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LENGUA Y EPRESIÓN ORAL II 2nd Term Test

1)

RP vs GA

RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION GENERAL AMERICAN and NORTH AMERICAN ENGLISH

RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION

RECEIVED PRONUNCIATION GENERAL AMERICAN and NORTH AMERICAN ENGLISH

GENERAL AMERICAN and NORTH AMERICAN ENGLISH

BrE is a NON ROTHIC ACCENT: /r/ is not pronounced:

GA is a ROTTHIC ACCENT: /r/ is pronounced -

/kɑ:/

/kɑ:r/

Low back rounded /ɒ/ :

 

/ɒ/ is missing instead:

/kɒt/ - /nɒb/ - /tɒm/ /mɒθ/ - /mɒs/ - /lɒŋ/

/ɑ:/ - /kɑ:t/ - /nɑ:b/ - /tɑ:m/ /ɔ:/ - /mɔ:θ/ - /mɔ:s/ - /lɔ:ŋ/

Words with /e/ - /æ/, /eə/

 

All merged into /e/

/e/ → /meri/ - /ʃeri/ - /veri/ /æ/ /mæri/ - /hæri/ - /hærəld/ /eə/ → /meəri/ - /heəri/ - /eæri/

/meri/ - /ʃeri/ - /veri/ /meri/ - /heri/ - /herəld/ /meri/ - /heri/ - /eri/

/l/ is clear or dark

 

/l/ is always dark

Voiced approximant /w/

 

Voiceless /hw/

/wɒt/ - /wɪtʃ/ - /weðə/

/hwɒt/ - /hwɪtʃ/ - /hweðər/

Three low back vowels

 

Two or one low back vowels

/ɑ:/ → /spɑ:/ /ɒ/ → /stɒp/ /ɔ:/ → /strɔ:/

/ɑ:/ → /spɑ:/ /ɑ:/ → /stɑ:p/ /ɑ:/ - /ɔ:/ → /strɔ:/ - /strɑ:/

 

DIFFERENCES IN ALLOPHONIC VARIATION

 

/əʊ/ /bəʊt/ - /nəʊt/

 

/oʊ/ /boʊt/ - /noʊt/

/t/

Produce a voiced flap /t/: / / before a weakly

/siti/ - /betər/ - /leitɪst/ - /fɔ:ti/

stressed vowel or after a vowel + /r/ /siti/ - /betə r/ - /leitɪ st/ - /fɔ:ti /

/twenti/ - /sæntə/ - /tərɒntəʊ/ - /wɪntə/

/t/ tends to be dropped altogether after /n/ and before a weakly stressed vowel /twen(t)i/ - /sæn(t)ə/ - /tərɑ:n(t)oʊ/ - /wɪn(t)ər/

 

DIFFERENT PRONUNCIATION OF COMMON WORDS

 

Many words spelled with a are pronounced with /ɑ:/ (such words tend to have alveolar consonants /n - s - f - θ/ after the vowel)

Many words spelled with a are pronounced with /æ/ (such words tend to have alveolar consonants /n - s - f - θ/ after the vowel)

/ɑ:sk/ - /ɑ:nsə/ - /kɑ:nt/ /dɑ:ns/ - /brɑ:ntʃ/ - /hɑ:f/

/æsk/ - /ænsə/ - /kænt/ /dæns/ - /bræntʃ/ - /hæf/

Many words with a syllable initial /t - d n l s z/ before the spelling u, ew or eu are pronounced /ju:/

Many words with a syllable initial /t - d n l s z/ before the spelling u, ew or eu are

/tu:n/ - /du:k/ - /nu:/ - /lu:d/ - /su:t/ - /zu:s/

/tju:n/ - /dju:k/ - /nju:/ - /lju:d/ - /sju:t/ - /zju:s/

pronounced

/u:/

Tend to pronounce /j/ in certain words with u spelling, following alveolar consonants /ɪsju:/ - /vɜ:tju:/ - /ɑ:djʊəs/ - /seksjʊəl/ - /pərɪzɪən/

