?
~ r i ?jp&v, rGv iXOdov rhlj00vs i[luXvuav.
9. ' I W ~ V V0 ~t hS it Epywv yvo;s rGv rod uor?jpos (j7pdrwv
E Z ~ E P dpa p+ &v 74 H l s p y rporerdpevuai r p b ?jpGv, hrelr+v 8dvapiv, abrbv ( K E ~ V OdhTIO&s
V
eTva1 rbv u o ~ ? j p a ~ a l
L ~ o 6 ~ i ~ u L Heis,
; v ~ a i ~ o 6 e r ~ v O v rB.
a
~ d p i o v~ a obx
l
Zrepov rbv abrois r f o a ~ i a X e y d ~ e v o6va ~ s v h o ~ P ~ U K ~ X E U U originally
LV
B, and Heis; second X added later S E ~ K T G V( H 77) ;pa Ka; rpou+Oeyy6~evosr$ HE'rpy Y v & p i p ~ ~
in B.
~ V ~ U K ~ X E &originally
EL
B, and Heis; second X added later
xxxv
in B.
B fol. 8r.
~ a KlU T ~ U K E U T ~ added later above the line by first ( ? ) hand B.
' K E X ~ ~ U & Z LHeis, K~xplU6al B.
' dfiqxavDur B, Heis in text. Heis suggests d p ~ x a v o O u l .
d v a u ~ a X e d ~originally
v
B, and Heis; second X added later
B fol. 8V.
in B.
~ p ~ u @ a y ~ ~ B.
uy~ov
' ~ q 6 'H eis, fiq 6' B.
dyvooFvra Heis, d y u o t u r a B.
r b P O P Heis, sauOv B.
' HBS Heis, TOO B.
6 of E ~ ~ O K Eadded
~ S
later above the line by first hand B.
' B E O E L ~ Q U T E ~ OHeis,
V
8eroei6Qarepov corrected to 8eoer6Qurepov B.

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DOWNEY: NIKOIA O S MESARITES

914

XXXVII. MdXPl p2v OJV ZvradOa o4pnauav r$v iv rois


~aOiur(i. 10. IIdrpos 82 T O ~ T O~ a r a p a 6 & vrb npbs a6rbv rod
rod veoi y p a + i ~ j v i~avois6 hdyos orpai U O L , Oeard, r+
d s r$v T&Vbp+lwv ~ V U ~ E ~ V UrolXois
F
+lhrpov 8ia1~a2s Zpyov 8 e ~ ~ 0682
~
re ~ a 8ieypd$aro.
l
rb 6' bnorod8c
nepiPoX$v - luraro y&p Y ~ p v b s8i& 76 n P b piICp0d ~ a r driva iavrod 8 a ~ r d X 6nd8eitd
(H79) rb ialrrod nrcpbv i s i [ bdpos rod ncpl r& rod vaod
l
r j s riXv7s X P c ~ &
Pahciv iavrbv cis r j v Odharrav - ~ a rais
pcrdopa p i ~ p b v 6noXahduai P ~ P o d h ~ r a i , rois dnb sod
X ~ P a~l ~ ~ d p ~e av Kl~V ~sE ~ V & ~ * . E Vrois
O S ?roo2 +Odve~ npb roiv
p i ~ p d v . 2. rpiul pkv oJv, i s
v
XoinCv npbs rbv K ; ~ L O V . 6 82 r j v ~ c i p arods? napdXc1 ~ a l i8d+ovs d v e u r ~ ~ 6 u iiv8iarpl$wv
ndhiv i s ruriv 6p&v ZK r j s O a h d ~ r ~itdye1
s
Xalpovrd rc ICa? dv rip ~Znoi,~ o u r j p u i vdu+ahelas Xdpiv ~ a ~ld X X o v s ,i~ hlOov
~ e ~ r ~ p d v roj iv s i:+avuiv, uv'p?ras 6 veAs
i8d+ovs pdXpi ~ a l
byahhi&yevov.
a 6 r j s K O P V + ~ S ncPidu+i~rai,U I ~ ~ ~ E Tbn'~ Obhh4hwv
V
cihrl+6ui
XXXVI. Ot 82 hoinol ,uaOII~al rod [wypd+ov X e ~ p l 8idurauiv, 0;s ~ a ~l ~ o u p ~~rahhse i vudv78cs rois ?rep>T & roiadra
aiyiahbv rb roiv o ~ K o ~ ~ ~ ~ 8civois.
~ * . ~ rb
T w82v perarodro pdXPi ~ a h8d+ovs
l
~ L ~ K U ~ E ~ V & ~ npbs
E V O LT ~ Vd?rdvavri r j s ci$i8os
nhoiov ~ a r d y o v u i , r@ uwrjpi r j v n p o u $ ~ o v u a v i s o'Epa~ a6rod ?rpiur@ hlOW n o i ~ i h o ~?~r ddv ~ aT O ~ X O V ?jp+laurai.
~ S
hlOov hcnrdvas 6 T ~ ~ V / Ti[;+avev,
~ d v r a d d ar ~ p $ vd?rov~povres,npbs 8v dlpa ~ a $p&s
l
T&V ~ E ~ V T W V 3. cis rouodrov 81
dwv
rbv roixov.
oZpa~ rdXiov ~ a r a ~ O j v ao"ua
i ~ a dl ~ a r l ? Xpwpdvovs rois sod i s ~ O I C E ~ V b+aupdrwv n o i ~ ~ h o ~ ~hv8~8du6ai
l
Adyou nrepois, i s ilv ~ a lrb iv a&@ n a p & rod uorijpos 4. 6 82 hlOos rouadrr/v itavOci r j v hyp6r?lra, i s ~ a navrbs
i nholov oi ivOovs i v rodr? vi~&uOairb urlhPov. 04rw T L S t c ~ ~ l ~ o v~u aa i
reparovpyr102v ~aronrcdowpcv. 2. d n o ~ a ~ v o v urod
hlav b?rep+vjs $ rod XlOov nd+v~ev &PET$, pkhhov 82 $ rod
l
, ~ a O ~ r a l6, p ~ u i vin' dvepdICwvdprov ini~clpcvov ~ a iX04va
v
8s ~ a lrb ~ d h h o s ?rpouvcipa~ r1j +v'uc~
i s 8 e i n v o ~ h $ 7 o&s
~ in' i p l u ~ 0 v6 U W T $ ~ , ~ c ~ v l r o unov8$,
o v y ~ a h e i r aro6rovs
~
6 ndon uaprtl 8180;s r j v rPo+$v. 3. happdvei per& xcipas i+ihovehrluev.
5. ' Y n $ p c i u ~ a l8e rb pcraraiira U U X V O ~ S $pa ~ a nl o i ~ i h o rbv dprov ~ a rbv
l
ixOdv, 8 i a p
