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International Journal of Textile and Fashion Technology (IJTFT) ISSN(P): 2250-2378; ISSN(E): 2319-4510 Vol. 4, Issue 5, Oct 2014, 21-26 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.

Vol. 4, Issue 5, Oct 2014, 21-26 © TJPRC Pvt. Ltd. EFFECT OF TIGHTNESS FACTORS ON

EFFECT OF TIGHTNESS FACTORS ON DIMENSIONAL PROPERTIES OF KNITTED FABRIC

N. ARYA 1 , K. KHAMBRA 2 , N. YADAV 3 , S. ARYA 4 & V. SINGH 5 1,2,3,5 Department of Textiles & Apparel Designing, COHS, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana, India 4 DES (KVK) Damla, CCS HAU, Hisar, Haryana, India

ABSTRACT

In a country like India, with extremes of temperature and humidity, garments made from natural fibres in cotton or blends of manmade and natural fibres are certainly preferred to pure synthetics for reason of environment and health. The proposed study conducted to assess the influence of the yarn properties and dimensional properties of cotton /polyester blends in on tightness factor of the fabric. Blend influence on dimensional properties of weft knitted fabrics in different ratios was studied. The P/C blended yarn in the proportions 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 80:20 and 100:0 was produced by OE spinning system. The yarns produced in different ratios were used to study various yarn parameters i.e. yarn diameter, yarn tenacity and elongation and blended knitted fabric was produced to study the dimensional properties such as loop length, stitch density, tightness factor, loop shape factor and area shrinkage. The study revealed that blending of cotton with polyester in different ratios was found to improve certain properties of cotton as well as polyester yarn. The dimensional properties- Loop length and area shrinkage decreased significantly where as stitch density and tightness factor increased significantly with the increased proportion of polyester in the blend.

KEYWORDS: Blend, Dimensional, Loop Length, Stitch Density, Shrinkage

INTRODUCTION

Blending is the mixing of two or more fibres with dissimilar physical and chemical properties in terms of spinning, weaving/knitting, finishing and in use. The blends are made to produce yarns with quality that cannot be obtained by using one type of fibre alone. It is also practiced for reasons of economy of production and shortage of cotton. Blending also helps in modifying the desirable properties of the yarn and fabrics (Rawat and Goel, 2004). Poly-cotton blends are strong, durable and tear-resistant, thanks to the fact that polyester fibers are far more elastic than cotton alone (Heidelberger, 2014).

Properties of any knitted fabrics depend on its basic properties of yarn, fabric dimensional properties and its spinning process used. One of the parameters which is considered important is the fabric tightness factor (TF) – sometimes referred to as the cover factor – and it encompasses material used for yarn formation, linear density and diameter which has direct influence on properties of knitted fabrics. Postle found at linear relationship between fabric bulk density and the parameter (gK/1.3), where K is the fabric tightness factor defined as follows:

parameter (gK/1.3), where K is the fabric tightness factor defined as follows: Where www.tjprc.org editor@tjprc.org

Where

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N. Arya, K. Khambra, N. Yadav, S. Arya & V. Singh

L: Loop length (it can be defined as the length of yarn in the smallest repeating unit of structure, i.e. on knitted

loop)

G: Fibre specific gravity

T: Yarn linear density

In recent years, due to improvement in living standard, it has become more common for garments to be selected or discarded based on overall performance. The dimensional properties of knitted fabrics have been one of the most discussed subjects in the textile industry as well as in the research field. In the present study, yarn parameters and the dimensional properties of pure and blended fabrics such as loop length, stitch density, tightness factor, loop shape factor and area shrinkage were determined to analyze the effect of blends in different proportions on the weft knitted fabrics. Therefore, the work was conducted to study the influence of the yarn properties and dimensional properties on tightness factor of the fabric and relationships existed between tightness factor, density, loop shape factor, area shrinkage with respect of polyester/ cotton blend composition.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The raw material selected for the study includes cotton and polyester. The blending and spinning (40 s ) of two fibres (polyester and cotton) was done by batch method in ratios of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, and 80:20,100:0. The knitting of the fabric was done on circular weft knitting machine with 26-inch diameter.

