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Medium Voltage Technology Switchgear Application Guide

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Medium Voltage Technology Switchgear Application Guide

A Selection of Switching Devices

B Switching Duties in MV networks Overview on page 17

C Characteristic Values of Switching Devices

D Selection of HRC Fuses

E Selection of Surge Arresters

F Switchgear Configuration

G Influences and Stress Variables

H Selecting and Rating Switchgear Overview on page 84

I Annexes

J Standards

Dipl. Ing. Ansgar Müller Siemens AG PTD M SP P.O. Box 3220 91050 Erlangen Germany

E-Mail: ansgar.mueller@siemens.com

Edition 11E0 • 2006-07

Contents

CONTENTS

A

Selection of the Appropriate Device

11

A

1

Selection criteria

11

A

2

Suitability under normal operating conditions

12

A

3

Suitability under fault conditions

12

A

4

Switching frequency and endurance

13

A

4.1

Circuit-breaker

13

A

4.2

Switches and switch-disconnectors

14

A

4.3

Disconnectors and earthing-switches

15

A

4.4

Three-position switching devices

16

A

5

Aspects of selection for disconnectors

16

B

Switching Duties in Medium Voltage Networks

17

B

1

Overview

17

B

2

Transformers in distribution networks

19

B

3

Unit transformer

19

B

4

Petersen (arc quenching) coil

19

B

5

Cable and overhead line networks

20

B

6

Cable or line with short-circuit limiting reactor

21

B

7

Compensation coils (shunt reactors)

22

B

8

Motors

23

B

8.1

Direct connected motor (direct on line)

24

B

8.2

Motor with transformer (unit)

25

B

8.3

Motor with starting transformer

26

B

8.4

Motors with starting converter

27

B

8.5

Motors with their own p.f. improvement

27

B

9 Generators

 

28

B

9.1

Selection of the circuit-breaker

28

B

9.2

Protective measures against overvoltage

29

B

9.3

Generators with I k " 600 A feeding into a cable system

30

B

9.4

Generators with connection to an overhead line system, I k " 600 A

31

B

9.5

Generators with connection to a cable or an overhead line system, I k " > 600 A

32

B

9.6

Generators with connection to the HV grid, I k " > 600 A

33

B

10 Furnace transformers

33

B

10.1

Insulation co-ordination for operating voltages above 36 kV

34

B

10.2

Protective measures against overvoltage

34

B

11 Converter

transformers

35

B

11.1

Protective

measures

35

B

11.2

Systems up to 15 kV operating voltage

35

B

11.3

Systems above 15 kV operating voltage

36

B

11.4

Selection of surge limiters and arresters

36

Contents

B

12

Capacitor banks and filter circuits

37

B

12.1

Capacitor banks (without reactor)

37

B

12.2

Reactor-capacitor combination

37

B

12.3

Filter circuits

38

B

12.4

Permissible inrush current

38

B

12.5

Permissible voltage at the circuit-breaker

39

B

12.6

Calculation of the voltages at filter circuits and capacitor-reactor banks

41

B

12.7

Additional measures necessary when switching single capacitors and filters

42

B

12.8

Additional measures necessary when paralleling capacitors and filters

43

B

13

Audio frequency ripple control systems

44

C

Rated Values of Switching Devices

45

C

1

Overview

45

C

2

Rated voltage U r

46

C

3

Rated insulation level U d and U p

46

C

4

Rated normal (operating) current I r

46

C

5

Rated short time withstand current I k

47

C

6

Rated duration of short circuit t k

47

C

7

Rated peak withstand current I p

47

C

8

Rated short-circuit making current I ma

47

C

9

Rated short-circuit breaking current I sc

47

C

10

Rated mainly active load-breaking current I 1

47

C

11

Rated closed-loop breaking current I 2a , I 2b

48

C

12

Rated no-load transformer breaking current I 3

48

C

13

Rated cable-charging breaking current I 4a

48

C

14

Rated line-charging breaking current I 4b

48

C

15

Rated earth fault breaking current I 6a

48

C

16

Rated cable- and line-charging breaking current under earth fault conditionsI 6b

48

C

17

Cable switching current under earth fault conditions with superimposed load current

49

C

18

Rated transfer current I transfer

49

C

19

Rated voltage U L (surge arrester with spark gaps)

50

C

20

Rated voltage U r (metal oxide surge arrester)

50

C

21

Continuous operating voltage U c (metal oxide surge arrester)

