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Study and Design "Yagi-Uda Crossed

Antenna" using 4NEC2


Hesham Mokhtar

Rasim Amer Ali

College of Engineering Sciences and


Technology. Sebha University

Emails:- rasim63213@gmail.com
Hma_trix2@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT
Boils down to this project in the study of (Yagi-Uda Crossed Antenna),
and the study was in the bandwidth of (180-220MHz), using 4NEC2 "
wired antennas simulator", and the simulation process shows that the
characteristics of this antenna has been improved through automatic
modification in the antenna amounts , and trough the optimization
process the obtaining gain was having a maximum value of 14.17dBic..

INTRODUCTION
Wireless communication is one of the most important technologies
rapidly grow and spread, where the demand for data transmission
without cables and by different distances in increasing every day
,therefore become the development of wireless communication systems
is absolutely imperative, it is also known that the communications
system generally consists of, the source , which is asource of the
information or data to be sent, the power converter is usually converts
information from the source into electrical signals to be able to send it
via system transmission, the sender is based processing electrical signals
issued from the converter to be suitable for transmission through the
communication channel, the transmission channel which is the medium
that connects between the sender and the receiver, and finally the
receiver to extraction the data from the signal transmitter and delivered
to the power converter of output system which converts these signals to
the original form as it was before sending it.
The role of the antenna here in the sender and any future it an essential
part and indispensable in the communications system as that in the case
of sending it converts electrical energy from the transmission line which
connected with to the electromagnetic energy represented in waves
transmitted into the air or vice versa as in the case of reception
depending on the type and characteristics of the antenna. And generally
the Wired antenna characterized by simply installed ,Where any wire or
metal surface have the ability to be antenna and be able to pick up
electromagnetic waves but practical antennas have its forms and specific
dimensions determined by the purpose for which it was made.
And In this work was designed and study radiological characteristics to
one of the most important applications of (Yagi-Uda) antenna, a (YagyUda Crossed Antenna) at bandwidth of (180-220 MHz),its a very
practical antenna , Because the waves that radiate be circular or linear
polarized and This is appropriate in some applications such as satellite
communication systems and some radars, The designed antenna has

been simulated by using an application software for the antennas wired


design "4NEC2" [6], This simulation allows view detailed properties of
the antenna, which provides high accuracy in the results And economize
time and effort, The software also features the ability to improve the
radiation characteristics of the antenna designed, This is happened by
doing an automatic changing process to the input dimensions of the
antenna for the optimization process and choose the best values of
results after finishing the Automatic comparison process .

1.The Software ''2NEC4'' :(NEC) is the abbreviation to (Numerical Electric Code) which a way for
simulate wired antennas, attributed to Gerald J. Burke and Andrew J.
Poggio originally was created by using FORTRAN language in the midseventies, and to achieve this simulation the antenna must divided into a
small sections linearly with a different values of current and voltage in
each segment, the NEC is based on (Moment Methods theory),
therefore the results are very accurate and typical, It also provides a lot
of effort and time because of the difficulty and complexity of the
mathematical analysis using this method, and over time increased the
flaws and weaknesses in the simulation using NEC For example, the
resulting simulation errors when wires are crossed in a very short
distances or when using coated wire, In addition it was a highly
confidential for a very long time were not allowed even marketed on the
Internet, This has been overcome defects in 4NEC2,which programmed
by (Arie Voors) and so named because it combines proportion between
versions NEC2 and NEC4, In addition to it is free and also mentions in
this field the simulation program"EZNEC", which is not as potential
strong and effectiveness 4NEC2 [13].
2. Moment Methods :Method of moments technique known method to solve linear equations,
The conversion is used integral equations for the electric field to the
matrix equations or system of linear equations. Transactions can be
found using the current fragmentation of matrixes (LU), or using

deletion by GaussSeidel method from linear algebraic methods. The


basic form of the equation which has been replaced by the method of
moments [61].

