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International Journal of Textile and

Fashion Technology (IJTFT)


ISSN(P): 2250-2378; ISSN(E): 2319-4510
Vol. 4, Issue 5, Oct 2014, 27-36
TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

COMPATIBILITY OF FUSIBLE INTERLININGS WITH APPAREL LEATHERS


K. PHEBE AARON1, K. KRISHNARAJ2, R. MOHAN3 & B. CHANDRASEKARAN4
1, 2, 4
3

CLAD, CLRI, Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

SDDC, CLRI, Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

ABSTRACT
Suitability of fusible interlinings with leathers is very essential for comfort and fit of garments. Two different
types of interlinings nonwoven and warp knitted have been chosen for our study. The paper reports an experimental
investigation on properties of fused composites in terms of bending length, tensile strength, bond strength, shrinkage,
double hole stitch tear and bursting strength with special reference to sheep nappa leathers. It was observed that
performance of warp knitted interlining is appreciable compared to nonwoven materials because of presence of loop
structures. The results obtained from this study would form a basis for selecting appropriate interlinings for fabrication of
leather apparel.

KEYWORDS: Fusible Interlinings, Bond Strength, Tensile Strength, Double Hole Stitch Tear Strength,
Bursting Strength

INTRODUCTION
Interlinings are used to support the outer fabrics so as to create and maintain three dimensional shape and drape of
a garment (Fan et al 1997). Use of interlinings can help to overcome some of the negative features of shell fabric and
provide attractive and stylish appearance in the final garment. Fusible interlinings also provide desired shape in collars,
cuffs, lapels, pocket flaps etc. and produce stiffness in end product. Also, they stabilize and reinforce areas subject to extra
wearing stress such as necklines, facings, waistbands, plackets and button holes (Yildiz et al 2011, Jeong et al 2000).
Although there are numerous reports on the characteristics and performance of various fusible interlinings, and suppliers
tend to recommend one kind of interlining or another for a particular application, selecting a right kind of fusible
interlining is still largely based on trial and error method as well as past experience(Fan et al 1997). Fusible interlining is a
kind of material whose base cloth is applied with thermoplastic macromolecular compound and has a strong binding
power. Through the action of certain temperature, time and pressure, it can bind with fabrics directly. These variables have
a great influence on the bond strength and the properties of the composite material obtained (Shishoo et al 1971).
Yoon etal 2010 have used the Taguchi method to develop a process for optimizing fusing conditions to maximize
the bond strength between a fabric and fusible interlining. Ideal fusing conditions of face fabrics and interlinings have also
been reported by Lai 2001. A good fused composite can be produced when a suitable fusible interlining is chosen for a
given top material and optimum fusing conditions are determined with a suitable fusing machine that is controlled
precisely. Many researches have been performed regarding the compatibility of outer and fusible interlining in textile
materials. To the best of our knowledge, there is no research related to performance characteristics of nonwoven and
knitted fusible interlinings with sheep nappa leathers.

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K. Phebe Aaron, K. Krishnaraj, R. Mohan & B. Chandrasekaran

Therefore the present study is aimed at investigating the effect of fusible interlinings on selected characteristics of
sheep nappa leathers with reference to their ability to impart a favorable appearance during wear.

MATERIALS AND METHODS


Commercially available sheep nappa garment leathers with thickness 0.7 0.1 mm and an average size of
5 0.5sq.ft were taken from two different lots. Five skins were taken from each lot and skins from first lot were designated
as S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and L1, L2, L3, L4, L5 for skins from second lot.
Specimens were cut along and across the backbone especially from the butt region of each leather for analyzing
bending length, tensile strength, bond strength, double hole stitch tearstrengthand % shrinkage. Three different types of
interlinings F1, F2 and F3 were chosen and their specifications are given in Table 1.
Fusing was carried out using a roller press machine (WIN Make NHG 600 Shangai WEIJI clothing machine
Co. Ltd.). Fusing parameters were standardized after preliminary experiments such as temperature of 1200C, pressure of
2bar and time of 1rpm.
Interlinings were fused to the leather samples and subjected to standard testing procedure to evaluate their
performance in terms of bending length, tensile strength, bond strength, double hole stitch tear strength, shrinkage and
bursting strength.
Table 1: Specification of the Fusing Material
Type of Fabric
Weight (GSM)
Thickness(mm)
Fiber Content

