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CAD/CAM Principles and

Applications
Ch 13 CNC Programming

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Objectives

Understand the fundamentals of part programming in terms of the


various steps needed to be taken for completing a successful CNC part
program.
Comprehend the elements of manual part programming methods using
word address format and the ISO G-coding systems.
Learn the part programming fundamentals related to the use of various
word addresses.
Appreciate different preparatory (G codes) and miscellaneous functions
(M codes) as used in CNC part programs.
Write and prove sample part programs for CNC machining centres in
planar milling operations using the word address format.
Understand the concept of canned or fixed cycles for the hole making
operations
Learn the use of cutter diameter and length compensation while using
with multiple cutting tools.

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

13.1 Part Programming


Fundamentals

Process planning
Axes selection
Tool selection
Cutting process parameters planning
Job and tool setup planning
Machining path planning
Part program writing
Part program proving
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Study part print

Fig. 13.1 The steps


involved in the
development of a
proven part program
in NC machining

Identify machine
tool

Capability
of cutting
tools

Identify operations
and tooling

Machine
tool
databace

Cutting
tool
database

Determine feeds,
speeds, depths,
power
Machinability
database

Prepare setup
sheet with work
setting and tooling
assembly
Develop part
program
Simulate tool
path
Dry run

Cut the first part

Inspect the part

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Proven part

Fig. 13.2 A typical component for NC


machining
15

10

20

15

10

R5

40

20

10

40

15

100

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Fig. 13.3 Part for NC machining shown with axes system at the
centre
Y

R5

20

20

10
30

50

35

40

50

Z
X
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Fig. 13.4 Same part as in Fig. 13.3 but with axes


system at the bottom left corner
Y
70

100

100

R5

20

40
50
60

80

40

30

85

15

15

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

X
7

Fig. 13.5 Tool path of the part for proving the


NC part program

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Fig. 13.6 Shaded 3D image of the tool cutting the part for providing
more realistic proving of the NC part program (Courtesy Virtual Gibbs Inc.)

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Fig. 13.7 Setup sheet for a machining centre part

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

10

13.2 Manual Part


Programming Methods

ISO standards for coding


Co-ordinate function
Feed function
Speed function
Tool function
G Codes
M Codes
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

11

Fig. 13.8 Absolute (G90) and incremental (G91)


systems

15
10
5
O

B
A
C
5

25

35

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

X
12

Fig. 13.9 XY plane selection for vertical axis milling


Z

machines

G17

X
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

13

Fig. 13.10

XY plane selection for horizontal axis


milling machines

Y
X

Z
G17

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

14

Fig. 13.11 XZ plane selection for horizontal axis milling


Z

machines

G18

X
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.12

YZ plane selection for horizontal axis


Z

milling machines

G19

X
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.13 Setting the workpiece on the machine table

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.14 Positioning, preparatory function G00


Y

45

30

A
20

B
X

150

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.15 Positioning, preparatory function G00 in 3


dimensions

Z
A

70

Y
40

50

45
90

90

X
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

19

Fig. 13.16 Linear interpolation, preparatory function


G01
Y

100

E
30
X

20
110

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.17 Circular interpolation, preparatory function


G02/G03
Y

20

G
F

30
X

50
65

5
R3

15

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

21

Fig. 13.18 Circular interpolation in XY plane using G17


plane selection
Z

X
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.19 Circular interpolation in XZ plane using G18


plane selection
Z

Y
A

X
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

23

Fig. 13.20 Example


Y

125

R
C 10

5
R3

100
10
R
B

75
50
25

25

E
X

65
10

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.21

Simulation of the above part program for


component shown in Fig. 13.20

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.22 Component for example 13.2


Y

98
20

98
80

20

18.757

18.757

80
2

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.23 Tool path for machining the component for


example 13.22
Y

Cutter centre path

Y1

Y2

Part contour

X1
X2
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.24 Offset Tool path for machining contours


that are not parallel to the principal axes
Y

Cutter centre path

Y1

Y2

Part contour

X1
X2
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.25

Simulation of the above part program for


component shown in Fig. 13.22

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.26 Tool length compensation

4
L4

TOOL
2
3
L2

L3

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

30

Fig. 13.27 Typical motions embedded in G81 canned


cycle

R AP

ID

Breakthrough
distance

Hole
Depth

FEED

RAPID

Clearance plane

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

31

Fig. 13.28 Example for canned cycles.


Y
100

D
C
B

1
0

100

70
50
35

25
55

75
15

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.29 Component for NC program in example


13.3
130
115

Y
95
80

100
84

84
60
40

34
16

X
20
40
60
20

8
10

Cutting tools:
1 End mill 40 mm
2 Centre drill
3 Twist drill 6 mm
4 Twist drill 8.5 mm
5 Tap M10

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.30

Simulation of the above part program for


component shown in Fig. 13.29

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.31 Cutter radius compensation


0

10

30

12

70

90

10
20

Programmed Path
40

Offset Path of Cutter


60

80

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

35

Fig. 13.32 Example showing the cutter radius


compensation using the G codes G42
Set point
A

Y
1

G42
G40

110

140

90

60

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

36

Fig. 13.33 Example showing the cutter radius


compensation using the G codes G41 and G42
A

100

41

60

B
K
42

2
0

L
200

0
12

E
J
200

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Fig. 13.34 Example for contour programming using


the cutter radius compensation
R10

70.432
84.574
20
46.642

120

77.503

R15
39.571
25.607

91.645

R15

R10
22.5

15

33
10

4.393 53.713
124.853
134.799
10

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Summary

Part programming is a systematic activity and following the


steps in proper sequence will help in developing efficient part
programs
Selection of the part coordinate axes system with respect to the
part geometry help in reducing the mathematical calculations
that are needed to write the part program
ISO standard for part programming utilises all the 26 characters
of English alphabet as word addresses in a part program.
Preparatory functions or G-codes control the geometrical nature
of the data input as well as operation of some of the data in a
program. A large number of these codes are standardised by
ISO.

CAD/CAM Principles and


Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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Summary

Motion commands are the most important part of the G-codes


used to control the motion in rapid (G00), linear interpolation
(G01) and Circular interpolation (G02 and G03).
Miscellaneous functions or M-codes are used to specify the
machine tool functions in the program. Less number of codes
are standardised in view of these being machine specific.
For programs involving multiple tools, tool length compensation
can be activated by the use of tool offset registers.
Canned or fixed cycles offer the facility to reduce the bulk of
program by canning the often repeated command into a single
G-code. Examples are for the drilling of holes (G81).
In milling of contours large amount of complex calculations are
often required to take multiple cuts. This can be reduced by the
use of cutter diameter compensation (G41 and G42).
CAD/CAM Principles and
Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

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