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18 visualizzazioni19 paginePresented at the Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute (SSSI) Land Surveying Commission National Conference,
Melbourne, 18-21 April, 2012

Nov 11, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

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Presented at the Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute (SSSI) Land Surveying Commission National Conference,
Melbourne, 18-21 April, 2012

© All Rights Reserved

18 visualizzazioni

Presented at the Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute (SSSI) Land Surveying Commission National Conference,
Melbourne, 18-21 April, 2012

© All Rights Reserved

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Karney-Krueger equations

1

School of Mathematical and Geospatial Sciences, RMIT University

2

Maribyrnong, VIC, Australia.

3

Princeton, N.J., USA.

email: rod.deakin@rmit.edu.au

Melbourne, 18-21 April, 2012

ABSTRACT

The Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) coordinate

system has at its core, equations that enable the

transformations from geographic to grid coordinates and

vice versa. These equations have a long history

stretching back to Gauss and his survey of Hannover in

the early 1800's but their modern formulation is due to L.

Krueger (1912) who synthesised Gauss and other work

on the transverse Mercator (TM) projection of the

ellipsoid. Krueger developed two methods of

transformation and the equations of his second method

have become the de facto standard for the UTM and other

TM projection systems. Unfortunately these are

complicated and have limited accuracy. But the

equations for Kruegers first method which do not suffer

from these accuracy limitations are undergoing a

renaissance and a recent study by Charles Karney (2011)

has given these equations a make over. This paper

gives some insight into the development and use of the

Karney-Krueger equations.

INTRODUCTION

The transverse Mercator (TM) projection is a conformal

mapping of a reference ellipsoid of the earth onto a plane

where the equator and central meridian remain as straight

lines and the scale along the central meridian is constant;

all other meridians and parallels being complex curves

(Figure 5). The UTM is a mapping system that uses the

TM projection with certain restrictions (such as standard

6-wide longitude zones, central meridian scale factor of

0.9996, defined false origin offsets, etc.) and the GaussKrueger system is similar. And both are members of a

family of TM projections of which the spherical form was

originally developed by Johann Heinrich Lambert (17281777). This (spherical) projection is also called the

Gauss-Lambert projection acknowledging the

contribution of Carl Friedrich Gauss (17771855) to the

development of the TM projection. Snyder (1993) and

Lee (1976) have excellent summaries of the history of

development which we paraphrase below.

Gauss (c.1822) developed the ellipsoidal TM as one

example of his investigations in conformal

transformations using complex algebra and used it for the

survey of Hannover in the same decade. This projection

had constant scale along the central meridian and was

known as the Gauss conformal or Gauss' Hannover

1

projection' consisting of a conformal mapping of the

ellipsoid onto the sphere followed by a mapping from the

sphere to the plane using the spherical TM formula. This

projection was adapted by Oskar Schreiber and used for

the Prussian Land Survey of 1876-1923. It is also called

the Gauss-Schreiber projection and scale along the central

meridian is not constant. Gauss left few details of his

original developments and Schreiber (1866, 1897)

published an analysis of Gauss' methods, and Louis

Krueger (1912) re-evaluated both Gauss' and Schreiber's

work, hence the name Gauss-Krueger as a synonym for

the TM projection.

The aim of this paper is to give a detailed derivation of a

set of equations that we call the Karney-Krueger

equations. These equations give micrometre accuracy

anywhere within 30 of a central meridian; and at their

heart are two important series linking conformal latitude

and rectifying latitude . We provide a development

of these series noting our extensive use of the computer

algebra system Maxima in showing these series to high

orders of n; unlike Krueger who only had patience. And

without this computer tool it would be impossible to

realize the potential of his series.

Krueger gave another set of equations that we would

recognise as Thomas's or Redfearn's equations (Thomas

1952, Redfearn 1948). These other equations also

known as the TM projection are in wide use in the

geospatial community; but they are complicated, and only

accurate within a narrow band (3 6) about a central

meridian. We outline the development of these equations

but do not give them explicitly, as we do not wish to

promote their use. We also show that the use of these

equations can lead to large errors in some circumstances.

This paper supports the work of Engsager & Poder

(2007) who also use Krueger's series in their elegant

algorithms for a highly accurate transverse Mercator

projection but provide no derivation of the formulae.

Also, one of the authors (Karney 2011) has a detailed

analysis of the accuracy of our projection equations (the

Karney-Krueger equations) and this paper may be

regarded as background reading. [An earlier version of

this paper was presented at The Institution of Surveyors

Victoria, 25th Regional Survey Conference,

Warrnambool, 10-12 September 2010]

information that can be found in many geodesy and map

projection texts and could probably be omitted but they

are included here for completeness. As is the extensive

Appendix that may be useful to the student following the

development with pencil and paper at hand.

SOME PRELIMINARIES

The transverse Mercator (TM) projection is a mapping of

a reference ellipsoid of the earth onto a plane and some

definition of the ellipsoid and various associated

constants are useful. We then give a limited introduction

to differential geometry including definitions and

formulae for the Gaussian fundamental quantities e, f and

g, the differential distance ds and scale factors m, h and k.

