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Gas Cycles

• Assumptions of air standard cycle

• Analyze three cycles

– Otto

– Diesel

– Brayton

Assumptions of Air Standard Cycle

• Working fluid is air

• Air is ideal gas

• Combustion

process

process

is

replaced

by

heat

addition

• Heat rejection is used to restore the fluid to its initial state and complete the cycle

• All processes are internally reversible

• Constant or variable specific heats can be used

Gas cycles have many engineering applications

• Internal combustion engine

– Otto cycle

– Diesel cycle

• Gas turbines

– Brayton cycle

• Refrigeration

– Reversed Brayton cycle

Some nomenclature before starting internal combustion engine cycles

Some nomenclature before starting internal combustion engine cycles 4

More Terminology

More Terminology 5

5

Terminology

• Bore = d

• Stroke = s

• Displacement volume =DV =

• Clearance volume = CV

• Compression ratio = r

r =

DV

+

CV

CV

=

V

BDC

V TDC

s

d

4

2

π

Mean Effective Pressure

Mean Effective Pressure (MEP) is a fictitious pressure, that if acted on the piston during the entire power stroke, would produce the same amount of net work.

MEP

=

W net

V

max

V

min

The net work output of a cycle is equivalent to the product of the mean effect pressure and the displacement volume

The net work output of a cycle is equivalent to the product of the mean effect

Real Otto Cycle

Real Otto Cycle 9

Real and Idealized Cycle

Real and Idealized Cycle 10

10

Idealized Otto Cycle

11
11

Idealized Otto Cycle

- Adiabatic Compression (Isentropic)

1-2

- Constant Volume Heat Addition

2-3

- Adiabatic Expansion (Isentropic)

3-4

- Constant Volume Heat Rejection

4-1

Performance of Cycle

Efficiency:

η=

w net

q in

Let’s start by getting heat input:

q

in

=u u

3

2

Cycle Performance

Get net work from energy balance of cycle:

w

net

= q

in

q

out

Substituting for q in and q out :

w

net

=

(u

3

u

2

)

Efficiency is then:

η=

w net

q in

(u

4

u )

1

Cycle Performance

Substituting for net work and heat input:

η=

(u

3

- u

2

) - (u

4

- u )

1

(u

3

- u

2

)

We can simplify the above expression:

1

η= −

(u

4

- u )

1

(u

3

- u

2

)

Cold Air Standard Cycle

c p , c v , and k are constant at ambient temperature (70 °F) values.

Assumption will allow us to get a quick “first cut”approximation of performance of cycle.

Cycle performance with cold air cycle assumptions

If we assume constant specific heats:

1

η= −

1

η= −

(u

4

- u )

1

(u

3

- u

2

)

(T 4

- T )

1

(T 3

- T )

2

=

(T

- T )

c

c

v

v

4

1

2

(T - T )

3

Cycle performance with cold air cycle assumptions

Because we’ve got two isentropic processes in the cycle, T 1 can be related to T 2 , and T 3 can be related to T 4 with our ideal gas isentropic

relationships….

Details are in the book!

V

 

T

2

T 1

= 

1

V 2

k

1

Thus

= r

k

1

T

4

T

3

=

T

1

T

2

T

4

V  

4

= 

k

1

=

1

 

T

3

V

3

r

k

1

18

Cycle performance with cold air cycle assumptions

1

η= −

T

1

1

= −

1

T

2

r

k

1

This looks like the Carnot efficiency, but it is not! T 1 and T 2 are not constant.

What are the limitations for this expression?

Differences between Otto and Carnot Cycles

T T

2 2 2 1 1
2
2
2
1
1
2 2 2 1 1 3 3 4 4 3
2 2 2 1 1 3 3 4 4 3
2 2 2 1 1 3 3 4 4 3
3 3 4 4 3
3
3
4
4
3

s

s

20

Effect of compression ratio on Otto cycle efficiency

Effect of compression ratio on Otto cycle efficiency 21

Sample Problem

The air at the beginning of the compression stroke of an air-standard Otto cycle is at 95 kPa and 22°C and the cylinder volume is 5600 cm 3 . The compression ratio is 9 and 8.6 kJ are added during the heat addition process. Calculate:

(a) the

compression

(b) the thermal efficiency of the cycle

Use cold air cycle assumptions.

temperature

and

pressure

and heat addition process

after

the

Draw cycle and label points

P

Q 23 = 8.6 kJ

3 r = V 1 /V 2 = V 4 /V 3 = 9 2
3
r
= V 1 /V 2 = V 4 /V 3 = 9
2
4
1
v

T 1 = 299 K P 1 = 0.95 bar

Major assumptions

• Kinetic and potential energies are zero

• Closed system

• 1 is start of compression

• Ideal cycle: 1-2 isentropic compression, 2-3 constant volume heat addition, etc.