L (u ) f ,......................(1)
Where L linear variable, U undefined function, f-feeding function.
array equation written according to Ohm's law on image:-

Z I V ....................(2)
m ,n

Where the impedance array be on the image:-

Z w
m, n

, L(un .................(3)

Where wm is a test function or weight


While the current array are:

I n n ...............................(4)
And voltage array have the following image:-

Vm wm , f .......................(5)

3.Studying the antenna design:3.1-Specifications antenna designed:receiving Frequency was selected by 200Mhz and based on this
wavelength will be determined and can be calculated from following
relation:=

3 10
= 1.5m
200 10

Where : wavelength of receiving Frequency


C: is the speed of light
F: Frequency and unity hertz

and the maximum value of the gain obtained after building antenna is
12.07 dBic were obtained value 14.17dBic after the optimization
process.
Overall Length of the antenna 3.15m
width antenna 0.675m
Number of the driven elements 1 * 2 type of folded dipole
Number of the reflectors 1 * 2
Number the director elements 9*2
The elements will be lengths depending on the typical measurements
Yagi antenna and it is as follows : the length of the driven element will be (0.45-0.49).
the Length of the reflector will be (0.5-0.525).
the length of the director will be (0.4-0.45).
The distance between the reflector and driven element will be
(0.15-0.25).
The distance between the directors will be (0.3-0.4).
And measurements of the lengths of the elements that have been
calculated depending on the previous typical length of the shown in the
table (1).

Table (1) lengths of antenna elements depending on the typical lengths


Element

actor symbol of

distance in 4NEC2
software

Typical value of the

distance for wavelength ()

The value element


length by meter
(m)

Driven

Element

The wires diameters

length

FDL

0.45

0.675

width

FDW

6% FDL

0.03969

The gap

Gap

3% FDL

0.02

Reflector

HLR*2

0.5

0.75

1st director

HL1*2

0.4

0.6

2nd director

HL2*2

0.4

0.6

3rd director

HL3*2

0.4

0.6

4th director

HL4*2

0.4

0.6

5th director

HL5*2

0.4

0.6

6th director

HL6*2

0.4

0.6

7th director

HL7*2

0.4

0.6

8th director

HL8*2

0.4

0.6

9th director

HL9*2

0.4

0.6

0.002

0.003

ZC

___

450 ()

LC

0.5

0.75

Directors

re

Driven Element

wr

Source wire

rs

Impedance of the
transmission line
The length of the

transmission line

3.2.Installation of antenna elements: After knowing the typical dimensions of the antenna elements, which
will be assembled, and been installing these elements with this
dimensions and through the steps of the installing will be study the
effect of increasing the number of directors on the characteristics of the
antenna after each step and after the completion of that, the
dimensions will be optimized for the best properties as possible to the
designed antenna

the elements have been installed starting from the horizontal feeder
element down to the ninth- vertical director which was reached a full
gain on this point its value is 12.07 dBic which is a good value before the
optimization process, and installation process have been done with the
following sequence:
Install the horizontal driven element.
Adding the horizontal reflector and the distance between the
reflector and the driven element is less than the distance between
the driven element and the nearest director[9].
Adding a horizontal director.
Installing of the vertical driven element with a minimum
separation (a quarter wavelength) and that as previously
mentioned for make phase delay rate of 90 to form the desired
circular polarization [11]
Adding the vertical reflector so that the distance from it to the
vertical driven element is equal to the distance from the
horizontal reflector to horizontal driven element
Finally, adding the vertical director so that distance to the first
vertical driven element is equal to the distance the horizontal
director element for the horizontal driven element and then the
remaining directors are added one after the other as the
dimensions shown in the table (2).

Table (2) elements and dimensions according to the designed antenna


Distances

The distance between the vertical


and horizontal elements
(A quarter wavelength)

The Distance between the


reflector and the driven

Space from 1st director to the


driven element

Space from 2nd director to the


driven element

Space from 3rd director to the


driven element

Space from 4th director to the


driven element

Space from 5th director to the


driven element

Space from 6th director to the


driven element

Space from 7th director to the


driven element

Space from 8th director to the


driven element

Space from 9th director to the


driven element

actor symbol of distance

Typical value of the

Typical value of
the distance for

in 4NEC2 software

distance for wavelength ()

QWL

0.25

0.375

XD

0.2

0.3

X1

0.3

0.45

X2

0.6

0.9

X3

0.9

1.35

X4

1.2

1.8

X5

1.5

2.25

X6

1.8

2.7

X7

2.1

3.150

X8

2.3

3.6

X9

2.6

4.05

wavelength ()