Next, we define and give equations for the isometric

latitude , meridian distance M, quadrant length Q, the

rectifying radius A and the rectifying latitude . This

then provides the basic 'tools' to derive the conformal

latitude and show how the two important series

linking and are obtained.

a 2 b2

a2

eccentricity

2nd eccentricity

3rd flattening

a b

a

a 2 b2

b2

a b

a b

a2

c

b

polar radius

2

2

4n

f 2 f

2

2

1

1 n

(1)

(2)

1 1 2

f

2 f 1 1 2

a 1 2

sin

2

32

sin 2

a 1 2

12

c

V3

a

c

W V

(11)

(12)

1 n 2 2n cos 2

1 n

(13)

Gaussian fundamental quantities e, f, g; E , F , G and E,

F, G

used to define the location of points on the ellipsoid (the

datum surface) and these points can also have x,y,z

Cartesian coordinates where the positive z-axis is the

rotational axis of the ellipsoid passing through the north

pole, the x-y plane is the equatorial plane and the x-z

plane is the Greenwich meridian plane. The positive xaxis passes through the intersection of the Greenwich

meridian and equator and the positive y-axis is advanced

90 eastwards along the equator.

(3)

(4)

y y , cos sin

(5)

x x , cos cos

z z , 1 2 sin

(14)

is given by

(6)

ds

dx dy dz

2

(15)

f 2 f

2

4n

2

2

2

1

1 f 1 n

(prime vertical plane) at a point whose latitude is

are

V 2 1 2 cos 2

b

1

1 n a

1 f 1 2

2

a

1 n c

1

(10)

since 0 n 1 .

W 2 1 2 sin 2

by rotating an ellipse (whose semi-axes lengths are a and

b and a b ) about its minor axis. The ellipsoid is the

mathematical surface that idealizes the irregular shape of

the earth and it has the following geometrical constants:

The ellipsoid

flattening

is

(7)

(8)

(9)

x

x

d

d

y

y

dy

d

d

z

z

dz

d

d

dx

(16)

simplifying gives

ds

e d 2 f d d g d

2

(17)

Gaussian fundamental quantities and are given by

x y z

e

x x y y z z

f

2

e 2,

ed

f 0,

dS

x y z

g

2

X,Y,Z and , with , we have the differential

distance dS on this surface defined by

g d

(19)

(23)

(24)

surface) can be expressed as functions of the ,

curvilinear coordinates (datum surface) as

X X , , Y Y , , Z Z ,

and

dS

where

E d 2 F d d G d

2

P and the curves d and d pass through Q, and

rectangle formed by the curves may be regarded as a

plane figure whose opposite sides are parallel straight

lines enclosing a differentially small area da.

ds g d cos d

(20)

found from

f

eg

(21)

(26)

X Y Z

G

(27)

distances dS (projection surface) and ds (datum surface)

and is usually given as a squared value

m2

dS

2

ds

E d 2F d d G d

e d 2 f d d g d

2

E d 2 F d d G d

e d 2 f d d g d

2

(28)

E G

E G

and F 0 or

and F 0 the

e g

e g

scale factor m is the same in every direction and such

projections are known as conformal. For the ellipsoid

(datum surface) where the parametric curves , are an

orthogonal system and f 0 , this scale condition for

conformal projection of the ellipsoid is often expressed as

When

right angles (i.e., they form an orthogonal system of

curves) then 12 and cos 0 , and so from

equation (21) f 0 . Conversely, if f 0 the

parametric curves form an orthogonal system.

, curvilinear coordinates and X,Y,Z Cartesian

coordinates related by

X X , , Y Y , , Z Z ,

(25)

ds e d d

X Y Z

E

X X Y Y Z Z

cos

X Y Z

G

X Y Z

E

X X Y Y Z Z

F

(18)

ds

g 2 cos2

E d 2F d d G d

(22)

h k and F F 0

(29)

factor along the parallel of latitude. Using equations (28)

E d

e d

E

e

and k

G d

g d

G

g

(30)

Isometric latitude

According to the SOED (1993) isometric means: of

equal measure or dimension and we may think of

isometric parameters (isometric latitude) and

Imagine you are standing on the earth at the equator and

you measure a metre north and a metre east; both of these

equal lengths would represent almost equal angular

changes in latitude d and longitude d . Now imagine

you are close to the north pole; a metre in the north

direction will represent (almost) the same angular change

d as it did at the equator. But a metre in the east

direction would represent a much greater change in

longitude, i.e., equal north and east linear measures near

the pole do not correspond to equal angular measures.

What is required is isometric latitude , a variable

angular measure along a meridian that is defined by

considering the differential rectangle of Figure 1 and

equations (17) and (19) giving

ds 2

e d

g d

cos

1 sin

1 sin

1

2

(33)

ln tan 14 12

(34)

Meridian distance M

Meridian distance M is defined as the arc of the meridian

from the equator to the point of latitude

M d

a 1

W3

c

0 V3 d

(35)

c2 sin 2 c4 sin 4

c6 sin 6 c8 sin 8

(37)

c8

c10

c12

c14

of radius R; then R , 0 and the isometric

latitude is

c0

a

M

1 n

c6

(32)

(36)

evaluate the integral and M can be written as

c4

(31)

ln tan 14 12

d

2

3 2

a

1 n2 1 n2 2n cos 2 d

1 n 0

c2

d 2

2

2 cos 2

d

cos

2 cos 2 d d

c0 1

2 d 2 cos 2 d

terms for the same accuracy than meridian distance

formula involving powers of 2 . Helmert's method of

development (Deakin & Hunter 2010a) and with some

algebra we may write

c16

n

2

n

4

n

6

25

n

16384

3

3 3

3 5

15 7

n n

n

n

2

16

128

2048

15

15 4

75 6 105 8

n2

n

n

n

16

64

2048

8192

35

175 5 245 7

n3

n

n

48

768

6144

315 4 441 6 1323 8

n

n

n

512

2048

32768

693 5 2079 7

n

n

1280

10240

1001 6 1573 8

n

n

2048

8192

6435 7

n

14336

109395 8

n

262144

4

64

256

(38)

extended to order n8 ]

