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60 visualizzazioni6 pagineComparison methods to determine DG sizing

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Comparison methods to determine DG sizing

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60 visualizzazioni6 pagineComparison methods to determine DG sizing

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DG Locations and Sizing in Distribution System

Ravi Viswa Teja, M. Sydulu, Member, IEEE

Electrical Engineering Department, N.I.T Warangal

Warangal, India

viswa.eee.242@gmail.com

AbstractThe

ongoing

demand

for

power

consumption is leading to serious stability problems in

electric power systems. If there are no impending

construction projects of new power plants or

transmission lines, such an increase can result in large

power losses of the system. DG integration in

distribution system is one of the viable options to

mitigate losses by providing peak shaving, over load

relieving

and

improved

reliability. The advantages of using a DG mainly depend

on its location and size. Therefore, selection of optimal

location and size of the DG is mandatory to maintain the

stability and reliability of existing system. However,

there is still no systematic and cardinal rule for this

issue. In this paper, firstly the optimal locations are

calculated using Single DG Placement Method and a

comparison is performed between three meta-heuristic

techniques like Genetic Algorithm(GA), Artificial Bee

Colony

Algorithm(ABC)

and

Shuffled

Frog

Algorithm(SFA) which are used for finding optimal

sizing of the DG, considering system loss

minimization and voltage profile improvement as

objective functions. This work is tested on IEEE 33 bus

distribution system and the results of each technique

are compared with each other to find out the best one

among the three techniques.

Keywords- ABC; DG Placement; Distribution Systems; GA;

Loss Reduction; Meta heuristic methods; SFA;

I.

INTRODUCTION

connected directly to the distribution network or on the

customer site of the meter.It is small scale power generation

embedded in the present day distribution system[1].DGs

have a vast number of applications as illustrated in

[3,4].They have been utilized in electric power networks for

power

loss

reduction

and

voltage

profile

improvement.Environmental friendliness and reliability are

the key factors which have been driving the use of DGs in

the present day scenario. approach to evaluate the impact of

DG units on power loss,reliability and voltage profile of

distribution network is presented in [5].It has been implied

that DGs can achieve better reliability during power

interruption situations.In [6],the optimal size and location of

is proposed. This was achieved using sequential quadratic

programming.Minimizing power loss by finding optimal

location and size of DG is suggested in [7].In the

literature,first genetic algorithm has been applied to DG

placement[8].Here the optimal location of DGs is given as

input.This paper also presents a new methodology using

ABC [10-12].The ABC algorithm is a new population based

meta heuristic approachinspired by intelligent foraging

behavior of honey bee swarm.It does not require external

parameters such as cross over,mutation etc.

In this paper, a new heuristic optimization method called

Shuffled Frog Algorithm (SFA) is used. It is a global

optimization technique which searches for local and global

optimal

values

simultaneously

with

minimum

computational burden.

In this paper, all three methodologies are implemented in

case of IEEE 33 bus system.The results obtained using three

techniques are compared in order to understand the pros and

cons of each methodology. In all these methodologies, DG

is considered to be a constant real power source. Out of

techniques available,SFA is proved to be the optimal for

inserting DGs in present day distribution system.

II.

THEORETICAL BACKGROUND

branches.The total power loss can be calculated by using

N

PLTotal = I i2 Ri

(1)

i =1

Ri = Resistance of ith branch

The total power can be divided into two components

namely active power loss and reactive power loss as given

below

N

PLa = I ai2 Ri

(2)

i =1

N

PLr = I ri2 Ri

i =1

where

PLr = reactive power loss

(3)

PDG = Vm I DG

power loss and thereby reduce the total loss in the

distribution system.

SINGLE DG PLACEMENT METHOD

III.

locations of DG in the distribution sysem in order to

minimize losses. However, we can also obtain the optimal

sizes. But as we place the DGs one after other, the solution

of the problem may land up at local optimal values. Hence

only the locations are considered as optimum locations and

the sizes are determined using ICA at the second stage of

the problem.

A. Problem Formulation

Consider a radial distribution system with N branches.