3.3.Simulation results using NEC: And the group Figures of (1) and (2) describes sequentially a threedimensional Steps for installing the designed antenna and the
evolution of radiation pattern that comes from left hand circular
polarization (LHCP) at the frequency 200MHz for each step and
reaching to adding directors, each form displays the progress in two
steps together which mean installation horizontal and vertical
director together in every form, this to the large number of directors,
become clear from the forms that antenna radiation to heading for
forward direction with addition of every director and that's means
increasing the gain, the directional and the efficiency of the designed
antenna : -

Figure (1) horizontal folded dipole

Figure (2) the ninth vertical director (9TH V)

Evidenced by a previous forms the significant impact which caused by


the increasing of each director in the radiation pattern of the antenna.

The table(3) shows the changing in the most important characteristics


of the antenna radiation pattern when you add every the director where
we note significant positive change in most of the characteristics after
the addition of the first vertical-director, Except the significant increase
in the gain most of characteristics were not affected much with
increasing the number of directors after the first vertical director and
gain almost stabled at the ninth vertical director where the gain not
changed when you add Doubles tenth vertical and horizontal directors
and were value of 12.071dBic as well the rest of the characteristics was
approximately equal to the last result obtained from the ninth vertical
director so the design has been installed on the number of Nine Even
directors.

Table (3) the changing in the most important characteristics of the antenna radiation
when you add every directed at 200MHz frequency

SWR

Refl
coef

GAIN(dBic)

F/B(dBic)

F/R(dBic)

R(ohm)

X(ohm)

Z(ohm)

phase

HLR1-H

6.68

-2.62

7.61

11.39

10.89

223.93

154.65

272.14

34.63

HLR1-V

3.46

-5.17

7.53

11.02

11.02

109.41

77.74

134.22

35.39

HLR2-H

3.24

-5.54

7.89

13.07

11.15

117.25

67.64

135.37

29.98

HLR2-V

3.06

-5.9

8.18

16.32

10.26

123.18

56.29

135.43

24.56

HLR3-H

3.31

-5.43

8.58

13.33

10.25

126.21

65.82

142.34

27.54

HLR3-V

3.59

-4.97

11.5

9.96

128.26

76.54

149.36

30.83

HLR4-H

3.38

-5.29

9.45

13.45

11.46

120.32

71.69

140.06

30.79

HLR4-V

3.20

-5.62

9.8

15.75

13.26

113.42

67.41

131.93

30.72

HLR5-H

3.23

-5.56

9.98

15.5

13.22

120.69

65.63

137.38

28.54

HLR5-V

3.27

-5.48

10.15

15.5

12.12

128.32

63.17

143.02

26.21

HLR6-H

3.38

-5.29

10.48

14.21

12.41

124.99

69.47

143.13

29.16

HLR6-V

3.49

-5.11

10.81

13.11

11.96

121.02

75.82

142.81

32.07

HLR7-H

3.30

-5.43

11.04

15.64

15.58

119.48

69.04

137.99

30.02

HLR7-V

3.13

-5.75

11.23

20.78

13.90

117.67

62.89

133.43

28.13

HLR8-H

3.26

-5.49

11.37

16.49

15.81

123.07

65.96

139.63

28.18

HLR8-V

3.41

-5.21

11.52

14.3

13.5

128.68

69.33

146.20

28.27

HLR9-H

3.38

-5.28

11.8

15.7

15.7

122.60

70.07

141.50

30.02

HLR9-V

3.35

-5.35

12.07

15.9

15.5

116.02

72.05

137.33

31.09

Table (4) shows the comparison between the dimensions of the antenna before and
after the optimization process
Variable Name

Value before Optimization(m)

Value After Optimization(m)