F1
Nonwoven
29.2
0.077
100%
Polyester

F2
Nonwoven
32.44
0.070
100%
Polyester

F3
knit
51.44
0.107
100%
Polyester

Bending Length
Bending length was determined according to Indian Standard IS6490 using a bending length tester as shown in
Figure 1.

Figure 1: Bending Length Tester


Sample sizes of 12025 mm were cut in both parallel and perpendicular direction to the backbone of leather.
The tester is placed on a table so that horizontal platform and inclined reference line are at eye level of the operator.
The specimen was placed on the platform with the scale on top of it lengthwise and the zero of the scale coinciding with
Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9594

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Compatibility of Fusible Interlinings with Apparel Leathers

29

leading edge of the specimen. Holding the scale in the horizontal plane, the specimen and the scale were pushed slowly and
steadily when the leading edges project beyond the edge of the platform. An increasing part of the specimen over hanged
and started bending under its own weight. The eye was kept in such a position that the two inclined line of the tester
coincided. Pushing the specimen was stopped when its tip reached the level of the inclined plane. The length of the
overhanging portion is (L). L/2 forms the bending length.
Tensile Strength
Tensile strength was measured according to Indian Standard IS5914. After evaluating bending length,
dumbell shaped specimens were cut from these samples for determining tensile strength. The test was carried out using
anUniversal testing machine with a load cell capacity of 1 KN. The test specimens were clamped in the jaws and the
machine was run at a rate of 1002mm/min until the specimen breaks. The highest load reached is recorded when the
sample is subjected to breaking. The tensile strength is calculated by dividing the maximum load by the area of cross
section.
Bond Strength
Bond strength is the sturdiness of the seal between the fusible interlining and the fabric which is evaluated after
fusing. It was measured as per the standard SATRA TM 401. A 70mm x 50mm strip of leather and interlining were cut and
a paper for a length of 2.5mm was placed in between the two fabrics at one end of the sample so that a section of the
material was not fused. The whole assembly was later fused and allowed to cool for 24 hours. The lower clamp was set at
distance of 25mm from the upper clamp. The unfusedleather end was clamped in the upper clamp and the other end was
fixed in the lower clamp of the tensile testing machine in such a way that the longitudinal axis of the specimen forms a
right angle with the closed clamping surface. The machine was operated at a speed of 10020 mm/min and the unfused
ends in the machine grips were pulled apart. The force needed to pull the two fabrics apart was recorded.
Double Hole Stitch Tear Strength
Double hole stitch tear strength was determined according to Indian standard IS 5914. Specimen is a rectangle of
leather 50mm in length and 25mm in width with two holes 2mm in diameter on one end of the specimen. The center of the
hole is 6.3mm from the end and 6.3mm apart and equidistant from the center line of the specimen. A wire of diameter
6.3mm is bent into U shape and passed through the holes in the specimen so that both the ends project from the flesh side
of the specimen. The ends of the wire are clamped in the testing machine grip and the free ends of the specimen in the
other grip of the machine. The machine was operated at a speed of 250mm/min until the specimen tears. At the instant
when the specimen begins to tear, load registered by the machine is recorded.
Percentage Shrinkage
Two squares of leather and one square of interlining of size 10cm were cut. Three sets of measured marks,
one mark at the center and two marks at a distance of one cm from each end were placed down the length and across the
width of one piece of fabric and the interlining. The interlining was placed on top of the second square of fabric.
The unfused marked square and the marked interlining plus fabric were sent through the fusing press at the same time.
The shrinkage or gain in each direction is calculated by averaging the three measurements in each direction on each test
specimen and using these average measurements in accordance with equation as given in standard ASTMD2724 standard
as shown in the equation.
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K. Phebe Aaron, K. Krishnaraj, R. Mohan & B. Chandrasekaran