Tend to palatize the consonant following the u spelling /ɪʃu:/ - /vɜ:tʃu:/ - /ɑ:rdʒʊəs/ - /sekʃəl/ - /pərɪʒən/

Some words and names spelled er are pronounced /ɑ:/ /klɑ:k/ - /dɑ:bi/ - /kɑ:/

Some words and names spelled er are pronounced /ɜ:/ /klɜ:k/ - /dɜ:bi/ - /kɜ:/

Words that end in ile tend to be pronounced /aɪl/

Words that end in ile tend to be pronounced

/hɒstaɪl/ - /fju:taɪl/ - /tæktaɪl/ - /fɜ:taɪl/ - /dəʊsaɪl/ - /steraɪl/ - /ædʒaɪl/ - /frædʒaɪl/ - /mɪsaɪl/

/əl/ or /l/ /hɑ:stəl/ - /fju:təl/ - /tæktəl/ - /fɜ:təl/ - /dɑ:səl/ - /sterəl/ - /ædʒəl/ - /frædʒəl/ - /mɪsəl/

There are many individual English words in common use in both dialects with the same spelling but with a different pronunciation been /bɪn/ vase /veɪs/ either /aɪðə/ neither /naɪðə/ tomato /təmɑ:təʊ/

There are many individual English words in common use in both dialects with the same spelling but with a different pronunciation Been /bi:n/ vase /vɑ:z/ either /i:ðər/ neither/ni:ðər/ tomato /təmeɪtoʊ/

 

DIFFERENCES IN WORD STRESS

In many two-syllable verbs ending in ate BrE tends to stress the suffix dicTATE fixATE roTATE viBRATE

In many two-syllable verbs ending in ate AmE tends to stress the root syllable DICtate FIXate ROtate VIbrate

In words of French origin BrE anglicizes these words with stress on the first syllable

In words of French origin AmE tends to mirror the Frenche syllable-final stress pattern

GARage BALlet FRONtier BOURgeois CABaret DEButante

garAGE baLLET fronTIER bourGEOIS - debUTANTE

Three or four syllable words stress falls on the first syllable COMposite SUBaltern ARistocrat PRImarily

Three or four syllable words stress falls on the second syllable comPOsite subALtern arIStocrat - priMArily

Five syllable words ending in ly : primary stress is in the first syllable

Five syllable words ending in ly : primary stress is in the third syllable

ˈcustomarily

ˌcustoˈmarily

ˈmomentarily

ˌmomenˈtarily

ˈnecessarily

ˌnecesˈsarily

ˈordinarily

ˌordiˈnarily

ˈvoluntarily

ˌvolunˈtarily

WORDS ENDING IN ary, -ery, -ory, AND mony: only

ˈnecessary

WORDS ENDING IN ary, -ery, -ory, AND mony:

stressed in the first syllable

primary accent in the first syllable and secondary accent in the penultimate syllable

ˈterritory

ˈnecesˌsary

ˈcustomary

ˈterriˌtory

ˈdictionary

ˈcustoˌmary

ˈordinary

ˈdictioˌnary

ˈcategory

ˈordiˌnary

ˈtestimony

ˈcateˌgory

ˈtestiˌmony

In days of the week, the day syllable is unstressed and has a reduced vowel /ˈsʌndɪ/- /ˈmʌndɪ/ - /ˈtju:zdɪ/

In days of the week, the day syllable has a full vowel and it stressed weakly /ˈsʌndeɪ/ - /ˈmʌndeɪ/ - /ˈtju:zdeɪ/

Place names ending in aster/ester: stress in the first syllable ˈLancaster - ˈRochester

Place names ending in aster/ester: primary stress in the first syllable and secondary stress in the penultimate syllable ˈLanˌcaster - ˈRoˌchester

Place names ending in -ham or wood: stress in the first syllable ˈBirmingham - ˈBuckingham - ˈHollywood

Place names ending in -ham or wood: stress in the final syllable ˈBirminˌgham - ˈBuckinˌgham - ˈHollyˌwood

In some cases, words in AmE and BrE have the same number of syllables but simply take different stress patterns, which concomitant differences in pronunciation