T O ~ T O U S rois paOllrais,
p~~cl
l
cinciv
6pOid6wv 068' d v a ~ ~ ~ p c v oois ' 82 ha,86vres o 6 ~bva~hlvovrai, pdP+ois rois K ~ O U L V , i [ i8d+ovs p1v b P X ~ p d v o i~s a olov
i,
82 p d X P ~K U ~ r?js i?ri r ; ?rpduwna
bhh' C?~OLOL
i,
rives i ~ ~ h a u r d v o v u rchevroia~
radra ~ a oi d r o ~~ a r a v a h l u ~ o v unpdmcivol
clvai ~ O K O ~ V T E Si , s i~avois81; ?rdulls K O ~ L ~ U ~ V74s
~ E vS v ~ s d s , roiv usooiv rod XlOou i?rap+iducws. 6. ai 82 uroal ai udp?ravra
a , 82 radras
rbv vabv h n a ~ E ' ~ o v a rbv
a i p2v bP~Opbv8 u o ~ a l 8 c ~ oi
yvpv6n08cs pdXPi ~ a yovdrwv
i
a6roiv, i s
48ara ro&ovs
m x v & ~ a r a p d n r o v r e s ,naxeis oi r o i r o v p*.71P~l,
(H 78) bv- h?rourrlpl[ovres K ~ O V E S iYYds nou r&v i P S o p 4 ~ 0 v r a ,o 6 ~burod70 8ia~atapdvov 706 d P X i r d ~ r ~bhh'
~~s,
8 p i ~ o lrc ~ a iuXvpol
l
ICal ~ i p e h c i sK U ~~ a r d o a p ~ yo ~~ p, v d X ~ i P ~ ds n o sozpai
Xpiurod rois
dlXPc ~ a ils &povs a6ro;s, Ppiapol r k s xcipas, cGpvxdhapvoi," lva ICa6anepcl rls Zp$uXos i ~ ~ h ~ ~u al al
iuaplOpois r&v Xpiuroi? b n o u ~ d h o v8 i a ~ a u r d 6 0 i r ouroais rc
~parcpol~ w n ~ h d r ~a E~ ,~ V V ~ npbs
~ ~ V TO& SL 7i)v bvdpwv ZpPoh&s
b v r ~ n a h a p & u ~ a~i a l70;s byplois b v ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~lv ' p~ a u~i va, ~~ a~~l lao ui i .
bvc~wapdvoib Y P ~ i ~ iU T~O &~~ S ~ n ~ ~P~ ~ h~a i, v i ~ Od p~ ~K6voi
XXXVIII. (H 80) T b 82 rod vaod u d p ~ a v 8dncSov
?rapd+ovs, 06 p a h a ~ d s , d8pds 6' Zv ris d ? r o ~rav'ras s i ~ a l
?rcPihaP~dveral,
OLS
K ~ T & K U K ~ L K ~ bnr
V
rpaXclas ~ a r1j
l rep? Odharrav npcnoduas bvauspo+1j, PcPap- rdrpaui p2v T E T ~ ~ ~ L V
pdvas npbs rb +aidrePov, ~ a 6i s h o s ci?reiv vavri~ois oi bhhljhov G i c ~ r ~ ~ dr juvi nepi+dpciav, ~ a r i u r p w r a l 8c XlOois
h c v ~ o i s . 2. 6 82 r & rerpdyova Giiaroiv bn' bhh$hwv K U K X ~ K ~ F
u 6 p n a v ~ e siurahpdvoi.
$ v 04pnTI[iv
4. Kal ndvres p2v Zri +alvovraL K U T E U ~ ~ O V ~ ETIkrpos
S,
81 xoipos old riva u r i Y P j v p&Xhov 82 ~ a ~ 8 i a ~riva
pdvos, &s o l p a ~n p b ?rdvrwv haPAv ~ I C roiv 8ca?rori~oivX E L ~ & I&s
J o"Xov aLparos rod vaod sb icpbv iv iavr@ ncpiypd+ei Ovuiav
r & npbs bvaroh;s o"uov ncpl ro;s
r j v rPo+jv ~ a npb
i ndvsov rois 68odui ~ a r a h c d v a sa6rjv ~ a ; unjpiov, l j p i ~ v ~ h l op2v
rij oiuo+dyW rdXiura ~araOdpevos, d y o v ~ u r i ~ biunepel
s
rir dvapd8povs T ~ SieP&s ~ a 6 d 8 p a s iurlv, ZUOV ncp? T ~ Vicp&v
v r@
rpd?re[av rerpay&vov 8' u J O ~ S r& npbs 8vupds. 3. ~ b p2v
~ a dl p + P ~ v ~Zpyov
~ s ~ a ndhiv
Zxerai ~ a rlj s O ~ X d r r ~bvdh~ct
l
s
S
rb ~ ~ K T V O Vrois
,
pkv noulv bvr~/3alvwv ?rpbs iavrdv, rais 82 npbs Z p ~ r o vrodrov pdpci i s npbs 8uuphs ' I W ~ V V6 ~plyas,
6
xpuuods
KU?
yhoirrav
~
a
vodv
l
~
a
xpvaod
i
navrbs
r
i
p
~
~~c~os,
X ~ P url j s iXOvLYPas i ? r ~ i h ~ p p ~ v~o Ts , ~ ~ ~ E 0U 5T ~~ lxOdov
~T s~ S
, n p w r o n o l ~ c v a~ i p ? I u d ~ e ~ ~ s
pcydhwv ~ K U T ~ nVe v r $ ~ o v s a ~ a rpioiv,
l
dri anaipdvrwv, @ah- 6 bhllOivAs dpXicpLpX?ls~ u ~ l o6v rbv
r j v $ 1 1 ~ j vairod Ocls bn2p roiv npopdrwv a6700, 76 pdya
hdvrov npoudhX7ha.B 5. urpd+ci 61 TIdrpos s j v ~ e + a h j v?rpbs
, iGd+ous ~ $ 1 1 rod U K $ V O I ~ S a&od
70;s iavrod ovppdaras K U ~ ~ ~ O T ~ ~ V O? rU PS ~, a ~ a h o v ' poEpai
c ~ ~ s Oadpa r j s o i ~ o v p d v ~ sin'
~ardOcuiv
~
i
'
h
p1;pa
~
~
PX1!6wv
~
,
6uoipai ?r&aav c6o8lav bnepah~ov'rovsi+d$aaOal oi r f s rod 8 i ~ r d o vnpbs r j v tVp&v itohKjs
s iepod aLparos a&od
s@ p j 8e8vvja6ai pdvos rod70 ~ 4 1 d 7 ~ iP[ ~
v
81& r6 Adpcva,
h ~ d u6as i i~ n 7 y j s ? r o h ~ ~ e d p o v orod
nAj6os ~ a pl i j ~ o sroiv iv a h @ iX6dwv ~ a rlj v C
Ii roc ,8dpovs
a6r;v npbs r$v byp&v dvOoh~$v.
XXXVII
' ~lX7+6u~Heis, ~ikq+6sovB.
' rrp~us+Heis, ~ p q u s 9B cf. XXXVIII, 6.

