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Gas Cycles

• Assumptions of air standard cycle

• Analyze three cycles

– Otto

– Diesel

– Brayton

Assumptions of Air Standard Cycle

• Working fluid is air

• Air is ideal gas

• Combustion

process

process

is

replaced

by

heat

• Heat rejection is used to restore the fluid to its initial state and complete the cycle

• All processes are internally reversible

• Constant or variable specific heats can be used

Gas cycles have many engineering applications

• Internal combustion engine

– Otto cycle

– Diesel cycle

• Gas turbines

– Brayton cycle

• Refrigeration

– Reversed Brayton cycle

Some nomenclature before starting internal combustion engine cycles

More Terminology

5

Terminology

• Bore = d

• Stroke = s

• Displacement volume =DV =

• Clearance volume = CV

• Compression ratio = r

r =

DV

+

CV

CV

=

V

BDC

V TDC

s

d

4

2

π

Mean Effective Pressure

Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) is a fictitious pressure, that if acted on the piston during the entire power stroke, would produce the same amount of net work.

MEP

=

W net

V

max

V

min

The net work output of a cycle is equivalent to the product of the mean effect pressure and the displacement volume

Real Otto Cycle

Real and Idealized Cycle

10

Idealized Otto Cycle

11

Idealized Otto Cycle

1-2

2-3

3-4

- Constant Volume Heat Rejection

4-1

Performance of Cycle

Efficiency:

η=

w net

q in

Let’s start by getting heat input:

q

in

=u u

3

2

Cycle Performance

Get net work from energy balance of cycle:

w

net

= q

in

q

out

Substituting for q in and q out :

w

net

=

(u

3

u

2

)

Efficiency is then:

η=

w net

q in

(u

4

u )

1

Cycle Performance

Substituting for net work and heat input:

η=

(u

3

- u

2

) - (u

4

- u )

1

(u

3

- u

2

)

We can simplify the above expression:

1

η= −

 (u 4 - u ) 1 (u 3 - u 2 )

Cold Air Standard Cycle

c p , c v , and k are constant at ambient temperature (70 °F) values.

Assumption will allow us to get a quick “first cut”approximation of performance of cycle.

Cycle performance with cold air cycle assumptions

If we assume constant specific heats:

1

η= −

1

η= −

 (u 4 - u ) 1 (u 3 - u 2 ) (T 4 - T ) 1 (T 3 - T ) 2

=

(T

- T )

c

c

v

v

4

1

2

(T - T )

3

Cycle performance with cold air cycle assumptions

Because we’ve got two isentropic processes in the cycle, T 1 can be related to T 2 , and T 3 can be related to T 4 with our ideal gas isentropic

relationships….

Details are in the book!

V

 

T

2

T 1

= 

1

V 2

k

1

Thus

= r

k

1

T

4

T

3

=

T

1

T

2

 T 4  V   4 =  k − 1 = 1 T 3   V 3   r k − 1

18

Cycle performance with cold air cycle assumptions

1

η= −

T

1

1

= −

1

T

2

r

k

1

This looks like the Carnot efficiency, but it is not! T 1 and T 2 are not constant.

What are the limitations for this expression?

Differences between Otto and Carnot Cycles

T T

2
2
2
1
1
3
3
4
4
3

s

s

20

Effect of compression ratio on Otto cycle efficiency

Sample Problem

The air at the beginning of the compression stroke of an air-standard Otto cycle is at 95 kPa and 22°C and the cylinder volume is 5600 cm 3 . The compression ratio is 9 and 8.6 kJ are added during the heat addition process. Calculate:

(a) the

compression

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle

Use cold air cycle assumptions.

temperature

and

pressure

after

the

Draw cycle and label points

P

Q 23 = 8.6 kJ

3
r
= V 1 /V 2 = V 4 /V 3 = 9
2
4
1
v

T 1 = 299 K P 1 = 0.95 bar

Major assumptions

• Kinetic and potential energies are zero

• Closed system

• 1 is start of compression

• Ideal cycle: 1-2 isentropic compression, 2-3 constant volume heat addition, etc.