Quadrant length Q

The quadrant length of the ellipsoid Q is the length of the

meridian arc from the equator to the pole and is obtained

from equation (37) by setting 12 , and noting that

a

c0

2 1 n

(39)

terms of elementary functions; instead, the integrand is

expanded by use of the binomial series then the integral is

evaluated by term-by-term integration. The usual form of

the series formula for M is a function of and powers of

formula for meridian distance as a function of latitude

4

(Adams 1921):

If a sphere is determined such that the length of a

great circle upon it is equal in length to a meridian

upon the earth, we may calculate the latitudes upon

are equal to the corresponding arcs of the meridian

upon the earth.

radius A then meridian distance M is given by

M A

(40)

when 12 , M Q and (40) may be re-arranged to

order n8 as

A

1 n

1

4

n

2

1

64

n

6

256

25

16384

n

8

(41)

M

A

d 2 sin 2 d 4 sin 4 d 6 sin 6

where the coefficients d n are

3

9

d 2 n n3

2

16

35 3

d6 n

48

15

15

d4 n2 n4

16

32

315 4

d8

n

512

(42)

(43)

3

27

D2 n n3

2

32

151 3

D6

n

48

21

55

D4 n 2 n 4

16

32

1097 4

D8

n

512

(44)

(45)

Conformal latitude

onto the sphere (projection surface) is obtained by

enforcing the condition h k ; and with equations (19),

(30) and (47), replacing , with , where

appropriate, we have,

(48)

the condition that the scale factor along the equator be

unity, so that

a cos 0 d

1

0 cos 0 d

and d d . Substituting this result into equation (48)

gives

(49)

integrating both sides of (49) using the standard integral

result sec x dx ln tan 14 12 x and the previous result

ln tan

1 sin 2

ln tan 14 12

(50)

1

sin

1

4

1

2

[see equation (33)] and we may write

e tan 14 12

(51)

2 tan 1 e 12

(52)

(53)

differential relationship d d which is a

consequence of the scale factor along the equator being

unity, and longitude on the ellipsoid is identical to

longitude on the conformal sphere, which makes

using (11), (12) and (13) in the right-hand-side of (49)

giving

coordinates , (meridians and parallels) and X,Y,Z

Cartesian coordinates related by

X X , a cos cos

Z Z , a sin

(47)

Y Y , a cos sin

G a 2 cos2

is obtained by reversion of a series using Lagrange's

theorem (see Appendix) and to order n 4

F 0,

d

d

cos cos

has been used for the algebra by using a series

representation of c01 ]

D8 sin 8

E a2,

a d a cos d

d cos d

rectifying latitude to order n 4 as

d8 sin 8

, with , gives the Gaussian Fundamental

Quantities for the sphere as

1 n d

d

d

2

2

cos V cos 1 n 2n cos 2 cos

2

(46)

(54)

fractions gives

5

d

d

4n cos d

(55)

sec x dx ln tan 14 12 x and the useful identity

ln tan 14 12 x sinh 1 tan x [see (148) in Appendix]

we may write

4n cos d

(56)

1

n2 2n cos 2

0

with latitude and the integral on the right-hand-side of

(56) can be evaluated using Maxima and then combined

with sinh 1 tan to give . The conformal latitude

is then

tan 1 sinh

2

4

82

g 2 2n n 2 n3 n 4

3

3

45

5 2 16 3 13 4

g4 n n n

3

15

9

26

34

g 6 n3 n 4

15

21

1237 4

g8

n

630

(58)

8

(59)

10

12

latitude

a function of is set out in Deakin et al. (2010) that

follows the methods in Krueger (1912). A better

alternative, suggested by Charles Karney (2010), utilizes

the power of Maxima and is set out below:

The series (58) gives conformal latitude as a

function of latitude

[c]

3

7891

n2

14

16

61 3 103 4 15061 5

n

n

n

240

140

26880

167603 6 67102379 7

n

n

181440

29030400

79682431 8

n

79833600

49561 4 179 5 6601661 6

n

n

n

161280

168

7257600

97445 7 40176129013 8

n

n

49896

7664025600

34729 5 3418889 6

n

n

80640

1995840

14644087 7 2605413599 8

n

n

9123840

622702080

212378941 6 30705481 7

n

n

319334400

10378368

175214326799 8

n

58118860800

1522256789 7 16759934899 8

n

n

1383782400

3113510400

1424729850961 8

n

743921418240

(62)

order n8 ]

(58) may be reversed giving as a function of

5 3 41 4 127 5

n

n

n

16

180

288

72161 7

6

n

n

37800

387072

18975107 8

n

50803200

13 2 3 3 557 4 281 5

n n

n

n

48

5

1440

630

1983433 6 13769 7

n

n

1935360

28800

148003883 8

n

174182400

1

have not used his method of development.]

[a]

(57)

g8 sin 8

8 sin 8 10 sin10

12 sin12 14 sin14

(61)

16 sin16

(60)

8 sin 8 10 sin10 12 sin12

14 sin14 16 sin16

(63)

2 n n2

1

2

3

96199

37

n

3

n

4

81

constant.

96

360

512

5406467 7

n

n

604800

38707200

7944359 8

n

67737600

1

1

437 4 46 5

n

n

n 2 n3

48

15

1440

105

1118711 6

51841 7

n

n

3870720

1209600

24749483 8

n

348364800

17 3 37 4 209 5 5569 6

n

n

n

n

480

840

4480

90720

9261899 7 6457463 8

n

n

58060800

17740800

Mercator and transverse Mercator projections. We then

give the equations for the Gauss-Schreiber projection and

show that the scale factor along the central meridian of

this projection is not constant. Finally, using complex

functions and principles of conformal mapping developed

by Gauss, we show the conformal mapping from the

Gauss-Schreiber projection to the TM projection.

from the ellipsoid to the plane via the conformal sphere

and the Gauss-Schreiber projection we show how the

'inverse' mapping X, Y , from the plane to the

ellipsoid is achieved.

