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A. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBOHYDRATES

CARBOHYDRATE

TASTE

Monosaccharides

 

1.

Glucose

or

Sweet

dextrose

2. Fructose or

3.

levulose

Galactose

Disaccharides:

Sweetest

Sugar

Slightly

SOLUBILITY

in water

Soluble

Soluble

Soluble

1. Sucrose

or

sugar cane

2. Maltonse or

malt sugar

3. Lactose

or

milk sugar

Polysaccharides

Sweet

Very soluble

Sweet

Soluble

Sligthly

Soluble

sweet

(moderately)

1.

Starch

Tasteless .

Amorphous

Colloidal

2.

Dexxrins

Very slightly

"

 

sweet

3.

G1y cogen

Tasteless

"

or animal

starch

4.

Cellulose

Tasteless

Insoluble

STRUCTURE

COLOR W/

DIALYZES

Iodine

Crysta11ine

+

Crysta11ine

+

Crystal 1ine

Blue

+

Crystalline

+

Crystalline

+

Crystalline

+

Amorphous

Blue

"

Red to colorless

"

Red

"

 

-----

B. CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBOHYDRATES

CARBOHYDRATES

Monosaccharides

Fermentation

Osazone

Reducing

with yeast

Formation

Action

1. Glucose

yes

yes

yes

2. Fructose

yes

yes

yes

3. Galactose

yes

yes

yes

Disaccharides

 

1.

Sucrose

yes

none

none

2

Maltose

yes

yes

yes

3,

Lactose

no

yes

yes

 

End Procedure of Hydrolysis

Already in simplest form Already in simplest form Already in simplest form

Glucose and fructose 2 Molecules of glucose Glucose and galatose

form Glucose and fructose 2 Molecules of glucose Glucose and galatose from the files of JRCLaoingco,
form Glucose and fructose 2 Molecules of glucose Glucose and galatose from the files of JRCLaoingco,

Polysaccharides

1.

2.

Starch

Dextrins

no

(slightly)

no

(slightly)

After

hydrolysis

After

hydrolysis

Glucose

Glucose

Note: Dextrins give a slight reaction with Benedict's or Fehling's test and also form a few maltose osazones because, whenever a dextrin is formed from starch, a molecule of maltose is also formed. It is the maltose molecule which gives the reaction.

3. Glycogen

no

no

After

Glucose

 

hydrolysis

4. Cellulose

no

no

After

Glucose

 

hydrolysis

by certain

bacteria or

acids .

BIOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF CARBOHYDRATES

1. Carbohydrates furnish energy. Carbohydrates form our principal energy foods. Besides furnishing us immediate energy on oxidation in the tissues, this type of food furnishes a readily reserve store of energy in the liver and muscles in the form of glycogen. One gram of carbohydrates furnishes 3,961 calories of heat.

2. Certain products of carbohydrate metabolism act as catalyst in biological oxidation

3. Conversion into fat. The body seems to be able to handle about one pound of carbohydrate, as carbohydrate, at a time. This is distributed throughout the body in the liver, muscles and blood. Any excess is converted into fat, since products or partial oxidation of glucose may be converted into glycerol and fatty acids. These in turn may react to form fat.

4. Pro tein - sparers. A high carbohydrate diet results in minimal excretion of metabolic nitrogen in the urine. This is effected in the liver by the conversion of pyruvic acid, an intermediate product on metabolism of glucose, into amino acids.

General Properties of Carbohydrates;

1. Effect on Plane of Polarized Light. When a sugar solution is placed in a polariscope it shows a

definite rotation of a plane of polarized light, either to the right or to the left. Glucose has been

Fructose

named dextrose because it rotates the plane to the right and hence is dextrorotatory.

is known as levulose because it is levorotatory, that is, it rotates the plane of polarized

to the left.

light

Galactose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose are dextrorotatory.

2. Fermentation. This is the decomposition of a substance brought about by enzymes secreted by bacteria, yeasts, or molds. In simple fermentation, the monosaccharides like glucose, is converted into ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide by the enzymes zymase:

C 6 H 12 0 6

zymase

-----------> 2 C 2 H 5 OH

+

2 C0 2

H 1 2 0 6 zymase -----------> 2 C 2 H 5 OH + 2 C0
H 1 2 0 6 zymase -----------> 2 C 2 H 5 OH + 2 C0

Simple alcoholic fermentation is used in making of ethyl alcohol, alcoholic beverages, and in leavening bread with yeast. If yeasts are present, solutions of sucrose and maltose ferment, since the enzymes sucrase and maltase in yeast hydrolyze their respective sugars to simple sugars, which in turn are fermented. Lactose in solution does not undergo fermentation to form ethyl alcohol because of the absence of the hydrolytic enzyme lactase in yeast.

A starch solution will ferment if the enzyme diastase, found in sprouting grain and flour, is present to hydrolyze the starch to maltase. Then yeast must be present to hydrolyze the maltose to glucose and to ferment the glucose.

3. Test for Reducing Properties.

Carbohydrates or sugars which contain a free aldehyde or

ketone group will show reducing properties towards reducing tests for aldehydes. tests are:

Among the

1. Fehling's test

-

reducing sugars will give a brick red ppt. of cuprous oxide with Fehling's solution A and B.