• Cold cycle constant properties

Carry through with solution

Calculate mass of air:

m =

P V

1

1

RT

1

= 6.29 x 10

-3

kg

Compression occurs from 1 to 2:

T

2

T

2

=

V

T

1

1

V

2

k 1

isentropic compression

=

(

22

+

)

273 K

() 1.4 1

9

T 2 =

705.6 K

But we need T 3 !

Get T 3 with first law:

Q

23 W = m(u + ∆ke

(

+ ∆pe) = mc T T

v

3

2

Solve for T 3 :

T

3

=

q

c

v

+ T

2

=

kJ

8.6 kJ 6.29x10

3

kg

0.855

kg

705.6 K

)

Thermal Efficiency

1

η= −

1

r

k

1

1

=−

1

9

1.4

1

Let’s take a look at the Diesel cycle.

28

Idealized Diesel cycle

 1-2 - Adiabatic Compression (Isentropic) 2-3 - Constant Pressure Heat Addition 3-4 - Adiabatic Expansion (Isentropic) 4-1 - Constant Volume Heat Rejection

Performance of cycle

Efficiency:

η=

w net

q in

Heat input occurs from 2 to 3 in constant pressure process:

q

in

= h

3

h

2

Why enthalpies?

Diesel Cycle Performance

Get net work from energy balance of cycle:

w

net

= q

in

q

out

Substituting for q in and q out :

w

net

=

(h

3

h

2

)

(u

4

u )

1

As we did with the Otto cycle:

η=

w net

q in

Diesel Cycle Performance

Substituting for net work and heat input:

η=

(h

3

- h

2

) - (u

4

- u )

1

(h

3

- h

2

)

We can simplify the above expression:

1

η= −

 (u 4 - u ) 1 (h 3 - h 2 )

For cold cycle analysis

1

η= −

(T

- T )

c

c

v

p

4

1

2

(T - T )

3

1

= −

(T

4

- T )

1

k(T

3

- T )

2

It’s possible to rewrite this in a simpler form if we define a new term:

r c =

V

3

V

2

= cutoff ratio

33

Cold cycle efficiency

η = 1

1

r

k

1

r

c

k

1

k

(

r

c

1

)

Efficiency is dependent on compression ratio and cutoff ratio.

k = 1.4

The thermal efficiency of the ideal Diesel cycle as a function of compression and cutoff rates (k =1.4)

36

Comparison between Otto and Diesel cycles

For same compression ratio

η OTTO >

η DIESEL

For same combustion temperature

η DIESEL >

η OTTO

Sample Problem

A Diesel air-standard cycle has a compression ratio of 15:1. The pressure and temperature at the beginning of the compression are 100 kPa and 17 C, respectively. If the maximum temperature of the cycle is 2250 K, determine:

1. the cutoff ratio

2. the thermal efficiency

3. the mean effective pressure

Draw cycle

Apply assumption as before with Otto cycle

• Cold cycle assumptions

• Kinetic and potential energies neglected

• Ideal cycle

Begin analysis

Look at cutoff ratio:

r c

= V

3

V

2

= mRT

3

P

3

/ m RT

2

r

c

= T

3

T need T

2

2

P

2

)

Get T 2 from isentropic relationship:

T 2

=

T 2 =

T
(
V
V
) k
1
1
1
2

856.7 K

=

(

17

+

)(

273 K 15

) 1.4

1

More analysis

Cutoff ratio is then:

Thermal efficiency:

η = 1

1

r

k

1

 − 1

 − 1

k

r

c

(

k r

c

)

More analysis

Plug numbers into thermal efficiency:

η = 1

1

15

0.4

2.62

1.4

1

1.4

(

2.62

1

)