Fdl

0.675

0.6295

Fdw

0.0397

0.0397

Qwl

0.375

0.375

Hlr

0.375

0.359

XD

0.3

0.299

Hl1*2

0.6

0.652

Hl2*2

0.6

0.618

Hl3*2

0.6

0.618

Hl4*2

0.6

0.618

Hl5*2

0.6

0.610

Hl6*2

0.6

0.604

Hl7*2

0.6

0.614

HL8*2

0.6

0.600

HL9*2

0.6

0.604

X1

0.45

0.445

X2

0.9

0.914

X3

1.35

1.321

X4

1.8

1.778

X5

2.25

2.269

X6

2.7

2.668

X7

3.15

3.097

X8

3.6

3.577

X9

4.05

4.053

Evident from this table (4) after the optimization process of the
observed change relatively in some of lengths, such as the decrease in
the length of the driven element (FDL) and the increase in the length of
the first director (HL1) as a result of their positively effect on the specific
characteristics during the optimization process and in the process has
been the focus on (SWR-GAIN-Xin), and stability or changing of some
other values is remarkably like the driven element width (Fdw) and the
distance between the two antennas (Qwl) the lengths of the rest of the
director (hlx), and that for nonexistence of their positive effect in the
mentioned characteristics.
And the table (3.5) shows the values of the antenna characteristics after
the optimization process at the operating frequency 200MHz, where it
was a good value for (SWR) is 1.15, the value very close to 1 and reflect
the strong interdependence of the antenna elements with an
acceptable value for the impedance of the antenna by 43.603.

Table (5) shows the values of the characteristics of the antenna after the
optimization process

SWR

Refl
coef

GAIN(dBic)

F/B(dBic)

F/R(dBic)

R(ohm)

X(ohm)

Z(ohm)

phase

-0.47

43.6

-0.62

After Optimizing in (SWR-GAIN-Xin)


HLR9-V

1.15

-23.2

14.17

13.64

13.64

45.94

Figure (3) is the final form of radiation pattern of the designed antenna
after the optimization process and noted here the improvement in the
gain and the directional of the antenna.

Figure (3) final radiation pattern of the designed antenna after the optimization process

3.4.studying the characteristics of the antenna in the limited


bandwidth between MHz (150-250) before and after the optimization
process: 3.4.1. The relation between the gain and the changing in the
frequency:
Figure (4) The relation between gain and the change in frequency and
noted that the gain before the optimization process began in the sharp
rise at the frequency 165MHz where the value of 2dBic and reached its
peak at the frequency 212MHz value of 13.32dBic and a sharp drop in
the gain at the frequency 220MHz, but after the optimization process of
change observed in gain the begin at the frequency 180MHz value of
5.12dBic and reaching to the highest gain at operating frequency
200MHz value of 14.17dBic and sharp fall occurred after the frequency
214MHz, which fell then to 3.36dBic.

Figure (4) the relation between the gain and the change in frequency

3.4.2. The relationship between the ratio of forward - to - back (F / B


ratio) and the change in frequency: evidenced by figure that the sharply change of positive values to the
ratio of forward - to - back happening in the trapped bandwidth
between MHz (178-222) beginning with value of 0.6 dBic and reaching to
value of 5.17 dBic with highly extreme value of 19.34dBic at the
frequency 196MHz and the maximum value was 28.97dBic at frequency
211MHz, In addition to this change sharp which illustrated by the
relation curve before the optimization process has dropped significantly
after this operation, This shows the relative stability that event to
change in the radiation pattern of the antenna after the optimization
process in the trapped bandwidth between (181-215)MHz.

Figure (5) the relation between forward - to - back ratio and change in frequency

3.4.3. The relationship between the voltage standing wave ratio


(VSWR) and the change in frequency: Shown in Figure (6) that the best value reached by the VSWR before the
optimization process is 1.73 dBic at frequency 194MHz and after
optimization was reached the lowest value at the operating frequency
200MHz which was 1.14dBic ,a value very close to the ideal with the
observation that VSWR less than 2 per bandwidthtrapped between MHz
(195-205) and this means that the antenna works in a narrow
bandwidth, but with very high efficiency.

Figure (6) the relation between the standing wave ratio and the change in frequency

3.4.4. The relation between the reflection coefficient and the change in
frequency: While the studying of the relation between the reflection coefficient
and the change in frequency was found to be before the optimization
process ranges from 0 to -1 until the frequency 177MHz where its value
reduced after this frequency up to the value of -11.59 at frequency
192MHz Similarly, after the optimization process, but begin decreasing
after frequency 184MHz and the lowest value reached was at the
operating frequency of 200MHz which is -23.28.

