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ANTENNA & EMI/EMC LAB

MEASUREMENT OF INPUT
IMPEDANCE OF AN OPEN
ENDED WAVEGUIDE

RF & Microwave Engineering


Department of Electronics & Electrical
Communication Engineering
INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KHARAGPUR
721302

MEASUREMENT OF INPUT IMPEDANCE OF AN OPEN ENDED


WAVEGUIDE
INTRODUCTION:
When a transmission line or a waveguide is terminated with a shorted
load, the voltage minima occur at the load end. But when it is terminated
with a load of unknown impedance, then the voltage minima will shift. By
measuring the VSWR and the shift in minima we can determine the
unknown impedance using the smith chart.
APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
1. Gunn power supply: Supplies power to the Gunn Diode to bias it in
the negative resistance and also supplies 6.2 V bias to the PIN diode
with 1 KHz modulation.
2. Gunn oscillator: Provided with a sliding short adjustable with a
micrometer scale that adjusts the length of the cavity of the Gunn
oscillator to change its frequency of operation.
3. Isolator: Acts as a one way switch that isolates the source from the
load thus preventing unwanted reflections from the load to reach the
source.
4. Pin modulator: Houses the PIN diode with a ceramic package
covering that acts as a switch thus modulating the input microwave
frequency to 1 KHz so that VSWR is compatible.
5. Variable attenuator: A device that attenuates the input signal to a
desired level. Commonly used is a rotary vane attenuator that contains
a mica sheet within two cylindrical waveguides, the rotation of which
increases attenuation in either direction.
6. Frequency meter: It is a cavity resonator type frequency meter that
consists of a cylindrical cavity whose length can be varied using a
micrometer screw. Depending upon the coupling to the waveguide it
can be transmitting type or absorbing type.
7. Slotted line section: A slotted waveguide structure that has a
tapering slot to minimize losses due to radiation. It houses the detector
probe as well as coaxial to waveguide adapter that covert TE mode to
a TEM mode. Also it demodulates the signal with the help of crystal
diode.
8. VSWR meter: It measures the VSWR. It works at a terminal frequency
of 1 KHz. It gain is a high gain, high Q amplifier that gives us a root
mean squared value of VSWR.
SORTING
PLATE /OPEN
END

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP:
GUNN
POWER
SUPPLY
GUNN
OSCILLATO
R

ISOLATOR

PIN
MODULAT
OR

ATTENUATO
R
FREQUENC
SLOTTE
Y METER
D LINE
VSWR
METE

THEORY:
When a transmission line or a waveguide is terminated with a shorted load, the
voltage minima occur at the load end. But when it is terminated with a load of
unknown impedance, then the voltage minima will shift. By measuring the VSWR
and the shift in minima we can determine the unknown impedance using the
smith chart. One such application is the method finds a wide application in
determining the complex permittivities of liquid materials. It is based on the
reflection and admittance or impedance measurements from which the
properties of the dielectric material can be known. The technique being accurate
and nondestructive, as no interference exists.

CALIBRATION TECHNIQUE USED IN MEASURING THE PERMITTIVITY OF


LOSSY LIQUIDS

The following points should be noted about the Smith Chart:


1. A complete revolution of the Smith Chart represents a movement of
/2 on the line. Clockwise movement denotes motion towards the
generator (or away from the load) while anticlockwise motion
denotes motion towards the load (or away from the generator).
2. The point Psc denotes the position of short circuit on the line where
r=0 and x=0. The point Poc denotes the open circuit point where
r=x=.
3. The Smith Chart is admittance as well as an impedance chart.
4. Vmax occurs where Zmax occurs and Vmin occurs where Zmin occurs
PROCEDURE:
1. Turn on the Gunn power supply and adjust the operating voltage,
current and modulation frequency, amplitude at operating level.
2. The Gunn oscillator is made to operate at the X band of the
microwave range as it is an X band waveguide. The power level is
adjusted to a suitable level using the variable attenuator.
3. The microwave bench should be tuned for that frequency, for that
adjust the micrometer scale at Gunn oscillator.
The modulating amplitude knob has to be adjusted till the VSWR is
increased to maxima. Now modulating frequency is altered till the
jitter in the arrow marker dies out and the VSWR meter reading

drops after that. The gain on the VSWR meter is adjusted till the
VSWR reads 1.
4. The probe penetration of the standing wave detector is adjusted so
that it does not load the set up and the vswr is measured.
5. The probe is moved along the slotted line to obtain maximum
deflection on the on the VSWR meter.
6. Adjust the setting of VSWR meter, so that the reading can be taken
easily.
7. The gain of VSWR meter is adjusted until the meter indicates 1.0
(rightmost side) for the maxima.
8. The probe is moved on the slotted line section to get minima. The
reading corresponding to the minima in the VSWR meter gives you
the required VSWR.
9. The positions of two successive minima are noted as d1 andd2.
Twice the difference between the two readings gives the guided
wavelength, as 2*(d1-d2).
10.
Now open the end of microwave bench, then probe is moved
on the slotted line of the VSWR detector to maxima.
11.
The gain of VSWR meter is adjusted until the meter indicates
1.0 (rightmost side) for the maxima.
12.
The probe is moved on the slotted line section to get
minima. The reading corresponding to the minima in the VSWR
meter gives you the required VSWR and note the position of probe
i.e. d.
13.
Then (d-d1)/g is calculated where g is the guided
wavelength.
14.
A circle corresponding to the measured VSWR is drawn on the
smith chart. From the short i.e. R=0 point on smith chart, we need
to move a distance (d-d1)/g towards the generator or load,
depending upon the selection of d, d1**.
15.
Mark the point.
16.
A line is drawn from (1+j0) towards the point on the smith
chart. The cutting point on the constant VSWR circle in the smith
chart gives the normalized impedance of open ended waveguide.
** Moving a distance of half the wavelength toward the generator is the
same as moving (.5-distance) towards the load.
OBSERVATION & CALCULATION:
SL.NO.

FREQUEN
CY

POSTIO
N OF 1ST
MINIMA

POISTIO
N OF 2ND
MINIMA

UNKNO
WN
MINIMA

VSWR

GUIDE
WAVELENG
TH

1.
2.
3.
4.
The cut off frequency is calculated to be:
Broad
wall
dimension
of
the
waveguide
=0.9=2.3cm
Velocity of light(c) =3*108 m/s =3*10 10 cm/s

(a)

Thus,

cut off frequency (fc) = c/ (2a) = 6.52 GHz.

RESULT:
Normalized Input impedance (in ohm) =
DISCUSSION: *In this you should write your experiences, additional
information and special remarks related to experiment*.
REFERENCES:
1. Constantine A. Balanis,Antenna Theory Analysis and Design,
second edition.
2. David M. Pozar. Microwave Engineering, third edition.
3. Matthew N.O.Sadiku, Elements Of Electromagnetics, Third edition
4. Y. Wang and M. N. Afsar MEASUREMENT OF COMPLEX PERMITTIVITY
OF LIQUIDS USING WAVEGUIDE TECHNIQUES, Tufts University,
Medford, USA.
5. S.Bakhtiari, S.I.Ganchev and R.Zoughi ,Open-ended rectangular
waveguide for nondestructive thickness measurement and variation
detection of lossy dielectric slabs backed by a conducting plane,IEEE
Trans.Instrum. Measurement vol.42.no.1.pp19-24,Feb.1993