10

12

14

16

4397 4 11 5 830251 6

n

n

n

161280

504

7257600

466511 7 324154477 8

n

n

2494800

7664025600

4583 5 108847 6 8005831 7

n

n

n

161280

3991680

63866880

22894433 8

n

124540416

20648693 6 16363163 7

n

n

(64)

638668800

518918400

2204645983 8

n

12915302400

219941297 7

497323811 8

n

n

5535129600

12454041600

191773887257 8

n

3719607091200

order n8 ]

The series (61) and (63) are the key series in the KarneyKrueger equations for the TM projection.

mappings we derive equations for scale factor m and grid

convergence .

Mercator projection of the sphere

Y

graticule interval 15, central meridian 0 120 E

The Mercator projection of the sphere is a conformal

projection with the datum surface a sphere of radius R

with curvilinear coordinates , and Gaussian

fundamental quantities

e R2 , f 0, g R2 cos2

TRANSVERSE MERCATOR PROJECTION

The Karney-Krueger equations for the transverse

Mercator (TM) projection are the result of a triplemapping in two parts (Bugayevskiy & Snyder 1995).

The first part is a conformal mapping of the ellipsoid to a

sphere (the conformal sphere of radius a) followed by a

conformal mapping of this sphere to the plane using the

spherical TM projection equations with spherical latitude

replaced by conformal latitude . This two-step

process is also known as the Gauss-Schreiber projection

(Snyder 1993) and the scale along the central meridian is

not constant. [Note that the Gauss-Schreiber projection

commonly uses a conformal sphere of radius R 00

where 0 and 0 are evaluated at a central latitude for

the region of interest.] The second part is the conformal

mapping from the Gauss-Schreiber to the TM projection

(65)

coordinates and X X and Y Y and Gaussian

fundamental quantities

Y

X

E

, F 0, G

(66)

(30), (65) and (66) gives the differential equation

dY

1 dX

d cos d

(67)

condition that the scale factor along the equator be unity

giving

dX R d and dY

1

d

cos

the well known equations for Mercator's projection of the

sphere

X R 0 R

Y R ln tan

1

4

and an angle at N of 0

sin cos sin

x

1 cos x

and writing

2

1 cos x

tan

cos

1 cos 12

1 sin

.

tan 14 12

1

1 cos 2

1 sin

tan

X R 0 R

1 sin R 1 sin

ln

1 sin 2 1 sin

tan

(70)

(71)

trigonometric identity sin 2 x cos2 x 1 gives, after

some algebra

may be derived as follows by using the half-angle

Y R ln

1

2

(68)

1

2

0 .

formula tan

respectively and equations linking , and , can be

obtained from spherical trigonometry and the rightangled spherical triangle CNP having sides , 12 ,

(69)

sin

tan cos2

2

(72)

(73)

then using equations (70), (71) and (145) give the

equations for the TM projection of the sphere (Lauf 1983,

Snyder 1987)

u R

The equations for the TM projection of the sphere (also

known as the Gauss-Lambert projection) can be derived

by considering the schematic view of the sphere in Figure

3 that shows P having curvilinear coordinates , that

are angular quantities measured along great circles

(meridian and equator).

tan

R tan 1

cos

v ln

ln

R tanh 1 cos sin

(74)

with a pole A that lies on the equator and great circles

through A, one of which passes through P making an

angle with the equator and intersecting the oblique

equator at C.

N

eq ua to r

S

v

graticule interval 15, central meridian 0 120 E

8

be verified by analysis of the Gaussian fundamental

quantities e, f, g of the , spherical datum surface [see

equations (65)] and E, F, G of the u,v projection surface.

For the projection surface u u , , v v ,

u v

E

u u v v

F

2

u v

G

(75)

1 cos 2 sin 2

R cos cos

v

1 cos 2 sin 2

R2

1 cos sin

2

, F 0, G

R2 cos2

1 cos 2 sin 2

(76)

(77)

Now using equations (30), (65) and (77) the scale factors

h and k are equal and f F 0 , then the projection is

conformal.

Gauss-Lambert scale factor

Since the projection is conformal, the scale factor

m h k E e and

(82)

sphere are simply obtained by replacing spherical latitude

with conformal latitude in equations (74) and

noting that the radius of the conformal sphere is a to give

tan

u a tan 1

cos

v a tanh 1 cos sin

(83)

equations (68) then using equations (71), (73) and the

identity (148); and finally replacing spherical latitude

with conformal latitude gives (Karney 2011)

tan

u a tan 1

cos

sin

v a sinh 1

tan 2 cos 2

(84)

evaluated by using hyperbolic and inverse hyperbolic

functions (see Appendix) and equation (50) in the

following manner.

ln tan 14 12 sinh 1 tan

1 cos 2 sin 2

1

3

1 cos 2 sin 2 cos 4 sin 4

2

8

(78)

meridian scale factor m0 1

Gauss-Lambert grid convergence

meridian and the grid-line parallel to the u-axis and is

defined as

dv

du

u

u

v

v

d

d and dv

d

d

(85)

1 sin

ln tan 14 12 12 ln

1 sin

sinh 1 tan tanh 1 sin

(86)

(79)

du

gives

tan

(81)

projection)

1 dy

d

1 dy

d

and

gives

tanh 1 y

tan 1 y

dx

dx

1 y2 dx

1 y2 dx

R cos

u

,

1 cos 2 sin 2

v

R sin sin

,

1 cos 2 sin 2

tan

(80)

convergence is obtained from

9

1 tan 2

sinh tanh 1

tan

(88)

(Karney 2011)

(89)

cos

1 2 sin 2

cos

cos 1 2 2

1 4 4

1 sin sin

cos 2

8

m0

can be replaced by in the previous analysis and

E e G g , and f F 0 .