See commentary, n. 5.
B fol. lor.

B fol. 9=.
On LapiBfiors a marginal note in first ( ? ) hand sois 6h6e~a

XXXVI
~ a sois
i
~ P ~ o ~ ~B.K o v T ~
1 '
ayr6os Heis, &$&or B.
XXXVIII
' Heis reports irs written above the line B, but the photograph
' On 6uDpar a marginal note in first hand u7fi. (5s rrpb xpbuwv
does not show this.
~fipu~aiXafivor
B has ~irrrdXapvor,cancelled with dots.
$6 r?js alxfiaXwuias dlvQPXv(~fidpov QhaiD8~sd~pal@vksd ~ b700
"efore
' B fol. 9v.
iepofi rd@ov 7 0 0 X ~ V U O B T ~ /?)L ~dl~o+opd
U.
roc fihpov ~areuoeiso
&S d T b ~ d f i a 7 0dvaPkh(eru
~
K E K O B L ~ K ~ T B.
~ S
rrpoudhh?Xa Heis, ~ p b siiXXqXa B.

it

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CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

dvaphd[ovra Kai rbv cis rdsov adrod p c p ~ ~ ~ w~ ~pY Vd P~O V~ ~


~ a lr$ rod rd+ov AlOy h?rava~c~pcvov8 iaropodvra 8vvdpci T$ ii-arpl, hurcpl[wv p2v O ~ VK U ~~ a r d x i vpalvwv 75s a a r p i ~ ~ s
~ s .6 s P 6 s ~ P K T O V K U ; ro6rov
OctordPP 7 1 ~ 1~ a pcrh
i
shclur7s 8u7s rijs ljdyTIs hva~i8dovra ciroc/?clas K U ~rod + P ~ v ? j p a ~ 6.
~ a r '~ V T L K ~Kai
; rois ~ V ~ ~ O V s a
E p ~d P~o iE~ s
r~bv~ rod
L pcydAou
K ~ ~
K c r $ a h f spkv
K ~ XciPds,
K
~ U T 8'
L 8rc K ~ Y
K ~ v d r hPX6pcva
w~
uroAijs airrod Oao8oulov
~ h a lrbv s&ywva ~ a r+v
l &av rijs h P X l
P ~ ~ l ~~~p d~s r c l v c ~ p b v 2 s riva sAodrov h p i u r o s p a [ ~ a s
>
~ a r a p a l v o v r a ( H 81) &pz-avrc; rc rbv rd+ov xepiAipv4[ovra. h~dvwrov. 7. IIovhXcplas kcivos 6 ii-pbs hvarohhs ~ a so6rov
(
H
83)
ct60[0s
ai(r7
scpi,Bdrlros
rijs
Eyyiura
~clpcvos.
~ a poi
l r@ AdYy (n;p?ras 6 i w p a ~ d s~ a paprvp?juci
l
~ a pcpapl
rGv
'0817YO;v
8oyr17pla
povijs.
;pa
ydp,
8sws
~
a
raiv
l
~
c
p
oiv
rdprl~~
c a $i rodrov paprvpla ?~I+VKEV
M?lO$s.
dvCXci ?rapOlvos o8ua rb r1js ii-avdyvov ~ a ?rapOdvov
l
bpolwpa.
4. 'Qs ?rPbs pcallypplav 82 ~ a rodrov
l
K ~ T 'd v r i ~ p ;I'p?lYdpi~s
8. o8ros rod iv ao+ois /3auiAcduavros ~ a Zlv pauihcdul uo+od
6 rijs ecohoylas ~ ~ & V I I ~ OrbS , ?rdP ?rvcduav urdpa
ii-Zuav
~ a r a ~ ~ 6 r6v
~ r Xe ~i i i v .0 8 ~ 0 sPauiAluurIs Oco+avG, rijs r i p ~ a s
al'pcuiv ~ a r a + A l [ a v , i v rcrpay&vw ~ r c p o p l j ~ ci ii - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a + 6 p c v o s
~ a ai8culpo1l,
i
4s $ pv?jpTI ai&vios, 4s & V C U V O ~ 6 U O + ~ S , rijs
A d p v a ~ i~ ~ p p ~ ~ lr$v
[ ~Xp6av,
d q 8ri Kai 6 ~ c l p c v o si v a d ~ f
uo+ijs r+ 6vri /3auiAl(ruqs, rijs ~ a Plov
l
8iavvudu7s i?ralvcrdv
? r ~ ~ ~ a ' K$V7 ) p~
K d h h 0 ~T~V E U ~ ~ T ~
L K&OT+
~ , ?rvpi $V
T @ rod
f
'
uo+la y h p ?rp&.r7 Plos lii-aivcros r h itp& +aui Adyia.
s v c ~ p a r o s T ~ Vvodv ~ a r$v
l
Kap81av i s dc; 8iaOcppaiv6pcos,
9. o8ros Kwvuravrlvov TOG ii-p&rou PauiAdws sop+vpavOoCs
T @ 62 ~ d h h c iTGV Adywv T$V yAGrrav ~ a s a ~ o u p o d p v o s .
( H 84) ~ a Tl ~ ~ viod,
T ~ S08 pi'ya is' 66~81Kl?
rb Oyvopa.
5. A i r $ 82 7j. icph X p i u r o i rpd?rc[a T & TGV cis u+aY$v 0870s Z$VWVOS
PauiAdws ~ P c i a KU>
~ ~?rap&
~ ~rodro
~ ~773s~ s
h?rkp adrod 8dvrwv u&para AovxZ Ka; 'Av8phov ~ a l pauiAclas i ~ s c u d v r o s rGv odpavGv. 0 8 ~ 0 s 'Avaaraulov rod
iavro;s
TipoOdou TGV dsour6Awv 8ua Kal duvAov Orluavpbv ~ a r a ~ p d s r c i A i ~ d p o v , 08
~ sCpi Adyos, i s sdp ;[ odpavod sep+02v rhv
rap' iavr$,C< dpydpovs z u a sc?ro~~pCvq
~aOapodrc ~ a 8ic~80ds.
l
PauiAla ~ a r d ~ a v urod70
c ?rpoa?rcihrl~dvra~ a o c i v ,871 707s plav
6. 76 82 rijs ic@s ~ a Oclas
i
~ p a . r r l [ ~6sepxrlycvov
s
dp6+iov, 2x2 rod Xpiurod ?rPoud~ciro8 0 [ d [ o v u ~OdA7]uiv ~ a ivlpyciav,
i
8 Kal ~ a r a s d r a u p arois sohAois ~ a A c i v&v76cs, i~ rcrpay&vov 8s Kal O ~ K O Vi 8 c l p a ~ o?r&uav rxovra r$v u ~ c v $ vi [ dsrijs sAlvOov
p.2~ dpXcrai rdrpaaiv 6?ravcXopdvou ~ l o u t v ,i s 82 rb irvpapo- r2 ~ a di u p l n r o u , dhArlv rlvh ~ i p w r d v , rbv il8iov i s $cro
~ 1 6 2~arah?jyci
~
rais ;K @auiAi~oiihlOou rPiy&vois ~ p i u r a i s
I K + & ~ O V ~ a r a ~ h v u p d v 'v?jXios 8s ~ ~ A ~ ~C~+vyciv,
u E v
8 oi
sc?roqpdvov sAa[lv, %s T O U O ~ T O V i h d ~ r v v c v 6 rcXvlrT/s, As ?rdspwro i K Oclas dp+Tjs. 10. 0 3 ~ 0 sBauihclou rod Ma~c8dvos
TOUT; GiarcrduOat r h
~ O K E ~i V
[ 6+auPdrwv ~ U U U ~ V W ACVKGV
V
rod O c i o ~ ?~ rpp~~ v oK/ ~~ rdX7]s
K
rijs xapcpsoCs is;T+V paulAciov
~araslraupa.
dvaXOdvros nepiw?r?jv, rod ~ a xAciarov
l
2 s +aul ~ 6 u p o vi~ rod
vaod ~ d ? r lrbv 8vscp i8clparo Ociov
rGv 8 e o ~ ~ p d ~dpapdvou
wv
XXXIX. 'AAA' hrlwpcv ci 8 0 ~ ~ ;a s;p a s piv T ~ V~ p b s OTKOV pcsa~opluavros ELF Oyvopa rod d P X i u ~ p a r ? j y oTGV
v
dvw
8varoAhs ~clpcvovT O V T O V ; VC&V, i s av ~ a rih iv ad@ 8adparos ~ V V ~ , U E W V ,08
W l a h ~ ~ h r l u l a K U ~ ~ U T ~ Kr6
i?r&vvpov.
~ a iuroplas
l
Xdpiv Kar18wpv,
08 ~ a 8oprjropa
l
Kwvurdvriov
11. 0 6 ~ 0 s@WK; N L K ~ + ~ ~hv8pbs
O U , ~ V ~ ~ ~ L O Tlo~ JC
TdO urpaV
( H 82) dvat +Oduas 6 hdyos i8rjhwue. 2. o+aipoci8$s ~ a l ~ ~ y ~ ~ w r d r oUv~ + ~ O V O S ,i<isipovAGv d~roAl?rdvrosrb [ijv.
K I I K X ~ K ~dS d p s a s 08ros vads, 8th rb ~ - o A v ~ ~ ~ ~ As
r d ~ 6c iirl
~ o r6v
v
vchv rbv iv8drcPov K w v u r a v ~ ~ v o+dPci
v
rhv sopolpai rod q r j p a ~ ~ sT V K V ~ Z S rais ? r c P i ~ d ~ hurwi'~ais
y
ywvlais + v p d ~ A a u r o v , d6eA+bv fiau~hdws (H 85) rod prydXov, 08
~ a ~ a r c p v d p c v onsp~6 s y i p h?ro80X$v rod < v c ~ p o d ) r r a r p i ~ o i
BovAyapo~rdvosrb yvLpitrpa. 12. odros 6 Kwvuravsivos rod
rc ~ a ilavrod
p c i adro3s ,8auiXcvudvrwv h v w ~ 0 8 d p v ~ o . 6popdvou 70d8c 8 0 p ~ r w pvaod, Gs rivcs ?rpbs ?jp&s i[cAdAquav.
3. apbs p>v o3v ew K U ~~ a r a p ~ h6 sTO< ?rp&rws i v ~ p i u r i a v o ~ s
, 8 c p a u i A m ~ d r oKwvuravslvov
~
v c ~ p b sAs is; TLVOS sop+upavXL. McraPGpcv p l ~ p d v ,cil U O L ~ O K E O~ E, U T ~ ~, a i+'
i Zrepdv
@o;u7s pauiAclou cdvijs rijs ? r o P ~ v P o X P droa~ d ~ ~A dsp v a ~ o s riva o h o v , 8s ~ a ?jp&ov
i
~ a h c i r a iKai xGpos OP7vVri~6s?rapd
ivrbs h v a s d ~ a v r a i ,rod pcrh T+V 8 0 8 c ~ d 8 aTGV paO7r&v r p ~ u - T L U L ~ a r w v d p a u r a8th
~ roils hv a&@ ~ a r a ~ c i p l v o vAs
s dv 71s
,
KU? rijs Paul~ a i 8 r ~ d r orijs
v dpOo86[ov T ~ U T E W S K ? ~ ~ V K O Irod
&'sol ijpwas ,8auiAds. 2. 6pGs ercpov 8dpov ?revrdaroov ~ a r h
Aevoduqs radrVs 8op?jroPos. 4. $ 82 Adpva[ r6 p2v uXijpa T+V ? r p ~ p a ~ l K~ohvp/??j@pav
$~
iKclv?)v T+V Z O A O ~ & V T E ~ Oa Vi ~
T
p c ~ p l w s8' Ti~s ~i pT ?A j
~ hhX'
~ s OAK ~ u 6 ? r ~ c v PU
o Adyos
s~' J O S , y a p KbvraCOa ?rAijOos soAd si ~ a r d ~ c i r arGv
i[ buOcvrlas,
i
82 ~ a 'EAdv7v
l
+v rodrou p7rdpa ~ a rijs
l
dpOo86[ou ~ l u r c w s $v 81h r$v ipaprlav 6 udp?ras ~ c p l ~ c i r dvOpw?ros,
ai
~~TOA~T~VTWV
ovvcpybv r@ radrVs ovv~eOd+Oai vi@. 5. 6 82 ?rpbs ,ucu7ppplav
rb [ijv. 3. i [ a v a c r r ~ u o v r a8c
~ ~ a odroi
i
hyyiAov i?riuraulp,
K ~ C L V OK~ O V U T ~ V rod
T ~ O~ ~a 8i0 ~ $ r o p o srod ve&, ?rop+updXpous sa'ug rlj o l ~ o v p i vpCya
~
?rcpiuaAsl[ovros ~ a r hr$v rod ~ v p l o u
Mh' od r & s d v r a T+ ?rarpi~+rdP/3y ?rap6po1os, 8curi'pav iskAcvuiv, Ka; T+ Q 8 c ~ d u s y~ a ' v r w v~ p i r f jr+ uorijpl
~ a o8ros
l
Xpiur+ ?rapau~$uovrai. 4. oihos 'Iovusiviavod 6 i@os,' 08

B fol.

loV.

Qavrobs uncertain because of damage from damp to


~?T~YEXO~QYO
Heis,
V
h?~auexbpevovB.

' ~ p r u r a i s Heis, r p q u r a i s B.

' AEUK&Yadded above the line B.