2. Benedict's test

-

brick red ppt. with Benedict's solution.

3. Tollen's test

-

silver mirror

with

ammoniacal solution of silver nitrate.

4. Nylander's test

-

with bismuth subnitrate,

KOH and Rochelle salt (Nylander's

 

reagent) = production of a black precipitate of metallic bismuth.

5. Picric acid test

-

reducing sugars with picric acid and sodium carbonate will produce a mahogany red color due to the formation of sodium picramate.

6. Moore's test

-

sugars with free aldehyde or ketone group boiled with NaOH will give a

brown color with a caramel like odor Sucrose is the only sugar which is not a reducing agent.

Test to distinguish monosaccharides from disaccharides:

Barfoed's test; Reagents: Cupric acetate is acetic acid. Monosaccharides will reduce Barfoed's reagents forming a brick ppt. of cuprous oxide, disaccharides will not.

Test to distinguish ketose from aldose ( to distinguish fructose from glucose and other aldoses) Seliwanoff's test: Reagents: Resorcinol and conc. HCl. A red color develops in the presence of a ketose sugar.

General Test for Carbohydrates:

Molisch Test: Any carbohydrate when mixed with alpha-naphthol in alcohol and layered with concentrated sulfuric acid will form a violet ring. The conc. acid acts as dehydrating agent producing furfural derivatives which combine with alpha-naphthol to form the condensation product which is violet in color.

4. Ability to form esters. Because of the presence of OH groups or alcohol groups, carbohydrates react with acids to form esters. From the biological standpoint, the ester of phosphoric acid is of greatest importance in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Glucose formed from glycogen is activated by combining with phosphoric acid to form hexose diphosphate.

5. Oxidation On complete oxidation, carbohydrates form carbon dioxide and water with the liberation of large amount of calories of heat. Aldoses oxidize more readily than ketoses. Oxidation of sugars give rise to three sugar acids:

than ketoses. Oxidation of sugars give rise to three sugar acids: from the files of JRCLaoingco,
than ketoses. Oxidation of sugars give rise to three sugar acids: from the files of JRCLaoingco,

a. Aldenic acids - formed by oxidation of aldehyde group to carboxyl group, Ex. gluconic acid, COOH-(CHOH) 4 -CH 2 OH

b. Uronic

acids - formed by oxidation of primary alcohol group is carboxyl group, leaving the

aldehyde group intact.

Ex. glucuronic acid, CHO-(CHOH) 4 -COOH

c. Saccharic acid formed by oxidizing both aldehyde and primary groups of aldoses. Ex. mucic

acid, COOH-(CHOH) 4 -COOH.

Test for galactose:

Mucic acid test

Galactose boiled with conc. nitric acid will produce a

white sandy ppt. of mucic acid.

This is a specific test for galactose

6. Ability to form Osazones The hexoses, as well as lactose and maltose, react with phenyl hydrazine C 6 H 5 -NH-NH 2 to form

yellow insoluble compounds of varying crystalline structures, called osazones. formation serves to identify the different sugars

This osazone

7. Hydrolysis Monosaccharides do not hydrolyze because they are already simplest in form. On hydrolysis of disaccharides, two simple sugar molecules are formed as follows:

enzyme or acid

C 12 H 22 O 11

+

H 2 O

------------->

Sucrose

+

water

------------->

Maltose

+

water

------------->

Lactose

+

water

------------->

C 6 H 12 O 6

+

C 6 H 12 O 6

Glucose

+

Fructose

Glucose

+

Glucose

Glucose

+

Galactose

In the body, these reactions are brought about in the digestive tract by enzymes invertase or sucrase, maltase are also present in yeast, so hydrolysis of sucrose and maltose is also possible in the

presence of yeast.

The presence of dilute acids, like dil. HCl or H 2 SO 4 also brings about hydrolysis.

In the human body, the polysaccharide starch, dextrins, and glycogen are hydrolyzed specific

enzymes, like salivary amylase or ptyalin, pancreatic amylase or amylopsin.

polysaccharides, the dextrins are the simplest in structure and the most easily hydrolyzed.

hydrolyzed to form soluble starch, then into dextrins of decreasing complexity, namely amylodextrin,

erythrodextrin, and achrodextrin, and finally into maltose.

way into maltose, a molecule of maltose is split off in each reaction until finally all of the dextrins are

converted into maltose.

grains is found another amylase called diastase

In flour and sprouting

Of these three

Starch is

As the dextrins are simplified in their

Maltose is then hydrolyzed by maltase into glucose.

Outside the body, hydrolysis of polysaccharides may be effected by high temperature as in the

toasting of bread, by exposure to air at room temperatures for a period of time, and by the action of

dilute acids and heat.

hydrolyze the starch in the unripe fruit to glucose.

In ripening of fruits, the heat of the sun and dilute acids present in the fruit

of fruits, the heat of the sun and dilute acids present in the fruit from the
of fruits, the heat of the sun and dilute acids present in the fruit from the
from the files of JRCLaoingco, R.N., Ph.D. Page 5
from the files of JRCLaoingco, R.N., Ph.D. Page 5