The scale factor is given by equation (28) as

dS

2

ds

(90)

give (noting that d d )

ds

2 d 2 cos2 d

2

dS

du dv

2

(91)

The grid convergence for the Gauss-Schreiber projection

is defined by equation (81) but the partial derivatives

must be evaluated using the chain rule for differentiation

[equations (95)] and

tan

(92)

(93)

directions around any point. It is sufficient then to

choose any one direction, say along a meridian where

is constant and d 0 . Hence

2

2

1 u v

m 2

2

with

v v

and

(94)

(95)

u

a cos

1 cos 2 sin 2

v

a sin sin

1 cos 2 sin 2

tan tan

1 tan 2

1 tan 2 1 2 sin 2

tan cos 2

2

(99)

(100)

projection

Using conformal mapping and complex functions (see

Appendix), suppose that the mapping from the u,v plane

of the Gauss-Schreiber projection (Figure 4) to the X,Y

plane of the TM projection (Figure 5) is given by

1

Y iX f u iv

A

(101)

equator and A is the rectifying radius.

f u iv

(96)

into equation (94) and simplifying gives the scale factor

m for the Gauss-Schreiber projection as

m

2 1

1 2 sin 2 cos

2 exp

cos

1 exp 2

u

v

for differentiation and equations (33), (52) and (84)

u u

Using equations (96) the grid convergence for the GaussSchreiber projection is

u

u

v

v

d

d and dv

d

d

(98)

final conformal mapping from the Gauss-Schreiber u,v

plane to an X,Y plane may be made and this final

projection (the TM projection) will have a constant scale

factor along the central meridian.

du

(97)

the central meridian scale factor m0 is

u

v

i

a

a

u

v

2 r sin 2r i 2r

a

r 1

a

as yet, unknown coefficients.

Expanding the complex trigonometric function in

equation (102) gives

f u iv

u

v

sin 2r cosh 2r

a

a

2r

u

v

r 1

i cos 2r sinh 2r

a

a

10

(102)

(103)

u

v

2 r sin 2r cosh 2r

A a r 1

a

a

X v

u

v

cos 2r sinh 2r

a

A a r 1 2 r

a

(104)

Y

in equation (104)

cosh 2v cosh 4v 1 and

A

becomes

Y u

u

u

u

2 sin 2 4 sin 4 6 sin 6

A a

a

a

a

(105)

u

is an angular

a

quantity that is identical to the conformal latitude and

equation (105) becomes

Furthermore, along the central meridian

Y

2 sin 2 4 sin 4 6 sin 6

A

(107)

may conclude that the coefficients 2r are equal to the

projection is given by

v

u

v

X A 2 r cos 2r sinh 2r

a

a

a r 1

u

u

v

Y A 2 r sin 2r cosh 2r

a

a

a r 1

and N (north) coordinates related to a false origin

E m0 X E0

(106)

Y M

A A

is the rectifying latitude and equation (106) becomes

graticule interval 15, central meridian 0 120 E

N m0Y N0

(109)

E0 , N0 are offsets that make the E,N coordinates positive

in the area of interest. The origin of the X,Y coordinates

is at the intersection of the equator and the central

meridian and is known as the true origin. The origin of

the E,N coordinates is known as the false origin and it is

located at X E0 , Y N0 .

TM scale factor

(108)

similar way to the derivation of the scale factor for the

Gauss-Schreiber projection and we have

dS dX dY

2

2

2

ds 2 d 2 cos2 d

2

differentials dX and dY are

u

v

A is given by equation (41), a and a are given by

X

X

du

dv

u

v

Y

Y

dY

du

dv

u

v

dX

2r up to r 8 given by equations (62).

[Note that the graticules of Figures 4 and 5 are for

different projections but are indistinguishable at the

printed scales and for the longitude extent shown. If a

larger eccentricity was chosen, say 101 f 1 199.5

(110)

these into equations (110) gives

equator to the pole were identical, there would be some

noticeable differences between the graticules at large

distances from the central meridian. One of the authors

(Karney 2011, Fig. 1) has examples of these graticule

differences.]

dX

dY

X v

X u

u

v

d

d

d

d

u

Y v

Y u

u

v

d

d

d

d

u

is constant and d 0 gives

11

X u X v

dX

d

u v

Y u Y v

dY

d

u v

and

m2

dS

2

ds

dX

dY

2 d

we may define

tan 1

(111)

(112)

tan tan

q

tan 1

p

1 tan 2

tan 1

X A X A Y X Y

X

(113)

q,

p,

,

u a

v a

u v v

u

(i)

(114)

(115)

2

2

2

1 tan 1 sin

(116)

2

2

tan cos

found from equations (114), tan from equation (89)

and A from equation (41).

A conformal mapping from the TM to the GaussSchreiber projection giving u,v coordinates, then

(ii) Solving for tan and tan given the u,v GaussSchreiber coordinates from which 0 , and

finally

then obtaining .

In a similar manner as outlined above, suppose that the

mapping from the X,Y plane of the TM projection to the

u,v plane of the Gauss-Schreiber projection is given by

the complex function

1

u iv F Y iX

a

dX

dY

(117)

(117) as

q v u

u

v

p

p

tan

u

v

q v u

q

p

1

p

(118)

tan 1 tan 2

1 tan 1 tan 2

E E0

N N0

and Y

m0

m0

(123)

F Y iX

Y

X

i

A

A

Y

X

K2 r sin 2r i 2r

A

A

r 1

(124)

unknown coefficients.