As per the assumption made, a single DG is inserted in the

system. Let the initial assumed bus location be m for the

DG placement. For the radial system, consider a single source

at a time. As the DG introduces active current I DG , the active

component of the currents of all the branches connected to

bus m would change. Thus the new active current

component of ith branch is given by

new

ai

= I ai + Di I DG

(4)

and 5 and is given by

(6a)

Com

= (2 Di I ai I DG + D I ) Ri

2

DG c

(6b)

i =1

saving can be obtained from

n

S

= 2 ( Di I ai + Di I DG ) Ri = 0

I DG

i =1

is

(7)

N

D I

i ai

I DG =

Ri

i =1

N

i =1

I R

=

R

ai

D R

Step 2: Conduct distribution load flow analysis for the

given system

Step 3: Starting from second bus i=2, find the DG size

and the current injected by DG using (8) and (9).

Repeat for all buses

Step 4: Calculate the maximum saving and

corresponding DG size

Step 5: The corresponding bus gives the optimal location

of DG. The active load at this bus is modified

and distribution load flow is again conducted.

corresponding DG sizes.

(5)

i =1

S = PLa PLa

= ( I ai + Di I DG ) 2 Ri

Com

using (9). Then possible loss saving for each

DG is determined by using (6).The DG with

highest loss saving is identified as candidate

location

for

single

DG

placement. When the

candidate bus is identified and DG is placed, the

above technique can also be used to identify the

next and subsequent bus to be compensated for loss

reduction.

goto step 7.

=0; otherwise

Thus, the active power loss

PLa

(9)

(8)

local optima but not global optima as DGs are placed one

after another. Global optimum is obtained by the meta

heuristic techniques by placing DGs simultaneously at

potential locations.

OPTIMAL DG SIZES USING META HEURISTIC

TECHNIQUES

A. Genetic Algorithm

A powerful class of optimization methods is the family

of Genetic Algorithm (GA). The GA become particularly

suitable for the problem posed here. Here a GA based power

loss minimization and energy loss optimization technique is

proposed for finding optimal size and potential site for DG

to place in Distribution Systems. If network structure is

fixed, all branches between nodes are known and evaluation

of the objective functions depends only on the size and

location of DG units.

IV.

practical problems is composed of three operators:

initial stage & organized pair-wise using Roulatte wheel

technique, for the implementation of crossover.

ii. Crossover: The individuals, randomly organized pairwise, have their space locations combined, in such a way

that each former pair of individuals gives rise to a new

pair.

iii. Mutation: Some individuals are randomly modified, in

order to reach other points of the search space.

Step 9: Calculate the fitness value of the chromosome.

Step 10: Repeat for all chromosomes from step6.

Step 11: Sort the chromosomes in the descending order

of fitness.

Step 12: Calculate the error {Fit [1] Fit [last]}.

Step 13: Check if the error is less than 0.0001

about the response surface.

b. They are resistant to becoming trapped in local optima.

c. They can be employed for a wide variety of optimization

problems

If yes, go to 17.

Step 14: Perform genetic operations.

Step 15: Replace old population by the new population.

Step 16: Increment iteration count.

Step 17: Print the results. Go to 20.

Step 18: If iteration count is less than the max count, go

to Step 6.Else go to Step19.

Step 19: Print Problem is not converged.

Step 20: End of the algorithm.

B. Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm (ABC)

It was introduced in 2005 by Karaboga [15].Initially it

was developed for unconstrained optimization problem and

later it was extended for constrained optimization problem

[16].

Theory:

The

bee

colony

consists

of

three

groups:employed,onlookers and scout bees.The employed

bees randomly search for food source positions and share

the information by dancing with the onlooker bees waiting

in the dancing area at the hive.The dance duration is

proportional to the nectars content(fitness value).Hence the

onlooker bee chooses the food source position proportional

to the quality of that food source(fitness more).Thus if a

food source position is visited fully,it is abandoned by the

employed bee and it becomes onlooker bee where as the

employee bee abandons it with a changed status of

onlooker.If any food source is not visited then it is

abandoned and onlooker bee becomes a scout bee.Thus the

onlooker and employed bee perform the exploitation process

simultaneously where as scouts control this process.

a.

b.

c.