• Cold cycle constant properties

Carry through with solution

Calculate mass of air:

m =

P V

1

1

RT

1

= 6.29 x 10

-3

kg

Compression occurs from 1 to 2:

T

2

T

2

=

V

T

1

1

V

2

k 1

isentropic compression

=

(

22

+

)

273 K

() 1.4 1

9

T 2 =

705.6 K

But we need T 3 !

Get T 3 with first law:

Q

23 W = m(u + ∆ke

(

+ ∆pe) = mc T T

v

3

2

Solve for T 3 :

T

3

=

q

c

v

+ T

2

=

kJ

8.6 kJ 6.29x10

3

kg

0.855

kg

+ ∆ pe) = mc T − T v 3 2 Solve for T 3 :

705.6 K

)

Thermal Efficiency

1

η= −

1

r

k

1

1

=−

Thermal Efficiency 1 η = − 1 r k − 1 1 =− 1 9 1.4

1

9

1.4

1

Let’s take a look at the Diesel cycle.

Let’s take a look at the Diesel cycle. 28
Let’s take a look at the Diesel cycle. 28

28

Idealized Diesel cycle

1-2

- Adiabatic Compression (Isentropic)

2-3

- Constant Pressure Heat Addition

3-4

- Adiabatic Expansion (Isentropic)

4-1

- Constant Volume Heat Rejection

Performance of cycle

Efficiency:

η=

w net

q in

Heat input occurs from 2 to 3 in constant pressure process:

q

in

= h

3

h

2

Why enthalpies?

Diesel Cycle Performance

Get net work from energy balance of cycle:

w

net

= q

in

q

out

Substituting for q in and q out :

w

net

=

(h

3

h

2

)

(u

4

u )

1

As we did with the Otto cycle:

η=

w net

q in

Diesel Cycle Performance

Substituting for net work and heat input:

η=

(h

3

- h

2

) - (u

4

- u )

1

(h

3

- h

2

)

We can simplify the above expression:

1

η= −

(u

4

- u )

1

(h

3

- h

2

)

For cold cycle analysis

1

η= −

(T

- T )

c

c

v

p

4

1

2

(T - T )

3

1

= −

(T

4

- T )

1

k(T

3

- T )

2

It’s possible to rewrite this in a simpler form if we define a new term:

r c =

V

3

V

2

= cutoff ratio

33

Cold cycle efficiency

η = 1

1

r

k

1

r

c

k

1

k

(

r

c

1

)

Efficiency is dependent on compression ratio and cutoff ratio.

k = 1.4 35

k = 1.4

The thermal efficiency of the ideal Diesel cycle as a function of compression and cutoff rates (k =1.4)

The thermal efficiency of the ideal Diesel cycle as a function of compression and cutoff rates

36

Comparison between Otto and Diesel cycles

For same compression ratio

η OTTO >

η DIESEL

For same combustion temperature

η DIESEL >

η OTTO

Sample Problem

A Diesel air-standard cycle has a compression ratio of 15:1. The pressure and temperature at the beginning of the compression are 100 kPa and 17 C, respectively. If the maximum temperature of the cycle is 2250 K, determine:

1. the cutoff ratio

2. the thermal efficiency

3. the mean effective pressure

Draw cycle

Draw cycle 39

Apply assumption as before with Otto cycle

• Cold cycle assumptions

• Kinetic and potential energies neglected

• Ideal cycle

Begin analysis

Look at cutoff ratio:

r c

= V

3

V

2

= mRT

3

P

3

/ m RT

2

r

c

= T

3

c = V 3 V 2 = mRT 3 P 3 / m RT 2 r

T need T

2

2

P

2

)

Get T 2 from isentropic relationship:

T 2

=

T 2 =

T ( V V ) k − 1 1 1 2
T
(
V
V
) k
1
1
1
2

856.7 K

=

(

17

+

)(

273 K 15

) 1.4

1

More analysis

Cutoff ratio is then:

More analysis Cutoff ratio is then: Thermal efficiency: η = 1 − 1 r k −

Thermal efficiency:

η = 1

1

r

k

1

 − 1

 − 1

k

r

c

(

k r

c

)

More analysis

Plug numbers into thermal efficiency:

η = 1

1

15

0.4

Plug numbers into thermal efficiency: η = 1 − 1 15 0.4    2.62

2.62

1.4

1

1.4

(

2.62

1

)