Expanding the complex trigonometric function in

equation (124) and then equating real and imaginary parts

gives

formula write

tan tan 1 2

(122)

known, then from equations (109)

TM grid convergence

tan

(121)

set out below.

and so, using equation (97), we may write the scale factor

for the TM projection as

A

m m0 q 2 p 2

a

ellipsoid is achieved in three steps:

equation (112) and simplifying gives

(120)

where

2

1 u 2 v 2

A

m2 q 2 p 2 2

a

projection [see equations (99) and (100)]. So the grid

convergence on the TM projection is

u

v

q 2r 2 r sin 2r sinh 2r

a

a

r 1

u

v

p 1 2r 2 r cos 2r cosh 2r

a

a

r 1

q

v

and tan 2

p

(119)

12

u Y

Y

X

K2 r sin 2r cosh 2r

a A r 1

A

A

v X

Y

X

K cos 2r sinh 2r

A

a A r 1 2 r

A

tn 1 tn

(125)

Y M

the rectifying

A A

u

latitude and X 0 and cosh 0 1 . Also,

is an

a

angular quantity that is identical to the conformal latitude

and we may write the first of equations (125) as

Along the central meridian

(126)

may conclude that the coefficients K2r are equal to the

u

and

a

v

are given by

a

u Y

Y

X

sin 2r cosh 2r

a A r 1 2 r

A

A

v X

Y

X

2 r cos 2r sinh 2r

a A r 1

A

A

(127)

f tn

f tn

(131)

f t t 1 2 1 t 2 t

The derivative f t

f t

(132)

d

f t is given by

dt

1 t

1 1 t

t

1 1 t

2

(133)

(130), (132) and (133). t2 is now computed from

equation (131) and this process repeated to obtain

t3 , t4 , . This iterative process can be concluded when

the difference between tn 1 and tn reaches an acceptably

small value, and then the latitude is given by

tan 1 tn 1 .

This concludes the development of the TM projection.

use coefficients 2r up to r 8 given by equations (64).

TRANSVERSE MERCATOR (TM) PLANE

1.

2.

3.

u

v

and

giving

a

a

u

sin

a

tan

v

u

sinh 2 cos 2

a

a

(128)

(128) consider equations (88) and (89) with the

substitutions t tan and t tan

1 t

sinh tanh 1

7.

8.

9.

10.

Compute q and p from equations (114)

Compute scale factor m from equation (116)

Compute grid convergence from equation (121)

and

6.

n2 , n3 , , n8

Compute the rectifying radius A from equation (41)

Compute conformal latitude from equations (88)

and (89)

Compute longitude difference 0

Compute the u,v Gauss-Schreiber coordinates from

equations (84)

Compute the coefficients 2r from equations (62)

4.

5.

v

u

tan sinh cos

a

a

t t 1 2 1 t 2

(129)

2.

3.

n2 , n3 , , n8

Compute the rectifying radius A from equation (41)

Compute the coefficients 2r from equations (64)

(130)

4.

u v

Compute the ratios a , a from equations (127)

1.

in the form of an iterative equation

13

5.

6.

difference from equations (128)

Compute t tan by Newton-Raphson iteration

using equations (131), (132) and (133)

7.

9. Compute q and p from equations (114)

10. Compute scale factor m from equation (116)

11. Compute grid convergence from equation (121)

8.

One of the authors (Karney, 2011) has compared

Kruegers series to order n8 (set out above) with an exact

TM projection defined by Lee (1976) and shows that

errors in positions computed from this series are less than

5 nanometres anywhere within a distance of 4200 km of

the central meridian (equivalent to 37.7 at the

equator). So we can conclude that Kruger's series (to

order n8 ) is easily capable of micrometre precision

within 30 of a central meridian.

THE 'OTHER' TM PROJECTION

In Kruegers original work (Krueger 1912) of 172 pages

(plus vii pages), Krueger develops the mapping equations

shown above in 22 pages, with a further 14 pages of

examples of the forward and inverse transformations. In

the next 38 pages Krueger develops and explains an

alternative approach: direct transformations from the

ellipsoid to the plane and from the plane to the ellipsoid.

The remaining 100 pages are concerned with the

intricacies of the geodesic projected on the TM plane,

arc-to-chord, line scale factor, etc.

This alternative approach is outlined in the Appendix and

for the forward transformation [see equations (161)] the

equations involve functions containing powers of the

dM

longitude difference 2 , 3 , and derivatives

,

d

d 2 M d 3M

,

, For the inverse transformation [see

d 2 d 3

equations (166) and (168)] the equations involve powers

d 1

of the X coordinate X 2 , X3 , X 4 , and derivatives

,

d 1

mapping authorities, and

(ii) there are no hyperbolic functions.

The weakness of these formulae are:

(a) they are only accurate within relatively small bands

of longitude difference about the central meridian

(mm accuracy for 6 ) and

they can

The inaccuracies in Redfearn's (and Thomas's) equations

are most evident in the inverse transformation

X, Y , . Table 1 shows a series of points each

differences from a central meridian. The X,Y

coordinates are computed using Kruegers series and can

be regarded as exact (at mm accuracy) and the column

headed Readfearn , are the values obtained from

Redfearn's equations for the inverse transformation. The

error is the distance on the ellipsoid between the given

, in the first column and the Redfearn , in the

third column.