Determination of Yarn and Fabric Dimensional Properties

The yarns and fabric of different proportions were conditioned in standard conditions (Relative humidity 65±2% and temperature 22±2 °C) and tested for yarn parameters i.e. diameter, tenacity & elongation and plain weft knitted fabric (produced from the blended yarns on a Round Circular Machine) for dimensional properties loop length, stitch density, tightness factor, loop shape factor and area shrinkage as per standard procedures.

Stitch length in cms (L) was calculated from the number of wales and the average course length. Other parameters were tested by standard test procedures. Dimensional properties of fabrics were calculated from the following equation proposed by Munden and Postle.

Kc: CPC L (Product of courses per cm and stitch length)

Kw: WPC L (Product of wales per cm and stitch length)

Ks: Kc Kw (product of Kc and Kw)

cm and stitch length) Ks: Kc Kw (product of Kc and Kw) Impact Factor (JCC): 2.9594

Effect of Tightness Factors on Dimensional Properties of Knitted Fabric

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

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This section includes the information regarding yarn properties and fabric dimensional properties.

Analysis of Yarn Properties

This section includes the details of different blended yarns of polyester-cotton spun with 40 S on open end spinning mechanism. Seven yarns with varying proportions i.e., 100 per cent cotton, 20 per cent polyester with 80 per cent cotton, 40 per cent polyester with 60 per cent cotton, 50 per cent polyester with 50 per cent cotton, 60 per cent polyester with 40per cent cotton, 80 per cent polyester with 20 per cent cotton and 100 per cent polyester were prepared and tested for yarn diameter, yarn tenacity and elongation. The data pertaining to different parameters of various yarn proportions are tabulated in Table 1.

Yarn Diameter

The finest diameter with a mean value of 0.189 mm was observed in 100 per cent polyester, followed by 80:20 P/C blend (0.227 mm), 60: 40 P/C blend (0.232 mm), 50:50 P/C (0.245 mm), 40:60 P/C (0.251 mm) and 0.304 mm in 20:80 P/C blend. The diameter increased significantly with the increase in the ratio of cotton in the blend and was maximum for 100 per cent cotton with a mean diameter of 0.326 mm. The results vary significantly with CD (0.05). This variation might be due to the inherent properties of cotton fibre which have more bulkier quality as compared to 100 per cent polyester. Results also correlated by stating that fibre fineness plays an important role towards realization of yarn strength. So, finer the fibres, stronger will be the yarns.

Table 1: Effect of Different Ratios of Polyester/ Cotton on Yarn Properties (Yarn Count 40 S )

 

P: C Blend Ratio

 

Yarn Properties

0:100

20:80

40:60

50:50

60:40

80:20

100:0

CD (α=0.05)

CV (%)

Diameter (mm)

0.326

0.304

0.251

0.245

0.232

0.227

0.189

0.05

9.22

Tenacity (g/tex)

13.90

15.82

16.65

18.36

18.39

18.41

25

0.54

3.39

Elongation (%)

10.45

8.54

7.98

7.82

6.74

6.10

5.68

0.19

2.78

Yarn Tenacity

It was observed that pure polyester yarn had the maximum tenacity with a mean value of 25 g/tex. The tenacity was found to be decreased as the percentage of polyester in the yarn decreases. It was 18.41 g/tex in case of 80:20, 18.39 g/tex in 60:40, 18.36 g/tex in 50:50, 16.65 g/tex in 40:60 and 15.82 g/tex in 20:80 polyester cotton yarns. It was minimum in case of pure cotton yarn having a mean value of 13.90 g/tex. The tenacity of yarns differed significantly with CD (0.54). It might be due to more strength and higher torsional rigidity of polyester fibre as compared to cotton fibre. The data show significant positive correlation between tenacity and elongation (r=0.96).

