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INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 –

6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)

ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ IJARET.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.8273 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com

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EVALUATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL QUALITY OF WATER STORED IN UNDERGROUND REINFORCED CONCRETE TANKS: CASE STUDY OF WETLANDS IN BRAZZAVILLE (CONGO)

Malanda N. 1 , Matini L. 2 , Louzolo-Kimbembe P. 1, 2

1 Laboratory of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ENSP, P.Box 69, Marien Ngouabi University. Brazzaville, Congo 2 Department of Exact Sciences, Ecole Normale Supérieure, P.Box 69, Marien Ngouabi University, Brazzaville, Congo

ABSTRACT

The water for domestic use stored in underground reinforced concrete tanks could be altered if the walls of the tanks are not properly sealed. The aim of this study is to know the hydro-chemical quality of the water stored in these tanks in a wetted environment. The analyses carried out on 27 sites and for which different global parameters of the water quality are determined, showed clearly a strong mineralization of the stored water. The study also shows an acidic nature of the aforesaid water, the concentration in nitrite exceeding the norm of 0.1 mg/l and a strong activity of dissolved oxygen (81.48% of tanks) revealing thus a possible contamination. The potability of this water stored in underground concrete tanks seems doubtful.

Keywords: Water Tank, Household Waste, Hydro Chemical, Reinforced Concrete, Underground, Pollution.

1. INTRODUCTION

Water is one of the most valuable resources of nature. As a vital substance, the potability of water intended for human consumption must be protected against the possible effects of natural and anthropogenic contamination. In Brazzaville, capital of Congo, considerable investments were often devoted for building underground reinforced concrete tanks to store water for a household use. This is to compensate for the situation of chronic water scarcity prevailing in Brazzaville [Rezaei, 2011].

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

These concrete tanks are often installed in wet areas to a depth of about 2.50 meters from the ground level and near landfills of domestic wastes. These stored water may be contaminated with dissolved chemical elements from groundwater by diffusion through the porous walls of the tanks and thus affect the quality of the stored water [Belkhiri et al, 2011]. Indeed, it is in the aquifer layer that are dissolved all kinds of household wastes and so it is the main source of contamination [Moukolo et al, 1989; Moukolo et al, 2001]. Thus, it is useful to control the water tank quality for human consumption [Das, 2013]. The statistical treatment of the data obtained on the quality of water stored in these tanks is the subject of an ascending hierarchical classification (AHC), one of the methods that are grouped in the multivariate statistical analyzes widely used in environmental sciences [Suk et al, 1999; Rezaei, 2011; Belkhiri et al, 2011; Soro et al, 2013]. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrochemistry of this water for human consumption and to reveal water tanks whose chemical composition is identical by using the ascending hierarchical classification.

2. STUDY AREA

The study is performed in three districts of Brazzaville, namely Moungali, Poto-Poto and Ouenze, defined by 4.268° to 15.254°N latitude and 4.109° to 15.907° E longitude. The average elevation in this area is 276.44 m. From a geological point of view, the soil of Brazzaville shows the presence of a sedimentary cover starting from secondary to tertiary and rests uncomfortably on a Precambrian basement. The gritty series of Inkissi is considered as the sandstone of the Pan-African resulting in this soil. The climate of Brazzaville is low Congolese or quasi tropical prevailing in the south-western Congo. It has a dry season from June to September and a rainy season from October to May with a slowdown of precipitation from January to February [Samba, 1978]. The average temperature varies between 25 and 26 ° C. The drainage system consists of a few Brazzaville rivers (Tsiémé, Djoué, Mfilou, Mfoa) flowing into the Congo River. Rainfall is very moderate with an annual average of 1.370 mm. With an area of 270 square kilometers, the aquifer of Brazzaville is part of the hydrogeological set Plateaux Batéké, real Congo water tower which has produced the great rivers of the Congo (Djoué, Léfini, Niari). The limits of groundwater are defined by conditions of imposed potentials [Mayima, 2007] which are: the Djoué River to the north, Djouari River to the west and the Congo River to the east, and the variable flow condition along tributaries of sandstone Inkisi in south.

The location of water tanks is shown in Appendix-A.