B.

edcrrp~las very uncertain because of damage from damp to


pvqpovev8eiur very uncertain because of damage from damp

B.

to B.

' I I o v A x ~ p i a sHeis, ~ A o v ~ e p i aB.s

XXXIX

* < v e ~ p o ; > added by Heis.


~ t v l j sR. Egger, Die Begrabnisstatte des Kaisers Konstantin,
Jahrcshefte d. Gstcrr. Archaol. Inst. 1 6 : 218, 1913; 6~ yljs B,

av"rq Heis, 0670s B.

60pqrpia B instead of 6 0 p ? j ~ p t afor the sake of the rhythm.

6r~6ppovcorrected to 6 ~ ~ 6 p oB.v

Q ~ ~ A q uadded
ia
above the line by later ( ? ) hand B.

B fol. 11'.

l o & r o ~Heis. ~ e i v o sO ~ T O S B.

XL

916

DOFVNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

rc? dvopa ia' ci8v6iKl9 Kal c;vopla pE'ya ~ a acpi/3677rov,


l
8s ~u.rrcpovradrVv K U ~ +orcivjv, 7;s aa'vres 6 Xpiur&vv,uos TOG
~ v p l o vha69 i~ aavri,s Y d v ~ ~~ sa 7lj h i ~ i a sa&u7s ~ a &tihparos
i
~ a rob
l pcydXov ~cpdvovsrijs rob ( H 86) OroG hdyov ao+las
&s ~ ~ a a r oiXct
s
>
8 o p ~ ~ oiarlv.
P
.rrepih&h?lroso9ros iv yevcais yevcojv h s d p i a ~ o - ?rpo&yovrd~u ot Aapaa60Gxoi ~ a apo.rrop.rrol,
a p a ~ r $ a a s ,&s ~ o v a P X ~ u a&S
s , pcY&Xo~s6vvkuras ~ a r a p a h h v d<i&pards rc ~ a ilaayydhparos, K U ~ K ~ K A ? d v r@ , ~ ~ c y a ' h ~
TO;S u4,uaauav r+v O ~ K O V ~ ~T @
V ~rijs
V
itovalas ~pcirci K ~ O U - n a l j h p r i v /3acrihcdovuav &s 676 ' I c p o v u a h ~ ppdXpi ~ a (lH 89)
6iarpCXovrcs a3v a v c v p a r i ~ a i s 46ais sc ~ a l
aosd,$avras. 5. 6 i y y ; s KaL ?rpi,sZ p ~ r o v' I o v a ~ l v o v' ,I o ~ U ~ l ~ l ~roC
~ 0 f'IhXvpi~oG
i
v
a&hiv vc>uv ~ a r h
viovoij, bv6pi,s ia1 6 i ~ a i o o d v ~T E ~ ~ P O ~KTdO~ 1U8couc,BcI9 8vpidpaai KU? aP& T ~ Vd a o o r o h i ~ ~roiirov
acpi+i'pciav K V K ~ L K ~~Va r a X j y o v r c s .
p c y a ~ o p ~ & u a v r o s8s, ~ a si,
l rofi pcy&hov rcpdvovs
70;
3. M i o;v ~ a r d ~ v c.rrcpl
i
rGv Odav, & a ' i y y ; s ycvo; r f s
8coG Adyou ao+las iXhc'iaov bvv~06dp770drc ~ a dvcahjpwue
l
a ~ s ahvvoi, K U ~ ;pa, a& iv aGrlj 560p
Kal ri,v ~ a r a a c u d v r a rpoi,Xov dvj6paui rc Kai ~ ) ( V a~ ~ ~E ' V~T W+S v ~ i [ o dradr7s
dvdi,boacv. 6. 6 aPbs pcu7)p,Bplav 20+las rijs abroi, 6pc~vE'~i80s,pdvov acPihipva'[ei KU? Gprov p i ~ p d riva ~ p d +~~a r hpduov
radr7s 6iaahwt[ovrai, aijs radr7v Gv6pcs odroi a e p i ~ v ~ h o i , u i
y v v a i ~ i iepo.rrpcaoGs
,~
~ a ~l o a p l a sKal rQ 6vri uo+fs ~ a +o,Bovl
~l ~ i/3ioGvrcs daal6cvrov K U ~~ i Bv ~ c ~ ~ d y a a i
pCvVs rbv ~ d p i o vdh70Cs. dpX$ yhp ~ a rdXos
l
ao+las +d,Bos X ~ i p ~ / 3 ~~ oa Plov
~ T u v Grav r h oivo+dpa
~ v p l o v~ a r hrc? X d y ~ o v . ~7. ' H p a ~ h c l o v6' odros, 06 r ; KXCOS Pape'iav K ~ La&vras ~ K ~ ~ o o ~ +wv?jv,
w s +c180fis ;rep ~ a Giaraypoi,
l
Qalr i v IIcpulSa KU? r i v radrr)s .rrcplXwpov c6p; K U > a c p l S o ~ o v . d a r p d ~ i v aU K E d~ ~~ c P 1 u ~ d a ~Kal
aapd
rov
rojv
c1s
~
c
~
a
~
,
u
d
v
w
v
T
O
~
~
T
O
K
~
T
+
sijs
aXvvoG
Karao8ros a0hh0;s 70;s d l O h 0 ~h ~h P 70;s c H P a ~ h c l o~~KsE ~ V O U&S
S
K U ~ rAv it a&Sv
dacpcvl
rodrwv r i v ,BaalAc~ov uroXiv +lPovral rc ~ a ~araOpdnrwvrat,
dlv rLs c?not deohau~hs~ a ap&
l
Y 6 p c v ~ v olvov d v a ~ p a 0 l v r ar Q ;sari d v TOTS ~ p a X v , B h & ~ o i s
Qa00dpc~0s~ a lpehap,Ba+ij
aphs i~crrparclav 6ppijv ;TO877uL;pcv~s
ad6iha, iaavijhOc +oivyas raGra ~ a ~l a r a ~ p h o a s$opo'is d+apa&[ovres ~ a r a h a i p a p y o f i uK i ~ ~L a r c u ~ l o v u i v4.. ;pa,
rodrov Q ~ a h ~ ~ r rc
i~6.v
iv al'paai rois ~ a p , B a p i ~ o i s8.. Oco+lXov 6' oJsos 6 ap&uivos, a& ot phv p i ci66~csrb roc paplos
l
b a h j r r o v r a i aapv8d,
ol' 6' io&6cs ravr7ui rijs
roG ri,v rijs 8 ~ o u e P c l a sihv ~ a r hr S v Oclov ei~dvwv & ? T E ~ E V &~- a i'KOapp0~
w sr i v roi, uvvjOovs Odav uvvrplxovui Kal r @
pdvov ~ a ~l a r hrojv radras apou~vvodvrwvroGrov i ~ ~ d a v r o s .~ a r a ~ ~ o & a eial
ydhwri S i a ~ l ~ v v r a i .

