Sei sulla pagina 1di 160

Postharvest Handling of

Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

CONTENTS

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Preface

Ⅰ. Introduction Ⅱ. Postharvest Handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

Cabbage

1. Bangladesh

2. Mongolia

3. Sri Lanka

4. Vietnam

Chinese cabbage

5. Philippines

6. Rep. of Korea

Ⅲ. Postharvest Handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

1. Cambodia

2. Lao PDR

3. Indonesia

4. Nepal

5. Thailand

Postharvest Handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries 1. Cambodia 2. Lao PDR 3. Indonesia 4.
Postharvest Handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries 1. Cambodia 2. Lao PDR 3. Indonesia 4.
Preface The quality of horticultural commodities has been improved due to breeding and cultivation technologies.
Preface
The quality of horticultural commodities has been improved due to breeding
and cultivation technologies. However, still a high percentage of horticultural
crops are discarded after harvest because of lack of proper postharvest
management. Postharvest losses in fresh fruits and vegetables are estimated
at 20 to 45% in developing Asian countries.
World consumption of fresh produce has increased as people demand
for healthier foods. We are now aware of the importance of postharvest
technology to maintain quality of fresh fruits and vegetables. In the light of
the ever-growing importance of postharvest technologies, it is very timely and
meaningful to develop postharvest handling manual that can be practically used
in industry in Asian countries. This manual ‘Postharvest Handling of Cabbage
and Chili Pepper in Asia’ is the 2nd year output of one of the AFACI (Asian Food
& Agricultural Cooperation Initiative) projects, which is being implemented by
the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science (NIHHS), the Rural
Development Administration (RDA), Republic of Korea.
The manual describes cabbage and chili pepper postharvest handling practices
of 11 countries in Asia which encourage adoption of improved postharvest
handling without high energy cost. We hope this manual contribute to the
reduction in postharvest losses and help increase the value of horticultural
crops.
Kwan-Dal Ko
Director Genaral,
National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, RDA
Introduction Part Ⅰ Edralina P. Serrano and Ji Gang Kim

Introduction

Part Ⅰ
Part

Edralina P. Serrano and Ji Gang Kim

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

1. Introduction

handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries 1. Introduction Cabbage and chili pepper are staple horticultural

Cabbage and chili pepper are staple horticultural crops that are widely grown, traded and consumed in many Asian countries.

The consumer demand for these commodities can be attributed to their versatile uses, nutritional and health-beneficial properties.

A. Cabbage

nutritional and health-beneficial properties. A. Cabbage Cabbage is a biennial herb that belongs to the
nutritional and health-beneficial properties. A. Cabbage Cabbage is a biennial herb that belongs to the
nutritional and health-beneficial properties. A. Cabbage Cabbage is a biennial herb that belongs to the
nutritional and health-beneficial properties. A. Cabbage Cabbage is a biennial herb that belongs to the

Cabbage is a biennial herb that belongs to the Brassicaceae family. The main axis is short and thick. Leaves become packed as it grows and develops into a densely or loosely- packed “head". The densely-packed

cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) head

can either be round, flat, cylindrical or egg-shaped depending on the cultivar. The leaves are waxy and may vary in color. The loosely-packed cabbage

(Brassica chinensis) head is composed

of leaves with many trichomes and stomates making it susceptible to lose more moisture than the densely- packed cultivar.

Edralina P. Serrano and Ji Gang Kim

. Introduction |

7
7

Nutritional and Anti-nutritional Qualities of Cabbage

Significant amounts of amino acid glutamine with its anti-inflammatory

properties.

Excellent source of Vitamin B and a fair source of Vitamin A.

Vitamin C (60-70 mg/100g edible portion)

Potassium (220mg/100g) ; both Vitamin C and Potassium are highly

concentrated at the outer than the inner leaves of the cabbage head.

Flavonoid anti-oxidant (in 'Red' variety), known to reduce health risks

like cancer and heart disease.

Goitrin, an anti-nutritional factor, which binds with iodine limiting

human metabolism and possibly lead to goiter disease.

Quality Specifications

Firm, well-developed head

8
8
disease. Quality Specifications Firm, well-developed head 8 Relatively free from physical damage Free from pest or

Relatively free from physical damage

well-developed head 8 Relatively free from physical damage Free from pest or disease damage Postharvest Handling

Free from pest or disease damage

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

free from physical damage Free from pest or disease damage Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili
free from physical damage Free from pest or disease damage Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Quality Defects

Cabbage

I. Introduction
I. Introduction

Over-trimed

Hollow head

Physically-

Diseased

(Immature)

damaged

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries ■ Chinese cabbage / Kimchi cabbage
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
■ Chinese cabbage / Kimchi cabbage

Decay

Wilting

Chilling injury

Pepper spot

Browning

. Introduction |

9
9

Postharvest Behavior of Cabbage

Harvesting index of cabbage :

-spreading of wrapper leaves and head is exposed -firm to touch (compact)

Long shelf-life (6-9 weeks) at 2-5 o C due to:

- overlapping of waxy leaves;

- low respiration and ethylene production.

Responds well to modified atmosphere (MA) packaging and controlled atmosphere (CA) storage in 3-5% O2 and 5-7% CO2.

Prolonged low temperature storage results in chilling injury symptoms (petiole black spotting; patchy papery necrosis).

Prone to soft rot disease which can easily be controlled by the use of 5% alum.

10
10

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

disease which can easily be controlled by the use of 5% alum. 10 Postharvest Handling of
disease which can easily be controlled by the use of 5% alum. 10 Postharvest Handling of

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

B. Chili pepper

Chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L. ) belongs to the Solanaceae family. There are a lot of cultivars that belong to C. annuum having fruits of varying color, shape and degree of pungency (hot or sweet).

Uses of chili peppers:

as condiment in food preparations as spice for many food products as food coloring agent due to its capsanthin content as anti-inflammatory agent due to its capsaicin content

Nutritional Qualities Rich in Vitamin C (in fresh chilli only because this vitamin is lost during drying); the level is twice that in citrus. Vitamin A (345 mg/100 g) Calcium (160 mg/100 g) Phosphorus (370 mg/100 g) Potassium (530 mg/100 g)

g) • Calcium (160 mg/100 g) • Phosphorus (370 mg/100 g) • Potassium (530 mg/100 g)
g) • Calcium (160 mg/100 g) • Phosphorus (370 mg/100 g) • Potassium (530 mg/100 g)

. Introduction |

11
11

Harvesting Index

Shiny Green - used in fresh vegetable salad ; as topping in many dishes to
Shiny Green - used in fresh vegetable salad ; as
topping in many dishes to impart pungent flavor.
Breaker stage - used as fresh; can be ripened to the Red Ripe stage by
Breaker stage - used as fresh; can be ripened
to the Red Ripe stage by holding at 25 o C for 2-3
days and then dried later.
Red Ripe - the fruits are allowed to ripen on the plant and usually dried
Red Ripe - the fruits are allowed to ripen on the
plant and usually dried right after harvest.

Quality Defects

Chilli

dried right after harvest. Quality Defects ■ Chilli 12 Stem-end rot Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and
12
12

Stem-end rot

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Soft rot

Black mold

Anthracnose

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage in Asian Countries Part Ⅱ I. Introduction IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage in Asian Countries

Part Ⅱ I. Introduction
Part
I. Introduction
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

■ Cabbage Ⅱ-1. Bangladesh Ⅱ-2. Mongolia Ⅱ-3. Sri Lanka Ⅱ-4. Vietnam

■ Chinese Cabbage Ⅱ-5. Philippines Ⅱ-6. Rep. of Korea

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries Ⅰ. Introduction | 13
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
Ⅰ. Introduction |
13

-1. Bangladesh

Ⅱ -1. Bangladesh M. K. A. Chowdhury, M. S. Hassan, M. K. Hassan, S. M. K.
Ⅱ -1. Bangladesh M. K. A. Chowdhury, M. S. Hassan, M. K. Hassan, S. M. K.
Ⅱ -1. Bangladesh M. K. A. Chowdhury, M. S. Hassan, M. K. Hassan, S. M. K.

