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An In-plant training Report on

AAVIN NILGIRIS &TNSTC Cbe., OOTY


Submitted by
MOHAMMED NASEEM.S.D
(12RBEMEO80)
In partial fulfilment for the award of the degree of

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
in

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
KARPAGAM UNIVERSITY: COIMBATORE 641 021
OCTOBER 2014

KARPAGAM UNIVERSITY
Coimbatore-641 021

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the Summer In-plant training report submitted by MOHAMMED
NASEEM.S.D, (12RBEME080) to Karpagam University, Coimbatore in partial fulfilment
of the requirement for the award of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical
Engineering is a record of bona fide Summer In-plant training undertaken by him under
my supervision. The training fulfils the requirements as per the regulations of this
University and in my opinion meets the necessary standards for submission. The contents
of this report have not been submitted and will not be submitted, either in part or in full,
for the award of any other degree or diploma in this institute or any other institute or
university.

Prof. E.BABURAJ

Mr.G.VIGNESH

PROFESSOR & HEAD

SUPERVISOR

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT

LECTURER

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING

MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT

KARPAGAM UNIVERSITY

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
KARPAGAM UNIVERSITY

Submitted for the board practical examination held on .

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

Date:

Date:
2

DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE

I hereby declare that the Summer In-plant training report submitted by me to


Karpagam University, Coimbatore in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the award of
the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering is a record of bona fide
industrial training undertaken by me under the supervision of Mr. Raja Sharbudheen, AM,
AAVIN Ooty, and Mr. Shankar, BM, TNSTC, Ooty. I further declare that the work
reported in this report has not been submitted and will not be submitted, either in part or in
full, for the award of any other degree or diploma in this institute or any other institute or
university.

Place:

Signature of the Candidate

Date:

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I express my sincere thanks to Karpagam University providing me the life necessary facility to
bring out our In-plant training report successfully. It gives me pleasure to express my most profound
regards and sense of great indebtedness and sincere gratitude to Chancellor Dr.R.VASANTHAKUMAR
B.E. (Hons.)., D.Sc.,
I would like express my special thanks to our Dean Dr.C.R.HEMA Ph.D., Faculty of
Engineering, for giving this opportunity to do this In-plant training during third year of my graduation
course.
I would like to express our first foremost gratitude to Prof. E.BABURAJ M.E., (Ph.D) Head of
Mechanical Engineering Department for his valuable guidance, persistent, encouragement and keep
involvement throughout this training which was of immense pleasure and helping successfully to
complete the training
I wish to express my heartfelt thanks and sincere acknowledgement to our faculty advisor
Mr.G.VIGNESH B.E., (ME)., Lecturer Mechanical Engineering Department for his concern about the
training and his timely help to direct me for every move in the training.
It is always a pleasure to remind the fine people in the AAVIN Nilgiris, and TNSTC Ooty, for
their sincere guidance I received to uphold my practical as well as theoretical skills in engineering.
I would like to thank Mr. RAJA SHARBUDHEEN, AM, AAVIN Nilgiris for convincing me the
fact Whatever a man can imagine, that can be achieved, treating me as a son of his own and guiding me
to taste the real flavour of engineering.
I would like to thank Mr. SHANKAR, BM, TNSTC Ooty for the positive attitude he showed for
my work, always allowing me to question him and giving prompt replies for my uncertainties in all the
fields including educational, social and managerial to labour work. And I always great him for his aspects
of crew resource management who always said, I may be wrong.
The Workshop Engineer Mr. RAJENDIRAN, Workshop Superintendents and all other workmen
are also greeted. I thank all the AAVIN and TNSTC trainees who underwent training with me for the
mutual support I received from them.
Finally I apologise all other unnamed who helped me in various ways to have a good training.
Knowledge is power and unity is strength.

PART- A
AAVIN
(The Nilgiris District Co-Op Milk Producers Union Ltd.,)
Udhgamandalam

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO.

TITLE
LIST OF FIGURES

10

Introduction

11

1.1

History Of Industry And Products

11

1.1.1 History

11

1.1.2 Dairy Complex

11

1.1.3 Hill Area Development Programme

12

1.2

Plant Layout

13

1.3

Flow Diagrams

14

1.3.1 Engineering Section

14

1.3.2 Milk Processing

15

Product Information

16

1.4.1 By Products

16

Capacity Of The Plant

17

1.4

1.5
2

PAGE NO.