9. d r e yoGv &s hdyos udowurai ahclurg uvv6poplj ~ a oaov6lj


l
5. Ei 61 ~ a plXPi
l
,BaOclas iuadpas d v 7jp'iv ivrav0oi aapa-

s r f v rijv
rijs dp0o8d<ov Oco6&pas K U ~ a&oi, 6 p c ~ v ~ r i 8 o61h
pcIvcias,
ahclovci
riva dqci KU> Oaiparos ;[la. p i y8p
(H 87) iep&v
O
c i ~ d v o viuai)ois V El ~o ~U ET ~ ~ ~ TpOUT ~ S
E W S
~ d v ~ u lT vE ~ a dvaos?jhwutv,
l
o&+a phv ciae'iv o 6 ~oTS' i y o y c , eI)aZIs&s ha6 rijs TOG p c Y & ~ o v6 T O ~ T O V K ~ T ~ K ~ O ~ U fa77
~ ~ ,
&s daL;pri aphs ioalpav iurl
hcydrw 6' 6 rap' a;rofi ~ a r a u r i ~ 6 c >
~ sa ~awvopaupdvos
l
pdXpi aCaovOas r;/v ~ K O U U T ~ K ?p778'
V
6. 3
y8p ?uOi, 6 s 06 p j uc hvij 068'
r7js Scirpo r p a a r i , ~6th i v r S v ucarijv c i ~ d v o v~ ~ o u ~ d v ~ u i v ,K ~ K ~ ~ K7jE 7jpdpa.
6 K U ~r f rijv [&vrwv Pl,Bh? d ~ & ~ ~ a a r 1
o0s.. @eo8&pas odros 06 p i ~ a r a h l a ouc. r @ yap pcylurp uc [?lpihuaipcv, p i 0 6 ~ ;
l
7jpSv ei Svvarbv ivravOoi oe peivei ~ a r a v a ~ ~ & o a v r c s ,
6 oap8hvios XlOos, rijs ,Bauihlucr7s r7js cr&+povos, qs Zpyov ~ a pc03
c w s ~
6 acp180<os rijv ~ E O K ~ ~ ~ K odros
C O V vc;s ~ a acploaros,
l
&s 6 &s 2v ~ a rl h ~ a r h+v atpiov iadi,bci rijs a a ~ ~ ~ d ~?UWS
yap oGX ( H 90) ;lp' $0: +aivoPdv7+i aP6s LuXdos ioocirai
Xdyos #d&uas i6jhouc. r e p i 62 rojv hoiai)v
~ a ,ucXqrdov
l
ooi daavr+rai aphs r i v aav?jyvptv ~ a r &
Xpei&riva d a a p a l ~ ~ r o v .
7jpCLiv) $v ai pvijpai ro'is r&+ois ~ v ~ ~ a r e ~ & u O ~ u a v ;
7. Fv' o h p$ roirro a&Oois - $8, y&p
6pij uc rijs a p 6 s
r h O ~ ' K O L + E ~ O ~ U d~aS~ d p c v o v;AO ~ a vcdpari
l
Kal ao6i XLI. AcGpo rolvvv ihOi d v ipol
dalopci~ aphs ri,
aPdoXcs poi ~ a Zri
l piKp6~ ~ a ri,
l 03s uov KX'iv0~~ a i la & ~ o v o o v
apdvaov
r i v a P o ~ o a c P o vT U ~ T ? ) V oda a a v ~ y v p i v . 58c T ~ V
r S v bVp&rov pov. i i ~ i r p o ~ L ; 8y&p
~ v ooi r h a&vr' itslaw 618
pdyav nafiXov ;s riva fhiov @ Zrovs 19
ZTOS iv r @ ( H 8s)
7; rob ~alpoGd$ialrcpov.
aapdvri va@ ip+thoXwpoiivra
robs aBr+ apoutdvras aa'vra
rpdaov ~ara+wsl[ovra. 2. ;pa poi +v apocdprtov r d c i v r i v
XLII. "OpiXos acpl r h TOG veij sacra apoadXia i~ aalawv,
iK V~OV,
&vSp&v,i K Y E ~ ~ V T W Vi [, ?jXlKla~T & U ~ SUUyK
In B 640s is followed by the words dv6pbs dri ~ L K U L O U ~ V ~
pdvos
fOpoiurai
K U > ydvovs aavrds, rojv pkv acpl crroixc'ia ~ a l
repr@oljrou ~ d r 8eouepeLtr
i
p ~ y a ~ o p r d u a v r o then
r,
follow the words
T ~ V O V S ~ a ~l a v d v a s,!?paXdov rc Kal p a ~ p & v Kal dvopdrwv ~ a i
8s ~ a i Q U T ~then
P , 03 rb bropa - nepr,B6?rov. Heis considers that
the last phrase was intended by hlesarites to replace the phrase ,5?1pCLXrovnpAs d M j h o v s aoiovpdvwv rGv iacp&r.rluiv,rojv S h acpl
dvspbs - peya~oprduarror,which hlesarites subsequently decided
~ ~ ~ p L ; rXdyov
ov
i6das aavro6aaijs BOV,I.L~~&TOV
TE K U ~
to use in the description of Justinus (below, 3 5 ) , and that the i a c ~ ~ v p ~ p~~a ~+ o~ vv c, l arhs ~ a S2 E ~ V ~ T ~ Trojv
O S , 82 8 i a h c ~ ~ i ~ d v
copyist by error repeated the words drspbr-peya~oprduarror
& ~ a [l j r v P a , aporL;ucis rc apoand then put the substitution in the wrong place. I t also seems r i aporiOcpCLE;wv ~ p d / 3 h ~ prc
possible that after he had written Justinian's name here, the retvdvrwv xhclur7v iyyaurpi[opE*vas r i v 8iaXd7v IVTAS K U ~ap;s
copyist's eye fell upon the same name a few lines below in the
characterization of Justinus (8 5 ) , so that he copied the phrase
XLI

dv6pbs - p ~ y a ~ o p r d u a v r oin
s this place by error ; and that after
B fol. 12'.

he had realized the mistake he copied the remaining two phrases


~ O L ~ O @ O U K uncertain
O ~
because of damage from damp to B.
of the description of Justiilian in the wrong sequence, writing
drepeuy6p~rovHeis, dreppeuy6p~rov B.
the second phrase before he realized that there was another
p+' Heis, ,u+ 6' B.
before it.
duueirar Heis, dueirar B.
After QEouuLas B has ahr&v cancelled with dots.
a O ~ K O LHeis, 0 ~ ~ 0B.1
B fol. 12r.

" peAap,Ba@+j Heis, p~Aep@a@+B .

XLII

B fol. 13r.

a d r ~ p ~ u ~ a p d vHeis,
o u
dr~ppcu[apdvou B.

'

"

'

it

CHURCH O F THE HOLY APOSTLES

VOL. 47, PT. 6 , 19571

917

it

hP+orlpwv
r+v d r d v ~ ~ u sCv
t v apordueov & v a y ~ a a r t ~ C
&Ah'
s o j X ~ K O U U ~ O J P ~ b vT OG dppevos, T @ hprly uvvSva[dpcvos, d 6'
~aXodpevos
H
E
~
L
U
U
~
~
T
r+v
~
O
TOG
P
[woydvov
a
p
o
u
o
v
~ p I a v~ e r daairodvrwv ~asaOluOatK U ~rb avprCpaapa, ~ a rbv
l p5v + V U L K ~ V
ci
uvhhoyi[oplvwv &s d + ~ h d u o + o v , ~rbv 62 O V ~ ~ O ~ L U T StaL K ~ ~ h o d r 7 ~ e6th rb & r b s ~ a r hy a a ~ p b siXodaas, ~lv8uvedc~v
sdXot radras, Z ~ r p o p &T L aaOeiv iv p7v1 T @ TOG acptauaprlou
uvp6vrwv &s ~+UUIKEUTOV.
~
K U ~b
~ v y broios dpa darlv b H ~ , L L H T O rk
2. (H 91) 'IaspCv aai6cs i v rhuvbv ~ a d r ~~ cv ~ t ~ v ~ h o G iar~i v~, c ~ h ~ pdvdPart,
EP80pos Kai b &waros' 7. iKci6cv 70;s rcpl r h s Y c w p e ~ P i ~ h s
odX &s haOcvoGuav i ~ i a ~ e $ d p e v o$t K U ~~ ~ v @ ~ v p c ibu a~ vrqs
b
l
K U ~r h
rptxlj Gtaurarh u&para ~ a i
TCV darpaKlvwv ir' a;r+v U K C U C ~ ~araOpd$cws ~ara6?jaovrcs
$ ypapphs ~ a i.rrt+avelas
l ~ cwS dvre ~ a arcped,
splywvd + ~ p t ~ a l
l
~ a pdhayPa
l
iatO?juovres- d r a y e . oir y h p rqs hlOov raGra r h roiv ~ ~ ~ p di a ~
i[dc6pa ~ a dl~ r d c 6 p a ,Sw6c~dcSpdre K U ~ei~oade6pa,
~
+duews, ei Kai
p ~rd6ol
H
d P ~ ~ .rrrpdyova,
~
T L - dhh' &s ~ a r h
uxoh+v
~
~ ~ ~ ~ ~d ar$l pwt ~vu ~ X l w v K ~ K ~ W V
iv adrlj u r p o v ~ oT L~V E F o f a X o y t ~ o i ~ e h a 6 ? j u o v ~acp>
e ~ xup(;Iv ~ a rl b ~ v p a , u o e i S rCv
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hand.
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' B fol. 13'.

B fol. 14'.
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added
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* <rorirou> added by Heis.

' B fol. 14'.

' cis~p~riyeubaiHeis,

XLIII

cincpperiyeubar

B.

918

DOWNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

[ T R A N S . AISZER.PHIL. SOC.

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it

B fol. 15'.

INDICES

T H E SCRIPTURAL PASSAGES QUOTED OR PARAPHRASED, OR DISCUSSED I N

T H E COMMENTARY

References are to chapter and paragraph in the text, or (where indicated) to chapter and note in the commentary.

OLD TESTAMENT

Genesis

1 : 26
2 : 10
3 : 24
10: 10
11:9
22 : 13
25 : 27

llesarites

Psalms

XVIII, 8, 9
111, 3
XXVII, 4
VI, 1
VI, 1
XVII, 2
XVI. 5

62 (63) : 9
68 (69) : 2
68 (69) : 15
73 (74) : 11
77 (78) : 2
77 (78) : 12
77 (78) : 23
87 (88j : 5-6
98 (99) : 5
102 (103) : 3
103 (104) : 3
103 (104) : 4
109 (110) : 1
110 (111) : 10
117 (118) : 22
118 (119) : 91
126 (127) : 1
132 (133) : 1
132 (133) : 2
135 (136) : 25

Exodus

6: 1
7: 1
33 : 23
34 : 29

XXVII, 4

XVI, 8

XVI, 8

XVI, 8

Numbers

13
21 : 9

111, 6
XVII, 1

Deuteronomy

11 : 12

XVI, 9

Joshua

5:6

1 Samuel
16 : 12
1 Kings
17: 1
18 : 37
19 : 13
19 : 19
2 Kings
1:8
2:s
2 : 11
2 : 13-14
22 : 2

XVI, 11

XXI, 2 ; n. 3

XXIX, 5
XXV, 13
XXV, 13
XXX, 9 ; n. 11
XVIII, 2
XVIII, 2
XLIII. 9
XXVI'II, 7, 18
XVIII, 11
XXX, 8
XXIV, 2 ; XXV, 5
XLIII. 8

XVIII, 11

XXXIX, 8; XL, 6

XIII, 9

XVIII, 9

XII, 4

XI, 2 ; app. crit.

