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INMO Training Camp

Algebra

Archit Pal Singh Sachdeva

Student, Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi – 110016

e-mail:

antiarchit@gmail.com

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Let p Z[x]. Prove that there exist q, r Z[x] such that pq Z[x 2 ] and pr Z[x 3 ].

If α is a real root of the equation x 5 x 3 + x 2 = 0, prove that α 6 = 3.

Deﬁne the sequence (a n ) n0 , with a 0 = a 1 = 97 and a n+1 = a n1 a n + (a n 1) a

2

n1 2 1

for all n 1. Prove that 2 + 2 + 2a n is a perfect square for all n 0.

Find all polynomials f with integer coeﬃcients such that for any two relatively prime positive integers a, b, the sequence (f (an + b)) n0 contains an inﬁnite number of terms, any two of which are relatively prime.

Let f Z[x] be a polynomial of degree n 2. Prove that the polynomial f (f (x)) x has at most n integer roots.

Let F 1

f(k) = F k for k ∈ {992,

= F 2

= 1,

F n+2 = F n+1 + F n and let f be a polynomial of degree 990 such that

, 1982}. Show that f (1983) = F 1 983 1.

Let f be a polynomial with integer coeﬃcients and let p be a prime such that f (0) = 0, f (1) = 1 and f (k) is congruent to 0 or 1 modulo p, for all positive integers p. Show that the degree of p is at least p 1.

8.

9.

a 1 , a 2 , the number

Let

is an integer.

, a n be pairwise distinct positive integers. Prove that for any positive integer k

n

i=1

a

k

i

j

=i

(a i a j )

k=0 (1) k n (a k) n = n!.

k

n

Prove that for any real number a we have

10. Prove that

n n+1

x

k

k=0

(x k x j )

j

=k

=

n

k=0

x k .

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Prove that if 4 m 2 m + 1 is a prime number, then all prime divisors of m are smaller than 5.

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12. On an n × n board, there are n 2 squares, n 1 of which are infected. Each second, any square that is adjacent to at least two infected squares becomes infected. Show that at least one square always remains uninfected.

13. Is there a set of points in space which cuts any plane in a ﬁnite non zero number of points?

14. Prove that the number obtained by multiplying all 2 100 numbers of the form ±1 ± 2 ±···±

100 is the square of an integer.

, b 100 be 200 distinct real numbers. Consider an 100 × 100

table and put the number a i +b j in the (i, j) position. Suppose that the product of the entries in each column is 1. Prove that the product of entries in each row is 1.

Find the number of subsets of A

each having p elements and whose sum is divisible by p.

17. Consider a rectangle that can be tiled with a ﬁnite combination of 1 × m and n × 1 rectangles, where m and n are positive integers. Prove that it is possible to tile this rectangle using only 1 × m rectangles or n × 1 rectangles.

16. Let p > 2 be a prime number and let A = {1, 2,

15.

Let a 1 , a 2 ,

,

a 100 and b 1 , b 2 ,

, 2p}.

3
3
√ 2 − 1 =

18. Find a triplet of rational numbers a, b, c such that

19. The ﬁnite sequence {a k } 1kn is called p-balanced if the sums

s(k, p) = a k + a k+p + a k+2p + ···

a + b + c.

3

3

3

are all equal for k = 1, 2,

and 17 balanced, then all the terms are equal to 0.

, p.

Prove that if a sequence of 50 real numbers is 3, 5, 7, 11, 13

20. Suppose that the set of nonnegative integers is partitioned into a ﬁnite number of inﬁnite

, a n .

arithmetical progressions with common diﬀerences r 1 , r 2 , Prove that

, r n and ﬁrst terms a 1 , a 2 ,

1

+

1

+ ··· +

1

= 1

r

1

r

2

r

n

and

a

1

r

1

+ a 2 + ··· + a n

r

2

r

n

= n 1

2

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21. If x and y are positive real numbers such that x + x 2 + 1 y + y 2 + 1 = 2014, then ﬁnd the minimum possible value of x + y.

22. Prove that the number 520 3 + 675 3 + 720 3 is composite.

23. Let p 5 be a prime number. Prove that 43 divides 7 p 6 p 1.

, a n ) such

24. For any positive integer n ﬁnd the number of ordered n-tuples of integers (a 1 , a 2 , that

a 1 + a 2 + ··· + a n n 2 and a 2

1

+ a 2

2 + ··· + a n n 3 + 1.

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25. Given

real numbers x 1 , x 2 ,

, x 10 0, π such that

2

sin 2 x 1

+ sin 2 x 2 + · · · + sin 2 x 1 0 = 1.

Prove that

3(sin x 1 + sin x 2 + · · · sin x 10 ) cos x 1 + cos x 2 + · · · cos x 1 0.

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