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Let A be an nxn matrix with zero in the main diagonal

and 1 elsewhere. Show that determinant of A is
As you know that a determinant of an nxn matrix has n!
terms. Of these terms for Det(A) how many are 1, how many
are 0 and how many are -1?
2. Consider three permutations of 0 to 9
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
1 2 3 4 0 6 7 8 9 5
a0 a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9
How many permutations can be written in the row three so that
no column has any number repeated?
3. Let f(n) is a function defined for positive integers.
SUM{d|n} f(d) = log n, i.e., sum of all f(d) where d divides n.
then determine f().
4. N couples are to be seated around a circular table so that
men and women sit alternately, but no husband should sit
on either side of his wife. How many ways can they be seated
if N > 2?
5. A shipping company has a large number of wooden crates (boxes)
in sizes 1 to 10 units. Card-board boxes are packed inside the
to avoid damage. For handling convenience, one crate is packed with
card-board boxes of the same size. A crate is shipped only when it
completely full. Assume that dimensions of the crates and boxes are
such that n/m boxes of size m properly fit in a crate of size n
where m divides n. When card-board boxes of size m are waiting for
shipping, packers select a crate of size m, or 2m, or 3m ... etc.
to pack them, with equal probability. Following table gives the
of crates shipped in one week.
Size || 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10
Count || 3 | 4 | 9 | 9 | 5 | 18 | 7 | 10 | 16 | 7
How many card-board boxes of size 3 are shipped during this period.
Show all steps.
Solution of Combinatorial Problem Set1
1. Let An = 011111

be the given nxn matrix. Let Un denote its

Let Bn = 111111
The determinant of Bn = Un-1 + Un.
Show that

the recurrence

relation Un = -(n-1)(Un-1 + Un-2).

4. Let us label women and men as follows. Pick any one location where
a woman
is sitting. This will be referred as the first location. Starting
the woman at this seat, label all women 1, 2,..., n in the clockwise
order and give the woman's label to her husband as well. Suppose
the man sitting
to the left of woman-1 has label-a1; the man sitting to the left of
woman-2 has
label a2, so on. Let A = a1 a2 .... an. Then for all j, aj should
be neither
equal to j nor should it be equal to j+1. Then each permutation A
of 1,...,n
is a valid seating arrangement for men (give that women are already
if A disagrees with the following permutations at all positions.
B1 = 1 2 3...........n-1 n
B2 = 2 3 4 ..........n
So the problem is to find the number of permutations that disagree
with B1 and B2
at all positions. We use inclusion-exclusion technique to find the
number. Let us
define P1 to be the permutation in which first location has either
1 or 2, ...
Pi is the set of permutations in which i-th location has either i
or i+1, so on.
In other words Pi is the set of permutations where i-th position
has the violation.
Nr denotes the number of permutations in which at least r positions

violations. To compute Nr we proceed as follows.

Assume that we chose 1 in the first column (position) and now we


to choose r-1 more violating values. Consider following sequence

12233445....n-1 n-1 n n
if we choose any r-1 non-consecutive Numbers from it then we would
have chosen
a set of r violating values. To see it, consider the following
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1

Let r = 5.
After selecting 1 for the first column consider the sequence
suppose we choose
x x
then its interpretation it as follows
partition the sequence
the selection gives
1| |3 |4 | | 7| | 9|
See that p non-consecutive objects can be selected from a
sequence of m objects in
(m-p+1)C(p) (i.e. choose p from m-p+1) ways.
So in the above case the number of ways is (2n-r-1)C(r-1). Now
if we did the same
by choosing 1 for the last column then we will have another (2nr-1)C(r-1) ways.
This can be repeated by taking any k as the first violation.
So total number of ways is 2n.(2n-r-1)C(r-1). Now note that a
choice of violation will also be created as ,
and when started at b,c,d respectively. So the choice of r
will be computed r times. Thus the number of ways is
(2n/r)(2n-r-1)C(r-1). Now we fill in the remaining (n-r)
places by (n-r)
numbers in all possible ways. So total number of ways to have at
least r
violations is
SUM{i1,i2,...,ir} Ni1,i2,..,ir = Nr = (2n/r).(2n-r-1)C(r1).(n-r)!.
Now from inclusion/exclusion method find the number of ways in
which no violations
occur. Finally multiply the result by n!/n = (n-1)! which is the
number of ways
in which women could seated initially (ignoring its circular
We use the above result to solve this problem. Again we use
method. In this case Nr will include permutations where p
violation are in the first
half and q in the second where p+q = r. So
Nr = SUM{p+q=r} [(10/p).(10-p-1)C(p-1)+(10/q).(10-q-1)C(q1)].(n-r)!
Now find the number of ways with no violations.
Let f(n) denote the number of crates of size n shipped during
this period. Let
g(m) denote the number of crates of size m containing box of size
m shipped.

Due to equal probability, g(m) crates of size k*m containing

boxes of size m
were shipped, for all k. Therefore f(n) = SUM_{m|n}g(m). Find g()
from Mobius
inversion. The solution is floor(10/3)*g(3) = 3*g(3).