The values in the table have been computed for the

GRS80 ellipsoid ( a 6378137 m , f 1 298.257222101 )

with m0 1

point

75

6

75

10

75

15

75

20

75

30

75

35

Gauss-Krueger

X 173137.521

Y 8335703.234

X 287748.837

Y 8351262.809

X 429237.683

Y 8381563.943

X 567859.299

Y 8423785.611

X 832650.961

Y 8543094.338

X 956892.903

Y 8619555.491

Redfearn

75 00' 00.0000"

5 59' 59.9999"

75 00' 00.0000"

9 59' 59.9966"

75 00' 00.0023"

14 59' 59.8608"

75 00' 00.0472"

19 59' 57.9044"

75 00' 03.8591"

29 58' 03.5194"

75 00' 23.0237"

34 49' 57.6840"

error

0.001

0.027

1.120

16.888

942.737

4.9 km

Table 1

d 21 d 31

d 1 d 2 1 d 3 1

,

,

and

,

,

For both

,

d 12 d 13

dY dY2 dY3

transformations, the higher order derivatives become

excessively complicated and are not generally known (or

approximated) beyond the eighth derivative.

Greenland (Figure 6), which is almost the ideal 'shape' for

a transverse Mercator projection, having a small eastwest extent (approx. 1650 km) and large north-south

extent (approx. 2600 km).

formulae, extending (slightly) Kruger's equations, and

updating the notation and formulation. These formulae

are regarded as the standard for transformations between

the ellipsoid and the TM projection. For example,

GeoTrans (2010) uses Thomas' equations and Geoscience

Australia defines Redfearn's equations as the method of

transformation between the Geocentric Datum of

Australia (ellipsoid) and Map Grid Australia (transverse

Mercator) [GDAV2.3].

meridian (approx. 850 km); and B ( 78 N 75 W )

would have the greatest west longitude.

14

meridian is chosen as 0 45 W . A ( 70 N ,

ellipsoid with m0 1 for the inverse transformation using

Redfearn's equations.

NOMENCLATURE

point

A 70

22.5

B 78

-30

Gauss-Krueger

X 842115.901

Y 7926858.314

X -667590.239

Y 8837145.459

Redfearn

75 00' 00.2049"

22 29' 53.9695"

78 00' 03.1880"

-29 57' 59.2860"

This paper

error

64.282

784.799

Table 2

Y

graticule interval 15, central meridian 0 45 W

CONCLUSION

We have provided here a reasonably complete derivation

of the Karney-Krueger equations for the TM projection

that allow micrometre accuracy in the forward and

inverse mappings between the ellipsoid and plane. And

we have provided some commentary on the 'other' TM

equations in wide use in the geospatial community.

These other equations offer only limited accuracy and

should be abandoned in favour of the equations (and

methods) we have outlined.

Our work is not original; indeed these equations were

developed by Krueger almost a century ago. But with the

aid of computer algebra systems we have extended

Krueger series as others have done, e.g. Engsager &

Poder (2007) so that the method is capable of very high

accuracy at large distances from a central meridian. This

makes the transverse Mercator (TM) projection a much

more useful projection for the geospatial community.

We also hope that this paper may be useful to mapping

organisations wishing to 'upgrade' transformation

software that use formulae given by Redfearn (1948) or

Thomas (1952) they are unnecessarily inaccurate.

15

k

k

2

2

coefficients in series for

oblique latitude

grid convergence

eccentricity of ellipsoid

eccentricity of ellipsoid squared

2nd eccentricity of ellipsoid squared

oblique longitude

longitude

longitude of central meridian

rectifying latitude

radius of curvature (meridian)

radius of curvature (prime vertical)

function of latitude

latitude

conformal latitude

isometric latitude

Krueger

g

h

k

M

m

m0

n

Q

s

t

t

longitude difference: 0

angle between parametric curves

rectifying radius

semi-major axis of ellipsoid

semi-minor axis of ellipsoid

polar radius of curvature

differential distance on datum surface

differential distance on projection surface

Gaussian fundamental quantity

flattening of ellipsoid

Gaussian fundamental quantity

Gaussian fundamental quantity

scale factor along meridian

scale factor along parallel

meridian distance

scale factor

central meridian scale factor

3rd flattening of ellipsoid

quadrant length of ellipsoid

distance on ellipsoid

t tan

t tan

u

V

v

W

ellipsoid latitude function

transverse Mercator coordinate

ellipsoid latitude function

A

a

b

c

ds

dS

e

f

c

e

e2

R

N

A

a

b

X

m

m0

n

M

s

Taylor's theorem

APPENDIX

Reversion of a series

If we have an expression for a variable z as a series of

powers or functions of another variable y then we may,

by a reversion of the series, find an expression for y as

series of functions of z. Reversion of a series can be done

using Lagrange's theorem, a proof of which can be found

in Bromwich (1991).

Suppose that

y z xF y or z y xF y

(134)

Brook Taylor (16851731) enables a function

f ( x) near a point x a to be expressed from the

values f (a ) and the successive derivatives of

f ( x) evaluated at x a .

Taylor's polynomial may be expressed in the

following form

f ( x) f (a ) ( x a ) f (a )

f y f z

x

F z f z

1!

2

x2 d

F z f z

2! dz

3

2

3

x d

F z f z

2

3! dz

n

xn d n 1

F z

f z

n 1

n ! dz

(136)

(137)

and so

(139)

f k a

(140)

(141)

f sin about as

n 1

(138)

d

sin

d

2

1

2 d

2 sin

2!

d

3

1

3 d

3 sin

3!

d

giving

sin sin cos

x a

k!

3

1 d

F

2

6 d

d

F n

n 1

n! d

(a ) Rn

we have an expression for the difference between latitude

and the rectifying latitude [see equation (44)]

n 1

dk

where f k a k f x

dx

x a

sin sin

2

1 d

F

F

2 d

where

k 0

(135)

f x

z , y and x 1 ; and if we choose f y y

n 1

evaluated at x a .