/ˈləbɒrətri/ - /ədˈvɜ:tɪsmənt/ - /kəˈrɒləri/

ˈlæbrəˌtɔ:ri/ - /ˌædvərˈtaɪzmənt/ - /ˈkɔ:rəˌleri/

2)

THE SYLLABLE

  • A- Structure of the syllable . CH 8 The Syllable Peter Roach

The Nature of the syllable Syllables may be defined phonetically or phonologically. Phonetically (in relation to the way we produce them and the way they sound) syllables are usually described as consisting of a center witch has little or no obstruction to airflow and which sound comparatively loud; before and after this center there will be greater obstruction to airflow and/or less loud sound:

A MINIMUM SYLLABLE would be a single vowel in insolation (ɑ: - ɔ: - ɜ:) or isolated sounds such as /m/

produced to indicate agreement or /ʃ/ to ask for silence. These sounds are always preceded and

followed by silence.

Some syllables have an ONSET: a sound preceding the center of the syllable. Ex: /bɑ:/ - /ki:/ - /mɔ:/

Some syllables have no onset but have a CODA: a sound after the centre of the syllable. Ex: /æm/ -

/ɔ:t/ - /i:z/

Some syllables have onset and coda: /rʌn/ - /sæt/ - /fɪl/

From the phonological point of view:

Involves looking at the possible combinations of English phonemes. It is simplest to start by looking at

what can occur in initial position, and we find that a word can begin with a vowel, or with one, two or

three consonants (no word begins with more than three consonants). In the same way, we can look at how

a word ends; it can end with a vowel, or with one, two, three or four consonants (no word ends with more

than four consonants)

The structure of the English syllable

SYLLABLE ONSETS

If the first syllable of the word begins with a vowel (/ʊ/ is rare) or a consonant phoneme except /ŋ/ we

say that this initial syllable has a zero onset. Ex: attention / ə tenʃ ən/ Apple /æp əl/

SYLLABLE ONSETS: CONSONANT CLUSTERS

Initial two consonants: when we have two or more consonants together we call them a consonant

cluster. Initial two consonants clusters are of two sorts in English:

o

Syllables that begin with /s/ (pre initial consonant) followed by a small set of consonants (initial

consonant /p t k f m n l r w j/)

spin /spɪn/ - stick /stɪk/ - skin /skɪn/ -

sphere /sfɪə/ - smell /smel/ - snow /snəʊ/ - slip /slɪp/ -

swing /swɪŋ/ - sue /sju:/

PRE INITIAL CONSONANT

INITIAL CONSONANT

 

/s/

/p t k f m n l r w j/

o

Syllables that begin with one set of consonants (initial consonant) followed by one of the set /l

r w j/ (post initial consonant)

flee /fli:/ - free /fri:/ - three /θri:/ slave /sleɪv/ - shrink /ʃrɪŋk/ - few /fju:/ - thwart /twɔ:t/ -

play /pleɪ/ - pray /preɪ/ - pure /pjʊə/ - tube /tju:b/ - twin /twɪn/ clean (kli:n/ - cry /kraɪ/ -

cure /kjʊə/ quick /kwɪk/- blame /bleɪm/ - brand /brænd/ - beauty /bjuːti/ - dwell /dwel/ -

glass /glɑ:s/ -

grow /grəʊ/ - language /læŋɡwɪdʒ/

INITIAL CONSONANT

POST INITIAL CONSONANT

/f - θ - s - ʃ - p - t - k - b - d - g/

/l r w j/

SYLLABLE CODA

Zero coda: no final consonant. Ex: bar /bɑ:/ - key /ki:/ - more /mɔ:/

Final consonant: there is one consonant only (any consonant, except /h r w j/) Ex: at /æt/,

on /ɒn/, that /ðæt/, block /blɒk/, sting /stɪŋ/

Two Final consonant cluster: two types

o

one being a final consonant preceded by a pre-final consonant (m, n , ŋ, l, s). Ex: bump /bʌmp/ -