50

C

22

Sparkover voltage

50

C

23

Residual voltage u res

50

C

24

Rated discharge current i sn

50

Contents

D

Short-Circuit Protection with HRC Fuses

51

D

1

Selection criteria

51

D

2

HRC fuses for transformers

51

D

2.1

Fuse rated current I rHH

51

D

2.2

Rated voltage U rHH

52

D

3

HRC fuses for capacitors

53

D

3.1

Fuse rated current I rHH

53

D

3.2

Rated voltage U rHH

53

D

4

HRC fuses for motors

53

D

4.1

Fuse rated current I rHH

53

D

4.2

Rated voltage U rHH

54

D

5

Co-ordination with the switching device

54

D

6

Let-through (cut off) current

57

D

7

Heat losses

58

E

Selection of Overvoltage Protection Devices

59

E

1

Selection criteria

59

E

2

Residual and sparkover voltage (Protection levels)

59

E

2.1

Switching overvoltages

60

E

2.2

Lightning overvoltages

61

E

3

Rated and continuous operating voltage

62

E

4

Rated discharge current

63

E

5

Energy absorption capacity

63

E

6

Switchboards with overhead line connections

63

F

Switchgear Configuration

65

F

1

Principles of configuration

65

F

1.1

General

65

F

1.2

Requirements and complementary characteristics

65

F

1.3

Procedure

66

F

2

Switchgear requirements

67

F

3

Properties to be selected

68

G

Influences and Stress Variables

69

G

1

Network characteristic values

69

G

1.1

Line voltage

69

G

1.2

Short-circuit current

69

G

1.3

Normal current and load flow

69

G

1.4

Neutral

earthing

70

G

1.5

Underground / overhead lines

70

Contents

G

1.6

Overvoltage protection

71

G

1.7

Power quality (unstable loads)

72

G

2

Line Protection, measurement and metering

72

G

2.1

Short-circuit protection

72

G

2.2

Protection

functions

72

G

2.3

Command

times

73

G

2.4

Measurement and metering

73

G

2.5

Redundancy

73

G

3

Infeed types

74

G

4

Operating sites

75

G

4.1

Installation location

75

G

4.2

Accessibility

75

G

4.3

Switchgear room

76

G

4.4

Buildings

76

G

4.5

Transportation and assembly

77

G

5 Environmental

conditions

77

G

5.1

Ambient room

conditions

77

G

5.2

Altitudes above 1000 m

78

G

5.3

Ambient temperature and humidity

78

G

6 Industry-specific application

79

G

6.1

Switching duty and capacity

79

G

6.2

Switching frequency of the loads

79

G

6.3

Frequency of switchover between busbars

80

G

6.4

Availability (faults, redundancy, switchover time)

80

G

6.5

Modifications or extensions

81

G

7 Operating procedures

81

G

7.1

Operation

81

G

7.2

Work activities

82

G

7.3

Inspection and maintenance

83

G

8

Regulations

83

H

Selecting and Rating Switchgear

84

H

1

Overview (Checklist)

84

H

2

Primary rated values

87

H

2.1

Rated voltage U r

87

H

2.2

Rated insulation level

88

H

2.3

Rated short-circuit currents

89

H

2.4

Rated duration of short-circuit t k

90

H

2.5

Rated normal current I r

91

H

3 Circuit arrangement

91

H

3.1

Single busbars

91

H

3.2

Double busbars

92

H

3.3

Design of double busbars

92

H

3.4

Operating principle of bus couplings

92

H

4 Switching Devices

93

Contents

H

5

Design and switchgear panel type

94

H

5.1

Basic selection criteria

94

H

5.2

Panel and block design

95

H

5.3

Installation conditions, transportation and assembly

96

H

5.4

Additional aspects

96

H

6

Electrical and mechanical reserves

97

H

7

Insulation medium

97

H

7.1

Comparative aspects

97

H

8

Isolating distance

98

H

9

Enclosure

99

H

9.1

Degree of protection

99

H

9.2

Internal arc classification

99

H

9.3

Pressure absorbers and pressure relief ducts

100

H

10 Compartments

100

H

10.1

General selection criteria

100

H

10.2

Loss of service continuity category

101

H

10.3

Access control

102

H

11

Feeder circuit components

102

H

12

Busbar / metering panel components

103

H

13

Secondary Equipment

104

I

Appendix

105

I

1

Damping relaxation oscillations

105

I

2

RC-circuitry for protection of MV equipment

109

I

3

Overvoltage factors (Definition)