M. K. A. Chowdhury, M. S. Hassan, M. K. Hassan, S. M. K. Alam, and A. K. Azad

1. Cultivation system and postharvest procedure

Handling procedure of cabbage in Bangladesh

Cabbage reaches the hands of consumers through a number of intermediaries or middlemen.

The main market actors are growers, small primary traders (Faria), large primary traders (Bepari), commission agents, wholesalers, retailers and consumers.

The following postharvest handling steps are generally observed for cabbage in Bangladesh.

Harvest

Sorting

observed for cabbage in Bangladesh. Harvest Sorting Field packing Packaging and long distance transportation
observed for cabbage in Bangladesh. Harvest Sorting Field packing Packaging and long distance transportation

Field packing

Packaging and long distance transportation

Field packing Packaging and long distance transportation Unloading (wholesale market) Distribution (retail sale)

Unloading (wholesale market)

Distribution (retail sale)

Unloading (wholesale market) Distribution (retail sale) Transport to local assembly market Temporary storage

Transport to local assembly market

Temporary storage (wholesale market)

local assembly market Temporary storage (wholesale market) Sorting and cleaning (wholesale market) Postharvest handling

Sorting and cleaning (wholesale market)

Postharvest handling steps for cabbage in Bangladesh

16
16

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Cultivation system

In Bangladesh, presently around 0.2 million metric tons of cabbage are produced per year from 16.7 thousand ha of land.

Cabbage ranks the 5 th position in terms of total area and production in Bangladesh.

The varieties presently cultivated in Bangladesh are mostly hybrids. Some recently introduced hybrids are Summer Warrior F 1 , Summer Star F 1 , Autumn Queen F 1 , Super Tropic F 1 , Summer Boy F 1 , Green Ball 40 F 1 , Supreme Queen F 1 , Green 60 and Nova F 1 .

Open pollinated varieties like BARI Cabbage-1 (Provati), BARI Cabbage-2 (Agradut), K-K Cross, K-Y Cross, Tokyo Pound, Atlas 70, Ruby Ball, Drum Head, etc. are also cultivated.

Red cabbage is also becoming popular in Bangladesh as a salad crop.

is also becoming popular in Bangladesh as a salad crop. Green and red cabbage grown in
is also becoming popular in Bangladesh as a salad crop. Green and red cabbage grown in

Green and red cabbage grown in Bangladesh

Cabbage is generally grown in open field.

Cabbage is grows well at temperature range of 15-20 o C.

Loam to sandy loam soil is suitable for growing cabbage.

Seeds are sown in seedbed in August, September or November for early, mid and late season cultivation, respectively.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Bangladesh

17
17

Seedlings of 30-35 days old are transplanted with spacing 60 cm × 45 cm.

“Fertilizer Recommendation Guide, 2012” BARC (Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council) is followed for fertilizer management practices.

Recommended intercultural operations are practiced to grow cabbage.

Cabbage looper and Diamondback moth larvae are the major insect pests

Leaf spots and black rot are the major diseases.

Combination of IPM and chemical control are practiced to manage pests and diseases.

Cabbage heads become harvestable within 60-90 days after transplanting.

The average yield is 75-100 tons per ha.

transplanting. • The average yield is 75-100 tons per ha. Cultivation of cabbage in open field

Cultivation of cabbage in open field

18
18

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

2. Postharvest handling of cabbage in the field

Determination of harvesting time

Heads (edible part of cabbage) having various varietal shapes are harvested when they attain reasonable size.

Matured heads are compact and not depressed by finger pressure while immature heads are loosely formed and depressed by finger pressure.

Matured heads produce metallic sound on finger stroke while immature heads produce dull sound.

Premature heads may be harvested for higher profits for early market.

Immature or over mature heads are not suitable for marketing because they lack nutritional and postharvest quality.

because they lack nutritional and postharvest quality. Matured (left) and immature (right) cabbage heads. Ⅱ.
because they lack nutritional and postharvest quality. Matured (left) and immature (right) cabbage heads. Ⅱ.

Matured (left) and immature (right) cabbage heads.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Bangladesh

19
19

Time of day for harvesting

Cabbage is harvested on a clear and sunny day.

The optimum time of harvesting is in the morning because of prevailing low temperature with high humidity and absence of scorching sunshine.

2-2. Harvesting

Heads are cut using a sharp knife or sickle leaving ½ (half) inch of the stem. Excessively long and protruding stems may cause bruises to other heads during subsequent postharvest handling

Prior to harvesting, insect damaged and yellowish outer leaves are removed.

Harvested cabbages are not left on the ground touching the soil to avoid contamination with dirt, harmful microbes or heavy metals.

It is suggested not to use bamboo baskets to avoid bruising by the sharp edges of the baskets which causes rapid quality deterioration.

Considering the existing situation, bamboo baskets can be used with proper lining materials like newspaper or soft clothes to reduce damage during transportation.

Cutting tools and harvesting containers should be regularly sanitized using ordinary detergent or bleaching solution.

2-3. Field packing

Harvested heads are usually held in clean container like plastic crates or plastic buckets or plastic net bags.

20
20

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

2-4. Transport from farm to packing shed/market

For local transportation, cabbage heads are to be packed in plastic crates or plastic net bags or bamboo baskets and quickly transferred to the packing shed or nearby assembly market.

Paper or cloth liners are used, especially for bamboo baskets, to minimize physical damage.

Cabbages are covered with nylon net or cloth during local transportation to prevent heat damage as a result of direct exposure to sunlight.

heat damage as a result of direct exposure to sunlight. Presently practiced modes of local transportation
heat damage as a result of direct exposure to sunlight. Presently practiced modes of local transportation
heat damage as a result of direct exposure to sunlight. Presently practiced modes of local transportation
heat damage as a result of direct exposure to sunlight. Presently practiced modes of local transportation

Presently practiced modes of local transportation of cabbage

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Bangladesh

21
21

3. Packinghouse Operations Prior to Marketing.

3-1. Pre-cooling

Pre-cooling is an important postharvest practice which helps maintain quality and extends shelf life of cabbage. Forced air cooling is the best option to remove field heat from the solid heads.

As much as possible, heads that are brought to the packing shed are precooled first to remove field heat.

Forced air cooling is the best option to remove field heat from the solid heads.

Growers are strongly suggested to hold harvested cabbage under shade and cool place of their house prior to or during packaging and transportation to the local assembly markets.

3-2. Sorting

During sorting insect infested, diseased, rotten, damaged and bruised heads are removed.

Sorting is practiced in a cool place of the packing shed.

In the absence of structured packing shed, growers perform sorting operation in cool and shady place of their house or in the field to maintain postharvest quality.

3-3. Grading

Growers are suggested to grade cabbage into large, medium and small sizes for the convenience of the buyers.

Prior to grading, the older outer leaves are removed leaving only 3-4 intact wrapper leaves.

Insect damaged, diseased, yellowish and older outer leaves are removed during grading.

22
22

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

3-4. Packaging

For local transport, heads are packed in jute bags or plastic net bags or bamboo baskets. Paper or cloth liners are used for bamboo baskets to minimize damage.

For long distance transport, large sized plastic crates are used to reduce damage and to maintain quality. Paper or plastic liners are commonly used inside the crates to minimize injury and weight loss.

The packaging materials are ensured intact and clean to prevent contamination by microorganisms, insects and heavy metals.

contamination by microorganisms, insects and heavy metals. IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

Presently practiced packaging of cabbage in plastic sack (left), and plastic crate for improved packaging (right)

3-5. Long Distance Transport

Care is normally taken during loading of cabbage for long distance transport using wrapping materials like paper or soft fabric to minimize damage due to compression, vibration and internal heat generation.

The best option of transportation of cabbage is the use of refrigerated vehicle.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Bangladesh

23
23

Considerations Made for Efficient Transport

Transport vehicle not overloaded.

Cabbage should not be mix-loaded with other high ethylene liberating fruits like bananas, tomatoes, papaya, etc., which results in leaf discoulartion and reduced shelf life.

Use of strong and durable packages.

Packages should be aligned properly.

Vibration damage should be reduced by using plastic crates, liners and padding.

Ventilation should be ensured to prevent heat generation during transportation.

Rough handlings during loading and unloading should be avoided and workers should not stand upon the produce.

