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Annotated Bibliography

Peter Jeon
Overview on Ebola Virus
WHO gives good overview about the Ebola Virus, including the key facts,
background, and even the most recent incidence of Ebola around the world?
Ebola virus is a fatal illness in humans in which the average cast fatality
rate is around 50%. It first appeared in 1976 in West Africa, simultaneously in
Nazra, Sudan and Yambuku, Democratic Republic of Congo. The reason why
the virus spread so easily in this area was because of poor health care system.
People have suspected that fruit bats were natural host of the virus.
Transmission of the virus is through close contact by blood, secretions, organs,
or other bodily fluids. Health-care workers in contact with the patient and people
in the burial ceremonies also have been transmitted with the virus.
Symptoms of the Ebola virus are the fever, fatigue, muscle pain,
headache, and sore throat. When it worsens, the patient vomits, has diarrhea,
get rash and impaired kidney and liver function, and sometimes internal or
external bleeding. There is no perfect treatment available for it, and no vaccines
have been developed yet. Scientists are still working to develop the treatment
and the vaccine.
In order to prevent EVD, WHO recommends people to avoid contacts with
infected wildlife animals, contact with people with EVD symptoms, and a good
containment of the virus.
Ebola virus has been occurred since 1976, but the recent Ebola epidemic
is becoming a big issue, because it is not contained effectively and became the
largest epidemic covering the largest area. Past Ebola outbreak in West Africa
could be contained only by proper containment procedure, by proper burial

Impact on US
This website gives an information about the incidence of EVD in the
United States of America. The website gives a very detailed statistics, such as
confirmed cases, possible or confirmed touches with the patients. The purpose of
this information by centers for disease control and prevention is to ensure the
American Public from the fear of the outbreak in the United States soil. Therefore,
CDC updates the information daily.
First patient (September 30, 2014) was a man who travelled to Dallas,
Texas from Liberia. The symptoms developed after four days after the arrival.

The patient was isolated in the medical facility and tested by CDC and at a Texas
laboratory. He was monitored for 21 days. The patient passed away October 8.
A health care worker who treated the first patient was infected with EVD.
He/ She was moved to National Institutes for Health Clinical Center. The patient
recovered and was discharged on October 24. Another healthcare worker from
the same hospital was infected. The worker rode the airplane from Cleveland to
Dallas on October 13, which could be a possible danger for the spread. The
patient recovered and was discharged at October 28.
A medical worker who came back from Guinea to New York City was
diagnosed with EVD and is still in investigation in Nov.3.2014.

Treatment and Vaccination
CDC is also talking about different treatment or vaccinations that are still
on the process of development. There are not yet any proved treatment or
vaccination approved by the FDA.
Zap Biopharmaceutical Inc. is developing an experimental treatment
called ZMapp. It uses a combination of three different monoclonal antibodies
that bind to the protein of the Ebola virus (need more explanation) it has not
been tested, so we do not know whether ZMapp is effective. The government,
NIH and other departments, has given support for the development of this
There is a recent update on the development of the vaccine. Marie Coyle,
of the University of Texas at Austin has published her findings about the vaccine.
She has used her vaccinations on nine monkeys, infected with Ebola Virus. She
has proposed that all nine monkeys have survived from the virus. This result is
very promising in helping the West Africa and stopping the spread of the virus.
However, she also said that she needs more funding in order to test it on
human, and needs much longer processes in order to get approved by FDA.
US involvement &Containment
There is not enough equipments and technologies to fight against Ebola.
Hospitals and other medical areas are already full with patients; therefore,

doctors even have to turn away patients who seem to have Ebola. This, then,
forces the patient to go to another area to find medical aid, further spreading the
virus. International aid has thus far been criticized for its sluggishness, given the
severity of the current outbreak.
After virus infected three US doctors, US government started to focus
more on helping the situation. President Obama said that US army would also be
helping the situation by setting up quarantine zones and providing security.
Americans shouldnt be concerned about the prospects of contagion here in the
United States short term, because its not an airborne disease, Obama said on
NBCs Meet The Press. If we dont make that effort now, theres the prospect
that the virus mutates and then it could be a serious danger to the United