.

f (a )

x a

n 1!

3!

2!

f (a ),

expressed as

f (a )

x a

x a

cos

24

2

4

sin

sin

(142)

and substituting from equation (141) gives an

16

substitutions, expressions for sin 4 , sin 6 , etc. can be

developed.

Hyperbolic functions

The basic functions are the hyperbolic sine of x, denoted

by sinh x , and the hyperbolic cosine of x denoted by

cosh x ; they are defined as

e x e x

sinh x

2

x

e e x

cosh x

2

(143)

tanh x

sinh x

1

, coth x

cosh x

tanh x

1

1

sech x

, cosech x

cosh x

sinh x

(144)

tanh 1 x are defined by cosh 1 cosh x x and

x ln x

x 1

sinh x ln x x 1

1

cosh 1

tanh 1 x

1 1 x

ln

2 1 x

x

x 1

(145)

1 x 1

cos 12 x sin 12 x

x ln

cos 12 x sin 12 x

1 sin x

ln

ln

cos x

cos 2 12 x sin 2 12 x

(146)

inverse hyperbolic functions in equations (145) we have

1 sin x

ln tan x sec x ln

cos x

And equating ln

gives

(the imaginary number), and the left-hand side of

equation (149) is a complex number consisting of a real

and imaginary part. The right-hand-side of equation

(149) is a complex function, i.e., a function of real and

imaginary parameters and respectively. The

complex function f i is analytic if it is

everywhere differentiable and we may think of an

analytic function as one that describes a smooth surface

having no holes, edges or discontinuities.

Part of a necessary and sufficient condition for

f i to be analytic is that the Cauchy-Riemann

equations are satisfied, i.e., (Sokolnikoff & Redheffer

1966)

Y X

Y

X

and

(150)

sphere shown in Figure 2 where the conformal mapping

from the sphere (datum surface) to the plane is given by

equations (68) and using the isometric latitude given by

equation (34) the mapping equations are

X R 0 R

(151)

(152)

projection.

(149)

Z Y iX R i

1

2

cos 12 x sin 12 x

Y iX f i

equation

formula we have

ln tan

from the , datum surface to the X,Y projection

surface can be represented by the complex expression

Y R ln tan 14 12 R

functions used in conformal mapping is obtained by

considering the following.

1

4

Z Y iX R sinh 1 tan i

(153)

(147)

1 sin x

from equations (146) and (147)

cos x

in Figure 4 can also be expressed as a complex equation.

Using the identity (148) and equation (151) we may

define the transverse Mercator projection by

(148)

17

w u iv tan 1 sinh Z

(154)

plane to the u,v plane.

f z f i

form as equations (84)

tan

u R tan 1

cos

sin

v R sinh 1

2

tan cos 2

f i f

1 tan

tan cos

sin

i sinh 1

2

tan cos 2

(156)

(157)

f 0 i0 i

where f z0 , f

z

3!

z0

3!

2!

Y

(163)

equating real and imaginary parts gives

z0

X 2 d 2 1 X 4 d 4 1 X 6 d 6 1

2! dY2

4! dY4

6! dY6

d

X 3 d 3 1 X 5 d 5 1 X 7 d 7 1

X 1

dY 3! dY4

5! dY5

7! dY7

1

(159)

higher order derivatives of the function f z can be

1

iX

iX

(158)

2!

Taylor series [see equation (140)]

(162)

P , becomes P1 1 , 0 , a point on the central

f 0 i 0

(161)

plane to the ellipsoid is represented by the complex

expression

f i

dM 3 d 3 M 5 d 5 M 7 d 7 M

d 3! d 3 5! d 5 7! d 7

i F Y iXF

that 0 and 0 ; equation (149)

becomes

can be expanded as a power series giving

isometric coordinates , linked to an approximate

(160)

i F Y iX

Mercator projection is to expand equation (149) as a

power series.

f 3

2 d 2M 4 d 4M 6 d 6M

Y M

2! d 2 4! d 4 6! d 6

f z f z0 z f z0

2!

equating real and imaginary parts (noting that

i 2 1, i3 i, i 4 1, etc. and f M ) gives

w u iv 2Rtan 1 exp i 14

f z0 z f z

3!

f 2

example Lauf (1983) shows that

Y iX

defined by the complex function

w u iv

(155)

(164)

location, a point on the central meridian having the same

isometric latitude as P, then 0 (since 0

and 0 ) and (since 0 and

0 0 ), hence z0 0 i0 and

z i i .

(164) as

where

18

X 2 d 2 1 X 4 d 4 1 X 6 d 6 1

2! dY2

4! dY4

6! dY6

(165)

(166)

another power series

g 1 g

3!

2!

with an accuracy of a few nanometres', Journal of

Geodesy, Vol. 85, pp. 475-485, Published online 09Feb-2011.

(167)

as

d d 21 d 41

1 1

d 1

2! d 12

4! d 14

2

d

X 3 d 3 1 X 5 d 5 1 X 7 d 7 1

X 1

dY 3! dY4

5! dY5

7! dY7

Karney, C.F.F., (2010). Email from Charles Karney, 0205 June, 2010, 7 pages.

(168)

Erdellipsoids in der Ebene, New Series 52, Royal

Prussian Geodetic Institute, Potsdam. DOI

10.2312/GFZ.b103-krueger28

Lambert, J.H., (1772), Beytrge zum Gebrauche der

Mathematik und deren Anwendung III, Part VI:

Anmerkungen und Zustze zur Entwerfung der Landund Himmelscharten, pp.105-199, URL

http://books.google.com/books?id=sf82AAAAMAAJ

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Engsager, K. and Poder, K., (2007), 'A highly accurate

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