Crates should be loaded in uniform stacks and braced securely.

The entire load should be covered with light-colored and thick canvas.

load should be covered with light-colored and thick canvas. Open truck, predominantly used for bulk and
load should be covered with light-colored and thick canvas. Open truck, predominantly used for bulk and

Open truck, predominantly used for bulk and long distance transportation (left) and refrigerated Reefer Truck of Hortex Foundation (right)

24
24

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

3-6. Storage

For storage, cabbage are harvested at proper stage of maturity.

Cabbage can be stored at 0 o C and 98-100% RH for 4-16 weeks; at 4 o C and 80-90% RH for 4-6 weeks; and at 20 o C and 60-70% RH for 1 week. The best storage and transit temperature for cabbage is 0-4 o C.

storage and transit temperature for cabbage is 0-4 o C. Presently practiced temporary storage of cabbage
storage and transit temperature for cabbage is 0-4 o C. Presently practiced temporary storage of cabbage

Presently practiced temporary storage of cabbage in open sun without any cooling facilities (left) and in shady place (right)

Considerations Made for Effective Storage

Cabbages to be stored are to be harvested at proper maturity stage.

Recommended temperature and relative humidity should be maintained.

The storage room not overloaded.

Adequate ventilation in storage rooms should be ensured.

The storage room should always be kept clean.

Cabbage which is ethylene sensitve commodity should not be held with ethylene producing fruits such as apple, banana, papaya, etc.

Produce should be regularly inspected to sort out damaged produce.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Bangladesh

25
25

3-7. Quality deterioration of cabbage

Cabbage is highly perishable vegetable crop.

Quality of cabbage deteriorates quickly due to water loss, desiccation, wilting, microbial infection, etc. if proper postharvest practices are not followed.

Postharvest loss occurs at various stages of postharvest operations (Table 1).

The principal causes of postharvest loss and quality deterioration are inadequate infrastructurefor postharvest handling, increased postharvest physiological processes (respiration, ethylene production and transpiration), improper postharvest handling and microbial decay.

26
26
improper postharvest handling and microbial decay. 26 Good (A & B) and poor (C) quality cabbage
improper postharvest handling and microbial decay. 26 Good (A & B) and poor (C) quality cabbage
improper postharvest handling and microbial decay. 26 Good (A & B) and poor (C) quality cabbage

Good (A & B) and poor (C) quality cabbage

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Table 1. Postharvest losses of cabbage in traditional supply chain in Bangladesh

Supply chain

Postharvest loss

Major causes of loss

actors

(%)

Growers

6.14

Insect damage Microbial decay Lack of proper handling Improper harvesting

Collector

 

Lack of sorting Bulk transportation without proper packaging Mixed loading Lack of awareness on proper handling

(Bepari)

5.04

   

Improper handling

Wholesalers

4.46

Lack of sorting and grading facilities Lack of storage facilities

   

Lack of storage facilities

Retailers

5.16

No or delayed sale Unhygienic market conditions

   

Lack of refrigerator in most house holds

Consumers

4.14

Improper packaging Ignorance about packaging and storage

Total loss

24.94

-

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Bangladesh

27
27

3-8. Effectiveness of improved postharvest handling

Comparison of postharvest handling

Table 2. Comparison of different technologies for postharvest handling

Postharvest

Conventional

Improved/standard

procedure

technology

technology

Harvesting

   

maturity for

Head compact and firm

Head compact and firm

storage

Field packing

Bamboo baskets, plastic sacks, jute sacks

Plastic crates, net bags

container

Weight of container in the field

Bamboo basket (20-40 kg) Plastic sack (20-40 kg)

Plastic crates (40-60 kg)

Cooling

Ambient condition (in cool and shady place)

Mechanical pre-cooling (forced air cooling)

Sorting

Quality

Size, colour, quality

Grading

Size

Size, colour, quality

 

Bamboo baskets

 

Packaging

materials

Plastic sacks

Jute sacks

Plastic crates Cardboard boxes (rigid)

Weight of

Plastic sack (40-60 kg)

Plastic crates (40-60 kg)

packaging

Storage

 

0-4 o C temperature and 98-100% RH

temperature and

Ambient

humidity

Transportation

In open mini or large trucks at ambient condition

Controlled temperature in refrigerated vehicles

Postharvest losses

The estimated postharvest loss is 25%

No report is available but postharvest loss would be greatly minimized under improved technology.

28
28

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

4. New postharvest technology to extend storage life of cabbage

Cabbage is a perishable leafy vegetable and is spoiled due to various reasons like microbial infections and water loss.

Bacterial soft rot during storage and marketing is the most serious problem.

Shelf-life of cabbage can be prolonged by applying lime paste (lime in water at a ratio of 1:1) or alum paste (15 g potassium aluminum sulphate in 100 L water) to the stem butt end immediately after harvesting and sealing in PP bags with 0.5% perforations.

Shelf-life of the treated cabbage was significantly extended (14-15 days) over

untreated control (6-7 days).

Authors

Md. Khalequzzaman Akanda Chowdhury [Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council]

Mian Sayeed Hassan [Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council]

Md. Kamrul Hassan [Bangladesh Agricultural University]

Sultan Mahmud Khorshed Alam [Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council]

Abul Kalam Azad [Bangladesh Agricultural Research Council]

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Bangladesh

29
29

-2. Mongolia

Ⅱ -2. Mongolia Yesun Erdene Davaasuren
Ⅱ -2. Mongolia Yesun Erdene Davaasuren
Ⅱ -2. Mongolia Yesun Erdene Davaasuren

Yesun Erdene Davaasuren

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

1. Postharvest procedures and cultivation system

Postharvest handling procedure of cabbage in the Mongolia

Cabbage is supplied to consumers through a number of intermediaries or middlemen.

The following postharvest handling steps are generally observed for cabbage in Mongolia.

Harvest

Weighing

generally observed for cabbage in Mongolia. Harvest Weighing storoge Field Sorting packing Transportation Temprorary
generally observed for cabbage in Mongolia. Harvest Weighing storoge Field Sorting packing Transportation Temprorary
generally observed for cabbage in Mongolia. Harvest Weighing storoge Field Sorting packing Transportation Temprorary

storoge

Field Sortingobserved for cabbage in Mongolia. Harvest Weighing storoge packing Transportation Temprorary Pipeline To pickle

packingcabbage in Mongolia. Harvest Weighing storoge Field Sorting Transportation Temprorary Pipeline To pickle vegetable

Transportationin Mongolia. Harvest Weighing storoge Field Sorting packing Temprorary Pipeline To pickle vegetable wholesale Retall

TemproraryWeighing storoge Field Sorting packing Transportation Pipeline To pickle vegetable wholesale Retall market

storoge Field Sorting packing Transportation Temprorary Pipeline To pickle vegetable wholesale Retall market

Pipeline To pickle vegetable

Transportation Temprorary Pipeline To pickle vegetable wholesale Retall market Post-harvest handling steps for

wholesale

Retall market

Post-harvest handling steps for cabbage

Consumers

Harvest – field sorting – field packing and weighing – Transportation – Temprorary

storoge

- Wholesale market – Retail market - Repack – Consumers

Harvested cabbages– Field sorting – field packing and weighing – Transportation – Proceccing factory – Supermarket – Consumers

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Mongolia

31
31

Cultivation system

• Cabbage production

In Mongolia, cabbage, Chinese mustard, Pekin cabbage are widely cultivated. White cabbage is very common in Russia and Mongolia.

34

32 25 21 18
32
25
21
18

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Import(mthous. fonn)3 4 32 25 21 18 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Import. (%) Domestic production(%) 54%

Import. (%)25 21 18 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Import(mthous. fonn) Domestic production(%) 54% 49% 58% 62%

Domestic production(%)2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Import(mthous. fonn) Import. (%) 54% 49% 58% 62% 61% 46% 51%

54%

49%

58%

62%

61%

46%

51%

42%

38%

39%

2009 2010 2011 2012 2013

Production of cabbage

Every year we harvest 20-30 thousand tons of cabbage and 50 thousand tons of cabbage is imported.

Variety

Early maturity (Number pyervyi -147) and medium late maturity (Byelorusskaya-85, Shirkhentseg-13) varieties are the ones selected and adapted.