110

I

4

Abbreviations, Symbols and Formula Variables

111

I

5

Diagram Symbols

112

J

Relevant Standards and Regulations

113

J

1

Statutory regulations for medium-voltage equipment

113

J

2

Generic standards for switching devices and switchgear

114

J

3

Product standards for switching devices

115

J

4

Product standards for switchgear and accessories

116

Selection of the appropriate switching device

A SELECTION OF THE APPROPRIATE DEVICE

A 1

Selection criteria

The effective selection of devices for a particular switching duty is determined by three main re- quirements:

a) the operational current switching capability

b) the fault current switching capability

c) the frequency of switching

The section below deals with the criteria for following devices:

• Circuit breakers

Vacuum contactors

HRC fuses

• Vacuum switches

SF 6 switch disconnectors

• Hard gas (gas evolving) and airbreak switches and switch disconnectors

The most important of these is the required switching capability. If more than one device fulfils these requirements a) and b), the frequency of switching might be the critical factor. Individual equipments differ in the number of mechanical and electrical operations for which they are de- signed, the length of time between maintenance and the cost and inconvenience of that mainte- nance.

Additional criteria may be:

the voltage withstand level of the gap; in switchboards where the switches are not withdrawable, devices which ensure a safe isolation gap are needed. Switch disconnectors fulfil the safety gap requirements, switches, circuit break- ers and contactors do not. They need an additional disconnector or similar device in series. In switchboards with withdrawable or truck-mounted equipment this is unimportant, the gap is es- tablished by the act of withdrawal.

the drive mechanism; for duties such as synchronising and (multiple-) auto-reclose, a drive mechanism with defined, short closing and opening times. Only stored energy systems suffice; springs which have to be charged first are unsuitable.

Circuit breakers can switch on and off (make or break) all values of current within their rated ca- pability, from small inductive or capacitive load currents up to full short circuit currents, and under all the fault conditions like earth fault, phase displacement (out-of-phase switching) etc.

Switches can switch on and off operating currents up to their rated interrupting capability and can close onto existing short circuits up to their rated fault making current. They have very limited fault current breaking capability only.

Switch disconnectors combine the functions of switches and disconnectors or, put another way, they are switches with the specific safety gap required of disconnectors.

Contactors are load switching devices with limited short circuit making and breaking capacity. They are electrically operated and are used for high switching rates, e.g. for motor control.

Fuses (or, more accurately, the fuse link) provides a single interruption of a short circuit current. Fuses are installed in combination with load switching devices.

Selection of the appropriate switching device

A 2

Suitability under normal operating conditions

No.

Operating duty

Circuit-

Switch and switch-disconnector

Vacuum

breaker

Vacuum

SF 6

Air-, Hard gas

contactor

1

Transformer (Star point transformer)

X

X

 

X

X

X

2

Converter transformer

X

       

3

Furnace transformer

X

     

X

4

Petersen coil

X

X

 

X

   

5

Compensation coil

X

       

6

Motor

X

X

(

X )

 

X

7

Generator

X

X

(

X )

   

8

Cable, Ring mains

X

X

 

X

X

 

9

Overhead lines

X

X

 

X

X

 

10

Single capacitor

X

X

 

X

( X )

X

11

Paralleling of

X

X

   

X

capacitors

12

Filter circuit

X

X

     

13

Ripple control circuit

X

X

 

X

   

14

Synchronising

X

       

X = suitable and effective use

(X) = limitedly suitable

Table A-1: Switching capability under normal conditions

A 3

Suitability under fault conditions

Using the following three tables, check the fault currents the device must be able to switch.

No.

Fault duty

Circuit-

 

Switch and switch-disconnector

Vacuum

breaker

Vacuum

 

SF 6

Air-, Hard gas

contactor

1

Closing onto fault

X

 

X

 

X

 

X

(

1 )

2

Terminal fault

X

(

2 )

(

2 )

(

2 )

(

2 )

3

Auto-reclose

X

       
 

Fault on load side of

         

4

- Generator

X

5

- Reactor

X

6

- Transformer

X

(

2 )

(

2 )

(

2 )

(

2 )

7

Locked rotor motor

X

 

X

(

2 )

   

X

8

Double earth fault

X

(

2 )

(

2 )

(

2 )

(

2 )

9

Phase opposition

X

       

(1) Without HRC fuse, only limited fault switching capability. (2) Only as switch-fuse combination; current interruption by the fuse.

Table A-2: Switching capability under fault conditions

Selection of the appropriate switching device

No.