Step 5:Set chromosome count equal to 1.

Step 6:Decode the chromosomes of the population.

Step 7:Run the distribution load flow.

Limit value in scout bee phase (limit)

Maximum Cycle Number (MCN)

Step 1: Read the input data.

Step 2: Construct initial Bee population Xij as each bee

is formed by sizes of DG units

Step 3: Evaluate fitness value for each employed bee by

the formula

fitness =

1

1 + Powerloss

(10)

equation

(11)

fiti

fit

Step 3: Select the memplexes (m) and frogs in each

arrange them in ascending order. Find the best in

each memplex and fbest.

Step5: By local exploration, improve the performance

for the worst frog can be updated by the

(12)

SN

F=mn.

Pi =

solutions Xi

( Population best) and Gbest (Global Best among all

iterations). In essence, it combines the benefits of the local

search tool of the PSO [18] and mixing information from

parallel local Searches to move towards a global solution

n =1

onlookers from the populations Xi, selected

(15)

Step 10: Determine the abandoned solution, if exists,

Then it is updated.

(14)

(13)

the difference between two successive values is

less than specified value stop.

Step 12: Increase the iteration number by one.

Step 13: If iterations are less than specified go to Step 5,

otherwise stop.

C. Shuffled Frog Algorithm (SFA):

The SFA is a real coded population based meta-heuristic

optimization method that mimics a group of frogs searching

for maximum amount of available food. It is based on

evolution of memes and a global exchange of information

among the individuals [17]. In this, each frog represents the

size of DG. The fitness value of all frogs are calculated and

(16)

Then arrange all the frogs according to fitness

values.

Step 8: Repeat algorithm until the solution criterion is

met or maximum number of iterations are

completed. The solution criterion is [|fit(1)||fit(f)|]< , where is the convergence

tolerance.

V.

implemented in case of IEEE 33 bus distribution systems

and the results are tabulated in Table 1. Forward Backward

Distribution Load flow is used for Distribution Load Flow.

SINGLE DG CASE

GA

Locations

DG Sizes

Active

Power

Losses (M.W)

2.5491

0.042677

Population size

60

ABC

6

2.4874

0.04221

40

TWO DG CASE

SFA

GA

2.5912

0.042184

128

THREE DG CASE

ABC

SFA

GA

ABC

SFA

15

15

15

15

15

15

32

32

32

1.9673

1.9213

0.6789

1.7335

1.9229

0.71385

0.9824

0.9681

1.1574

0.4644

0.5454

0.71385

0.6378

0.4779

0.71385

0.02473

0.02280

0.01849

40

128

0.03911

0.03581

60

40

0.0345

128

60

0.16

0.14

Ploss in 1000KW

0.12

0.1

0.08

GA

ABC

SFLA

0.06

0.04

0.02

0

NO DER

SINGLE DER

TWO DER

No of DER

THREE DER

FIGURE 2. ACTIVE POWER LOSSES COMPARISON BETWEEN GA, ABC AND SFLA

p.u. Referring to the Table I, SFA algorithm result

shows that the active power loss reduction (with

three DGs integration) is improved from 81.77%

(in GA) to 83.19%(in ABC) to 86.37%(in

SFA).Also we can find from Fig.2, that out of the

three algorithms better active power loss reduction

can be provided using SFLA. But when it comes to

population size, time and average number of

convergence faster compared to other two methods.

And also there is no need of operators as in case of

GA, for both ABC and SFA which results both of

them to converge faster than GA.

VI.

CONCLUSIONS

GA,ABC and SFA are discussed and implemented

in case of IEEE 33 Bus system. From the results we

can infer that the Shuffled Frog Algorithm (SFA)

shows better convergence characteristics compared

to the other two. Also this techniques how better

voltage profile and minimized real power losses.

Thus it is shown to be the most trustworthy

concept.

[10]

[11]

[12]

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