32
32

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

2.

Postharvest handling of cabbage in the field

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

2-1. Harvesting

Determination of harvesting time/ harvest maturity

Early maturing and mid-late varieties can be harvested late of July. The crop is harvested when the heads attain their full size and become firm and hard but tender. The colour of the head is sometimes used as a maturity index.

A fully developed head has a lighter shade of green. The crop for picking are harvested when the cover leaves curl back, and the white leaves beneath are exposed. If harvesting is delayed, the heads may split and rots may occur while the heads harvested early may be soft.

The crop for the fresh market is harvested by hand with a knife or sickle. The heads are cut off in such a way that a few of the large, open wrapper leaves are left for protection around the heads. Most of the stem is left on the head if the crop is to be stored.

of the stem is left on the head if the crop is to be stored. III.
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Mongolia

33
33

2-2. Transport of cabbage from farm to storage house

Loading and transportation

Cabbages are transportated to storage room or market by truck that has cover material.

to storage room or market by truck that has cover material. 2-3. Postharvest handling inside the
to storage room or market by truck that has cover material. 2-3. Postharvest handling inside the
to storage room or market by truck that has cover material. 2-3. Postharvest handling inside the
to storage room or market by truck that has cover material. 2-3. Postharvest handling inside the

2-3. Postharvest handling inside the storage house

Storage

Storing cabbage correctly is important to preserve its quality.

Proper storage methods will help slow down the respiration of the cabbage.

There are 2 types of storage system for cabbage, freezing and keeping at controlled atmosphere storage.

34
34

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

During the storage, influential main conditions are humidity, temperature, aeration, and light condition.

Cabbasge is stored under dark condition in order to prevent humidity losses and the production and emission of chemical substances.

The optimum storage temperature for cabbage is 0-2°C and relative humidity of 90 % to 98 %. Cabbage to be stored are ensured to be mature and disease-free and have been exposed to prolonged frost or cold.

Middle-late, late variety of cabbage can be stored in controlled atmosphere storage and will lasts for 6 months. Red cabbage is more resistant than white cabbage.

In the controlled atmosphere storage, the cabbage heads are heaped up to 3m high. The heap is formed from individual wire basket 0.5-0.6m high and 1m wide.

from individual wire basket 0.5-0.6m high and 1m wide. Preparing the storage: the storage area is

Preparing the storage: the storage area is ensured clean, dry and the section of storage such as shelves, floor, window, etc., are repaired.

Disinfecting the storage: 30-40 days before storing crops, the storage area is disinfected by 10% chlorinated lime solution and fumigated with sulpur 20-30 g/m 3 .

Chemical disinfection: In order to control microorganism that are disease-causing, spraying with 1% of sulpur, bluestone and 40% of formalin solution is usually done.

Changes during storage: When cabbage is stored, certain transformations arise such as physiological and biochemical changes and weigh loss, as well.

Requirement for storing cabbage: Of good quality, having 2-3 outer leaves intact for protection and having about 4-5 cm stem length.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Mongolia

35
35

Maintenance during storage: Temperature and RH settings are checked regularly. At certain time intervals, samples are obtained from storage to determine if there is a need to re-sort or not.

3. Research result

Research for determing yield of early maturing and middle-late maturing varieties of white cabbage in Shariin gol and Zuunkharaa soums in 2012-2013.

Yields of major varieties of cabbage

Names of the variety

Plateau harvest

Yield (tons per hectare/centner

Excess of yield

Total

Commodity

Total

Commodity

ha

%

Number one-147 /check/

30.5

18.3

118.1

69.5

   

Iyunskaya-3200

31.3

23.4

117.3

87.1

25.3

115.1

Belorusion- 455

40.5

19.9

159.4

78.2

   

Shirkhentseg-13 /check/

59.9

32.6

230.9

126.6

   

Slava1305

35.2

22.3

135.7

85.9

   

Slava 231

85.0

59.9

311.5

219.7

80.6

73.5

Camennaya golobka 447

9.8

7.1

36.8

24.5

   

Cammennaya golobka

10.6

5.7

37.8

20.3

   

From the above given research, yeilds of selected varietis are almost same level, but early maturing Iyunskaya variety was high in commodity yield with 87.1%.

From the middle-late varieties, Slava 231 was high for the all parameters examined.

4. Quality Specifications and Requirements

4-1. First class cabbage : no more than 5 % of weight loss

Cabbage heads infested with cabbage flies and slugs are not accepted.

Cabbage for salting can have leaves that may be slightly cracked.

36
36

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

Cabbage heads with no protective outer leaves is sold as second class.

4-2. Irrigation should be stopped 14 days before harvest

Only secondary, dinner and late harvest cabbages are suitable for winter storage.

Cabbage procured commercially are cleaned and trimmed to remove outer rotten leaves; but the weight is not less than 0.6 kg.

4-3. Packaging , labeling and transport

Round, white cabbage, potatoes and vegetables follow the YCT 262-82 standards for packaging, labeling and transport protocols.

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Poster on postharvest procedure of cabbage

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Mongolia

37
37

-3. Sri Lanka

Ⅱ -3. Sri Lanka Cabbage Cultivation Cabbage Harvesting Kalehe Sarananda Hewage 38 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage
Ⅱ -3. Sri Lanka Cabbage Cultivation Cabbage Harvesting Kalehe Sarananda Hewage 38 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage

Cabbage Cultivation

Ⅱ -3. Sri Lanka Cabbage Cultivation Cabbage Harvesting Kalehe Sarananda Hewage 38 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage
Ⅱ -3. Sri Lanka Cabbage Cultivation Cabbage Harvesting Kalehe Sarananda Hewage 38 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage

Cabbage Harvesting

Kalehe Sarananda Hewage

38
38

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

1. Pre harvest operations which affect postharvest quality of cabbage

Fungal and bacterial rots rapidly spread in the field and these rots can spread in harvested heads.

Hence field sanitation is always maintained before harvesting.

field sanitation is always maintained before harvesting. Bacterial/ fungal rots • Maturity indices used for

Bacterial/ fungal rots

Maturity indices used for harvesting:

fungal rots • Maturity indices used for harvesting: Fungal rot 1) Full formation of head (partially

Fungal rot

1) Full formation of head (partially formed heads are immature)

2) Firmness of the head

3) No cracks on head (Over mature heads tend to crack)

head 3) No cracks on head (Over mature heads tend to crack) Mature head ready for

Mature head ready for harvest

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Mature head (firm)

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Sri Lanka

39
39

2. Postharvest procedures and cultivation system

Harvesting procedure adopted for the local market.

40
40

Harvesting

procedure adopted for the local market. 40 Harvesting Packaging in Trimming pslysack bags Transport to retail

Packaging in

Trimmingadopted for the local market. 40 Harvesting Packaging in pslysack bags Transport to retail markets Transport

pslysack bagsfor the local market. 40 Harvesting Packaging in Trimming Transport to retail markets Transport to the

market. 40 Harvesting Packaging in Trimming pslysack bags Transport to retail markets Transport to the wholesale

Transport to retail markets

in Trimming pslysack bags Transport to retail markets Transport to the wholesale market Transport to the
in Trimming pslysack bags Transport to retail markets Transport to the wholesale market Transport to the

Transport to the wholesale marketin Trimming pslysack bags Transport to retail markets Transport to the collection center Consumers Field packing

Transport to the collection centerto retail markets Transport to the wholesale market Consumers Field packing Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and

to the wholesale market Transport to the collection center Consumers Field packing Postharvest Handling of Cabbage

Consumers

market Transport to the collection center Consumers Field packing Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili

Field packing

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

collection center Consumers Field packing Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA Trimming in

Trimming in the field.

I. Introduction

3. Postharvest handling of cabbage

Problems associated with the current method used to supply of local wholesale market.

1) Excessive postharvest loss due to Mechanical injuries.

Fungal rot / Bacterial rot. Early senescence.

. • Fungal rot / Bacterial rot. • Early senescence. IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

Losses due to improper packaging

Cabbage in Asian countries Losses due to improper packaging III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Losses during transport

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Sri Lanka

41
41

Postharvest handling of cabbage for super markets and export.

1) Pre-harvest factors :

Field sanitation.

Maintenance of a healthy crop.