Fault duty

Circuit-

Switch and switch-disconnector

Vacuum

breaker

Vacuum

SF 6

Air-, Hard gas

contactor

10

Unloaded cable, OHL fault on network side

X

X

X

(

1 )

X

11

Loaded cable, OHL fault on network side

X

X

X

 

X

12

Unloaded cable, OHL fault on load side

X

X

X

 

X

X

13

Loaded cable, OHL fault on load side

X

X

X

(

1 )

X

Table A-3: Switching under earth fault conditions

(1) for small currents only

No.

Fault duty

Circuit-

Switch and switch-disconnector

Vacuum

breaker

Vacuum

SF 6

Air-, Hard gas

contactor

14

Safe disconnection (Disconnection under load)

   

X

X

 

15

Rapid changeover

X

       

16

Transformer with short-circuited winding

X

X

( 1 )

( 1 )

( 1 )

(1) Only as switch-fuse combination; current interruption by the fuse.

Table A-4: Other fault conditions

A 4

Switching frequency and endurance

When a range of devices fulfils the electrical requirements, the frequency of switching in connec- tion with the endurance can be an additional selection criterion. The standards distinguish between mechanical and electrical endurance, which are also applicable to equipment "mixed"; e.g. a switch can mechanically correspond to the class M1 and electrically to the class E3.

The following tables show the endurance classes of the switching devices and give a recommenda- tion about useful use with that.

A 4.1

Circuit-breaker

IEC 62271-100 defines the mechanical endurance by a certain number of operating cycles (class M), the electrical endurance, however, merely with the verbal description “normal” and “extended” endurance.

To the orientation, what “normal” and “extended electrical endurance” means, the grey shaded table elements indicate the operating cycles which average modern vacuum circuit-breakers can perform. The numbers for short circuit operation (I sc ) are derived from the operating sequences of the type test. As a rule these are minimum numbers; actually, vacuum circuit-breakers of the class E2 with

Selection of the appropriate switching device

auto-reclosing capability, which are used in electricity grids with overhead lines, may break the smaller short-circuit currents, usual there, several hundred times.

Furthermore it is worth mentioning, that almost all modern vacuum circuit-breakers can switch the rated normal current with the number of the mechanical operating cycles.

Class

Description

 

M

M1

 

2.000

Operations

normal mechanical endurance

M2

 

10.000

Operations

extended mechanical endurance, limited maintenance

 

E1

* I r

* I sc

2.000

6 x

Operations

Open

normal electrical endurance

(circuit-breaker, not falling into class E2)

4

x

Close

E

 

* I r

* I sc

10.000

6 x

Operations

Open

without auto-

reclosing duty

 

E2

4

x

Close

extended electrical endurance without maintenance of interrupting parts

* I r 10.000 Operations

with auto-reclosing duty

 

* I sc

50 x

Open

 

15 x

Close

* Derived numerical values to the orientation = > see text.

Table A-5: Classes of circuit-breakers

A 4.2

Switches and switch-disconnectors

IEC 60265-1 specifies classes for so-called general purpose switches. In addition there are „limited purpose“ and „special purpose“ switches 1 . General purpose switches – as the name suggests – have to switch different kinds of operating currents: load currents, closed-loop currents, transformer magnetising currents, cable and line charging currents as well as making short-circuit currents. General purpose switches intended for use in isolated neutral systems or in systems earthed by a high impedance shall be capable of switching under earth fault conditions. This versatility is re- flected in the relatively comprehensive definition of the classes, which are applicable for

Vacuum switches

SF 6 switches and switch-disconnectors

Air and hard-gas switches and switch-disconnectors

For switch-disconnectors the table details apply to the function “switch”.

See also section A 4.4 Three-position switching devices.

1 Limited purpose switches need only cope with a certain range of the performance of a general purpose switch. Special purpose switches are used for selected duties such as switching of single capacitor banks, paralleling of capacitor banks, closed-loop circuits built up by transformers in parallel, or motors (under steady-state and stalled conditions).

Selection of the appropriate switching device

Class

Operations

Descriptions

 

M

M1

 

1000

Mechanical endurance

 

M2

 

5000

Extended mechanical endurance

 

E1

10

x

I

1

   

10

x

I

2a

Additionally for all classes:

I

1

Mainly active load-breaking current Closed-loop breaking current

2

x

I

ma

I

2a

   

20

x 0,05 I 1

I

Cable-charging breaking current

   

4a

E

E2

30

20

x

x

I

I

1

2a

10

10

x I 4a

x 0,2…0,4 I 4a

x I 4b

I

I

4b

6a

Line-charging breaking current

Earth fault breaking current

3

x

I

ma

10

I

6b

Cable- and line-charging breaking current under earth fault conditions

     

E3

100 x

I

1

10

x I 6a

20

x

I

2a

10

x I 6b

I

ma

Short-circuit making current

5

x

I

ma

   

Table A-6: Classes for switches

A 4.3

Disconnectors and earthing-switches

IEC 62271-102 defines the classes for disconnectors and earthing-switches. Since disconnectors have no switching capacity 2 , only classes fort he mechanical endurance are specified.