 

bent /bent/ - bank /bæŋk/ - belt /belt/ - ask /ɑ:sk/

 

o

one being a final consonant followed by a post-final consonant (s, z, t, d, θ). Ex: bets /bets/ -

 

beds /bedz/ - blacked /blækt/ - bagged /bægd/ - eighth /eɪtθ

Three Final consonant cluster: two types

o

one is formed by the pre-final consonant + final consonant + post-final consonant. Ex:

 

helped /helpt/, banks /bæŋks/, bonds /bɒndz/, twelfth /twelfθ/

 

o

one is formed by the final consonant + post-final 1 + post-final 2. Ex: fifths /fɪfθs/, next /nekst/,

 

text /tekst/, lapsed /læpst/

Four Final consonant cluster: two types

o

PRE FINAL + FINAL + POST-FINAL 1 + POST-FINAL 2:

twelfths /twelfθs/, prompts /prɒmpts/, strengths /streŋkθs/

o

FINAL + POST-FINAL 1 + POST-FINAL 2 + POST-FINAL 3: sixths /sɪksθs/, texts /teksts/

The English syllable can have the following maximum phonological structure:

Pre initial initial post initial
Pre initial
initial
post initial

VOWEL

ONSET

pre final final post final 1 post final 2 post final 3
pre final
final
post final 1
post final 2
post final 3

CODA

Refined analys:

Syllable division

Syllable

 Zero coda: no final consonant. Ex: bar /b ɑ:/ - key /ki:/ - more /m

Onset

Rhyme peak coda
Rhyme
peak
coda

One of the most widely accepted guidelines is what is known as the maximum onsets principle that states

that where two syllables are to be divided, any consonants between them should be attached to the right-

hand syllable, not the left, as far as possible within the restriction governing syllable onsets and codas.

Syllables with a short vowel and no coda do not occur in English (except the vowel ə)

One further possibility should be mentioned: when one consonant stands between vowels and it is difficult to

assign the consonant to one syllable or the other we could say that the consonant belongs to both syllables.

The term used for a consonant in this situation is ambisyllabic.

  • B- STRONG AND WEAK SYLLABLES (CH 9 P. ROACH)

Strong and weak

One of the most noticeable features of English is that some of its syllables are strong while many others are

weak. It is necessary to study how these weak syllables are pronounced and where they occur in English.

When we compare weak syllables with strong syllables we find the vowel in a weak syllable tends to be

shorter, of lower intensity and different in quality. A weak, unstressed syllable often has schwa in it. But if the

schwa is omitted, we are left with a SYLLABIC CONSONANT - a syllable where the vowel and the consonant

have merged into one.

We could describe them partly in terms of stress but the most important thing to note is that any strong

syllable will have as its peak one of the vowel phonemes but not /ə/ /i/ /u/. If the vowel is short the strong

syllable will always have a coda as well. Weak syllables can only have one of a very small number of possible

peaks. At the end of a word, we may have a weak syllable ending with a vowel and no coda:

  • 1. the vowel /ə/

  • 2. the /i/ (happy i)

  • 3. the /u/ (thank you u)

We also find weak syllables in word-final position with a coda if the vowel is ə:

open /əʊpən/, sharpen /ʃɑ:pən/

Inside a word, we can find the above vowels acting as peaks without codas in weak syllables:

photograph /fəʊtəgrɑ:f/, radio /reɪdiəʊ/, influence /ɪnfluəns/

The vowel ɪ can act as a peak without coda if the following syllable begins with a consonant:

architect /ɑ:kitekt/

The /ə/ vowel

The most frequently occurring vowel in English is ə, which is always associated with weak syllables. In

quality it is mid and central. Not all weak syllables contain ə, though many do. It is needed to learn where

/ə/ is appropriate and where it is not. To do this we must consider spelling:

Spelt with a, strong pronunciation would have /æ/: attend /ətend/, character /kærəktə/, barracks /bærəks/

Spelt with ar, strong pronunciation would have /ɑ:/ :

particular /pətɪkjələ/, molar /məʊlə/, monarchy /mɒnəki/

Adjectival endings spelt ate, strong pronunciation would have /eɪ/: intimate /ɪntɪmət/, accurate /ækjər ət/, desolate /desələt/,