Folloing proper pre – harvest interval is given (more than 2 weeks) for food safety.

42
42

Harvesting

Grading based

on size

for food safety. 42 Harvesting Grading based on size Partial Trimming Packaged in plastic crates. Pack
for food safety. 42 Harvesting Grading based on size Partial Trimming Packaged in plastic crates. Pack
for food safety. 42 Harvesting Grading based on size Partial Trimming Packaged in plastic crates. Pack
for food safety. 42 Harvesting Grading based on size Partial Trimming Packaged in plastic crates. Pack
for food safety. 42 Harvesting Grading based on size Partial Trimming Packaged in plastic crates. Pack

Partial Trimmingfor food safety. 42 Harvesting Grading based on size Packaged in plastic crates. Pack - house

Packaged in plastic crates.42 Harvesting Grading based on size Partial Trimming Pack - house Transport to the pack -

Pack - housebased on size Partial Trimming Packaged in plastic crates. Transport to the pack - house Trimming

Transport to the pack - housePartial Trimming Packaged in plastic crates. Pack - house Trimming Cleaning No washing Packaging in plastic

Trimming

Cleaning

No washing

Transport to the pack - house Trimming Cleaning No washing Packaging in plastic crates or corrugated

Packaging in plastic crates or corrugated fiberboard boxes

Packaging in plastic crates or corrugated fiberboard boxes Transported in refrigerated lorries Supermarket/ Air freight
Packaging in plastic crates or corrugated fiberboard boxes Transported in refrigerated lorries Supermarket/ Air freight

Transported in refrigerated lorriesPackaging in plastic crates or corrugated fiberboard boxes Supermarket/ Air freight Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and

Supermarket/ Air freightcorrugated fiberboard boxes Transported in refrigerated lorries Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Very few pack houses are located in growing areas for packaging of cabbage for super market and export

areas for packaging of cabbage for super market and export Pack - house Packaging Chinese cabbage

Pack - house

of cabbage for super market and export Pack - house Packaging Chinese cabbage I. Introduction Trimming

Packaging

cabbage for super market and export Pack - house Packaging Chinese cabbage I. Introduction Trimming IIⅡ.

Chinese cabbage

I. Introduction Trimming
I. Introduction
Trimming
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries Package
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
Package
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries Red cabbage
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
Red cabbage

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Sri Lanka

43
43

Suggestions for improved postharvest handling practices for the local wholesale market.

Pre - harvest sanitation.

Harvesting when heads are firm.

Never harvest when dew is present. Head musts be free from excess moisture on its surface.

Trimming in the field (Not full clean)

Allow a few wrapper leaves around the head to absorb mechanical injuries during transport.

Use ventilated poly-sack bags but the maximum weight of the package must be

30kg.

Packages must be move to a shady place.

Transport them in ventilated lorries.

Transport quickly as possible.

Practices adopted to maintain the quality of cabbage Produced for super market / exports.

Pre - harvest sanitation.

Harvesting when heads are firm.

Never harvest when dew is present. Head must be free from excess moisture on its surface.

Allow a few wrapper leaves around the head to absorb mechanical injuries during transport to the pack - house.

Pack them in – large or jumbo plastic crates.

Do not expose to hot sun or rain.

Transport them in ventilated lorries.

Transport to the pack – house early as possible.

44
44

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Trim them carefully. Grade them based on size/variety. Pack them in either plastic crates or corrugated fiber board boxes. Individual head wrapping with polyethylene sheet maintain the quality better. Transport them in refrigerated condition preferably 10–12 o C

them in refrigerated condition preferably 10–12 o C Healthy cabbage for export Field level trimming for

Healthy cabbage for export

preferably 10–12 o C Healthy cabbage for export Field level trimming for export Mature cabbage head

Field level trimming for export

C Healthy cabbage for export Field level trimming for export Mature cabbage head for export Field

Mature cabbage head for export

level trimming for export Mature cabbage head for export Field packaging fir exoirt Ⅱ. Postharvest handling

Field packaging fir exoirt

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Sri Lanka

45
45
Packaging for super markets Chinese cabbage for super markets 46 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and

Packaging for super markets

Packaging for super markets Chinese cabbage for super markets 46 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili

Chinese cabbage for super markets

46
46

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

46 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA Stacking of plastic crates Red cabbage

Stacking of plastic crates

46 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA Stacking of plastic crates Red cabbage

Red cabbage for super markets

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

-4. Vietnam

handling of Cabbage in Asian countries Ⅱ -4. Vietnam III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries Nguyen Van Phong and Nguyen Van
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
Nguyen Van Phong and Nguyen Van Hoa

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Vietnam

47
47

1. Postharvest procedures and cultivation system

Postharvest handling procedures of cabbages in Vietnam.

Harvest Gradings Packings
Harvest
Gradings
Packings

Field

Drying

Field

Packings

Transportation & Distributions

Drying Field Packings Transportation & Distributions Trimmings & Drying Receiving cabbage at PH

Trimmings

&

Drying

Receiving

cabbage at

PH

Transportation

to Packing

House

cabbage at PH Transportation to Packing House Temporary Strorage Transportation & Distributions •

Temporary

Strorage

Transportation & Distributions

Temporary Strorage Transportation & Distributions • Postharvest handling conducted by

Postharvest handling conducted by collectors/growers/cooperatives

Cultivation system of cabbages in Vietnam

Cabbage

Cabbage Cabbage Cabbage

Cabbage

Cabbage Cabbage Cabbage

Cabbage

Seeds

Seedlings

Fields

Cabbage Cabbage Seeds Seedlings Fields Cabbage seedlings Cabbage fields • Cabbages are planted

Cabbage seedlings

Cabbage Seeds Seedlings Fields Cabbage seedlings Cabbage fields • Cabbages are planted from cabbage

Cabbage fields

Cabbages are planted from cabbage seedlings and grown in open fields Cabbage seedlings are produced in net house by seedling producers

48
48

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

2. Postharvest handling of cabbage in the field 2-1. Harvesting time

Determination of harvesting time

Harvest maturity is defined by planting date computation and the heading formation of cabbage.

Cabbage is harvested when the head is fully rounding and firm; the wrapper leaves are spread.

I. Introduction The head of cabbage is till immature
I. Introduction
The head of cabbage is till immature

Time of day for harvesting

Cabbage is harvested on a clear day.

Early morning is the best time of day to harvest cabbage.

Early morning is the best time of day to harvest cabbage. The head of cabbage is

The head of cabbage is mature

2-2. Harvesting

The head is manually harvested by bending it to one side and cutting it with a knife.

The stalk is cut flat and as close to the head as possible, yet long enough to retain two to four wrapper leaves.

All rotten or damaged outer leaves removed.

leaves. • All rotten or damaged outer leaves removed. Cabbage harvesting Some various harvesting practices of

Cabbage harvesting

rotten or damaged outer leaves removed. Cabbage harvesting Some various harvesting practices of cabbage in Vietnam
rotten or damaged outer leaves removed. Cabbage harvesting Some various harvesting practices of cabbage in Vietnam

Some various harvesting practices of cabbage in Vietnam

Some various harvesting practices of cabbage in Vietnam Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Vietnam

49
49

2-3 Drying and field packing

Drying cabbage in the field

Drying is used to remove condensed water in leaf hollows and on the head surface when harvested at early mornings.

Drying is done by placing the harvested heads turn upside down without contact with soil for 2-3 hours in the field.

down without contact with soil for 2-3 hours in the field. Cabbage drying ■ Field Packing

Cabbage drying

Field Packing

Field packing of cabbage in Vietnam is made for distribution directly into consumption markets or transportation to packing house.

50
50

A carefully and completely trimming/ removal of extra wrapper leaves, all rotten/ damaged leaves, long stalks and under quality/grades is necessary for cabbage before field packing using carton boxes (20- 25 kg).