Yarn Elongation

An opposite trend, as in case of yarn tenacity, was observed for yarn elongation where 100 per cent cotton yarn had highest elongation at break, i.e., 10.45 per cent followed by the blends with decreasing percentage of cotton in blended yarns and it was lowest in case of polyester with the mean value of 5.68 per cent. It was found that coarser yarn had higher elongation than finer yarns. It was concluded that yarn diameter and tenacity, increased whereas elongation decreased with increased proportion of polyester in the blend. The overall variability level in various yarn parameters was also studied using coefficient of variation (CV). Elongation percentage showed very low variability with CV= 2.78.

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N. Arya, K. Khambra, N. Yadav, S. Arya & V. Singh

Dimensional Properties Loop Length Loop length being a measure of knitting quality was ranging from 0.276 to 0.296 cm for 0:100 to 100:0 P/C blended fabrics. It is evident from the data that pure cotton had maximum loop length, i.e., 0.296 cm and it decreased with the increased proportion of polyester in the blended fabric. Mean loop length values for 20:80, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and 80:20 P/C were 0.285, 0.283, 0.281, 0.280 and 0.278 cm, respectively. Hundred per cent polyester had minimum loop length with the mean value of 0.276 cm as compared to 100 per cent cotton. But loop length of different fabrics varied slightly (CD=0.002). Maximum loop length value for cotton may be due to natural twist/crimp in the fibre.

Table 2: Dimensional Properties of Weft Knitted Fabrics with Different Blend Ratios

 

P:C Blend Ratios

 

Fabric Properties

0:100

20:80

40:60

50:50

60:40

80:20

100:0

CD (α =0.05)

CV (%)

Loop length (cm)

0.296

0.285

0.283

0.281

0.280

0.278

0.276

0.002

0.80

Stitch density/ cm 2

271.8

273.6

276.8

281.6

288.6

298.6

297

9.91

3.87

Tightness factor

13.08

13.63

13.68

13.83

13.93

13.97

14.03

0.101

0.82

Loop shape factor

1.102

1.075

1.075

1.100

1.073

1.071

1.095

N.S.

3.86

Area shrinkage

                 

Wales (%)

5.0

4.90

3.82

2.00

1.95

0.90

0.13

0.28

11.85

Course (%)

8.5

6.8

4.1

3.5

2.4

1.0

0.2

0.14

4.10

N.S.= Non-significant

Stitch Density

Stitch density which is considered as a parameter of the product of wales per centimeter and courses per

centimeter varied with mean value from 271.8 to 297.0 per sq. cm against 0:100 to 100:0 P/C/ blended fabric, respectively. The data indicated that polyester fabric had maximum stitch density followed by 80:20 and 60:40 P/C ratios with 298.6 and

302.6

stitch density, respectively. The blended fabric with P/C ratio 50:50 had 281.6 stitch density whereas 40:60 had

276.8

cm 2 . The stitch density in case of 20:80 P/C blended fabric was 273.6 cm 2 . It was observed that 100 per cent cotton

fabric had minimum stitch density. The results are statistically significant with CD 9.917. It is clear from the results that

stitch density increased with the decrease of loop length of the samples except in case of 60:40 blended fabrics. It was found that stitch density increases for tighter structures and decreased for slack structure which might be due to the fact that width expansion often occurs at lower levels of tightness factor.

Tightness Factor

With the perusal of the data (Table 2) it was noticed that the tightness factor of the knitted fabric increased with the increase in polyester content in the blends. The data indicated that tightness factor value was more (14.03) for 100:0 blended fabric as compared to 0:100 blend which had the lowest value (13.08) of tightness. Among the other blends, tightness factor increased from 20:80 (13.63) to 80:20 P/C blend (13.97). It was 13.68 for 40:60 P/C blend, 13.83 for 50:50 and 13.93 for 60:40 P/C blend. It is clear that TF increased with the increased proportion of polyester in the blend, which might be due to more bulkiness and loop length of the cotton as compared to polyester. Cotton being more bulkier, had more loop length, therefore incorporates less loops in the same area. It was noticed that in plain knitted fabrics, increase in loop length reduced the tightness factor.

