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CS201 : Discrete Mathematics Semester II, 2010-11, CSE, IIT Kanpur

Practice problems

Note : Give complete details of the analysis of your solution. Be very rigorous in providing any mathematical detail in support of your arguments. Also mention any Lemma/Theorem you use.

1. If R, +, · is a ring with additive identity 0, then prove that for any a, b R

 • 0 · a = a · 0 = 0, • a(−b) = (−a)b = −(ab), • (−a)(−b) = ab

2. Note that the notion of subring is similar to the notion of subgroup. Show that a subset S of a ring R gives a subring of R if and only if the following holds.

0 S;

(a b) S for all a, b S;

a · b S for all a, b S.

3. Consider S, +, · , where S is a set and + and · are binary operations on S such that

S, + is a group,

S , · is a group, where S consists of all elements of S except the additive identity,

a · (b + c) = a · b + a · c and (a + b) · c = a · c + b · c

for all a, b, c S.

Show that S, +, · is a division ring. commutativity of addition.]

[Hint:

use the distributive law to (1 + 1)(a + b) to prove

4. Let p be a prime. Consider the ring Z p , +, · where addition and multiplication are modulus p. Prove that for all a, b Z p ,

(a + b) p = a p + b p

(Observe that the usual binomial expansion for (a + b) n is valid in a commutative ring).

5. A ring R, +, · is a Boolean ring if a 2 = a for all a R. Prove that a + a = 2a = 0 for all a R. Use it to prove that R is a commutative ring.

Show that I a is a

6. Let R, +, · be a ring and a be a ﬁxed element of R. Let I a = {x R|ax = 0}. subring of R.

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 7. Note that the group isomorphism can be extended naturally to ring isomorphism as follows. Deﬁnition: An isomorphism φ of a ring R, +, · with a ring R , ⊕, × is a one-to-one and onto function mapping R onto R such that for all a, b ∈ R, • φ(a + b) = φ(a) ⊕ φ(b) • φ(a · b) = φ(a) × φ(b) Prove that • nZ, +, · is a ring under usual addition and multiplication. • 2Z, +, · is not isomorphic to 3Z, +, · . 8. Let R, +, · be a ring with multiplicative identity, denoted by 1. Using its elements we introduce two operations ⊕ and × as follows. a ⊕ b = a + b + 1 and a × b = a · b + a + b, where a, b ∈ R. • Prove that R, ⊕, × is a ring. • What is the additive identity of this ring ? • What is the multiplicative identity of this ring ? • Prove that the two rings are isomorphic. 9. Let R, +, · be a ring having multiplicative identity denoted by 1. If U is an ideal of R and 1 ∈ U . Then prove that U = R. 10. If R, +, · is a commutative ring and a ∈ R, then show that aR = {ar|r ∈ R} is an ideal of R. 11. For a given integer m, let (m) denote all integers which are multiples of m. Show that every ideal of the ring Z, +, · is of the form (m) for some integer m.

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