For other packing types using big plastic crates/ wire-bound crates or mesh bags (25-50 kg), retaining two to four wrapper leaves is necessary for preventing physical damages during transportation.

for preventing physical damages during transportation. Trimming & packing in carton boxes Packing in mesh bags
for preventing physical damages during transportation. Trimming & packing in carton boxes Packing in mesh bags

Trimming & packing in carton boxes

transportation. Trimming & packing in carton boxes Packing in mesh bags Packing in wire-bound crates Packing

Packing in mesh bags

Trimming & packing in carton boxes Packing in mesh bags Packing in wire-bound crates Packing in

Packing in wire-bound crates

boxes Packing in mesh bags Packing in wire-bound crates Packing in plastic crates Postharvest Handling of

Packing in plastic crates

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

2-4 Transport of cabbage

Transport of cabbage from farm to packing house or directly to markets should be done at cool temperature periods of the harvesting day (during the morning or late afternoon).

Trucks or any vehicle could be used for transportation of cabbage depending on availability and infrastructure condition of production region.

I. Introduction
I. Introduction

Field packed cabbage boxes loaded up into a truck for transportation to markets

Sanitizing transportation vehicles before use, using covering net and carefully loading up into the truck/vehicles (avoid over loading) are necessary to protect cabbage during transportation.

are necessary to protect cabbage during transportation. Cabbage packed in mesh bags and being loaded up

Cabbage packed in mesh bags and being loaded up into a truck to packing house

mesh bags and being loaded up into a truck to packing house Cabbage transportation by using

Cabbage transportation by using a truck

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Vietnam

51
51

3.

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage inside Packinghouse

With some supply chains of cabbage in Vietnam such as for export, supper markets or fresh fruit/vegetable shops for sale, packing house is necessary to ensure product quality under control.

3-1. Receiving cabbage at packing house

52
52

H arvested cabbage are transported to packing house as soon as possible (within harvesting day).

Unloading of cabbage from the trucks/ transportation vehicles is done carefully to avoid physical damages.

A quick evaluation is necessary to sort out defective cabbages .

Once the cabbageheads are recceived, these are stored in a cool place with good ventilation.

these are stored in a cool place with good ventilation. Receiving cabbage at packing house 3-2.

Receiving cabbage at packing house

3-2. Trimming and Drying

Trimming is done by hand with a sharp knife.

Trimming is to cut off extra wrapper leaves, all rotten/damaged leaves, and to flatten and shorten the stalk.

A fter t rimming, c a b b a g e s a r e placed in 25kg plastic crates and air dried under an electric fan.

in 25kg plastic crates and air dried under an electric fan. Removal of wrapper leaves Make

Removal of wrapper leaves

Make flat and shorten for the stalk

Make flat and shorten for the stalk

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

3-3. Grading

Grading cabbage is done by using an electronic balance.

In Vietnam, cabbages is divided into three grades depending upon varieties.

·GradeⅠ: 2-4 kg ·GradeⅡ: 1-2 kg ·GradeⅢ 1 kg
·GradeⅠ: 2-4 kg
·GradeⅡ: 1-2 kg
·GradeⅢ
1 kg

3-4. Packing

Two types of packaging containers are used for cabbage: perforated carton boxes (12-20 kg) and mesh bags (25-30 kg).

Wrapping with paper is necessary to protect cabbage from physical damages in case of packing with mesh bags.

Wrapping with PVC film before packing cabbage is also used to reduce water loss and other benefits for cabbage during distribution and marketing.

benefits for cabbage during distribution and marketing. Cabbage is wrapped with paper and packed in mesh

Cabbage is wrapped with paper and packed in mesh bag

Cabbage is wrapped with paper and packed in mesh bag Cabbage is packed in perforated carton

Cabbage is packed in perforated carton box

in mesh bag Cabbage is packed in perforated carton box Cabbage is wrapped with shrinkable PVC
in mesh bag Cabbage is packed in perforated carton box Cabbage is wrapped with shrinkable PVC

Cabbage is wrapped with shrinkable PVC film and packed in perforated carton box

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Vietnam

53
53

3-5. Storage

Storage life of cabbage can be extended longer by 3 months at 2-10oC, RH=92-95%. However, with year round availability and with no big difference in supply demand and price, long term storage of cabbage is not recommended in Vietnam.

Short term storage of cabbage in coolstores is necessary to be proactive in transportation and distribution.

Storage temperature condition of 2-10oC and RH (92-95%) are applied for cabbage for short-term storage (within 1-3 weeks).

for cabbage for short-term storage (within 1-3 weeks). Use of coolstore set 2-10 o C, RH

Use of coolstore set 2-10 o C, RH 92-95% for short term storage

3-6. Transportation and distribution

Cabbage packed in packing house is transported and distributed by using non/ refrigerated trucks.

For cabbage stored in coolstore at 2-10 o C, transport&distribution make use of refrigerated truck set at 10 o C to prevent condensation.

truck set at 10 o C to prevent condensation. Cabbage is transported by refrigerated truck 54

Cabbage is transported by refrigerated truck

54
54

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

truck 54 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA Cabbage is transported by non-refrigerated

Cabbage is transported by non-refrigerated truck

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

3-7. Postharvest handling procedure of cabbage

countries 3-7. Postharvest handling procedure of cabbage Transportation & distribution to markets Harvesting

Transportation & distribution to markets

of cabbage Transportation & distribution to markets Harvesting maturity Harvesting Drying in field
of cabbage Transportation & distribution to markets Harvesting maturity Harvesting Drying in field
of cabbage Transportation & distribution to markets Harvesting maturity Harvesting Drying in field

Harvesting maturity

& distribution to markets Harvesting maturity Harvesting Drying in field Trimming/cutting Receiving in

Harvesting

& distribution to markets Harvesting maturity Harvesting Drying in field Trimming/cutting Receiving in Packing house

Drying in field

to markets Harvesting maturity Harvesting Drying in field Trimming/cutting Receiving in Packing house Field packing
to markets Harvesting maturity Harvesting Drying in field Trimming/cutting Receiving in Packing house Field packing

Trimming/cutting

maturity Harvesting Drying in field Trimming/cutting Receiving in Packing house Field packing Drying PACKING

Receiving in Packing house

Field packing

Trimming/cutting Receiving in Packing house Field packing Drying PACKING HOUSES Non- refrigerated truck No

Drying

PACKING

HOUSES

Non-

refrigerated

truck

packing Drying PACKING HOUSES Non- refrigerated truck No storage Short term storage Temp: 2-10 o C;
packing Drying PACKING HOUSES Non- refrigerated truck No storage Short term storage Temp: 2-10 o C;
No storage Short term storage Temp: 2-10 o C; RH: 92-95 %
No storage
Short term
storage
Temp: 2-10 o C;
RH: 92-95 %

GRADING

Short term storage Temp: 2-10 o C; RH: 92-95 % GRADING Refrigerated truck Packing forms of
Short term storage Temp: 2-10 o C; RH: 92-95 % GRADING Refrigerated truck Packing forms of

Refrigerated

truck

Packing forms of cabbage

Storage of cabbage

Transportation &

distribution

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Vietnam

55
55

4. Improper practices and losses/deteriorations of postharvest cabbage

Improper No In-direct/direct losses practices •Reduction in yield 1 •Soft cabbage head and sensitive to
Improper
No
In-direct/direct losses
practices
•Reduction in yield
1
•Soft cabbage head and sensitive to
handling damage.
•Shortened shelf life.
Immature harvest
•Results in split heads
•Increased incidence of field
diseases
2
•Speeds u p
i n f e s t a t i o n s
o f
Delaying harvest
Alternaria leaf spot and downy
mildew, particularly during rainy
season.
•Increased incidence of postharvest
diseases
3
•Speeds up deterioration due to
growing pathogen, increased
respiration & water loss.
Improper stalk cutting
56
56

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

No

Improper

practices

In-direct/direct losses

4

4 Improper trimming of diseased and dried leaves • Increased incidence of rot diseases • Speeds

Improper trimming of diseased and dried leaves

Increased incidence of rot diseases

Speeds up deteriorations due to decaying

5

5 Improper packing • Prone to handling damages • Speeds up deterioration due to damages

Improper packing

Prone to handling damages

Speeds up deterioration due to damages

6

6 Use of unsuitable package • Results in physical damages • Increased quantity and quality losses.

Use of unsuitable package

Results in physical damages

Increased quantity and quality losses.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Vietnam

57
57

5. Effectiveness of improved postharvest handling

Comparison of postharvest handling

Table 1: Comparisons between conventional and improved postharvest management

Postharvest

 

Conventional

Improved technology

procedure

technology

HARVESTING & FIELD POSTHARVEST HANDLINGS

Harvesting

By observing the heading formation of cabbage

By using both the planted date computation and the heading formation of cabbage

index

Harvesting time of the day

Any time of the day

During the cool and dry times in day(at early morning)

Harvesting

 

By hand

By hand

Drying in field

 

None

By placing the harvested heads turned upside down for 2-3 hrs

 

Very diversiform Only trim off some extra leaves and then packed in big mesh bags (40-50 kg).