Loop Shape Factor

The parameter (LSF) is the ratio of the width of the loop to the length of the loop. The LSF of 50:50 and 0:100

Effect of Tightness Factors on Dimensional Properties of Knitted Fabric

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P/C blended fabric was more (1.1) followed by 100:0 P/C blend with an overall mean value of 1.095. The loop shape factor for 40:60 and 20:80 P/C blend was found to be equal, i.e., 1.075 whereas it was 1.073 in case of 60:40 P/C fabric sample and 1.071 for 80:20 P/C blend. It was observed that the loop shape fabric parameter did not follow any specific increasing or decreasing trend with the increase or decrease in any other parameter as it depends on the number of wales and courses in a fabric sample.

Area Shrinkage

Area shrinkage was determined walewise as well as coursewise. The data indicated that area shrinkage of knitted fabrics in walewise direction decreased with the increase of polyester content in the blend. It was observed that area shrinkage was maximum in pure cotton (5%) and it decreased from 4.90 per cent against 20:80 P/C blend to 0.90 per cent for 80:20 blend. The shrinkage values were 3.82 for 40:60 whereas it was 2.0 per cent for 50:50 and 1.95 per cent for 60:40 P/C blended fabric. Area shrinkage was nearly absent in case of 100:0 P/C blend. The similar trend was observed in coursewise direction also. It was maximum in case of cotton with a mean shrinkage value of 8.5 per cent whereas it was minimum (0.2%) in case of polyester fabric. Area shrinkage decreased from 6.8 per cent (20:80) to 1.0 per cent against 80:20 in case of blends. It decreased significantly (CD=0.28 for wales and 0.14 for course) from 0:100 to 100:0 P/C blend. It was noticed that area shrinkage was more in coursewise direction as compared to walewise direction. This might be due to more usage of yarn in coursewise direction. Dake (2007) noticed that P/C knits showed maximum dimensional stability, compared to cotton and N/C knits. Sundaram (2007) also observed that polyester cotton blended knits have better dimensional stability than pure cotton knits. It is clear from the results that loop length and area shrinkage decreased whereas stitch density and tightness factor of P/C blended yarns increased with increased proportion of polyester in the blend. Maximum variability was observed in area shrinkage (CV wales = 11.85 and CV course = 4.10) followed bulk (CV=5.46) and stitch density (CV=3.87), loop length (CV = 0.80) and tightness factor (CV=0.82) showed very low variability.

CONCLUSIONS

It is concluded that tightness factor of polyester/ cotton knitted fabric is significantly affected by polyester content. As the polyester content increased in the proportion the tightness factor of blended fabric increased. Diameter and elongation Tightness of P/C blended yarns decreased with the increase in polyester ratio in blend. Tenacity increased with the increase in polyester content in the blend. Area shrinkage also decreased with the increase of polyester in the blend. Hence, tightness of the fabric is affected by dimensional properties of fabrics.

REFERENCES

1. Dake. (2007). CIRCOT Seminar on Future Prospects of Knitting and Knitwear, Colourage, 94-98.

2. Heidelberger,

M.

(2014).

About

Polyester

Cotton

Blend.

Retrieved

on

June

19,

2014.

from http://www.ehow.com/about_5114277_polyester-cotton-blend.html

3. Postle, R. (1974). A geometrical assessment of the thickness and bulk density of weft knitted fabrics. Journal of Textile Institute, 65: 155.

4. Rawat, S. and Goel, A. (2004). Effect of blending on physical properties of yarn. Textile Magazine, 8: 51-52.

5. Sundaram, V. (2007). Dimensional stability of P/C blends. Colourage, 8: 981

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