% shrinkage = (A- B) 100/A


Where
A = average original distance between the bench marks
B = average final distance between bench marks
Bursting Strength
Bursting strength was determined according to 1S03379:1976 using Lastometer as shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Lastometer
Test specimen of 44.5mm diameter is clamped firmly on the test machine. The specimen was clamped grain side
up around the edge and is gradually distended forcing a small metal ball attached to a plunger through the specimen at a
rate of 0.20 0.05 mm/s. At a certain distension measured in terms of distance travelled by the plunger, cracks appear in
the surface of the material or a lower layer of the material sustains physical damage; this distension is recorded as the first
damage point. At a higher distension the material usually bursts and this distension can also be recorded.

RESULTS & DISCUSSIONS


Bending Length
Bending length is used to determine the stiffness or flexibility of the garment leathers. High values of bending
length indicate greater resistance to flexing and lower values indicate easier flexing and hence better drape ability
(Krishnaraj et al 2008). However fabrics with high value of bending rigidity will not cause problems in the making up
process, but such fabrics will feel stiff and affect the bending and drape of garments (Lange et al 2000).
The mean values of bending length of sheep nappa leathers for both plain and fused composites are given in
Table 2. A comparison of the results for samples cut along and across the backbone clearly proved that that the bending
length increased considerably for all samples fused with different fusing materials compared to that of plain samples
(control). The reason being during the process of fusing, the resin melts and spreads over the fabric causing the adhesion of
the interlining with fabric. Among the fused composites, leathers fused with fusing material F3 have comparably low
bending length than that fused with F1 & F2 and therefore more flexible with better drape.
Table 2: Bending Length (cm) of Plain Leather Samples and Fused Composites

Skins
S1
S2
Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9594

Along the Backbone Direction


Fused Leather Composites
Control
F1
F2
F3
2.7
4.6
4.8
3.7
3.1
4.4
4.7
3.5
Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

31

Compatibility of Fusible Interlinings with Apparel Leathers

S3
S4
S5
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5
S1
S2
S3
S4
S5
L1
L2
L3
L4
L5

Table 2: Contd.,
3.5
4.6
4.8
4.1
2.9
3.5
4.7
3.8
2.2
4.2
4.4
3.4
2.5
4.6
4.4
3.5
2.9
4.1
4.6
3.7
2.7
5.0
4.5
3.8
2.7
4.3
4.9
3.7
2.9
4.9
4.8
3.8
Across the Backbone Direction
3.1
5.1
5.2
3.7
2.9
4.8
4.7
3.7
3
5.2
5.2
3.9
2.9
4.5
4.5
3.7
2.0
4.9
4.6
3.6
2.8
4.6
4.6
3.6
2.8
4.9
5.1
3.7
2.6
4.6
4.8
3.6
3.1
5.0
4.9
3.9
3.2
4.6
4.8
3.9