XXXVIII, 3

XXXVI, 2

Proverbs

1:7
9 : 10
26: 11
26: 15

XXXVIII, 4
XVI, 9

XVI, 11

XVI, 10

XVI, 10

Ecclesiastes

XVI, 10

XVI, 9

XVI, 9

XVI, 10

XIV, 4

Sirach

1:7

XXXIX. 8: XL. 6
X X X I X ~8 ; XL; 6
XVI, 11
XXX, 9 ; n. 11
XXV, 3

Song of Solomon

2:9
3: 7
39: 9

XIV, 1; n. 2 ; 2; n. 11
XXIII, 1
XL, 4

Zechariah

13:7

XXVII, 9

Isaiah

Psalms

2 : 1-2
8: 3
9 : 23 (10: 2)
9 : 31 (10: 10)
18 (19) : 4-6
18 (19) : 11
25 (26) : 12
29 (30) : 6
32 (33) : 6
32 (33) : 9
33 (34) : 16
33 (34) : 17
43 (44) : 2
48 (49) : 5
56 (57) : 1
59 (60) : 6
62 (63) : 2

Mesarites

XVIII, 13

IX, 1

XXX, 4

XXVIII, 10

XLIII, 7

XXI, 4

XXVIII. 15
XXIX, 4
XVIII, 10; XXIII, 2
XXVI, 5
XIV, 3
XIV, 5
XVIII, 2 ; XLIII, 9
XVIII, 2
XXVIII, 10
XXX, 9 ; n. 11
XVI. 15

6: 9
8: 3
11: 1
28 : 16 (LXX)
40 : 10
40 : 12
40 : 22
42 : 2
53 : 2
53: 7
62 : 2
LXX Daniel
3 : 46
7: 9
7 : 13
7 : 22
7 : 27

919

XXX, 8

XXII, 2

XVI, 8

XIII, 9

XXIII, 2

XXIII, 2

XVI. 2

XXVI, 5

XVII, 1

XXVII, 9

XX, 4

XVIII, 4

XXIII, 2

XXIII, 2

XXIII, 2

XXVI. 8

DOWNEY : NIKOLAOS MESARITES


NEW' TESTAMENT

Matthew
3 : 13-17
3 : 17
4 : 18
5: 3
5:8
5 : 12
5 : 15
5:35
6 : 22
7 : 14
11 : 11
11 : 29-30
12 : 19
12 : 29
12 : 30
13: 35
14 : 22-33
14 : 28
14 : 31
16: 5
16 : 17
17 : 1-13
18 : 12
20: 1
21 : 16
22 : 44-45
26 : 17-29
26 : 31
26 : 32
26 : 47-56
26 : 55
26 : 69-75
27 : 35-36
27 : 61
28: 1-8
28: 3
28 : 8-10
28: 9
28 : 16
30 : 11-15
Mark
1 : 9-11
1:11
1 : 16
1 : 17
3 : 17
3 : 27
6 : 45-54
9 : 2-13
9: 7
13 : 33
14 : 12-45
14: 15
14 : 43-52
15 : 24-41
15: 47
16 : 1-8
16: 5
16 : 10-11
Luke
1 : 26-38
1 : 35
1 : 38

Mesarites
XXIV, n. 1
XVI, 14
XII, 12
XIV, 3
XIV, 3
XXXV, 10
XXX, 9
XVIII, 11
XVI, 4
XXXII, 7
XVI, 12
XIV, 7 ; XX, 3
XXVI, 5
XXX, 9
XXXII, 4
XVIII, 2
XXV, n. 1
XXV. 11
XXV; 13
XVIII, 1; n. 2
XVI, 2
XVI, n. 1
XXXII, 4
XII, 1
IX, 1
XVIII, 11
XV, n. 1
XXVII, 9
XXXI, 4
XXVII, 1
XXVII, 4
XXXIII. 7
XVII, n. 1
XXVIII, n. 1 ; 3 ; n. 5
XXVIII, n. 1
XXVIII, 13 ; n. 22
XXIX, n. 1
XXIX, 1
XXXII, n. 1
XXX, n. 1
XXIV, n. 1
XIV, 14
XII, 12
XVIII, 5
XII, 10; XVI, 3 ; XLIII, 8
XXX, 9
XXV, n. 1
XVI, n. 1
XVIII, 1 ; n. 2
111, 1; n. 2
XV, n. 1
XV, 3
XXVII, n. 1
XVII, n. 1
XXVIII, n. 1 ; 3
XXVIII, n. 1
XXVIII, 13; n. 22

XXXI, n. 1

XXII, 2

XXII, 2

XXII, 9

Luke
1 : 48
2: 1
2 : 1-20
2 : 18
2 : 36
3 : 21-22
3 : 22
6 : 15

24 : 41-43

John
1 : 18
1 : 21
1 : 25
1 : 29
1 : 29-34
1 : 40
3 : 14-15
3 : 31

Mesarites
XXII, 9
XXX, 6 ; n. 7
XXIII, 1
111, 1; n. 2
XXII, 2 ; n. 3
XXIV, n. 1
XVI, 14
XII, 17 ; n. 20 ; XX, 7 ; n. 14 ;
XXVII, 10; n. 21
XIV, 3
XVI, 12
XVI, n. 1
XVIII, 1 ; n. 2
XXXII, 4
XXXII, 4
XVIII, 11
XXVII, 4
XV, n. 1
XV, 3
XV, 6
XXVII, n. 1
XVII, n. 1
XII, 18
XXVIII, n. 1
XXVIII, n. 1
XXVIII, 13; n. 22
XXVIII, 15
XXXI, n. 1
XIV, 1
XLI, 5
XXVII, 2
XIV, 1
XVI. 11

x v 1 : 11

XVII, 2

XXIV, n. 1

XII, 12

XVII, 1

XVI, 12

XL, 2

XIII, 3

XXV, n. 1

XXVII, 2

XXVII, 2

XXVII, 4

XXXII, 5

XXXII, 4

XXXVIII, 3

XXVI, n. 1

XXVI, 5

XXVII, 7 ; n. 16

XVII, 2 ; n. 9

XII. 11

XXVII, 7; n. 16

XIV, 1

XXXI, 4

XXXII, 5

XXVII, n. 1

XXX, 1 ; n. 2

XXX, 1 ; n. 2

XXVII, 2 ; n. 5

XXVII, 2, 5

INDICES

VOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

N E W TESTAMENT

John
19 : 18-30
19 : 25
19 : 35
20 : 11-18
20 : 18
20 : 19
20 : 24-25
20 : 24-29
21 : 1-7
21 : 7

Acts
1:1
1 : 13
2 : 1-41
2 : 34-35
3 : 25
4 : 11
4 : 13
4 : 25-26
5 : 15
8 : 27ff.
8 : 32
9 : 1 ff.
9: 5
11 : 26
12:2
13: 2
13 : 34-35
18 : 25
21 : 13
26 : 14
28 : 31

hfesarites
XVII, n. 1
XXVIII, 8 ; n. 14
XXXVIII, 3
XXVIII, n. 1
XXXI, n. 1
XXXIV, 2
XXXIII. n. 1
XXXIV,' n. 1
XXXV, n. 1

XXXV, 10; n. 5
XXXVI, 1
XXXVI, n. 1
XVII, 2 ; n. 9
XXXVIII, 3
XXX, 10

XX, 4 ; n. 8
XII, 17; n. 20; XX, 7 ; n. 14;
XXVII, 10; n. 21

XVIII, n. 1
XVIII, 11
XLIII, 9
XIII, 9
XXV, 11 ; XXVII, 10 ; n. 21 ;
XXXII, 4
XVIII. 13
VI, 6
XII, 14; n. 17

XXVII, 9
XII, 6
XIII, 7; n. 11
XX, 4
XII, 16
XLIII. 8

X X X I ~ 2~; , n. 3

XIV, 1
XXVIII, 5
XIII, 7; n. 11
XIV, 1

Romans
10: 15
15: 19

XXIX, 4
XLI, 2

1 Corinthians
13: 12

XIV, 1 ; XVI, 8

2 Corinthians
15 : 35-38
3: 3
3:6
Galatians
2: 9

XXXVI, 6

VIII, 2

XVI, 10

hilesarites
XLIII, 7

Ephesians
2 : 20

XIII, 9

Philippians
3 : 20

XIII, 5

1 Thessalonians
4 : 16

XIII, 5 ; XVI, 12; app. crit.

1 Timothy

2:9

3:2ff.

3: 9

3 : 15

4:7

6:8

6 : 16

XIV, 8
XLIII, 4
XIV, 5
XLIII, 7
XXXI, 2 ; XXXIII, 8
XIV, 8
XVI, 13

Titus

1:7ff.

XLIII. 4

Hebrews

1:5

2 : 17

4 : 14ff.