3. MATERIAL AND METHODS

Twenty seven (27) water tanks (WT) samples were collected (period March-May 2013) in polyethylene bottles of 0.5 l, previously washed with hydrochloric acid, then with distilled water. In situ, bottles were rinsed three times with water to be analyzed and filled to the brim then screw with a plastic cap to prevent exchange with the environment. The samples were brought in a cooler at 4°C to the laboratory for analysis. Water samples were tested for field parameters such as temperature, pH, electrical conductivity (E.C), total dissolved solids (TDS), redox potential (ORP), dissolved oxygen (D.O) by using a portable multi-parameter CONSORT type C933; turbidity was determined with an electronic turbidity-meter type HACH 2100P. Calcium, magnesium, total alkalinity, total hardness (TH), bicarbonate and sulfate contents were determined by titrimetric methods in the laboratory. Two forms of inorganic nitrogen were analyzed by spectrophotometric methods: nitrates

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

(NO 3 - ) and nitrites (NO 2 - ); fluoride by SPADNS. Total iron content was analyzed by spectrophotometric method with phenantroline after reducing of Fe 3+ to Fe 2+ by hydroxylamine. All the selected parameters were determined using standard methods [APHA, 1989]. The statistical procedure used for the classification of the water tanks is the ascending hierarchical classification (AHC) whose objective is to sort water tanks into clusters or groups. The association is strong between members of the same group and weak between members of different groups. The method provides intuitive similarity relationships between any one sample and the entire dataset, and is illustrated by a dendrogram. The Euclidean distance was used as similarity distance and Ward’s method as an analysis of variance approach for the evaluation of the distances between clusters.

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PARAMETERS The parameters analyzed in the water tanks samples have been compared with the drinking water standards prescribed by WHO [WHO-a, 2004]. All the parameters are expressed in mg/l, except pH, T (°C) and E.C (µS/cm). The details of results are presented in Appendixes-B1 and B2. The descriptive statistics of the selected parameters are shown in Table 1.

Table (1): Descriptive statistics of selected parameters of water tank samples

Parameters

Min

Max

Mean

S.D

Median

Variance

Skewness

pH T Turb. ORP E.C TDS D.O TA TH T.S.S Ca 2+ Mg 2+ HCO 3 -

4.55

8.6

6.45

0.93

6.48

0.87

-0.35

20

20

20

0

20

0

0.41

10.44

2.62

1.97

2.15

3.88

2.54

-80.99

151.1

32.01

55.24

27.5

3050.95

0.61

22.28

1319.72

124.34

245.1

54.77

60073.35

4.8

11.98

852.4

70.22

158.81

28.8

25221.27

4.94

0.84

7.05

4.06

1.4

4.18

1.95

0.08

1.7

152.79

16.97

27.94

9.93

780.64

4.74

7.52

527.68

48.89

98.31

21.4

9664.93

477

0

5.33

1.18

1.06

1

1.12

2.38

2.23

170.07

15.97

31.74

6.79

1007.38

4.73

0.18

53.7

8.52

14.83

1.58

220.05

2.3

2.08

186.16

19.58

34.35

9.98

1179.9

4.7

SO 4 2- -

NO

3

0.11

13.42

1.97

3.12

0.85

9.74

2.96

0.59

258.32

19.82

49.22

5.92

2422.13

4.71

NO

2 -

0.01

4.41

0.48

1.02

0.14

1.04

3.02

F -

0

1.04

0.15

0.23

0.05

0.05

2.55

Fe tot

1.14

4.58

2.71

0.84

2.77

0.71

0.36

- Temperature: The temperature value of water samples of all the tanks was uniform as 20°C. This indicates that the temperature was homogeneously distributed in the water tanks.

- pH: The value of pH characterizes the acidity (pH<7) or the basicity (pH>7) of a solution. It represents an important indication with regard to the aggressiveness of water [Mohamed et al, 2013; Ghazalid et al, 2013]. Water tanks are characterized by pH values ranged from 4.55 to 8.6 with a mean of 6.45±0.93. Sixteen (16) samples of water tanks (59.26 % of samples) are within the WHO limits [WHO-b, 2008] allowed for drinking water. On the other hand, eleven (11)

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

water samples (40.74 % of samples) exhibited pH values below 6.5 including 4 water samples of which the pH was between 4.6 and 5. These 11 water samples were slightly acidic in nature.

- Electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS): EC is function of the water temperature, it is more important when the temperature increases. It is used to appreciate the quantity of salts dissolved in water [Pescod, 1985; Rodier, 1996]. The ability of an aqueous solution to conduct electric current is characterized by EC which is highly correlated with TDS. EC ranged from 22.28 to 1319.72 µS/cm with a mean of 124.34 µS/cm. The variance shows a wide variation in the values of EC in water tanks. One sample (WT 22) has a very high value of the electrical conductivity corresponding to the maximum value (Appendix-B1). TDS of water tank samples ranged from 11.98 to 852.40 mg/l with a mean of 70.22 mg/l. The water tank sample with the maximum value of EC corresponds also to the maximum of TDS. The maximum observed in EC and TDS values can be explained by poor condition of the tank that is cracked or high porosity of the walls and causing a sewage infiltration. On the whole the water tanks are slightly mineralized (EC < 250 µS/cm and TDS < 125 mg/l), except the water tank WT22 which has the maximum value of EC and TDS (Appendix-B1). This indicates the presence of high amount of dissolved inorganic substance in ionized form [Bhattacharya et al, 2012] in water tank

WT22.

- ORP (Redox potential): The ORP value characterizes water that can be either in oxidizing conditions or under reducing conditions. ORP varied from -80.99 to 151.10 mV with a mean of 32.01 mV. This parameter exhibit a great variance in the study area (Table 1). The variation of ORP with water tank sample is shown in Figure 1. Some water tanks were under reducing conditions (WT4, WT11, WT15, WT18 and WT23). The remaining water samples were under oxidizing conditions. It is possible that the redox conditions in wetlands where water tanks are implanted influence the redox potential of the water.

 

200

150

100

ORP(mV)

50

0

-50

-100

Watertanksample WT1 WT2 WT3 WT4 WT5 WT6 WT7 WT8 WT9 WT10 WT11 WT12 WT13 WT14
Watertanksample
WT1
WT2
WT3
WT4
WT5
WT6
WT7
WT8
WT9
WT10
WT11
WT12
WT13
WT14
WT15
WT16
WT17
WT18
WT19
WT20
WT21
WT22
WT23
WT24
WT25
WT26
WT27

ORP

Figure (1): Distribution of ORP in the water tank samples

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

-

Dissolved oxygen (D.O): In the water tanks dissolved oxygen ranged from 0.84 to 7.05 mg/l with

a

mean of 4.06 mg/l. Among the 27 water tanks only 18.5% had a dissolved oxygen

concentration greater than the permissible limit of 5 mg /l. This would indicate the presence of

organic matter in high concentration in the other water tanks.

-

Turbidity and total suspended solids (T.S.S): The turbidity of water is mainly due to colloidal particles and sometimes very fine dispersions [Sawyer et al, 1993]. The turbidity of water tank samples which is correlated with suspended solids ranged from 0.41 to 10.44 NTU with a mean

of

2.62±1.97 NTU. On the whole, water tank samples have turbidity lower to 5 NTU, except the

sample WT5 with the maximum value of turbidity in the study area. Suspended solids in the water samples varied from 0.00 to 5.33 mg/l with a mean of 1.18 mg/l. From an aesthetic point of view, cloudy water is not accepted by consumers as drinking water.

-

Total Alkalinity (TA) and total hardness (TH): In water the main ions responsible of TA are bicarbonates (HCO 3 - ) and carbonates (CO 3 2- ). The ability of water to neutralize acids is represented by total alkalinity. TA values in the water tanks samples ranged from 1.70 to 152.79 mg/l CaCO 3 with a mean value of 16.97 mg/l CaCO 3 . On the whole the values of TA are within the permissible level for alkalinity [WHO-a, 2004; WHO-c, 2004]. In water the ions which mainly contribute to hardness are calcium and magnesium. Other metallic ions such as iron, manganese, strontium and barium contribute also to total hardness [Pescod, 1985]. Total hardness of the water tank samples ranged from 7.52 to 527.68 mg/l CaCO 3 with a mean of 48.89 mg/l CaCO 3 . These water tanks can be classified [Sawyer et al, 1993] as: soft for 88.88% of the samples (TH < 60 mg/l), slightly hard for WT10 and WT15 (60 – 67 mg/l) and very hard for the sample WT22 which has the maximum value of TH (527.68 mg/l CaCO 3 ). Excessive mineralization of WT22 degrades water quality which is also characterized by a very high hardness. Water in the tank WT22 may lead to deposition of scales if used in boilers and the consumption of such a water may cause heart and kidney problems [Bhattacharya et al, 2012].