Manufacturing Processes

18

2.1

Types Of Processes

18

2.2

Raw Materials

18

2.3

Scrap Maintenance

18

Maintenance Schedule
3.1

19

Preventive Maintenance

19
8

Quality Control

20

4.1

Accreditation

20

4.2

Quality Measures

20

Administration And Management

21

5.1

Total Employment

21

5.2

Capital Investment

21

Conclusion

22

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO.

TITLE

PAGE NO.

1.1

Plant Layout

13

1.2

Engineering Section Flow Diagram

14

1.3

Milk Processing Flow Diagram

15

10

CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION

1.1. HISTORY OF INDUSTRY AND PRODUCTS


1.1.1. HISTORY
On July 14, 1946 Ootacamund Co-operative Milk Supply Society (OCMSS) under
the tutelage of Shri Giriappa Gowder was registered. The OCMSS then had a membership
of 355 members with the share capital of Rs. 10,275/-.
During mid 1940s, milk was collected from its members residing in and around Ooty and
was supplied to customers. The OCMSS expanded its area into two villages during 1960.
Between 1962 and 1964 the pasteurization plant with the capacity of 10,000 litres per day
was installed. Later in mid 1970s the OCMSS accumulated assets worth Rs. 35.00 lacs.
Dairy stalwarts like Dr. N. Basuvaiah and late Shri Pooviah have lent their able support
during this period.

1.1.2. DAIRY COMPLEX


The New Dairy Complex was eatablished in 1985 with milk handling capacity of
50,000 LPD. Infrastructure assistance for establishing Cheese Plant was availed from
National Dairy Development Board. The additional cost of civil works were met out from
Hill Area Development Programme funds.

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1.1.3. HILL AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME


For the construction of New Dairy Complex, the government Under Hill Area
Development Programme has sanctioned an amount of Rs.347.361 lacs as 50% Share
Capital and 50% loan. The New Dairy Complex was constructed with milk handling
capacity of 50,000 LPD. It is functioning from the year 1985.

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1.2. PLANT LAYOUT


EFFLUENT TREATMENT
PLANT
FURNACE
OIL

SERVICE BLOCK

S
I
L
O

STORE

S
T
O
R
A
G
E

DAIRY

MARKETING
SECTION

TRANSPORT
SECTION

PRODUCTS OUTLET

FIG.1.1 PLANT LAYOUT


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1.3. FLOW DIAGRAMS


1.3.1. ENGINEERING SECTION
ELECTRIC POWER

160 KVA DIESEL


POWERED
GENERATOR

TNEB

REFRIGERATION PLANT

COMPRESSOR

CONDENSOR

RECEIVER

COLD AMMONIA GAS

HOTAMMONIA GAS

EVAPOURATOR

DAIRY
FURNACE
OIL
COLD WATER

HOT WATER
BOILER HOUSE

BOILER 1

BOILER 2

FIG 3.1 ENGINEERING SECTION FLOW DIAGRAM


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1.3.2. MILK PROCESSING


MILK
COLLECTION
CENTRE

COLLECTION
CENTRE

COLLECTION
CENTRE

COLLECTION
CENTRE

DAIRY PUMP SECTON

CHILLING
TANK

COLLECTION
CENTRE

LAB

QUALITY
CONTROL

STORAGE
TANK

MILK PROCESSING PLANT

PASTEURISER
HOT WATER FROM
BIOLER

COLD WATER TO
BOILER

CHILLER

COLD WATER FROM


REFRIGERATOR

PRE-PACK
STORAGE

HOT WATER TO
REFRIGERATOR

PACKING
M/C

MILK
COLD
ROOM

TO
CONSUMERS

FIG.3.2 MILK PROCESSING FLOW DIAGRAM


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BYPRODUCTS
SECTION

1.4. PRODUCT INFORMATION


Cows milk is collected, processed and sold to the public by the company. Raw milk
would get spoiled within 6 hours after milking. Pasteurisation is the process done to
prevent this, by heating the milk around 80-85C, thus killing all bacteriae. This could
keep the milk edible for 24 hours.
After processing, three types of milk is available to the consumers based on the fat content
and Solid Non Fat (SNF) content in percentage. They are as follows:
Double toned milk : 1.5% fat, 90% SNF
Special toned milk : 4.0% fat, 85% SNF
Premium milk : 3.5% fat, 85% SNF.
Some quantity of Pure processed milk with 3.5% fat, 80% SNF is specially sent to
Kottakal Aarya Vaythyasala for medical purposes.
1.4.1 BY PRODUCTS
Common by products of milk like butter, cheese, curd and ghee are produced as per
demand along with ice creams, flavoured milk shakes, milk govas are produces in the
industry.
Casein: An important raw material used in the manufacturing of clothing buttons is
obtained as a by product of milk. The process is very interesting that when collected milk
gets soured, the solids in it are extracted and heated to form grains of casein.