Class

Operations

Description

 

M0

1000

for general duties

M

M1

2000

 

M2

10.000

extended mechanical endurance

Table A-7: Classes for disconnectors

The classes for earthing switches specify the short-circuit making capability (earthing in case of voltage still being present). E0 designates a normal earthing switch, whereas E1 and E2 correspond to earthing switches with short-circuit making capability; so-called make-proof earthing switches.

Class

Operations

Description

 

E0

0

x

I ma

no short-circuit making capability

for general duties

E

E1

2

x

I ma

 

E2

5

x

I ma

short-circuit making capability

reduced maintenance

Table A-8: Classes for earthing-switches

2 Disconnectors up to 52 kV rated voltage can switch off only “negligible” currents up to 500 mA (for example voltage transformers), or higher currents only if no significant change in voltage occurs (for example busbar transfer when bus coupler is closed).

Selection of the appropriate switching device

A 4.4

Three-position switching devices

Three-position switching devices combine two or three functions within one device

Disconnecting

Earthing and short-circuiting

Load switching

Interrupting short-circuits

For three-position switching devices classes are designated for each individual function, i.e. as if there were two or three separate switching devices.

A 5

Aspects of selection for disconnectors

For work on switchboard components, it must always be possible to establish a safe disconnection gap. For this, a switching device or an arrangement of equal value is essential, also an interlock be- tween this disconnector and the load, power or earthing switch. With combined devices like switch- disconnectors or three-position devices, an additional disconnector is unnecessary and even separate interlocking may become superfluous.

The average mechanical endurance of disconnectors (truck or withdrawable part) amounts 1000 or 2000 operations, corresponding to the classes M0 or M1. This is completely sufficient for most of the applications.

The life of the disconnector in double busbar switchboards plays an important role: In some networks, for operational reasons, it is necessary to switch frequently from one busbar to the other. Because of the limited life of conventional disconnectors in comparison to the main switching de- vices, not all switchboards are suitable for this application.

not all switchboards are suitable for this application. A System 1 System 2 System 1 System

A

System 1

System 2

System 1 System 2 B C
System 1
System 2
B
C

DB-switchboards are available in the "classic" arrangement (A), as double circuit breaker systems (B) or as a system with two single busbars (C). For frequent changeover, only designs B and C are suitable. Here, one switches over with the circuit breakers, the disconnectors are opened only for work. The classic arrangement A is not suitable because the disconnectors have to be operated for each change-over. Their design life is rapidly exhausted, the maintenance intervals rapidly short- ened and the efficacy of the switchboard destroyed.

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

B SWITCHING DUTIES IN MEDIUM VOLTAGE NETWORKS

B 1

Overview

The table gives an overview whether special measures have to be taken on selection of switching devices. Details are described in the chapters listed in the right column.

Switching duty

 

Advice

Section

Transformers in distribution networks

Consider inrush current when selecting HRC fuses for distribution transformers. Additional selection criteria for switch-fuse combinations.

B

2,

D

2 +

 

D

5 - D 7

Unit transformer

   

with a single

• motor

see

• Motor

B

8

generator

• Generator

B

9

furnace

• Furnace transformer

B

10

converter

• Converter transformer

B

11

Petersen coil

Surge arrester or limiter

B

4

Overhead power line and cable network

Switches and switch-disconnectors are very limited in suitability for earth fault location (by selective switching of circuits): only up to their switching capability under earth fault conditions - with or without load (see manufacturer data)!

B

5

Cable or overhead line with short-circuit limiting reactor

Surge arresters at the “short” end of the cable / line

B

6

Compensation coil

Protection with RC-circuits; additional surge ar- resters if I < 600 A; depending on the network con- figuration also protection at the busbar.

B

7

(shunt reactor)

   

Motor

Overvoltage protection if motor starting current I an < 600 A

B

8

Selection of switching device: with large motors the ratio of peak to r.m.s. short-circuit current at the busbar is possibly > 2.5; hence the rated short-circuit making current of the breaker has to be the actual peak current!