-

Ca

2+ , Mg 2+ , HCO 3 - and SO 4 2- : The content was in the range 2.23 – 170.07, 0.18 – 53.70, 2.08 –

186.16 and 0.11 – 13.42 mg/l with mean of 15.97. 8.52, 19.58 and 1.97 mg/l, respectively. These

contents are in the permissible limit for drinking water [WHO-a, 2004].

-

Nitrate (NO 3 - ) and nitrite (NO 2 - ): The two inorganic nitrogen ions recorded a range as follows 0.58 – 258.32 and 0.01 – 4.41mg/l with a mean of 19.82 mg/l and 0.48 mg/l, respectively. On the whole nitrate content was in the permissible limit of 50 mg/l for drinking water, except the water tank sample WT22 with the maximum value of 258.32 mg/l. Fourteen (14) samples as 51.85 %

of

the samples presented a content of nitrite higher than the WHO permissible limit of 0.1mg/l

for drinking water. Nitrite concentration higher than the permissible limit for drinking water can cause the methemoglobinemy to infants which is characterized by a lack of oxygen.

-

Fluoride (F - ): The primary source of fluorine in water is the dissolution of fluoride bearing minerals [Subba et al, 2003]. Its presence in water with concentration higher than the acceptable limit of 1.5 mg/l can cause harmful effects on the human health, such as the dental and skeletal fluorosis, adverse effects on the kidney [Mushini et al, 2012]. F - content ranged from 0.00 to 1.04 mg/l. Although the content was lower than the WHO permissible limit of 1.5 mg/l for drinking water. Twenty six 26 samples (96.30% of the samples) have an F - content low than 0.6 mg/l which can cause dental caries and poor development of bones [Pillai et al, 2002].

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

- Total iron (Fe tot ): Usually iron in water does not present a health problem. Iron allows the blood to carry oxygen. The iron concentration varied from 1.14 to 4.58 mg/l. On the whole the concentration was higher than the permit limit of 0.3 mg/l for drinking water. Higher concentration of iron in water can cause yellow, red, or brown stains on laundry and aesthetic problem to consumers [WHO-d, 2004].

4.2. ASCENDING HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION (AHC) The AHC on the physico-chemical parameters considering water tanks as objects is presented in Figure 2. AHC allows identifying natural grouping in the water tanks. The dendrogram shows three clusters or groups. Group I contains the water tanks WT1 – WT3, WT5 – WT10, WT16, WT17 and WT24 – WT27 as n = 14. Group II (n = 12) contains WT4, WT11 – WT15, WT18 – WT21, WT23 and WT27. Group III contains the water tank WT22 which has the higher values of the parameters, except pH, T, ORP, Turb, D.O, Fe tot and NO 2 - .

pH, T, ORP, Turb, D.O, Fe t o t and NO 2 - . Figure (2):

Figure (2): Dendrogram showing the clustering of water tanks based on physico-chemical parameters

The discriminant parameters between group I and group II are highlighted in Figure 3 which compares the median value of the parameters. These parameters are: EC, TDS, TH, Alk, Ca 2+ , Mg 2+ , HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- , F - and NO 3 - . Thus the content of the parameters increases as: Group I < Group II < Group III.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME Figure (3): Distribution of the median

Figure (3): Distribution of the median values of the parameters in groups I and II

5. CONCLUSION

The physico-chemical study of the water stored in the concrete tanks has showed an acidic nature in 37% of the water tanks. The nitrite concentrations exceed the acceptable limit of 0.1 mg/l for the drinking water in all the analyzed water samples, which is a risk to the infants whom can consume this water. The low oxygen content in the majority of the WT (81.48 % of samples) indicates a strong bacterial activity in water. The high concentrations of iron, higher than the acceptable limit can pose an aesthetic problem. So this water appears strongly mineral-bearing, their potability is made doubtful in the near total of the analyzed samples, which lets predict a danger to the health of the consumers. The seepage waters of the domestic discharges in the ground water would be thus a source of contamination of water stored in the tanks. The technological aspect of the waterproofness of the walls in the concrete tanks under these conditions has weaknesses and lack of reliability. The potability of this water becomes doubtful. It would be thus dangerous to use this water for drinking water.

