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Slide 1:

The need for the highly effective and efficient material in the world today is one of
most important reason that drives our current technology towards composites. The
increased availability of these light, stiff and strong materials have made it possible to
achieve a number of milestones in Aerospace technology. As you can see from the
graph, there is a greater usage of composites in the aerospace industry over the years.
Airbus and Boeing especially have managed to make use of more than 50%
composite in the construction of the aircraft body.
This slide shows the material breakdown of airbus A350. Basically, there is a shift
from the usage of aluminum to composites instead.
Similarly, this shows the material breakdown of boeing 787 dreamliner.
Let me focus more on the benefits the increased usage of composites has brought
Example of part count reductions (on first barrel section)
40,000 - 50,000 fasteners (80 percent reduction in fasteners)
More fuel efficient
At least 20 percent more fuel efficient than similarly sized airplanes
Produces fewer emissions
At least 20 percent fewer than similarly sized airplanes
Reduced Routine and Non-routine Maintenance
Less labour hours = further savings!
This labor hour reduction is due to the result of a reduced risk of corrosion and fatigue
of composites compared with metal.
Slide 5:
Of course, the use of composites are not restricted to the aircraft body, as you can see
roll Royce has plans to make use of composites in their engine design too.
Slide 6:
And also, we can see that airline seats can also be constructed by composites too.
Slide 7:
Why Composites?
Lightweight structures
Reduce fuel bills
Reduce emissions.

Cost of development are offset

Slide 8:
With the demand of composites projected to increase sharply in the near future, the
supply may not be enough to meet demand and so it might drive the cost of carbon
fiber up and further restrict the usage.
Slide 9:

Secondly, carbon fiber is difficult to be disposed of.

Most European Union (EU) member states passed laws forbidding

landfill disposal of composites. Further, incineration of plastics is
suspended because of the potential release of toxic byproducts.
Slide 10:
Luckily, there are already plans by companies such as Airbus to recycle
the carbon fiber.
Slide 11:
Carbon fibers are currently manufactured from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) precursors while small amounts are
derived from pitches, notably mesophase (MPP). However, due to the high cost of these petroleum-based
precursors and their associated processing costs, carbon fiber remains a specialty product and as such has
been limited for use in aerospace, sporting goods, high-end automotive, and specialist industrial applications.
Much of the preceding work was elaborate and therefore would most likely have been too expensive for
commercial manufacture. Several groups have more recently investigated the production of carbon fibers
from lignin directed towards improving the melt-spinning of lignin fiber and their conversion to carbon fiber
with lower cost. 1) carbon fiber from lignins without any additives or chemical modifications applied prior
to extrusion; (2) carbon fiber from lignins that were either coextruded, or chemically modified prior to
extrusion; and (3) efforts directed towards the manufacture of submicron carbon fibers from lignin.