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1.5. CAPACITY OF THE PLANT


The infrastructure of the plant is designed to handle 50K Litres Per Day. The average
production ranges from 18 to 20K LPD that depends on demand and availability of milk.

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CHAPTER - 2
MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

2.1. TYPES OF PROCESSES


Pasteurisation
Butter churning
Curd production
Cheese production
2.2. RAW MATERIAL COST
Milk is collected from cattle rearing society at an average cost of Rs 35/- per litre.
2.3. SCRAP MAINTEINANCE
Scraps of all sections are stored in a common place and auctioned once a year.

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CHAPTER - 3
MAINTEINANCE SCHEDULE

Preventive and Breakdown maintenances are carried out as per scheduled timetable
and whenever required. Since this is a milk processing industry, any fault in the flow lines
could ruin litres of milk. Stringent preventive maintenance schedule is followed after every
cycle.
3.1. PREVENTIVE MAINTEINANCE
Since this is a food industry, cleaning the machines is crucial. Even a drop of milk of the
previous cycle could make the milk of the next cycle useless. Therefore, after every cycle,
all the pipelines, tanks, silos, etc.., are washed thoroughly with pressurized hot water, acid
and soda.
All other machineries have their respective maintenance schedule and log books are
maintained for each and every machine.

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CHAPTER - 4
QUALITY CONTROL

4.1. ACCREDITATION
This industry is ISO 9001:2008 certified.

4.2. QUALITY MEASURES


Milk samples are collected at the receiving stage and various other stages like after
pasteurisation, from the pre-pack tank, and while in the cold room, etc at constant intervals
and are tested in the lab.
The lab results give a perception of the time that the milk can withstand without getting
soured. If the results arent satisfactory, the milk is re-processed.
The quality of all other edible by-products, rely on the quality of the milk used to prepare
them.

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CHAPTER 5
ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT

5.1. TOTAL EMPLOYMENT


This industry has a total manpower of 132 staff, working on administrative and
technical levels.
Countless numbers of people are indirectly employed in the supply and collection
chain, in milk products outlets, distribution and selling areas.

5.1. CAPITAL INVESTMENT


The capital investment for this industry funded by HADP for the civil works sums
up to a figure of Rs. 158.406/- lacs.
The cost of plant and machineries equals Rs. 157.888/- lacs.

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CHAPTER 6
CONCLUSION
Since this happened to be my first In-Plant Training, I had spell binding
experiences, which couldnt be included in this report. During this training, I got to see
how generally industries function, how people work for it, why would the industry need
me, and many more. It gave me an opportunity to fine tune myself, to make a good
engineer in future.

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PART- B
TAMIL NADU STATE TRANSPORT CORPORATION
(Coimbatore Ltd.,)
OOTY DIVISION
Udhgamandalam

23

TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER NO.

TITLE
LIST OF FIGURES

25

Introduction

26

1.1

Main Functions

26

1.2

Different Sections

26

1.2.1 Tyre Section

26

1.2.2 Weekly Maintenance Section

27

1.2.3 Monthly Maintenance Section

27

1.2.4 Bi-Monthly Maintenance Section

27

1.2.5 Semester Maintenance Section

28

1.2.6 Store

28

Site Layout

29

1.3
2

PAGE NO.

Functions

30

2.1

Running Repairs

30

2.2

A Common Problem

30

2.3

Scrap Maintenance

30

2.4

Concept Of Idle Bus

31

Conclusion

32

24

LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURE NO.
1.1

TITLE
Plant Layout

PAGE NO.
27

25

CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION

The Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation provides road transport


facilities in and around Tamil Nadu. It owns custom built busses whose chasses
are bought from Ashok Leyland powered by Hino engines and TATA powered
by Cummins.
The corp. functions across the state and are divided into six major zones
each covering neighbourhood districts. The TNSTC Coimbatore (hereafter
referred to as department/ dept.) has its headquarters based in Coimbatore, and
serves in the districts of The Nilgiris, Coimbatore, Erode and Tirupur. Zonal
offices are located in Ooty, Erode and Cbe.
1.1. MAIN FUNCTIONS
Since busses need regular and stringent maintenance throughout the year,
all needs of the busses are catered by the branches round the clock. A crew of
skilled labour at every maintenance wing strive to keep all busses running all
the time with the limited resources provided by the department itself.
1.2. DIFFERENT SECTIONS
1.2.1. TYRE SECTION
Here, the tyres of all busses are looked after. Tyres of different
sizes are used as per specifications of the manufacturer. Mostly, all tyres are re26