6. REFERENCES

[1] APHA, “Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater”, 18th Edt., WPCF Washington DC, 1989. [2] Belkhiri L., Boudoukha A. and Mouni L., “A multivariate Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Chemistry Data”, Int. J. Environ. Res., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 537-544, 2011. [3] Bhattacharya T., Chakraborty S. and Tuck Neha, “Physicochemical characterization of ground water of Anand district, Gujrat, India”, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 28-33, 2012. [4] Das N.C., “Physico-chimical characteristics of selected ground water samples of Ballapur city of Chandrapur District, Maharashitia, India”, Int. Rest. J. Envionment Sci., vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 96-100, 2013.

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

[5] Ghazalid D., Zaid A., “Etude de la qualité physico-chimique et bactériologique des eaux de la source Ain Salama, Jerri (Région de Meknès – Maroc)“, Université Moulay Ismail, Faculté des sciences, équipe ERO Conseil en environnement – Laboratoire de chimie – biologie appliquée à l’environnement, Département de Biologie. Faculté de sciences, Meknes – Maroc, 2013. [6] Mayima A., “Etude de l’érosion dans les quartiers Kingouari, Kinsoudi, Météo, Ngangouoni et Moukoudji-Ngouaka dans le bassin-versant du Djoué au Sud de Brazzaville“, mémoire de Maîtrise, université Marien Ngouabi, Brazzaville (Congo), 2007, 111p. [7] Mohamed Hanipha M. and Zahir Hussain A., “Study of ground water quality at Dindigul town, Tamilnadu, India”, Int. Res. J. Environment Sci., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 68-73, 2013. [8] Moukolo N., “Pollution vulnerability of the Brazzaville aquifer”, Proceedings of the Sahel forum, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso, (18 – 23 February 1989), 1989. [9] Moukolo N. et Cheikh Becaye Gaye, “Problèmes de contamination des nappes phréatiques par les rejets domestiques dans les métropoles d’Afrique noire – cas de la nappe de Brazzaville – Congo“, Unité de recherche sur les écosystèmes aquatiques – BP. 125, Brazzaville, 2001. [10] Mushini Venkata Subba Rao, Vaddi Dhilleswara Rao and Bethapudi Samuel Anand Andrews, “Assessment of Quality of Drinking Water at Srikurmam in Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh, India”, International Research Journal of Environmental Sciences, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 13-20, 2012. [11] Pescod M.B., “Design, operation and maintenance of wastewater stabilization ponds in treatment and use of sewage effluent for irrigation”, Ed Pescodand Arar, pp. 93-114, 1985.

[12] Pillai K. S. and Stanley V.A., “Implication of fluoride – an endless uncertainty”, Journal of Environment Biology, vol. 23, pp. 81–87, 2002. [13] Rezaei M., “Assessing the Controlling Factors of Groundwater Hydrochemistry in Mond Alluvial Aquifer, Bushehr”, Journal of Environmental Studies, vol. 37, no. 58, pp. 31-33,

2011.

[14] Rodier J., “L’analyse de l’eau: eaux naturelles. eaux souterraines, eaux de mer “, Ed. Dunod,

8 e édition, Paris, 1996. [15] Samba Kimbata M. J., “Le climat du Bas-Congo“, Thèse de doctorat 3e cycle, université de Dijon (France), 1978. [16] Sawyer. C.N. and P.I. McCarty, "Chemistry for sanitary Engineers”, McGraw-Hill, NY, pp. 68-91, 1993. [17] Soro Tanina Drissa, Ahoussi Kouassi Ernest, Oga Yei Marie-Solange, Soro Gbombélé and Soro Nagnin, “A Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Groundwater Chemistry Data in the Highest Bandama Basin at Tortiya (Northern Côte D’Ivoire)”, ER, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 72- 77,

2013.