Spelt with o, strong pronunciation would have /ɒ/ or /əʊ/: tomorrow /təmɒrəʊ/, potato /pəteɪtəʊ/, ca rrot /kærət/

Spelt with or, strong pronunciation would have /ɔ:/: forget /fəget/, ambassador /æmbæsədə/, opportunity / ɒpətju:nəti/

Spelt with e, strong pronunciation would have /e/: settlement /setəlmənt/, violet /vaɪələt/, postmen /pəʊst mən/

Spelt with er, strong pronunciation would have /ɜ:/: perhaps /pəhæps/, stronger /strɒŋgə/, superman /su:pəmæn/

Spelt with u, strong pronunciation would have /ʌ/: autumn /ɔ:təm/, support /səpɔ:t/, halibut /hælɪbət/

Spelt with ough there are many pronunciations for the letters sequence ough: thorough /θʌrə/, borough /bʌrə/

Spelt with out, strong pronunciation might have /aʊ/: gracious /greɪʃəs/, callous /kæləs/

Close front and close back vowels /i/, /u/

Two other vowels are commonly found in weak syllables: /i/ and /u/. In strong syllables it is comparatively easy to distinguish /i:/ from /ɪ/, /u:/ from /ʊ/, but in weak syllables the difference is not so clear. One common feature is that the vowels in question are more like /i:/ or /u:/ when they precede another vowel, less so when they precede a consonant or a pause. Let us now look at where these vowels are found:

/i/

in word

final position in words spelt with final “y“ or “ey“ after one or more consonant letters: happy /hæpi/, v alley /væli/ in morpheme-final position when

such words have suffixes beginning with vowels: preocupied /priɒkiəpaɪd/, deactivate /diæktɪveɪt/ in the suffixes spelt “iate“, “ious“ when they have two syllables: appreciate /əpri:ʃieɪt/, hilarious /hɪleəri

əs/ in the following words when unstressed: he /hi/, she /ʃi/, we /wi/, me /mi/, be /bi/ and the /ði/ when it is preceded by a vowel

/u/ Weak syllables with /u/ are not so commonly found. We find /u/ most frequently in the words you /ju/, to /tu/, into /ɪntu/, do /du/, when the y are unstressed and are not inmediately preceding a consonant, and through /θru/ and who /hu/ in all positions when they are unstressed. This vowel is also found before another vowel within a word, as in evacuation /ɪvækjueɪʃ n/, influenza /ɪnfluenzə/

Syllabic Consonants

We must also consider syllables in which no vowel is found. In this case, a consonant, either /l/, /r/ or a nasal,

stands as the peak of the syllable instead of the vowel, and we count these as weak syllables like the vowel

examples given earlier in this chapter.

Syllabic /l/: is perhaps the most noticeable example of the English syllabic consonants. It occurs after

another consonant. Where do we find syllabic /l/ in the BBC accent? It is useful to look at the spelling

as a guide. The most obvious case is where we have a word ending with one or more consonant letters

followed by “le” or in the case of noun plurals or third person singular verb form “les”. Examples are:

o

with alveolar consonant preceding: cattle /kætl/, bottle /bɒtl/, wrestle /resl/, muddle /mʌdl/

o

with non-alveolar consonant preceding: couple /kʌpl/, trouble /trʌbl/, struggle /strʌgl/, knuckle /nʌkl/

Such words usually lose their final letter “e” when a suffix beginning with a vowel is attached, but the

/l/ usually remains syllabic. Examples:

bottle - botling /bɒtl/ - /bɒtlɪŋ/, muddle - muddling /mʌdl/ - /mʌdlɪŋ/, struggle - struggling /strʌgl/ - /strʌglɪŋ/

We also find syllabic /l/ in words spelt, at the end, with one or more consonant letters followed by “al” or “el”. Ex:

panel /pænl/, papal /peɪpl/, petal /petl/, parsel /pɑ:sl/, kernel /kɜ:nl/, Babel /beɪbl/, pedal /pedl/, ducal /dju:kl/

In some less common or more technical words, it is not obligatory to pronounce syllabic /l/ and the sequence /əl/ may be used instead.