 

Motor with HRC fuse: select the fuse according to starting current and time of the motor!

D

4 +

D

5 to D 7

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

Switching duty

Advice

Section

Generator

Overvoltage protection is necessary, if short- circuit current of generator is I k " < 600 A

B

9

Selection of switching device: with large motors the ratio of peak to r.m.s. short-circuit current at the busbar is possibly > 2,5; hence the rated short-circuit making current of the breaker has to be the actual peak current!

 

– Consider the effect of load shedding for the se- lection of the rated voltage

– Consider DC Component for the selection of the rated short-circuit breaking current

Furnace transformer

Protection by RC-circuits and surge arresters is individually matched to the system (in most cases also at the busbar)

B

10

Converter transformer

Surge arresters

B

11

Capacitor

Selection of switching device: consider the limit of closing current for breakers with tulip contact and flat contact surface!

B

12

– select next higher rated current (additional heating due to harmonic currents)

 

– match rated voltage to the higher operating voltage for capacitor-coil combinations

HRC fuses: select rated voltage and current 1-2 steps higher

D

3

Filter circuit

Consider operating voltage limits

B

12

Selection of switching device: see capacitors

 

Audio frequency ripple control system

– – –

B

13

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

B 2

Transformers in distribution networks

This covers all transformers in industrial and power utility networks, with exception of the special transformers in section B 3.

Switching:

Unloaded transformer

Loaded transformer

Current:

Magnetising current 1 to 3 % of rated current

up to 120 % of rated current

cos φ:

less than 0.3 ind.

0.7 to 1.0 ind.

Remarks:

Vacuum switches have small chopping currents (less than 5A), Overvoltage factor k 3.1

– – –

Additional measures: None

B 3

Unit transformer

Transformers in this arrangement normally feed only one, special load. The switching duty is then determined by the characteristics of that load. For further clarification see:

Motor (with transformer, starting transformer)

Section B 8

Generator

Section B 9

Furnace transformer

Section B 10

Rectifier, converter transformer

Section B 11

B 4

Petersen (arc quenching) coil

Petersen coils in earth fault compensated, normally unearthed, networks earth the network at the starpoint of either a transformer or an earthing transformer. When an earth fault occurs, the coil is switched in to produce a purely inductive current which should compensate (equal) the capacitive earth fault current which is flowing into the fault. If the Petersen coil is switched off during the fault, multiple re-ignitions can cause overvoltages. Surge arresters will protect against these.

Switching:

without earth fault in network

with earth fault in network

Current:

approx. 1% of transformer rated current

up to 300 A

cos φ:

less than 0.15 ind.

less than 0.15 ind.

Remarks:

as unloaded transformer

overvoltages due to multiple re-ignition possible

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

Overvoltage protection circuit

Arresters at the transformer or neutral earthing transformer terminals in phase-earth connection, or parallel to Petersen coil; if the coil can be switched directly (left figure), the arrester has to be in- stalled there.

(left figure), th e arrester has to be in- stalled there. Selection of surge arresters It
(left figure), th e arrester has to be in- stalled there. Selection of surge arresters It

Selection of surge arresters

It is necessary that the transformer insulation corresponds to the higher standard value in accor-

dance with IEC 60071-1, otherwise the arrester can be selected as described in section E.

Surge arrester or surge limiter

At the primary terminals of the [neutral earthing] transformer

Parallel to

Petersen coil

SiC-Arrester

Rated voltage

U r U max

U r 0,8 U max

MO-Arrester

Cont. op. voltage

U c U max

U c U max / 3

U

U

C

max

B 5

Continuous operating voltage

Maximum operating voltage of the power system

Cable and overhead line networks

This refers to unloaded cables and lines. In this case, only the capacitive charging current flows. See section 0 for cable and lines with short-circuit limiting reactor.

Switching:

Cable

Overhead line

Current:

up to 100 A

up to 10 A

cos φ:

capacitive

capacitive

Remarks:

Vacuum switches are restrike-free

Switches and switch-disconnectors are very limited in suitability for earth fault location (by selective switching of circuits): only up to their switching capabil- ity under earth fault conditions - with or without load (see manufacturer data)!

Additional measures: None

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

B 6

Cable or line with short-circuit limiting reactor

A short-circuit limiting reactor can mainly be found in cable systems; however, the following rec-

ommendations are equally valid for line connections with limiting reactor as well.

If two switchgear installations with different peak and short-time current ratings are connected, a

reactor must limit the short-circuit current which – in the event of a fault – is fed from the higher rated installation into the lower rated.