[18] Subba Rao N., Devadas D.J., “Fluoride incidence in groundwater in an area of peninsula India”, Environment Geology, vol. 45, pp. 243–251, 2003. [19] Suk H. and Lee K., “Characterization of a ground water hydrochemical system through multivariate analysis: Clustering into ground water zones. Ground Water”, vol. 37, pp. 358–366, 1999. [20] WHO-a, “International standards for drinking water”, World Health Organization, Geneva, pp. 55-79, 2004. [21] WHO-c, “Guidelines for drinking water quality”, 2nd Ed., vol. 1, no. 1, 188 p., 2004. [22] WHO, “Rolling revision of the WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality, Draft for review and comments, Nitrates and Nitrites in drinking-water”, World Health Organization, (WHO/SDE/WSH/04.08/56), 2004.

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[23] WHO-b, World Health Organization, "Guidelines for drinking Water Quality”, vol.1, Recommendation 2nd Edition, Geneva, 2008. [24] Mangulkar Madhuri. N. and Gaikwad Madhukar V., “Review on Seismic Analysis of Elevated Water Tank” International Journal of Civil Engineering & Technology (IJCIET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 288 - 294, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6308, ISSN Online:

0976 – 6316. [25] Gaikwad Madhukar V. and Prof. Mangulkar Madhuri N., “Seismic Performance of Circular Elevated Water Tank With Framed Staging System”, International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 159 - 167, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN Online: 0976-6499.

& Technology (IJARET), Volume 4, Issue 4, 2013, pp. 159 - 167, ISSN Print: 0976-6480, ISSN

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International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

Appendix-B1: Values of physico-chemical parameters of water stored in the underground tanks and collected from different sites

Average arithmetic mean of the values of the parameters

 

ORP

TDS

EC

TSS

Code

pH

T (°C)

(mV)

(mg/l)

(µS/cm)

TA (mg/l)

TH (mg/l)

(mg/l)

WT1

6.554

20

20.06

24.12

37.62

15.048

15.526

1.2

WT2

5.97

20

57.338

19.42

36.32

7.64

11

2.07

WT3

6.686

20

14.198

19.58

35.66

11.876

10.362

1.2

WT4

8.604

20

-80.992

38.48

72.58

18.764

17.326

0.2

WT5

6.298

20

36.94

13.96

26.42

7.91

10.896

0.8

WT6

6.468

20

28.32

11.98

22.28

8.446

8.852

0.8

WT7

6.388

20

32.76

25.98

49.3

9.664

17.48

1.6

WT8

6.83

20

27.47

17.73

33.43

7.30

10.84

5.33

WT9

6.98

20

2.164

23.59

44.74

20.432

34.276

1.55

WT10

6.304

20

34.76

14.62

27.58

7.508

9.378

0.80

WT11

7.386

20

-35.04

99.64

187.76

21.112

67.302

0.550

WT12

4.72

20

139.272

52.518

98.96

4.332

32.276

1.650

WT13

5.912

20

59.180

55.940

105.42

13.452

32.584

1

WT14

4.9825

20

113.325

71.2

133.45

4.265

63.7725

0.625

WT15

7.294

20

-12.36

77.26

146.42

23.748

60.548

2.2

WT16

6.453

20

27.50

28.80

54.767

14.960

21.10

1.523

WT17

6.974

20

-2.1

28.542

53.92

18.996

21.4

0.6

WT18

7.28

20

-21.13

68.30

128.37

11.91

50.80

1.33

WT19

4.55

20

148.83

40.28

76.33

1.70

30.90

0

WT20

6.9

20

19.7

41.58

78.904

18.926

32.96

2.412

WT21

6.302

20

35.92

36.532

144.48

5.386

56.48

0.5

WT22

6.486

20

25.54

852.4

1319.72

152.792

527.68

0.65

WT23

7.826

20

-50.536

53.31

101.164

25.344

40.08

0

WT24

6.592

20

17.818

28.4

53.92

9.934

21.12

1.6

WT25

6.294

20

42.742

12.68

24.504

8.054

7.522

1.1

WT26

6.476

20

31.492

14.532

27.144

6.554

10.96

0.55

WT27

4.57

20

151.10

124.50

236

2.25

97.10

0

Caption :

pH : Potential hydrogen

T : Temperature

ORP: Redox potential

TDS: Total dissolved solids

EC: Electrical conductivity

TA: Total alkalinity

TH: Total hardness

TSS: Total suspended solids

43

International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 5, Issue 10, October (2014), pp. 34-44 © IAEME

Appendix-B2: Values of physico-chemical parameters of the water stored in the underground tanks and collected at different sites

Average arithmetic mean of the values of the parameters

Code

Mn 2+

Ca 2+

Mg 2+

NO 3

-

SO 4

2-

F-

D.O.