Syllabic /n/: Of the syllabic nasals, the most frequently found and the most important is /n/. When should it be pronounced? A general rule could be made that weak syllables which are phonologically composed of a plosive or fricative consonant plus /ən/ are uncommon except in initial position in the words. To pronounce a vowel before the nasal consonant would sound strange in BBC English. Syllabic /n/ is most common after alveolar plosives and fricatives; in the case of /t/ and /d/ followed by /n/ the plosive is nasally released by lowering the soft palate. We do not find /n/

o

o

after /l/ or /tʃ/, /dʒ/. Syllabic /n/ after a non-alveolar consonants is not so widespread. In words where the

syllable following a velar consonant is spelt “an” or “on” it is rarely heard.

o

After bilabial consonants we can consider it equally acceptable to pronounce them with

o

syllabic /n/ After velar consonants syllabic /n/ is possible but /ən/ is also acceptable

o

After /f/ or /v/ syllabic /n/ is more common than /ən/ (except in word-initial syllables)

o

It is possible to have two consonants preceding /n/, but in this case a syllabic consonant is less likely to occur:

  • If /n/ is preceded by /l/ and a plosive syllabic /n/ is possible but /ən/ is found regularly

  • If /s/ and a plosive precede /n/ a final syllabic /n/ is less frequent

  • Other nasals discourage a following plosive plus syllabic nasal

Syllabic /m/ and /ŋ/: both can occur as syllabic, but only as a result of processes such as

Hungary /hʌŋgri/ - hungry /hʌŋgri/. But we find no case of syllabic /r/ where it would not be

assimilation and elision. Syllabic /r/: in many rothic accents the syllabic /r/ is very common. Syllabic /r/ is less common

in BBC English and in most cases where it occurs there are perfectly acceptable alternative pronunciations without the syllabic consonant. There are a few minimal pairs in which a difference in meaning appear to depend on whether a particular /r/ is syllabic or not. Ex:

posible to substitute either non syllabic /r/ or /ər/

COMBINATION OF SYLLABIC CONSONANTS: It is not unusual to find two syllabic consonants together:

national /næʃnl/, literal /lɪtrl/, visionary /vɪʒnri/, veteran /vetrn/

STRESS IN SIMPLE WORDS (Ch 10 P Roach) The nature of stress

What are the characteristics of stressed syllables that enable us to identify them? We can study stress from the point of view of production (what the speaker does in producing stressed syllables) and of perception (what characteristics of sound make a syllable seem to a listener to be stressed), they are closely related but are not identical. The production of stress is generally believed to depend on the speaker using more muscular energy than is used for unstressed

syllables. From the perceptual point of view, all stressed syllables have one characteristic in common, and that is prominence. Stressed syllables are recognised as stressed because they are more prominent than unstressed syllables. Prominence is produced by four main factors:

LOUDNESS: if one syllable is made louder than the others it will be heard as stressed

LENGTH: if one of the syllables is made longer than the others, there is quite a strong tendency

for that syllable to be heard stressed. PITCH: in speech is closely related to the frequency of vibration of the vocal folds and to the

musical notion of low and high pitched notes. If one syllable is said with a pitch that is noticeably different from the others will have a tendency to be heard stressed. QUALITY: a syllable will tend to be prominent if it contains a vowel that is different in quality from neighbouring vowels.

LEVELS OF STRESS Primary stress: the most prominent syllable Secondary stress: weaker than primary stress but stronger that unstressed Unstressed: the absence of any recognisable amount of prominence

PLACEMENT OF STRESS WITHIN THE WORD

How can one select the correct syllable or syllables to stress in an English word? In order to decide on stress placement, it is necessary to make use of some or all of the following information:

Whether the word is morphologically simple or whether it is complex as a result either of

containing one or more affixes or of being a compound word. What the grammatical category of the word is

How many syllable the word has

What the phonological structure of those syllables is

It is possible to divide syllables into two basic categories: strong and weak. A strong syllable has a rhyme which either has a syllable peal which is a long vowel or a diphthong, or a vowel followed by a coda