Tensile Strength
Tensile strength is an important property as it relates to strength and performance of the material. Tensile strength
of a material is the maximum amount of tensile load it can be subjected to before it leads to failure. The results of the
measurements of tensile strength of plain and fused composites are given in Table 3 for along and across backbone
respectively.
Among the fused composites leather fused with interlining F3 has the highest tensile strength compared to F1 and
F2. The reason for high tensile strength of fused composite F3 is that when it is subjected to tensile fatigue, the loops
present in the warp knitted structure will initially extend in the direction of load thereby leading to untwisting of yarns.
Further loading results in rupture of these fibers thereby propagating fracture of fabric. Therefore the load required to cause
breakage of fabric is high compared to that of fused composites F1 and F2.
In the case of nonwoven F1 & F2, the fabrics are created by mere bonding of fibers through mechanical, thermal
or chemical processes. Hence when these composites are subjected to tensile loading, the fracture of interfiber bonds take
place at very low strain itself thereby causing a rearrangement of fiber orientation. This leads to a decrease in tensile
strength.
Table 3: Tensile Strength (N/mm2) of Plain Leather Samples and Fused Composites
Along the Backbone Direction
Fused Leather
Composites
Skins Control
F1
F2
F3
12.8
9.9
8.6
13.1
S1
9.9
11.0
13.1
13.8
S2
9.8
11.1
13.4
15.6
S3
8.8
8.4
7.2
9.7
S4
13.5
12.3
11.3
12.6
S5
14.8
14.9
13.2
15.2
L1
13.8
19.6
17.3
17.0
L2
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K. Phebe Aaron, K. Krishnaraj, R. Mohan & B. Chandrasekaran

Table 3: Contd.,
17.8
13.3
12.8
14.2
10.8
8.6
8.3
10.5
15.1
12.6
15.2
14.9
Across the Backbone Direction
15.9
12.9
14.7
19.6
S1
11.0
9.4
9.1
13.5
S2
7.5
8.7
8.5
13.1
S3
13.9
11.3
10.3
13.5
S4
12.2
8.5
9.4
12.0
S5
18.8
15.6
13.3
19.2
L1
5.9
12.4
10.1
10.6
L2
19.8
12.9
13.4
15.9
L3
10.7
10.1
13.8
14.1
L4
16.3
14.7
10.0
15.3
L5
L3
L4
L5

Bond Strength
Bond strength of fused systems is one of the most important parameters which greatly influence the quality of a
garment. A fused panel as a joined composite arises on the basis of joining the interlining with shell fabric. The strength of
the connection depends on the adhesive forces between the fabric and the adhesive.
The requirement for bond strength of a fused composite of leather is 0.5N/mm as per SATRA TM 401. Results of
the research work as shown in Table 4 indicated that bond strength of fused composite F3 has values within the range of
0.30 to 0.48N/mm which is considerably higher than that of F1 and F2.
The reason being F3 is warp knitted structure with loops present in between. Here the adhesive is present on the
surface as well as in the intersection of loop structures. During the process of fusing, it has been observed that the adhesive
or the resin that is present in the surface and in the loop structures will melt and flow into the cross section of the fabric
thus enabling a deeper and a bigger contact area. Therefore more energy is required in the breaking of bonds and hence the
bond strength is high.
In the case of nonwovens F1 & F2, the adhesive is expected to be present only on the surface and this alone
contributes to the bond strength unlike in the case of fused composite F3 and hence the decrease. The other reason for the
decrease in bond strength may also be due to abrading interlining surface and the appearance of shear phenomenon
between layers. The shear forces may cause rippling or localized delamination in fused composites. Thus the bond strength
is very important in terms of non occurrence and severity of rippling. The higher the bond strength, the lower the
potential to buckle or ripple.
Table 4: Bond Strength (N/mm) of Fused Composites
Along the Backbone Direction
Skins
F1
F2
F3
0.11
0.15
0.38
S1
0.08
0.11
0.43
S2
0.11
0.17
0.48
S3
0.11
0.11
0.41
S4
0.08
0.11
0.38
S5
0.09
0.11
0.36
L1
0.10
0.15
0.45
L2
0.11
0.19
0.4
L3
0.09
0.17
0.4
L4
Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9594

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Compatibility of Fusible Interlinings with Apparel Leathers