On energising the connection between station A and B under no-load condition impermissible over- voltages may occur if the circuit-breaker in station A closes the “long” cable (some hundred metres) while the breaker in station B is open. The very small earth capacitance of the short connection (only a few metres of cable or bar) together with the inductance of the reactor leads to a high- frequency inrush voltage which can reach unduly high amplitudes. This might cause disruptive dis- charges at the reactor terminals or at the open end of the “short” cable or bar connection in station

B. Hence surge arresters or limiters have to reduce the overvoltage to permissible values. In contrast

to

this, when the breaker in station B closes first, no significant overvoltages occur at the “long” end

in

station A, as the closing overvoltage at the open circuit-breaker remains small due to the much

higher earth capacitance of the long cable.

Current:

0 A; only on closing under no-load condition

cos ϕ:

– – –

Remarks:

The energising of the cable at the “long” end can cause overvoltages at the “short”, open end.

Additional measures: Surge arrester / limiters

Protective measures

Surge arresters should be installed in the station with the “short” cable or bar connection between reactor and circuit-breaker (station B). The arresters can be mounted either at the terminals of the breaker or at the reactor.

either at the terminals of the breaker or at the reactor. "short" cable open or bar
"short" cable open or bar
"short" cable
open
or bar

"short" cable

Station A

Station B

Surge limiters at the circuit-breaker or arresters at the reactor in line-to earth star-connection

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

Selection of surge arresters

Operating voltage 3 of system up to:

Surge arresters for installation at …

circuit-breaker

short-circuit limiting reactor

3,6 kV

3EF1 036-0A

 

4,8 kV

3EF1 048-0A

Indoor: type 3EF1, same type as at the circuit-breaker.

7,2 kV

3EF1 072-0A

Outdoor: arresters with equal protection level; selection see chapter E.

12

kV

3EF1 120-0A

15

kV

3EF1 150-0A

 

B 7

Compensation coils (shunt reactors)

These compensate the capacitive charging current on unloaded networks. Often they are connected to the tertiary winding of a transformer, when compensation of a high voltage (110 kV) network is required. Direct compensation of medium voltage networks is more seldom. Compensation coils are switched daily. The switching devices reach large numbers of operations. The high rate of rise of the recovery voltage makes this a very difficult duty for conventional units. Vacuum switches and breakers master these conditions and simultaneously require very little maintenance for the high number of cycles.

Current:

up to 2000 A

cos φ:

0.15 ind.

Remarks:

During switch-off, multiple re-ignitions can excite resonant oscillations in the coil; with currents less than 600 A high stresses can result from virtual current chopping.

Additional measures:

RC-circuits are generally required, and additionally surge arresters if the coil current 600 A. The protection must be individually matched to the network.

Overvoltage protection circuit

Compensation coils are always equipped with an RC-circuit. This prevents resonant harmonics in the coil during switch-off. See also chapter I 2 for information.

When the coil current is 600 A, then surge arresters are also fitted to prevent overvoltages arising from multiple re-ignitions.

3 For other voltages and those above 24 kV any surge arrester can be selected; selection criteria are described in section E.

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

Switching duties in medium voltage systems I (x) Coil current I Protection I ≤ 600 A
Switching duties in medium voltage systems I (x) Coil current I Protection I ≤ 600 A

I

Switching duties in medium voltage systems I (x) Coil current I Protection I ≤ 600 A
Switching duties in medium voltage systems I (x) Coil current I Protection I ≤ 600 A

(x)

Switching duties in medium voltage systems I (x) Coil current I Protection I ≤ 600 A

Coil current I

Protection

I 600 A

RC-circuits

+ arresters

I > 600 A

RC- circuits

(x) Protection circuits on the busbar side in case of certain network conditions only.

Selection of protection devices

The protection devices must always be individually matched to the network characteristics. There- fore, a network calculation is always necessary.

B 8

Motors

This area of application covers many types of machines, in various connection modes:

Asynchronous motor: cage rotor, slipring rotor

Synchronous motor (with asynchronous start)

Motor with unit transformer

Motor with starting transformer

Motor with starting converter

Motor with individual power factor compensation

Variable speed drives (converter motors) see B 11, Converter transformers

Duty:

Motor during starting Machine with locked rotor

Normal operation No-load … on-load

Current:

Cage rotor Slip ring rotor

5 … 7 I rMot 1 … 2 I rMot

0,1 … 1,2 I rMot

cos φ:

0.2 to 0.3 ind.

0.9 to 0.3 ind.