8: 1

12 : 21

13:s

XVIII, 8
XXXVIII, 3
XLIII, 4
XLIII, 4
XXVIII, 10
XLI. 6

James

1 : 17

XII, 3

1 Peter
1 : 20
2:6
3 : 12

XVIII, 11; n. 17
XIII, 9
XIV, 3, 5

Apocalypse

1:3

3 : 12

4: 5

6: 1

7 : 16
8:5

10: 1

10: 3
11: 19

14: 1-5

14:2

22 : 10

111, 1 ; n. 2
XLIII, 7
XII, 10 ; n. 10
XII, 10; n. 10
XVI, 15
XII, 10; n. 10
XIII, 9 ; n. 14
XII, 10; n. 10
XII, 10; n. 10
XII, 10; n. 9
XII, 10; 11. 10
XXXV, 1 ; n. 2
XII, 10; n. 10
XII, 10; n. 10
XXXV, 10
XL, 9
XXX, 1 ; n. 2

DOWNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

NOTABLE GREEK WORDS


This index includes unusual Greek
words which occur in the text, plus some
words which do not appear in the text
but are discussed in the commentary.
References are to chapter and paragraph
in the text, or (where indicated) to
chapter and note in the commentary.
dywyhs,

"

aqueduct," 111, n. 8

fipiBeos, epithet applied to Christ, XXIX, 1

XIV,

T ~ ~ ~ K u T T L K 11.
~ ~ ,

fipcu@atpiov, architectural term, XIV, n. 1


rrapa~hrrrw,XIV, n. 2

' H p d ~ X e t o s ,epithet applied to diseases, VI,


~ a p d u r a u r s ,the formal appearance of the

n. 7

fipw'i~6s, epithet applied to Christ, XXIX,

n. 4

SpOov, used of the Mausoleum of Jus-

tinian ; etymology discussed by Mesari-

tes, XL, 1

d v o x l j , " exhaustion," XXVIII, n. 27

~ a r a y w y l j ,"aqueduct," 111, n. 8

h v r u t , XIV, n. 3

~ a r a r r 6 r a a p a , " baldachino," XXXVIII, 6

d p x l j , in architectural usage, XIV, n. 4

K ~ V T ~ O VXIII,
,
n. 11

hu@a)lros, XXXII, 6

K O U ~ T J T $architectural
S,
term, XXXVII, 2

&+is, XV, n. 5

Xdpvat, used as both masculine and femi-

p d s , " mantle," XVI, 10, and n. 30

nine, XXXIX, n. 7

yupv6s, XXV, n. 5 ; XVII, n. 8

XiBos p a u i h t ~ 6 s , used to describe marble,

XXXVIII, n. 18

6 c ~ s u w ' r 6 s ,s b 6 t ~ r u w r 6 v ,XIV, n. 11

XiBos X E U K ~ S ," marble," XXXVIII, n. 2

Gtwpo@a, r a , V, n. 1

Ive6pa, $ (fi Bvi8pa, ra Ive6pa), XXVII,


p e y a ~ o p r r d ( w , XL, n. 5

n. 17

p e r a ~ o p i 8 l j , IV, n. 3

B ~ E T ~ ~XIX,
w , n. 2

pwueiov (for pouaeiov), V I I I , 1 ; XI, 3

tri accusative, V, n. 6

$6Xov, 11, n. 1

E X W = possunz, XVI, n. 11

dp6@tov, "baldachino," XXXVIII, 6

odpavo6p6pos, epithet applied to St. James,

{o@h8qst XXVI, 6

XII, 16

gwurljp, architectural term, XXXVII, 2

dva@pduaw, XXIV, n. 7

Emperor surrounded by his court,

XXII, n. 4

rrhuvhs, XLI, n. 7

rrpoaiqpc, XXI, n. 5

rrp6uwrrov, architectural term, XXXVII, 5,

and n. 4

rrpoxolj, XXIV, n. 6

r r r e p h y ~ o v ,111, n. 1

b i y o s , XLII, n. 4

u$pavrpov, ~ q p a v r ? j p t o v 11,
, n. 1

u ~ q v l j ," dwelling," 111, n. 3

u r o d , XV, n. 2

uhprrqtrs, XV, n. 6

a u p r r r u x q , in sense of udprrrutcs, XXVIII,

n. 27

a @ a i p a , architectural term, XIV, n. 1

u@aipos, distinguished from u @ a i p a , XVI,

n. 46

u@acpoec6ljs, architectural term, used of the

Mausoleum of Constantine, XXXIX,

n. 3

6 ~ o { w y p a @ k wX
, V, note 8 ; XXIV, n. 2

NAMES AND SUBJECTS


Aristotle, mentioned in encomium of the
Constantine the Great, Emperor, burial in

Patriarch, XLIII, 5

his Mausoleum at the Church of the

Arithmetic, study of, at Church of the

Apostles, I, 2 ; XXXIX, 3 ; previously

Apostles, X, 1 ; XLII, 6-7; reckoning

buried at the Church of the Martyr

with finger notation, X, 1

Acacius, I, 2

Armenians, characterized, XXI, 1-4

Constantine VII, Emperor, burial at the

Church of the Apostles, XXXIX, 9 ;

Bartholomew, Apostle, invocation of, XII,

18; preaching to the Armenians, XXI,

his Book of Ceremonies, XXXIX, 11. 2 ;

1-4

his Vita Basilii, XXXIX, n. 23

Acacius, martyr, see Constantinople

Basil I, Emperor, burial at the Church

Acts of Plzilip, XII, n. 7

Constantine
V I I I , Emperor, burial at the

of the Apostles, XXXIX, 10

Alanzalzikon, tax, p. 860.

Church of the Apostles, XXXIX, 11

Basil I1 B u l g a r o k t o n o s , E m p e r o r ,

illbania polis, in Armenia, XXI, n. 1

XXXIX, 11

Constantine of Rhodes, ekplzrasis of the

Albanon, in Armenia, XXI, n. 1

Baths, summer and winter, V I , 3

Church of the Apostles, p. 860; cited,

.\lexandria in Egypt, people of, character-

XII, n. 19; XIII, n. 1 ; XV, n. 5 ; XVI,

ized, XXI, 5

Caiaphas, high priest, XXX, 7 ; XXXIII,

n.
18; XVII, n. 8

Alexius I11 Angelus, Emperor, pp. 859,

860

Candace, Queen of Ethiopia (the Queen's


Constantinople

Anastasius I, Emperor, burial at the

name mistakenly given to the eunuch),

Baths near Church of the Apostles, VI,

Church of the Apostles, XXXIX, 9

XII, 14

2-6

Andrew, Apostle, invocation of, XII, 12;


Choricius of Gaza, XXV, n. 8

Capture by Latins in 1204, p. 859

relics of, in the Church of the Apostles,


Christ as Sun of Justice, X I I I , 9 ; XV, 1

Churches: Acacius, I , 2 ; All the

XXXVIII, 5

Churches, see Constantinople

Saints, VII, n. 1 ; VIII, 1 ; XLI, 11. 3 ;

Andrew of Crete, XXIII, n. 1

Ciborium of church, described, XXXVIII,

Forty Saints, XLI, n. 3 ; Hodegetria,

Annas, high priest, XXX, 7 ; XXXIII, 7

XXXIX, 7 ; Nca, decorated by Basil

Antioch in Syria, people of, characterized,


Cleophas, XXVIII, 8

I , XXXIX, 10; St. Sophia, p. 859;

XX, 1-4

Codinus, cited, XXXIX, n. 2

built by Justinian I, XL, 4 ; building

Apostles, " Byzantine list," XII, n. 4

Comparative, used for relative superlative,

activity of Justinus 11, XL, 5 ; dates

XVI, n. 3

Aristeas, Letter o f , cited, XXXVIII, n. 4

References are (1) to the Introduction,


cited by page, and (2) to the Translation
and Commentary, cited by chapter and
section number (for the Ttanslation) or
by chapter and note (for the Commentary). For an index of the scenes shown
in the mosaics in the church, see the Table
of Contents, p. 857.

VOL. 47, PT. 6, 19571

connected with construction and repair, XL, n. 7

Description of city, 111-V

Grain supply, I V

hfausoleum of Constantine, XXXIX

blausoleum of Justinian, XL

Mesolophos, I , n. 1

Military assembly point outside city,

v , 4-5

" Outer Philopation,"


the, V, 4-6

Patriarchal School, XLII, n. 1

Statue of Justinian I in Augustaeum,

XXIX, n. 4 ; XL, n. 1

Wall of Constantine the Great, I , n. 1

Constantius, Emperor, burial at the

Church of the Apostles, XXXIX, 5 ;

builder of the Church of the Apostles,

I, 2 ; XXXIX, 1

Creed; statement of faith by Mesarites,

XVIII, 7-8

INDICES

James, Apostle, invocation of, XII, 16; at

the Transfiguration, XVI, 3 ; mentioned

in encomium of the Patriarch, XLIII, 8

John, Apostle, invocation of, XII, 10; at

the Transfiguration, XVI, 3-5; on sea

of Tiberias, XXXV, 9 ; mentioned in

encomium of Patriarch, XLIII, 8

John the Baptist, XVI, 12

John X Camaterus, Patriarch of Con-

stantinople, pp. 859, 860; encomium of,

XLIII

John Chrysostom, cited, XV, 4 ; burial at

the Church of the Apostles, XXXVIII,

3-4

John Comnenus, his " palace revolution "

in 1201, p. 859

Jordan River, shown in personified form,

XXIV, 2-3

Joseph of Arimathea, cares for body of

Christ, XXXIII, 7

Judas Iscariot, XXVII, 6-9

Description of the Building of St. Sophia, Justinian I, Emperor, as builder of the

Church of the Apostles, I , n. 8 ; statue

anonymous, 111, n. 4 ; V, n. 1 ; XL, n. 7

of, in costume of Achilles, in Augus-

Dialectic, study of, at Church of the

taeum at Constantinople, XXIX, n. 4 ;

Apostles, X L I I , 1

burial at Church of the Apostles, XL,

4 ; as builder of the Church of St.