Figure (7) the relation between the reflection coefficient and the change in frequency

3.4.5. The relation between the input impedance of the antenna


impedance (Zin) and the change in frequency: Input Impedance (Zin)Were studied, which represents tow parts the real
part which is a input resistance of the antenna (Rin) and the imaginary
part which is the reactance of the antenna (Xin), and clear of the two
forms (8) and (9), a significant decrease in the values of the resistance
and the high rising of the value of the reactor while nearing to the value
of the operating frequency 200Mhz until getting the best value for the
resistance which was 43.601 with the value of the reactance of-0.47
which gave a suitable impedance to the antenna in the bandwidth (190210) MHz as shown in the figure (10).

Figure (8) the relation between the real part of the impedance and the change in frequency

Figure (9) the relation between the imaginary part of the impedance and the change in
frequency

Figure (10) the relation between the real part of the impedance and the change in frequency

CONCLUSIONS
In this work has been designed a Crossed Yagi antenna with a
frequency of operating 200Mhz, and it is a one of the antennas with
Special characteristics in the applications of YAGI UDA antenna , and the
operation of the design and simulation of the antenna was done by
using the software of 4NEC2 the latest version of it (5.8.8), and the
optimization process was procedure out to reach to the fitness
characteristics at the operating frequency and with a left hand circular
polarization LHCP, And through simulation and study of these
characteristics has been reached the following conclusions: 1. the antenna Works within bandwidth (180-220)MHz and very high
efficiency at the operating frequency as the value of input
antenna impedance was ZIN= 43.6 which is close to the ideal
value of the cable 50.
2. The values of the antenna characteristics Improving when increase
each director in general and the gain in particular, and all the
characteristics stabilized after adding a certain number on the
frequency and the antenna dimensions.
3. have been obtaining an SWR value of 1.15 after the optimization
process, and it is so close to the ideal value of 1.
4. have been obtaining an gain of 12.07dBic before the optimization
process and maximum gain of 14.17dBic later at the operating
frequency.
5. Maximum relatively significant change has happened to the
dimensions of the antenna elements after the optimization
process was just only in two elements where the estimated rate of
decrease in the length of the driven element of 6.74% and an
increase in the length of the first director of 1.6%, which proves

how great their effect in improving the characteristics of the


designed antenna.
6. ability of this antenna (Crossed Yagi) to generate linear polarized
both types of horizontal and vertical and circular polarization both
types of right and left (RHCP, LHCP), without a change in the
structure of the physical what sets it apart from a lot of other
wired antennas and qualifies it to work in more than one
application according to the desired polarization.
7. The effective of 4NEC2 in simulating wired antennas and the
ability to improve the characteristics of different dimensions
available within the program of the designed antenna and reach
to the accurate results, and close to the ideal values effectively,
and the possibility of studying the characteristics of the designed
antenna detailed and accurate and in addition it provides a
graphical results in two-and three-dimensional.
And accordingly, we recommend that you study this antenna in
practice and identify deficiencies by the manufacturing process.

REFERENCES
[1] R. E. Collin, Antennas and Radiowave Propagation, International Edition,
McGrraw-Hill, Singapore, 1985.
[2] F. R. Connor, Wave Transmission, Edward Arnold Publishers Ltd, 1972.
[3] L. V. Blake, Antennas, John Wile & sons Inc, New York, 1966.
[4] C. A. Blainins,"Antenna Theory Analysis and design", 3rd Ed., John Wiley & sons
Inc, New Jersey, 2005.
[5] J. D. Kraus, Antennas, 2nd Ed., Mc Grow-Hill, Intrenational editon, New delhi,
1997.
[6] 4NEC2 , Version 5.8.8, By Air voors, Apr 2012.
[7] Dr. Mohamed Kamel and Dr. Majeed Abdul Rahman, "Electromagnetics
Engineering ", Part I, University of Jordan, Amman, 2005.
[8] translation and preparation of Mohamed Anas long, "wireless networks in the
developing countries," Research Center for International Development, Canada, 2008.
[9] d. Hassan Al Kamshushi, "antennas Engineering and wave propagation", Part II,
Dar Al Ratb university, Beirut, 1998.
[10] Dr. Nader Abdel-Hamed Ali Omar, antennas.
[11] H. R. Joseph, "Antenna Selection and Specification Made Easy", Astron
Antenna Co, available at :http://www. Scribd.com .
[12] Article published in the Union de Radioaficionados Espanoles (URE), july,
2006, available at : http://www. Scribd.com .
[13] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_Electromagnetics_Code
From Wikipedia, This page was last modified on 6 April 2012 at 21:28