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Project Report

Project Name:

Portable Battery Charger

Group:

Apparatus:

R1 = 390
R2 = 680
R3 = 39 /1W
R4 = 27 K
R5 = 47 K
R6 = 3.3 K
R7 = 100 /1W
VR1, VR2 = 20 K
C1 = 0.001 F (ceramic disc)
C2 = 0.01 F (ceramic disc)
C3 = 4.7 F/25V (Electrolytic )
IC1 = NE555 timer IC
Medium power NPN transistor
ZD1 = 5.6 V/1W
LED1
1.5V*8 AA cells
Connecting wire
Project Board

Project Description:
While travelling charging of mobile battery is great problem because power supply source is not generally
accessible. This project targets this problem by using very common electronics components for charging mobile
battery using AA cells that are easily accessible highly portable and reliable . The main part of the circuit mobile
cellphone charger is timer IC NE555, used to charge and monitor the voltage level. IC1 get control voltage to pin 5
by zener diode ZD1-. Threshold pin 6 and trigger pin 2 is supplied with a voltage set by VR1 and VR2 respectively.
The trigger pin 2 of IC1 is below 1/3VCC when discharge battery is connected to the circuit as a result flip-flop of
IC1 is switched on to take output pin 3 high. The process is reversed when battery is fully charged of charged
battery is connected. Here transistor T1 used to enhance the charging current from output pin 3 of IC1. Adjust
potentiometer VR1 and VR2 as per require.

LED status for different charging conditions


Load across the output
No battery connected
Charging battery
Fully charged battery

Output frequency (at pin 3)


765 kHz
4.5 Hz
0

LED1
On
Blink
Off

Circuit Diagram:

Working Principle:
If DC current is fed into the battery again, then the processes that were described above under 'discharging' will be
reversed. The lead sulphate formed during the discharging process will turn back into lead dioxide, lead and
sulphuric acid. The sulphuric acid is formed in the cavities in the plate. When the battery is drained, sulphuric acid
is fed into the interior of the plate from outside. When the battery is charged, this process is reversed and the
sulphuric acid moves out (diffused), and becomes available again as a supply of acid below the plates. If DC current
continues to be fed into the battery until the lead sulphate has turned back into lead dioxide, lead and sulphuric
acid, this means that the battery is back to its starting point and is fully charged.Charging a battery correctly and
protecting it against over- or undercharging make a considerable difference in prolonging its service life. By using
the most efficient charging methods, it is possible to achieve a long battery service life and short charging times.In
the simplest case, the charger can be switched off or switched over to conservation charging after a specific length
of time. However, this simple approach to charging is now no longer state-of-the-art. As well as fully charging a
battery, the charger should also evaluate the battery's charge state and detect any malfunction in it. A charger is
also responsible for minimising the ageing effect.