Weak syllables have a syllable peak which is a short vowel and no coda unless the syllable peak

is

/ə/ or /ɪ/

Although we do find unstressed strong syllables only strong syllables can be stressed. Weak

syllables are always unstressed

Two Syllable words Either the first or the second syllable will be stressed not both. VERBS:

The basic rule is that if the second syllable of the verb is a strong syllable the second syllable is

stressed: apply /əˈplaɪ/, arrive /əˈraɪv/, attract /əˈtrækt/, assist /əˈsist/ If the final syllable is weak, then the first syllable is stressed:

enter /ˈentə/, envy /ˈenvi/, open, /ˈəʊpən/, equal /ˈi:kwəl/ A final syllable is also unstressed if it contains /əʊ/: follow /ˈfɒləʊ/, borrow /ˈbɒrəʊ/

ADJECTIVES If the second syllable of the adjective is a strong syllable the second syllable is stressed:

divine /dɪˈvaɪn/, correct /kəˈrekt/ If the final syllable is weak, then the first syllable is stressed: lovely /ˈlʌvlɪ/, even /ˈi:vn/

A final syllable is also unstressed if it contains /əʊ/: hollow /ˈhɒləʊ/

NOUNS If the second syllable contains a short vowel, then the stress will usually come on the first syllable. Otherwise it will be on the second syllable:

money /ˈmʌni/, product /ˈprɒdʌkt/, larynx /ˈlærɪŋks/, ballon /bəˈlu:n/, design /dɪˈzaɪn/

Three Syllable words VERBS If the final syllable is strong, then it will be stressed: entertain /entəˈteɪn/, resurrect /rezəˈrekt/ If the last syllable is weak, then it will be unstressed, and the stress will be placed on the penultimate syllable if that syllable is strong: encounter /ɪŋˈkaʊntə/, determine /dɪˈtɜ:mɪn/

If both the second and third syllable are weak, then the stress falls on the initial syllable:

parody /ˈpærədi/

NOUNS If the final syllable is weak or ends with /əʊ/, then it is unstressed and if the preceding syllable is strong, then the middle syllable will be stressed: mimosa /mɪˈməʊzə/, potato /pəˈteɪtəʊ/, disaster /dɪˈzɑ:stə/, synopsis /sɪˈnɒpsɪs/ If the second and third syllables are both weak the first syllable is stressed:

quantity /ˈkwɒntəti/, cinema /ˈsinəmə/, emperor /ˈempərə/, custody /ˈkʌstədi/ Even if the final syllable is strong, the stress will usually be placed on the first syllable. The last syllable is usually quite prominent, so that in some cases it could be said to have secondary stress: intelect /ˈɪntəlekt/, alkali /ˈælkəlaɪ/, marigold /ˈmærɪgəʊld/, stalactite /ˈstæləktaɪt/

ADJECTIVES Seem to need the same rule, to produce stress patterns such as: opportune /ˈɒpətju:n/, derelict /ˈderəlɪkt/, insolent /ˈinsələnt/, anthropoid /ˈænθrəpɔɪd/

COMPLEX WORD STRESS (CH 11 P- ROACH) Complex Words

Complex words are of two major types:

Words made from a basic word form (stem) with the addition of an affix

Compound words which are made of two or more independent English words

Words made from a basic word form (stem) with the addition of an affix Affixes have one of three possible effects on word stress:

The affix itself receives the primary stress: semicircle /ˈsemɪsɜ:kl/, personality /pɜ:snˈæləti/

Suffixes

The word is stressed just as if the affix were not there: unpleasant /ʌnˈpleznt/,

marketing mɑ:kɪtɪŋ/ The stress remains on the stem but is shifted to a different syllable: magnet /ˈmægnət/ -

magnetic /mægˈnetɪk/

Stem: is what remains when affixes are removed

Root: the smallest piece of lexical material that a stem can be reduced to

o

Suffixes carrying primary stress themselves: If the stem consists of more than one syllable there will be a secondary stress on one of the syllables of the stem. This cannot fall on the last syllable of the stem and it is moved to an earlier syllable:

  • -ee: refugee /ˌrefjʊˈdʒi:/, evacuee /ɪˌvækjʊˈi:/

  • -eer”: mountaineer /ˌmaʊntɪˈnɪa/, volunteer /ˌvɒlənˈtɪə/

  • -ese”: Portuguese /ˌpɔ:tʃəˈgi:z/, journalese /ˌdʒɜ:nlˈi:z/

  • -ette”: cigarette /ˌsɪgrˈet/, launderette /ˌlɔ:ndrˈet/

  • -esque”: picturesque /ˌpɪktʃrˈesk/

Suffixes that do not affect stress placement

  • -able”

  • -age”

  • -al”

  • -en”

  • -ful”

  • -ing”

  • -ish” (verbs with stems of more than one syllable always have the stress on the syllable immediately preceding “-ish”: replenish /rɪˈplenɪʃ/, demolish /dɪˈmɒliʃ/)

  • -like”

  • -less”

  • -ly”

  • -ment”

  • -ness”

  • -ous”

  • -fy”

  • -wise”

  • -y”

Suffixes that influence stress in the stem

In these examples primary stress is on the last syllable of the stem

  • -eous”

  • -graphy”

  • -ial”

  • -ic”

  • -ion”

  • -ious”

  • -ty”

  • -ive”

When the suffixes “-ance”, “-ant” and “-ary” are attached to single-syllable stems, the stress is almost always placed on the stem. When the stem has more than one syllable, the stress is on one of the syllables in the stem.

If the final syllable of the stem is strong, that syllable receives the stress.

Otherwise the syllable before the last one receives the stress

PREFIXES

Their effect on stress does not have the comparative regularity, independence and predictability of suffixes, and there is no prefix of one or two syllables that always carries primary stress. The best treatment seems to be to say that stress in words with prefixes is governed by the same rules as those for words without prefixes.

Compound words which are made of two or more independent English words

Compounds are written in different ways:

Sometimes they are written as one word: armchair, sunflower

Sometimes with the words separated by a hyphen: gear-change, fruit-cake

Sometimes with two word separated by a space: desk lamp, battery charger

When is primary stress placed on the first constituent word of the compound and when on the second? Both patterns are found

The most familiar type of compound is the one which combines two nouns and which normally

has the stress on the first element: typewriter /ˈtaɪpraɪtə/, car- ferry /ˈkɑ:feri/, sunrise /ˈsʌnraɪz/, suitcase /su:tkeɪs/, tea-cup /ˈti:kʌp/ A variety of compounds receive stress instead on the second element:

o Compounds with an adjectival first element and the ed morpheme at the end have this pattern: bad-ˈtempered, half-ˈtimbered, heavy-ˈhanded Compounds in which the first element is a number in some form also tend to have final stress: three-ˈwheeler, second-ˈclass, five-ˈfinger Compounds functioning as adverbs are usually final-stressed: head-ˈfirst, North- ˈEast, down ˈstream Compounds which function as verbs and a have an adverbial first element take final stress: down-ˈgrade, back-ˈpedal, ill-ˈtreat

o

o

o

VARIABLE STRESS

Stress position may vary for one of two reasons:

As a result of the stress on other words occurring next to the word in question: the main effect is that the stress on a final-stressed compound tends to move to a preceding syllable if the following word begins with a strongly stressed syllable:

bad-ˈtempered

but

a ˈbad-tempered ˈteacher

half-ˈtimbered but

a ˈhalf-timbered ˈhouse

heavy-ˈhanded

but

a ˈheavy-handed sentence

Because not all speakers agree on the placement of stress in some words

WORD-CLASS PAIRS

There are several dozen pairs of two syllables words with identical spelling which differ from each other in stress placement, apparently according to word class. All appear to consist of prefix + stem: if a pair of prefix + stem words exists, both members of which are spelt identically, one of which is a verb and the other of which is either a noun or an adjective, then the stress is placed on the second

syllable of the verb but on the first syllable of the noun or adjective