Fe tot

CN-

HCO 3

-

NO 2

-

GM

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

mg/l

WT1

0.0122

5.724

13.052

2.424

0.584

0.004

2.54

1.382

0.0002

20.706

0.2008

44.874

WT2

0.0376

3.076

0.214

1.474

3.218

0

2.49

1.902

0.0022

6.74

0.0162

39.868

WT3

0.0236

3.392

0.184

2.062

0.332

0.004

2.746

1.139

0.0164

9.976

0.2074

42.26

WT4

0.0346

4.244

14.496

3.102

1.9360

0.0562

2.546

1.992

0.0008

19.02

0.2122

55.494

WT5

0.0198

3.492

16.854

0.588

2.038

0.2

0.840

1.53

0.0002

5.456

0.0112

29.13

WT6

0.008

2.616

12.994

1.4614

10.912

0.002

2.480

1.85

0.0002

7.764

0.0052

24.926

WT7

0.0436

5.256

35.762

2.488

3.064

0.006

2.538

1.944

0.0002

7.212

0.2228

45.782

WT8

0.00

3.70

0.30

1.38

0.90

0.01

7.050

4.52

0.00

8.90

0.3400

44.81

WT9

0.0426

12.438

0.792

9.56

0.8766

0.19

4.176

2.772

0.0038

21.532

0.0240

48.438

WT10

0.0166

3.076

0.42

1.1522

0.532

0.00

4.136

2.774

0

9.156

0.1286

62.486

WT11

0.104

23.100

1.462

28.458

2.794

0.440

3.482

2.428

0.016

25.752

0.358

153.33

WT12

0.0856

11.012

50.698

17.432

0.460

0.038

3.678

2.560

0.0028

3.336

2.436

97.15

WT13

0.0314

11.642

0.868

10.1916

0.852

0.0752

4.730

3.504

0.004

16.408

0.0966

92.532

WT14

0.0545

23.4125

1.3075

31.93

2.535

0.17775

4.3475

2.8175

0.00575

5.2

0.275

110.09

WT15

0.0854

19.4

2.28

19.674

3.160

0.2948

4.398

2.828

0.0118

28.970

0.190

121.61

WT16

0.117

6.777

1.033

3.250

0.847

0.009

5.673

3.760

0.001

18.247

0.031

37.260

WT17

0.0214

6.214

0.658

1.316

0.41

0.0098

6.924

4.58

0

23.17

0.0202

54.628

WT18

0.06

16.01

2.70

20.63

1.02

0.16

3.37

2.26

0.01

14.48

4.410

120.66

WT19

0.04

9.74

1.64

15.47

0.40

0.16

4.52

2.86

0.01

2.08

0.14

71.76

WT20

0.03

10.676

7.844

7.434

0.323

0.0478

4.802

2.944

0.0066

23.084

0.0812

71.856

WT21

0.176

18.414

2.6768

27.074

0.667

0.368

4.328

3.422

0.014

6.57

0.268

135.812

WT22

0.62

170.072

53.698

258.324

13.422

1.0364

3.628

2.506

0.0506

186.16

2.624

1134.864

WT23

0.0892

13.496

1.582

7.8076

0.392

0.1596

4.74

2.742

0.006

30.912

0.0752

95.09

WT24

0.0314

6.786

1.038

5.924

0.258

0.047

5.218

3.148

0.004

12.12

0.0588

57.008

WT25

0

2.23

0.484

1.8354

0.1096

0

4.102

2.508

0

4.964

0.0166

33.324

WT26

0

3.476

0.554

2.336

0.136

0

5.484

3.424

0

7.992

0.0204

36.914

WT27

0.30

31.79

4.42

50.27

1.11

0.56

4.76

2.96

0.03

2.73

0.53

191.69

Caption :

Mn 2+ : Manganese

F - : Fluorure

Ca 2+ : Calcium

D.O. : Dissolved oxygen

Mg 2+ : Magnésium

Fe tot : Total iron

NO 2 - : Nitrite

CN - : Cyanid

NO 3 - : Nitrate

HCO 3 - : Bicarbonate

SO 4 2- : Sulfate

GM : General mineralisation

44