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SOCETY OF PETROLFUM ENGINEERS OF AlME 6300 North Central Expressway Dallas 6, Texas PAPER THIS
SOCETY OF PETROLFUM ENGINEERS OF AlME
6300 North Central Expressway
Dallas 6, Texas
PAPER
THIS IS A PmPRINT --- SUaTECT TO CORRECTION
GAS WELL TESTING---STORAGE
Donald L.
Katz,
Member AIME, U.
of Michigan,
Ann Arbor,
Mich.
Publication Rights Reserved
This paper is to be presented at the 39th Annual Fall.Meeting to be held in Houston,
Tex.,
on
Oct.
11-14,
1964,
and is considered the property of the Society of Petroleum Ehgineers.
Permission to
publish is hereby restricted to an abstract
of not more than 300 words,
with no illustrations,
unless
the paper is specifically released to the press by the Editor of theJournal of
Petroleum Technology or
the Executive Secretary.
Such abstract
should contain conspicu~usacknowle~entof where and by whm
the paper is presented. Publication elsewhere after publication in ,Journal of Petroleum Technology or
Socity of Petroleinn Engineers Journal is granted on request, providing proper credit is given that
publication
and the original presentation of the paper.
Discussion of this paper is invited.
Three
copies of
any discussion should be
sent to the Society
of Petroleum Engineers office. Such discussion may be presented at the above meeting and considered
-
for publicatidn in one of the two SPE magazines with the paper.
ABSTRACT
Any new wells drilled are tested to give their
flow capacity.
The usual back pressure tests or inflow test:
during gas injection are needed to understand gas
well flow capacities. Such individual well capa-
cities are combined into composite field deliver-
ability curves for predicting the flowing well
head pressure during heavy gas withdrawal periods,
Some practices for gas storage in both depleted
gas fields and aquifers are discussed.
The information of
interest is the composite
Gas wells are tested regularily in connectior
with storage operations .lj2 Two types of reser-
voirs will be considered; depleted gas fields and
aquifer storage fields. Generally, the objective
is to know the flow capacity of the gas wells
during the high withdrawal periods.
performance curve for the field. This is obtaine
by taking the sum of the flow capacities [Q]at a
given difference of squares of the pressures.
Such a field curve along with the gathering syste
pressure drop will give the field delivery pres-
sure for any flow rate and gas reservoir pres-
sure.lr2 The reservoir pressure is often observed
directly by a pressure observation well to find
Pf
DEPLETED GAS FlELaS
The flow capacity of gas wells is normally
determined shortly after drilling. At the time oJ
conversion of depleted gas fields to storage, it
is advisable to re-test the wells for deliver-
ability. Such tests usually must wait until a
reasonable degree of repressuring has taken place
to give enough gas pressure to permit blowing the
wells and to assure that the well sand face is
dry. A comparison of the re-test performance
with the original test indicates the degree of
deterioration and whether remedial work is indi-
cated. Fig. 1 shows a Stray Sand gas well with
severe deterioration during it's productive life.
Flow tests are most conveniently taken in th
summer time in a period corresponding to gas
injection rather than withdrawal. It has been
shown that inflow testing gives the same results
as outflow testing l-3 and Fig. 1 shows inflow
test results after conversion to gas storage. In
well testing it is customary to use a deadweight
pressure gage for well head pressure measurements
and individual well orifices meters.
The relative
close spacing of gas wells for
storage removes the usual problem of unsteady
state. However, before developing a reservoir,
initial tests on a gas well involving unsteady
state may be made in the manner followed by
~0bertson.l The more likely problem is that a
portion of the gas reservoir has high permea-
bility and hence contains most of the delivera-
bility capacity. Edge wells in the less per-
ie~erencesand illustrations at end of paper.
meable sand may represent considerable sand

NUMBFR SPE 9231A)