33

Table 4: Contd.,
0.10
0.10
0.44
L5
Across the Backbone Direction
0.10
0.01
0.41
S1
0.09
0.10
0.30
S2
0.11
0.13
0.39
S3
0.08
0.05
0.43
S4
0.08
0.10
0.39
S5
0.08
0.10
0.36
L1
0.09
0.11
0.38
L2
0.09
0.11
0.44
L3
0.08
0.05
0.32
L4
0.08
0.10
0.36
L5
Double Hole Stitch Tear Strength
This test has become popular because only a small amount of leather is required to make this test and the
procedure is simple. During this test, the force exerted is essentially perpendicular to the specimen and fibers. The double
hole stitch tear strength of leather and fused composites tested along and across the backbone is given in Table 5. It is
noticed from the results that the doublehole stitch tear strength of fused composite F3 is high compared to F1 and F2 both
along and across the back bone. The reason being F3 interlining is polyester knitted base fabric which is responsible for
significant stitch tear strength characteristics (Jyothi et al 2010).
Table 5: Double Hole Stitch Tear Strength (N/mm) of Sheep Nappa Leathers

Shrinkage
Shrinkage of fused garment parts is a very common and serious problem. This problem could arise from improper
fusing press settings, non-uniform pressure and temperature, defects in interlining (Fan and Leeuwner 1997).
Excess shrinkage may cause sizing problems as the finished garment will be smaller than it was planned. It also leads to
formation of puckered seams (Sudha et al 2009). Excess mechanical action during garment fabrication can cause excessive
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K. Phebe Aaron, K. Krishnaraj, R. Mohan & B. Chandrasekaran

shrinkage of fused composites and weakening of bond strength. Therefore based on the understanding of the causes of
shrinkage, in order to prevent shrinkage, the outer shell and the fusible interlining must be compatible. Shrinkage values of
the composites of sheep nappa leathers with different fusing materials are given in Table 6 for along backbone and across
backbone respectively. From the results it has been observed that there seems to be no significant shrinkage for all fused
composites F1, F2 & F3 both along and across the backbone. The reason being all the three interlining fabrics are made of
polyester fibers whose glass transition temperature is 2380C. The safe temperature is between 1630C to 1770 C where there
is only minimum chance for shrinkage (Caroline B.A. Hons. Thesis). Since the fusing process is carried out at 1200 which
is far below than the safe temperature, there is almost negligible shrinkage.
Table 6: Shrinkage (%) of Fused Leather Composites

Bursting Strength
From the results shown in Table 7, it is observed that fused composite F3 has high bursting strength compared to
that of F1 and F2. This is because F3 has high weight and thickness compared to F1 and F2 which is responsible for high
bursting strength (Chinta et al 2012). When load is applied multi-directionally on fused composite F3, first loops extend
and further loading untwist the yarns leading to fabric breakage with a big sound. When load is applied on bonded fibers in
fused composites F1 and F2, it burst easily because the fibers are held merely by frictional contact.
Table 7: Bursting Strength (kg/cm2)
Sample Name
Control
Fused leather
composites F1
Fused leather
composites F2
Fused leather
composites F3

Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9594

Applied
Load(kg)
22.00

Extension
(mm)
11.00

Bursting
Strength(kg/cm2)
18.00

18.00

10.00

18.00

21.00

10.00

22.00

29.00

10.00

29.00

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0

Compatibility of Fusible Interlinings with Apparel Leathers

35

CONCLUSIONS
Interlinings used for apparel must have required comfort and physical properties. In the present study,
sheep nappa garment leathers were fused with three interlining materials. Of all the aspects of performance investigated,
it is evident that fusible interlinings F3 performed well in the areas of bending, tensile strength, bond strength, double hole
stitch tear strength and bursting strength both along and across the backbone. The reason being F3 is a warp knitted
interlining that has led to an enhanced and outstanding performance which outbeat manufacturer's recommendation for
selection of interlining which is not a reliable predictor of performance. These tests are one of the most important in
determining satisfactory performance of fusible interlinings. Further research using other types of skins and interlinings
will be carried out to determine whether the obtained results can be generalized to specific structures of fusible
interfacings.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
Authors thank CSIR for providing financial support under XII plan project S&T Revolution in Leather with a
Green Touch (STRAIT-CSC0201) project scheme.

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Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9594

Index Copernicus Value (ICV): 3.0