 

C u t

o f f

c o m p l e t e l y

Cut off rotted/damaged leaves and then packed in big mesh bags (30-40 kg) or big wire- bound crates/plastic crate (30- 50 kg)

Field Packing

external leaves and stalk and then packed in big mesh bags (40-50 kg).

C u t

o f f

c o m p l e t e l y

external leaves and stalk and then packed in perforated carton box (12-20 kg)

 
 

Use of vehicles available like small tru ck,bikes etc.to transport cabbage from field. Field-packed cabbage is transported to packing house or directly to consumption markets.

Use of s mall trucks for transporting cabbage

Transportation & distributions

Cabbage packed in mesh bags is also used for transporting and distribution to local markets.

58
58

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Table 2 : Comparisons between conventional and improved postharvest management (Cont.)

Postharvest

Conventional

 

procedure

technology

Improved technology

 

PACKING HOUSE POSTHARVEST HANDLINGS

Packing house

No standards in design & setting of basic facilities

Packing house conforms to standard structural design and basic facility specifications to avoid cross infestation and easy facilitiessanitizing, discharging wastes.

facilities

Collecting and

* Done at ambient temperature area

* Done at cool area (20-25 o C)

inspection

Trimming/cutting and drying

In many cases, non-use of cutting table for stalk cutting No concernab out container packagefortrimmedcabbage No airdrying

Using the cutting table for the stalk cutting of cabbage. Using sanitized plastic crate 25 kg to contain the cut/ trimmed cabbage. Drying after trimming/ cutting

Grading

3 grades (Class I, II and III )

As requirements of market :

3 grades (Class I, II, and III)

Packing

Very diverse in form With or with out wrapping with paper before packing in mesh bags of net weight of 25-50 kg Packed in perforated carton boxes (12-20kg).

Non removal of cabbage extra wrapper leaves is packed in mesh bags of 25 kg or plastic crates 25 kg. Cabbage removed completely of wrapper leaves is wrapped with PVC shrinkable film and packed in perforated carton boxes (12-20kg)

Storage

Non-stored or short term storage at 2-10 o C, RH 92-95%

Non-stored or short term storage at 2-10 o C, RH 92-95%

Transportation

Non-refrigerated trucks

Non-refrigerated trucks for non-stored : Refrigerated truck for cold-stored cabbage

Traceability

None

yes

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Vietnam

59
59

- 5. Philippines

Ⅱ - 5. Philippines Perlita A. Nuevo & Matilde V. Maunahan
Ⅱ - 5. Philippines Perlita A. Nuevo & Matilde V. Maunahan
Ⅱ - 5. Philippines Perlita A. Nuevo & Matilde V. Maunahan

Perlita A. Nuevo & Matilde V. Maunahan

1. Postharvest procedures and cultivation system

Postharvest handling procedure of cabbage in the Philippines

.

Trim Harvest Haul Weigh Pack I. Introduction IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
Trim
Harvest
Haul
Weigh
Pack
I. Introduction
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
At trading post
sort, trim, wrap,
pack, weigh
Transport
Bulk load
Temporary
Mix
Transport
Distribute
holding
load
Load /
re-pack weigh,
stack
label
At packinghouse
inspect, re-sort
Distribute
Display
* This cabbage is also known as Napa, Wombok, pechay Baguio, Kimchi cabbage,
Chinese pechay or Chinese cabbage.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

61
61

Cultivation system

■ Cultivation s y s t e m • Wombok cabbage is grown in the highlands
■ Cultivation s y s t e m • Wombok cabbage is grown in the highlands

Wombok cabbage is grown in the highlands

2. Postharvest handling of Wombok cabbage in the field

2-1. Harvesting time

Determination of harvesting time/ harvest maturity

Readiness of harvest depends on size of plant and fullness of head Days from planting (60 – 65 days from planting)

head • Days from planting (60 – 65 days from planting) 62 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage
62
62

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

head • Days from planting (60 – 65 days from planting) 62 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

2-2. Harvesting

Harvesting method

in Asian countries 2-2. Harvesting ■ Harvesting method • Harvesting i s d o n e
in Asian countries 2-2. Harvesting ■ Harvesting method • Harvesting i s d o n e
in Asian countries 2-2. Harvesting ■ Harvesting method • Harvesting i s d o n e
in Asian countries 2-2. Harvesting ■ Harvesting method • Harvesting i s d o n e

Harvesting is done when majority of the plants are ready, based on plant size and fullness of head.

C a b b a g e

a r e

harvested manually and placed on bare ground.

h e a d s

The use of harvesting gloves and a clean and sharp knife is important during harvest.

A liner on the ground is provided to prevent cabbage from directly touching the soil.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

63
63
64
64

2-3. Packing

Field packing

64 2-3. Packing ■ Field packing • Wrapping cabbage with newsprint and field packing in polybag.

Wrapping cabbage with newsprint and field packing in polybag.

cabbage with newsprint and field packing in polybag. • Cabbage trimmed, wrapped and packed in the

Cabbage trimmed, wrapped and packed in the field has prolongs storage life.

Hauling

packed in the field has prolongs storage life. ■ Hauling Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Over-packed cabbage heads in bamboo basket securely tied with plastic twine are hauled manually down the roadside.

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Bulk

loading

of Chili Pepper in Asian countries ■ Bulk loading • From the bamboo basket, the cabbage

From the bamboo basket, the cabbage heads are bulk-loaded in a truck parked on the roadside.

2-4. Transport of cabbage from farm to storage house

Bulk transport

of cabbage from farm to storage house ■ Bulk transport • Bulk transport of cabbage from

Bulk transport of cabbage from the farm to the trading post. Cabbage heads on rooftop are partially covered with tarpaulin.

heads on rooftop are partially covered with tarpaulin. • Top loading is a common practice to

Top loading is a common practice to minimize transport cost and maximize volume. However, quality is compromised.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

65
65

Sorting and trimming at the trading post

■ Sorting and trimming at the trading post • Sorting, trimming and other postharvest activities are
■ Sorting and trimming at the trading post • Sorting, trimming and other postharvest activities are

Sorting, trimming and other postharvest activities are performed inside the truck upon arrival at the trading post.

Another system is tossing top-loaded cabbage to a person on the ground. The catcher trims, wraps and packs the produce. There are near-missed and missed catch resulting in losses.

There are near-missed and missed catch resulting in losses. 66 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili
66
66

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

2-5. Postharvest handling inside the packing house

Sorting and trimming at the packinghouse

packing house ■ Sorting and trimming at the packinghouse • For institutional buyers such as supermarkets,
packing house ■ Sorting and trimming at the packinghouse • For institutional buyers such as supermarkets,
packing house ■ Sorting and trimming at the packinghouse • For institutional buyers such as supermarkets,

For institutional buyers such as supermarkets, packed cabbage heads are unloaded

and sorted according to size and quality.

The sorting table usually has smooth edges to minimize damage.

Heads are individually packed with cling wrap.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

67
67

Sorting according to size and quality

■ Sorting according to size and quality 68 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in
■ Sorting according to size and quality 68 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in
68
68

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Very small

Diseased and insect- damaged

Head not fully developed (immature)

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Trimming

handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries ■ Trimming • Damaged leaves are cut with a
handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries ■ Trimming • Damaged leaves are cut with a

Damaged leaves are cut with a clean knife.

A clean and sharp knife is used in trimming the butt- end of cabbage.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

69
69

Wrapping

■ Wrapping 70 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA • Wrapping with newsprint
■ Wrapping 70 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA • Wrapping with newsprint
70
70

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Wrapping with newsprint for the wholesale market is done at the trading post.