Remarks:

Switching of starting currents I an 600 A 4 can cause overvoltages as result of multi- ple re-ignition and virtual current chopping

Switching of normal operating currents causes no impermissible overvoltage surges

Additional measures: Overvoltage protection for motors with I an 600 A 4, 5

4 For motor-transformer combinations, the transformer primary current is the criterion

5 Motors with individual power factor correction do not need a special circuit (B 8.5)

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

Overvoltage protection circuits

Overvoltage limiters 3EF are installed, when the starting current is 600 A. In motor-transformer combinations, the current through the switch is the criterion.

The length of cable connections to the motor, or other parameters, have no influence in this case.

Exception: Motors with individual power factor correction need no protection circuit, if

the capacitors are permanently connected to the motor

the compensation rating (Q C ) is at least 1/5 of the motor's demand (S Mot ), normally Q C = (1/3) S Mot

The compensation capacitance reduces the frequency of the transient recovery voltage for the first pole to clear to less than the limit for multiple re-ignition. Thus no overvoltages occur either. This gives the option to use individual compensation as an alternative to overvoltage limiters.

The following illustrations show installation points for limiters or surge arresters in various ar- rangements with motors. Due to the low protection level the surge limiters can be installed at the breaker – against the general rule that they must be installed at the object to be protected (motor).

B 8.1

Direct connected motor (direct on line)

(motor). B 8.1 Direct connected moto r (direct on line) M I a n ≤ 600
M
M

I an 600 A

Overvoltage limiters phase to earth star at the main switch

Motor

3,6 kV

4,8 kV

7,2 kV

12 kV 6

15 kV

voltage up

to:

Surge limiter

         

types

3EF1 036-0A

3EF1 048-0A

3EF1 072-0A

3EF3 120-1

3EF1 150-0A

Further selection criteria are described in section E and the surge arrester catalogues.

6 For direct connected motors with 12 kV surge limiters at the breaker the type underlined must be used to ensure the protection level required.

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

B 8.2

Motor with transformer (unit)

The protective effect is the same in both cases.

Arrangement 1

Overvoltage limiter phase to earth star at the main switch

I an < 600 A

phase to earth star at the main switch I an < 600 A M Arrangement 2
M
M

Arrangement 2

Overvoltage limiter or ar- rester in phase to earth star at the transformer

I an < 600 A

in phase to earth star at the transformer I an < 600 A M Arrangement 2:
M
M

Arrangement 2:

At the transformer, surge arresters can be fitted instead of 3EF limiters, if the transformer insulation has the higher insulation level specified in IEC 60071. For selection of arresters see section E.

Motor or transformer rated voltage up to: 7

Surge arresters for installation at …

circuit-breaker

transformer

 

indoor limiters

outdoor limiters

3,6 kV

3EF1 036-0A

3EF1 036-0

 

4,8 kV

3EF1 048-0A

3EF1 048-0

Arresters with equal protection level; selection see chapter E.

7,2 kV

3EF1 072-0A

3EF1 072-0

12

kV

3EF1 120-0A

3EF1 120-0A

 

15

kV

3EF1 150-0A

3EF1 150-0A

7 For other voltages on request

Switching duties in medium voltage systems

B 8.3

Motor with starting transformer

Main switch

3EF (1)
3EF
(1)
Transfer switch M Star point switch 3EF 3EF (2) (3)
Transfer switch
M
Star
point
switch
3EF
3EF
(2)
(3)

Starting current

Connection of overvoltage limiters

I an 600 A

either at the main switch (1) or transformer (2); and at transformer star point (3)

I an > 600 A

at transformer star point (3)

The quality of the insulation of starting transformers frequently does not meet the value standard- ised in IEC 60071. Therefore, only limiters 3EF should be at transformers (2), because they have especially good voltage protection properties. Arresters are not particularly suitable for this duty.

Every surge limiter, also those at the star point (3), must be selected in accordance with the trans- former rated voltage.

Transformer rated voltage up to: 8

Surge arresters for installation at …

circuit-breaker

transformer

 

indoor limiters

outdoor limiters

3,6 kV

3EF1 036-0A

3EF1 036-0A

 

4,8 kV

3EF1 048-0A

3EF1 048-0A

Arresters with equal protection level; selection see chapter E.

7,2 kV

3EF1 072-0A

3EF1 072-0A

12

kV

3EF3 120-1 9

 

15

kV

3EF1 150-0A

   

8 For other voltages on request

9 For 12 kV surge limiters at the breaker the type underlined must be used to ensure the protection level required.