Education, as conducted in school at


Sophia, XL, 4

Church of the Apostles, VII-XI, XLIIJustinus 11, Emperor, burial at the

XLIII
Church of the Apostles, XL, 5; his

Elias, at Transfiguration, XVI, 2, 8-12

building activity at the Church of St.

Envy, apostrophe to, XXVII, 3

Eulalius, artist, p. 860; XXVIII, n. 30

Sophia, XL, 5

Euphrosyne, Empress, niece of the Pa-

triarch John X Camaterus, p. 859;


Kasia, poetess, cited, XXI, n. 2

XLIII, 7

Eusebius of Caesarea, I, n. 2 ; VI, n. 4 ;


Last Supper, depiction of, XV, 2-6

Lazarus, XXV, 18; X X V I ; XXVII, 2

XX, n. 2

Leo V I , Emperor, burial at the Church

of the Apostles, XXXIX, 8 ; his ser-

Gabanos, place in Great Armenia, XXI,

mons mentioned, 111, n. 4 ; XI\', n. 1 ;

1-4

XXVIII, notes 5, 16

Gabriel, Archangel, at Annunciation,

Leprosy, VI, n. 7

XXII, 1-8

Libanius, quotations of, by Mesarites, 111,

Gaza, cycle of paintings in, XXV, 11. 8

notes 1, 8-12; IV, n. 1 ; V, notes 2-3,

Gennesaret, lake, XXV, 1

7 ; VI, notes 4, 6-7; VIII, n. 1 ; XI,

Georgius Pachymeres, cited, XLII, n. I

n. 3

Grammar, study of, at Church of the

Liturgy of Abyssinian Jacobites, XII, n.

Apostles, VIII, 2-4; XLII, 1

9 ; of St. Basil, XIV, n. 17; XV, n. 7 ;

Gregory of Nazianzen, burial of, at

of St. James, XII, n. 1 ; XV, n. 7 ; of

Church of the Apostles, XXXVIII, 4 ;

St. Mark, XXX, n. 9

cited, V, n. 1 ; XXI, 1 ; XXXII, 4 ;

Longinus,
centurion, XXX, 5

XXXVII, n. 1

Luke, Evangelist, invocation of, X I I , 8 ;

Gregory of Nyssa, cited, XLI, 11. 5

preaching at Antioch in Syria, XX,

Gyges, King of Lydia, XXI, 5

1-4; relics of, at Church of the Holy

Hades, XXVI, 6

Harrowing of Hell, XXX, 11. 12

Helen, mother of Constantine; her burial

at the Church of the Apostles, XXXIX,

Henry V I Hohenstaufen, p. 860

Heraclius, Emperor, burial at the Church

of the Apostles, XL, 7

Hermogenes of Tarsus, rhetor, mentioned,

XLIII, 5

Histiaios, grammarian, mentioned, XLIII,

Hunting, outside Constantinople, V, 6 .

Incarnation, X X I I

Matthew, Apostle, invocation of, XII, 9 ;

among the Syrians, XIX

Medicine, hfesarites'
knowledge of,

XXXIV, n. 7 ; study of, at Church of

the Apostles, XLII, 2-5

Mesarites, John, brother of Nikolaos, p.

859

Modestus, Archbishop of Jerusalem, p.

859

Monothelitism, XXXIX, n. 18

Moses, at the Transfiguration, XVI, 2-10

Music, instruction in, at the Church of the

Apostles, I X ; XLII, 8-9

Nicaea, Empire of, pp. 859, 860

Nicephorus I1 Phocas, Emperor, burial at

the Church of the Apostles, XXXIX, 11

Nicodemus, cares for body of Christ,

XXXIII, 7

Nicomachus, arithmetician, mentioned,

XLIII, 5

Oikonomia, used
XXIII, n. 4

of

the

Incarnation,

Parasfaseis sywtotizoi clzronikai ( S c r . orig.

Const., ed. Preger), cited, XXXIX, n. 9

Patria Const. ( S c r . orig. Const., ed.

Preger), cited, I, 11. 8

Patriarchal School at Constantinople,

XLII, n. 1

Paul, Apostle, invocation of, XII, 6 ;

representation of, in the fore-court of

the Church of the Apostles, XLI, 1 ;

festival of, celebrated at the Church of

the Apostles, XLI, 2

Paulus Silentiarius, VI, n. 3 ; XIV, n. 3

Pelagius, Cardinal, mission to Constanti-

nople, p. 860

Persians, hearing Simon preach, XX, 5-6

Peter, Apostle, invocation of, X I I , 5 ; at

Transfiguration, XVI, 2 ; commanded

by Christ to walk on water, XXV, 11-

18; at betrayal of Christ, XXVII, 10-

13; on road to Galilee, XXXII, 4-10;

with Thomas, X X X I I I ; on sea of

Tiberias, XXXV, 9 ; as fisherman,

XXXVI, 4-5

Philip, Apostle, invocation of, XII, 14

Physiognotizowika, XX, n. 4

Piracy in Mediterranean, IV, 2

Plato, mentioned in encomium of the

Patriarch, XLIII, 5

Pontius Pilate, XXX, 6-7

Apostles, XXXVIII, 5

Prochorus, Acts o f John, XII, n. 10

Procopius of Caesarea, XXIX, n. 4

hfalchus, servant of the high priest, Proverbs, Byzantine, XXI, n. 2

XXVII. 10-14

Ptolemy, musician, mentioned, XLIII, 5

Manuel chrysoloras, cited, XXXVIII,


Pulcheria, Empress, burial at the Church

n. 2

of the Apostles, XXXIX, 7

Marble, use of, in Church of the Apostles,


X X X V I I ; use of, in imperial sar- Rhetoric, study of, at Church of the

cophagi at Church of the Apostles,


Apostles, XLII, 1

XXXIX-XL
Mark, Evangelist, invocation of, XII, 9 ; Saracens, hearing preaching of Simon,

preaching at Alexandria in Egypt,


XX, 5-6

XXI. 5

Simon, Apostle, invocation of, X I I , 17;

Martha, sister of Lazarus, XXVI, 2-3

among Saracens and Persians, XX, 5-7

Mary, sister of Lazarus. XXVI, 2-3

Socrates, mentioned in encomium of the

Mary hlagdalene, XXVIII, 8

Patriarch, XLIII, 5

924

DOWNEY: NIKOLAOS MESARITES

tles, I, 2 ; her burial a t the Church of

the Apostles, XL, 10

Theodora, Empress, wife of Theophilus,

XL. 9

~ h e o d o r eGraptos, tattooed during icono-

clastic controversy, XL, n. 13

Theodosius of Alexandria, grammarian,

mentioned, X L I I I , 5

Theodosius the Great, Emperor, burial at

the Church of the Apostles, X X X I X , 6

Theophanes Graptos, tattooed during

iconoclastic controversy, XL, n. 13

Tabor, Mount, scene of Transfiguration,


Theophano, Empress, wife of Leo V I ; her

XVII, 1

burial at the Church of the Apostles,

Themistius, V I I I , n. 6

XXXIX, 8

Theodora, Empress, wife of Justinian I,


Theophilus, Emperor, burial at the

as builder of the Church of the Apos-

Church of the Apostles, XL, 8

Sophia, Empress, wife of Justinus 11; her

burial at the Church of the Apostles,

XL, 6

Sun of Justice, Christ as, X I I I , 9 ; XV, 1

Superlative, comparative used for, X V I ,

n. 3

Syltaxarium of the Church at Constanti-

nople, cited, X X X V I I I , n. 14

Syrians, hearing preaching of Matthew,

XIX

[TRANS. AMER. PHIL. SOC.

Thomas, Apostle, invocation of, XII, 13;

with other apostles, X X X I I I ; at the

appearance of Christ, X X X I V

Tiberius, sea of, X X X V

Tiberius 11, Emperor, mentioned in con-

nection with his building activity at St.

Sophia, XL, n. 7

Timothy, relics of, in Church of the

Apostles, X X X V I I I , 5

Virgin Mary, characterized as prophetess,

X X I I , 2 ; icon at the Hodegetria,

XXXIX, 7

Zeno, Emperor, burial at the Church of

the Apostles, X X X I X , 9