For the supermarket, c a b b a g e h e a d s a r e individually packed using cling wrap.

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Packaging at the trading post

Pepper in Asian countries ■ Packaging at the trading post • Wrapped cabbages are packed in

Wrapped cabbages are packed in polyethylene bag.

post • Wrapped cabbages are packed in polyethylene bag. • The capacity of a polyethylene bag

The capacity of a polyethylene bag is 10-15 kg. This is called a bundle.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

71
71
72
72

Weighing at the trading post

72 ■ Weighing at the trading post • Sorted, trimmed and wrapped cabbage heads are packed

Sorted, trimmed and wrapped cabbage heads are packed and weighed in 10-15kg capacity polybags.

Hauling at the trading post

10-15kg capacity polybags. ■ Hauling at the trading post • Packed cabbage heads are hauled in

Packed cabbage heads are hauled in the marketplace.

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA • use of a wooden cart which

use of a wooden cart which is lifted on one side and manually pulled or pushed.

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Temporary holding at the trading post

in Asian countries ■ Temporary holding at the trading post • Packed cabbage heads from the
in Asian countries ■ Temporary holding at the trading post • Packed cabbage heads from the

Packed cabbage heads from the truck are temporarily stacked on the ground.

Temporary holding of packed cabbage at the trading post before loading for the Metro Manila markets.

Packs are exposed to the sun or rain.

Manila markets. • Packs are exposed to the sun or rain. • Packed cabbage must be
Manila markets. • Packs are exposed to the sun or rain. • Packed cabbage must be

Packed cabbage must be stacked securely to prevent toppling down.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

73
73

Weighing and recording at the packinghouse

■ Weighing and recording at the packinghouse • Weighing and recording is done upon receipt of

Weighing and recording is done upon receipt of cabbage at the packing house.

Inspection / checking at ther packinghouse

house. ■ Inspection / checking at ther packinghouse 74 Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper
74
74

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Random inspection / checking of purchased cabbage for transport to Metro Manila and distribution to supermarkets.

I. Introduction

Temporary holding at the packinghouse

I. Introduction ■ Temporary holding at the packinghouse • Inspected and weighed packs of cabbage are

Inspected and weighed packs of cabbage are hauled to the temporary holding area.

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in
IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
•Temporary holding of packed
cabbage at the packing house
before loading in delivery trucks
for the Metro Manila markets.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

75
75
76
76

Transport

76 ■ Transport • Cabbage heads together with other vegetables are transported in non- refrigerated truck

Cabbage heads together with other vegetables are transported in non- refrigerated truck (a)

vegetables are transported in non- refrigerated truck (a) • refrigerated ( b ) v e h

refrigerated (b) vehicle.

Loading and stacking

( b ) v e h i c l e . ■ Loading and stacking Postharvest
( b ) v e h i c l e . ■ Loading and stacking Postharvest

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

Loading of packed cabbage in non-refrigerated truck. Loading of packed cabbage in non-refrigerated truck.

The practice of stacking boxes of lettuce on top of packed cabbage and obstructing the The practice of stacking boxes of lettuce on top of packed cabbage and obstructing the cold vent is improper.

Loading of packed cabbage in refrigerated truck. Loading of packed cabbage in refrigerated truck.

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Retail selling

(ambient in wet markets and air-conditioned in supermarkets)

a
a
I. Introduction b
I. Introduction
b

Retail selling of cabbage at the trading post (a) and at the supermarket (b).

Low temperature storage

(a) and at the supermarket (b). ■ Low temperature storage • Wombok cabbage can be stored
(a) and at the supermarket (b). ■ Low temperature storage • Wombok cabbage can be stored

Wombok cabbage can be stored at low temperature (12ºC) for 10 weeks if field packed or 2 weeks if not.

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

77
77

Postharvest handling procedure for cabbage bound for wet markets in the Philippines

78
78

At the field

bound for wet markets in the Philippines 78 At the field Harvesting Field packing At the

Harvesting

wet markets in the Philippines 78 At the field Harvesting Field packing At the trading post
wet markets in the Philippines 78 At the field Harvesting Field packing At the trading post

Field packing

in the Philippines 78 At the field Harvesting Field packing At the trading post Hauling Wrapping

At the trading post

78 At the field Harvesting Field packing At the trading post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting

Hauling

field Harvesting Field packing At the trading post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary
field Harvesting Field packing At the trading post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary

Wrapping

Field packing At the trading post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk
Field packing At the trading post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk
Field packing At the trading post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk

Packaging

Weighing

At the trading post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk transport Loading
At the trading post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk transport Loading

Sorting Trimming

post Hauling Wrapping Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk transport Loading Transport

Temporary

holding

Packaging Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk transport Loading Transport Postharvest Handling of

Bulk transport

Weighing Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk transport Loading Transport Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili

Loading

Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk transport Loading Transport Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper
Sorting Trimming Temporary holding Bulk transport Loading Transport Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper

Transport

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

Postharvest handling procedure for cabbage bound for the supermarket in the Philippines

from the trading post, packed cabbage heads are brought to the packinghouse.

delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail

delivery

inspection /checking

weighing

 
 
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail

re-packing

trimming

sorting

delivery inspection /checking weighing   re-packing trimming sorting   Transport retail
 
 
 
 

Transport

retail

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

79
79

Postharvest handling procedure for Wombok cabbage in the Philippines (Market)

80
80
procedure for Wombok cabbage in the Philippines (Market) 80 ■ Wholesale bundle pack (10-15 kg/pack) ■

Wholesale bundle pack (10-15 kg/pack)

(Market) 80 ■ Wholesale bundle pack (10-15 kg/pack) ■ Retail • Cabbage heads sold in wet
(Market) 80 ■ Wholesale bundle pack (10-15 kg/pack) ■ Retail • Cabbage heads sold in wet

Retail

Cabbage heads sold in wet markets(ambient) are not packed individually with cling wrap (a)

unlike those sold in air- conditioned supermarkets (b)

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries

4. Effectiveness of improved postharvest handling

Comparison of postharvest handling

Table 1. Comparison of different technologies for postharvest handling

Postharvest

Conventional

Improved/standard

procedure

technology

   

technology

Harvesting

Bare hands and knife

Use of

gloves and sharp and clean knife

 

Short

storage life

Prolonged storage (10 weeks at 12ºC) Field packing

Packing

(2 weeks at Bulk

12ºC)

Hauling

Use of bamboo basket (60 kg/ container)

Use of plastic crate (25 kg/ container)

Transport from farm

 

Bulk

 

Crated

Sorting

size, color, quality

size, color, maturity, quality

Trimming

Manual

 

Use of clean knife

   

PEB

Use of crates Upright position Upside down

Packaging

(horizontal)

Temporary holding

Exposed to sun and rain

 

Packinghouse

Storage temperature( o C)

Ambient

   

12

Transportation

Ambient temperature

 

Refrigerated

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

81
81

Table 2. Comparison of postharvest losses between different technologies

Postharvest

Conventional

Improved/standard

procedure

technology

technology

Harvesting Packing at the field (%)

Packed at trading post

Field packed

47

28

Packing

(%)

In polybags

Horizontal

In crates

Upside down

47

36

Cleaning of

   

butt-end

29

27

(%)

At retail

No wrapping

Individually packed with cling wrap

(%)

29

27

Average

38

30

(%)

Storage period

2 weeks

10 weeks

at 12ºC

Losses are based from experiments done.

82
82
at 12ºC Losses are based from experiments done. 82 Market losses Storage losses Postharvest Handling of

Market losses

Losses are based from experiments done. 82 Market losses Storage losses Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and

Storage losses

Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA

losses Storage losses Postharvest Handling of Cabbage and Chili Pepper in ASIA Improved quality of cabbage

Improved quality of cabbage if field packed

I. Introduction

IIⅡ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries

-6. Rep. of Korea

Rep. of Korea
Rep. of Korea
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries Ji Gang Kim and Hyun Jin
III. Postharvest handling of Chili Pepper in Asian countries
Ji Gang Kim and Hyun Jin Choi

Ⅱ. Postharvest handling of Cabbage in Asian countries | Philippines

83
83

1. Postharvest procedures and Cultivation system

Postharvest handling procedure of Kimchi cabbage in Korea