2 GAS WEU TEST17NG --- STORAGE SPE-923 rA1 I volume but a small portion of
2
GAS WEU TEST17NG --- STORAGE
SPE-923
rA1
I
volume but a small portion of the deliverability .
Readers are referred to the studies of Glass and
~essung~or to the method of plotting observation
well pressures vs gas content of reservoir for
sucessive injection
cycles. 1
as that which would not permit sand to cut the
well head in a short time. When restricting thos
wells which reach a flow capacity of 35 million
cu ft per day, the composite field curves take
the form shown in Fig. 4.
By testing the wells in a field at one or twc
year intervals, it has been possible to predict
flowing compressor station inlet pressures for a
given observation well pressure and flow rate to
within -5 to 8 psi.
3 .During the
1962-63 withdrawal. season, two
flow tests were made for the Herscher Galesville
field performance with the data shown on Table 1.
A comparison
of
the field performance with the
prediction
curve prepared a year earlier is shown
on Fig.
4.
AQUIFER
STORAGE ESERVOLRS
An early
step in developing an Aquifer
stor-
age reservoir is the coring and testing of cores
on the storage sand.
As a first approximation;
Once the equilibrium water level in an
aquifer recedes significantly below the perfora-
tions of the producing well, most of the wells
remain free of liquid water and the wells may be
the permeability of the
cores,
sand thickness,
an(
1
postulated pressure conditions can be used with
expected to match the performance predicted from
individual well tests.
steady state flow formulas to predict the capacik;
of the well for gas when the gas bubble has been
developed or the figure on page 439 of Reference I
T
EFFECT OF WATER PRODUrnION
L
may be used to find the deliverability
curve.
Should pumping data be taken on the water well to
ascertain the in situ permeability, procedures
described5 such permeability may be used in place
of the core data.
A common problem in producing a group of
wells from a colmnon reservoir into a common
gathering system is interference by water in the
flowing vertical column. First the increased
The effect of
a partially penetrating well
should be noted when making such flow calcula-
density of the vertical column reduces the back
pressure of any well producing more water than thj
average. At some gas flow rate and water rate,
liquid accumulation in the well bore increases
6
tions.
The chart developed by Muskat
permits an
approximate correction for sand thickness to be
used in flow calculations depending upon the thick
ness of
gas bubble and well penetration.
significantly, further decreasing the flowing bot
tom hole pressure. What is needed is a quick
means of telling the operator when a well is at a
flow condition where accumulation of water in the
well bore is about to take place. This requires
Once gas has been injected into the aquifer
to form a gas bubble and the sand face has been
dried by the injected gas, the usual back pres-
measurement of the water rate,
the gas rate,
and
flow string dimensions.
Tests and relationships
to handle
such water problems would be helpful.
sure test or inflow test
can be made on the gas
well. It is observed that the injection of gas
requires less pressure drop as the water is
removed from the smd adjacent to the injection
well. For a given well completion, but with
thickening gas bubble, the flow capacity should
increase due to the contribution made to flow by
the non-penetrated sand.
The information provided by J.
A.
Vary and
J. R. Elenbaas of Michigan Consolidated Gas Co.
and by 0. C. Davis and W. M. Rzepczynski of
Natural Gas Pipeline Co. of America is gratefully
acknowledged.
Most wells in a given reservoir may be ex-
EFEFaNCES
pected to have the same slope of the back pres-
1.
Katz, D. L.,
Cornell,
D.,
Kobayashi,
R.,
sure curves.
Fig.
2 is a multipoint
curve for a
Herscher Galesville sand well. The flow rate
points were taken by a critical flow prover while
the higher flow rates were taken with the individ-
ual wellmeter. This curve when checked with
~oettmann, F. H., vary, J. A., ~lenbaas;
J. R. and Weinaug, C. F.: Handbook of Nat-
ural Gas Eugineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co.,
Inc.,
N.
Y.
[1959].
2.
Katz, D.
L.,
Vary, J.
A.
and Elenbaas,
J.
R.
other wells was considered to represent the slope
for all wells.
"me Design of Gas Storage Fields",
Trans.,
AlME
[19591 216, 44.
3. Vary, J. A., Elenbaas, J. R. and Withrow,
In constructing the field curve,
one would
H. J. :
"In'put Flow Test Method for Determint
normally add the individual well flows at a fixed
difference of squares and use the slope estab-
lished for the field. At Herscher, some Gales-
ville wells, Fig. 3, have such a high flow capa-
city that it is desirable to restrict their flow
tion of Well Performance", Paper presented
Research Conference, U. of Michigan [l955 1.
a.
4.
Glass, E. D. and Hessing, R. C. : "A Method
of Computing Pressure Behavior and Volume of
Gas Storage Reservoir", Jour. Pet. Tech.
2, 544.
to 35 million cu ft per well
per day.
This rate
[19621
was established [28 ft per second linear velocity]
I
5.
Katz, D. L., Tek, M.R., Coats, K. H., Ka-tz,
-
SPE -923 [A] DONALD L. KATZ I M. L., Miller, M. C. and Jones, S.
SPE -923
[A]
DONALD L.
KATZ
I
M.
L.,
Miller,
M.
C.
and Jones,
S. :
Move-
ment of Gas in Contact with Natural Gas, Am.
Gas Association [1963].
6. Muskat, Morris. : Physical Principles of Oil
Production, McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., N. Y.
T19491.
TABLE I
-- CALCULATIONS OF FIELD DELIVEWILITY
DURING THE 1962-63 WITHDRAWAL
SEASON FROM THE GAIZSVILLF: SOUTH FZSERVOIR
- Date
Dec.
12,
1962
Jan.
21,
1963
No. of Flowing Wells
Shut-in Pressure, Pf
Wellhead,
psig
Reservoir,
psia
Flowing Pressure, Ps
Wellhead,
psig
Reservoir,
psia
in ~housands
Flow Volume,
MC~/D

3

Figure 1 Back Pressure Curves Reed City 34 Well, Stray Sand. FLOW RATE. MILLION cu.
Figure 1 Back Pressure Curves Reed City 34 Well, Stray Sand.
FLOW RATE. MILLION cu. ft.
per DAY
Figure 2Muitipoint Flow Test on Heraher Galesville Well.
Figure 3 Performance Curves of Individual Galesville Wells.
FLOW RATE. MILLIONS cu. ft. per DAY
Fgure 4 Composite Field DeliverabilityCurve of The Galesville
South Reservoir.