groovable. Once theyre fully worn, each tyre is re- treaded by the dept. at least
once.
Puncture works, spare tyre maintenance, providing each bus with all tools
sufficient to deal with any tyre malfunction/ failure while en- route, and all sorts
of tyre repair/ maintenance works are taken care by this section.
1.2.2. WEEKLY MAINTENANCE SECTION
Provided with a hydraulic hoist and two ramps, the labours gain
access to every nook and corner of the vehicles under parts with ease.
Here, they look after the part of maintenance that has to be carried out
each week, such as chassis lubrication, evacuation of water from air tank,
adjustment of wearing parts such as brakes and clutches, visual inspection of
almost all the functional parts, etc
1.2.3. MONTHLY MAINTENANCE SECTION
The so called wheel service which includes striping all the
wheels of the busses all the way up to the axle, to inspect the condition of the
wheel bearings, clean the old lubricant, and to apply new lubricants is done in
this section. Air filter clean up is done by looking at the red band indicator.

1.2.4. BI-MONTHLY MAINTENANCE SECTION


Adjustment of the valve clearance of the engine as per the
manufacturers specifications by PCRA labours is carried out in this section.
Their main function is to maintain the vehicles performance always at the
maximum level possible, to achieve top notch fuel efficiency and to keep
emissions under control.
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1.2.5. SEMESTER MAINTENANCE SECTION


A complete re- conditioning of the bus is carried out along with a
thorough paint job and stringent repair works are done so that the bus complies
with the fitness standards of the dept. Thus the bus is issued a fitness certificate
by the dept. which is valid for the next six months.
The fitness certificate by the dept. is accompanied by a certificate given
by the Regional Transport Officer, which is valid for twelve months. Though
every bus comes under this tenure, the dept. maintains its own standards by
having the fitness tested and checked every six months.
1.2.6. STORE
Inventory from where all the new parts for the busses are obtained
and the scraps are stored.

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1.3. SITE LAYOUT

FUEL STATION

BATTERY ROOM

TYRE SECTION

TECHNITIANS LEISURE
ROOM

BUS STAND

WORK SHOP

ADMINISTRATIVE
OFFICE

STORE

DRIVERS/ TECHNITIANS TRAINING CLASS ROOMS

SECURITY ROOM

FIG. 1.1 SITE LAYOUT

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CHAPTER 2
FUNCTIONS

2.1. RUNNING REPAIRS


The crew of experienced mechanics are well versed in trouble shooting
any faults that arise out of nowhere or by mishandling, wear or any other
external factors. Once the problem is sorted out, the required mechanics gather
up, and will fix it immediately so as not to create any discomfort to the users.
Any kind of repair works can be dealt with at the maintenance wing at each
zone. Parts that could be reconditioned are collected from all zones and
reconditioned at a common place in Pollachi, and supplied to where ever it is
necessary.
2.2. A COMMON PROBLEM
Since this maintenance wing deals with busses operated in hilly terrain,
the most common problem among all busses is that, failure of leaf springs of the
suspension. With an average of ten cases per day, it stands first on the scale.
The complete faulty spring arrangement colloquially called as CUT is
replaced with a new / working set of springs.
The broken springs are reconditioned / recycled at Pollachi, and are
reused.
2.3. SCRAP MAINTENANCE
Scraps are collected and auctioned once a year.

30

2.4. CONCEPT OF IDLE BUS


Once a bus has completed its life of 15 to 16 lac kms, it is termed as idle
and is declared as a scrap even if it is in running condition. The labours get all
freedom to utilize all functional parts from the so called idle bus, i.e, if there is a
demand for a spare part, irrespective of availability and cost, it is desirable that
the part is obtained from the idle bus, and the faulty part is installed on the idle
bus.
At a point of time, once the idle bus is devoid of working parts, it is
auctioned a scrap, but in the shape of a bus.

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CHAPTER 3
CONCLUSION
An In-Plant Training at TNSTC was not like one in the previous industry.
We received real training with strict supervision and we were asked to perform
tough tasks within some specified time. This training gave me a good exposure
to the basic problems in automobiles and troubleshooting techniques as how
experts do it.

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