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31 visualizzazioni3 pagineStructural Analysis and Introduction to FEM

Nov 12, 2014

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Structural Analysis and Introduction to FEM

© All Rights Reserved

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31 visualizzazioni3 pagineStructural Analysis and Introduction to FEM

© All Rights Reserved

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nts. Structural analysis incorporates the fields of applied mechanics, materials

science and applied mathematics and by calculating the primary unknowns (nodal

degree of freedom) in structural analysis to compute a structures deformation, i

nternal stresses, forces, support reactions and stability. The results of analys

is used to verify a structures fitness for its deployment / use, which often sav

ing physical tests. It is thus a key part of the engineering design of structure

s.

Structural analysis is further divided as follows:

Static analysis

This type of analysis is taken into consideration during static loading conditio

ns, while determining the displacements, stresses, etc. It is further divided in

to linear and non-linear static analysis; non- linearities can include plasticit

y, stress stiffening, large deflection, large strain, hyper elasticity, contact

surfaces and creep.

It calculates the effects of steady loading conditions on a structure while igno

ring inertia and damping effects, which are caused by time-varying loads. A stat

ic analysis can however include steady state loads (such as gravity), and time v

arying loads can be approximated as static equivalent loads (like static equival

ent wind loads and seismic loads).

Dynamic analysis

It allows us to understand the behavior of a structure under a time-varying load

. The time-varying load includes induces time-varying response (displacements, v

elocities, acceleration, forces and stresses). This characteristic of dynamic an

alysis makes them more complicated, but also more realistic than static analysis

. It includes the real time effects like inertia and damping. It is further divi

ded into modal analysis, harmonic analysis, spectrum analysis, transient dynamic

analysis, explicit dynamic analysis.

Modal analysis

It is the most fundamental type of all the dynamic analysis. This type of analys

is is taken into consideration while a machine structure or component while it i

s being designed to determine its vibrational characteristics (natural frequenci

es and mode shapes). The prime concern of modal analysis is to design the vibrat

ional modes of a system away from its known operating frequencies. The vibration

al characteristics are important parameters in the design of a structure for dyn

amic loading conditions.

Finite Element Method (FEM):

It is also known as finite element analysis. It is the most popular numerical me

thod. FEM is discretization of integral form of equations.

Boundary element Method (BEM):

It is a very powerful and efficient technique to solve acoustics problems. This

method also requires nodes and elements but it considers only outer boundary of

the domain. So in case if the problems is of a volume, only outer surface are co

nsidered. If the domain is area then only periphery is considered. By this way i

t reduces the dimensionality of a problem to one degree and thus solving it fast

er.

Finite volume method (FVM):

All computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software s are based on FVM. Unit volume is

considered in finite volume method. Variable properties at nodes are pressure,

velocity, area, mass etc.

Finite difference method (FDM):

Finite difference method is discretization of partial differential equation. FEM

and FDM share many common things. In general FDM is described as a way to solve

differential equation. It uses Taylor s series to convert differential equation t

Thermal and CFD coupled problems.

Introduction to FEM

The Finite Element Analysis is a numerical procedure that can be used to obtain

solutions to a large class of engineering problems involving stress analysis, he

at transfer, fluid flow etc.

In general engineering problems are mathematical models of physical situations.

Mathematical models of many engineering problems are differential equations with

a set of boundary conditions.

The given engineering problem can be solved in different ways.

Analytical method: Classical approach, it provides 100% accurate results. Closed

form solution. This method is applicable only for simple problems like cantilev

er, simply supported beams etc. real life complicated problems cannot be solved

by this method. Though analytical methods could also give approximate results if

the solution is not closed form, but in general and broad-sense it is considere

d as closed form solution i.e. 100% accurate.

Numerical method: It is based on mathematical representation. In this approach a

pproximate assumptions are made. It can be applied even if physical prototype is

not available (during initial design phase). Real life complicated problems can

be solved. The results cannot be believed blindly it has to be verified using e

xperimental method or by hand calculation to know the range of results. Eg: Fini

te Element Method, Boundary Element Method, Finite Volume Method, and Finite Dif

ference Method.

Experimental Method: It employs actual measurement. It is a time consuming and r

equires expensive set up. This method can be employed only if physical prototype

is available. Results can be accepted only, by testing min 3 to 5 prototypes.

Eg: Strain gauge, Photo elasticity, Vibrations measurements, Fatigue test.

Steps in finite element analysis

The following are the steps involved in finite element method.

Discretization of the structure

Selection of a proper interpolation or displacement model

Derivation of elemental characteristics

Assemblage of elemental equations to obtain overall equilibrium equations

Applying boundary conditions

Solution for the unknown nodal displacements

Computation of elemental strains and stresses

Discretization of the structure

The first step involved in the finite element method is to divide the given cont

inuum or solution region into sub-regions called elements. Hence the structure i

s to be modeled with suitable elements. The number, type, size and arrangement o

f the elements are to be decided based on the accuracy required

Selection of a proper displacement model

Since the displacement solution of a structure or continuum under any specified

load conditions cannot be predicted exactly. We assume suitable solution within

an element to approximate the unknown solution. The assumed solution is known as

displacement model which need to be simple from computational stand point, but

it should also satisfy certain convergence requirement.

Derivation of element characteristics

The characteristic stiffness [k] and the driving force vector/load vector {f} ar

e to be derived by using either equilibrium conditions or suitable variations pr

inciple. In case of continuum problems such as fluid dynamics the terms used is

characteristics matrix and driving force vector, whereas in the case of the elas

ticity problem, the respective quantities are referred as stiffness matrix and l

oad vector.

Assemblage of elemental equations to obtain the global equilibrium equations

Since the structure is composed of several finite elements, the individual eleme

nt stiffness matrices, displacement and load vectors are to be assembled in a su

[K] {Q} = {F}

Where [K] = Global stiffness matrix

{Q}= Global displacement matrix

{F}= Global force vector

Applying boundary conditions

A problem is incomplete unless boundary conditions are specified. In fact withou

t imposing boundary conditions, the element and global stiffness matrix becomes

singular. Thus boundary conditions are applied.

Solution for the unknown nodal displacements

Unknown solutions are found from the equilibrium equation of the continuum after

applying boundary conditions of problem. After employing boundary conditions, t

he equilibrium equations are solved by various methods which are capable of hand

ling boundary conditions such as Gauss elimination method, Penalty method, multi

constraint method.

Computation of elemental strains and stresses

From the solved nodal displacements, the elemental stresses and strains and stre

sses are calculated using classical reactions.

Advantages and Disadvantages of FEM

Advantages

It can handle irregular boundary problems

It allows easy modification

It can handle nonlinear problems

It can handle complex loadings and geometry

Disadvantages

It is an approximate solution

Element density and shape affect the solution

Wrong input by the user might cause fatal errors

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